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kavkasiis didi enciklopedia eZRvneba daviT sarajiSvilis dar moRvawes

_

baton

biZina

ivaniSvils

seria: gamoCenil adamianTa cxovreba

oficialur gamocemaTa samsaxuri _ saqarTvelos prezidentis biblioTeka daviT sarajiSvilis saerTaSoriso fondi


winaTqma

d

aviT sarajiSvili iyo WeSmaritad axali adamiani mecxramete saukunis saqarTvelosa da saerTod _ kavkasiis istoriaSi, cxovrebisa da saqmianobis evropuli yaidiT, tolerantuli Tavisi Sinagani bunebiT. daviT sarajiSvili iSviaTi, enciklopediuri ganaTlebisa da uSreti SemoqmedebiTi energiis mrewveli iyo. is Rrmad icnobda misi epoqis ekonomikur, filosofiur, politikur ideebs, SemoqmedebiTad ganaviTarebda da xorcs asxamda Tavis konkretul, yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi. is evropas acnobda qarTul civilizaciasa da kulturas, saqarTvelos _ evropis civializacias aziarebda. daviT sarajiSvili im did kavkasiel moRvaweTa pleadas ekuTvnis, romlebic XIX saukunis meore naxevarsa da XX saukunis damdegs TavdadebiT iRvwodnen kavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikuri aRorZinebisaTvis, saTaveSi edgnen da ibrZodnen kavkasie-


li erebis sulieri da kulturuli daaxloebisaTvis. daviT sarajiSvilis cxovreba da moRvaweoba imis brwyinvale magaliTia, Tu rogor unda emsaxuros samSoblos, ers, mxares Tanamedrove humanisti da demokrati adamiani, rogor unda gaaerTianos sxvadasxva erovnebis adamianebi WeSmaritma siyvarulma, urTierTpativiscemam, megobrobam, rogor SeiZleba erTad dgomiT aSendes da gamSvenierdes kavkasia _ msoflios es unikaluri kuTxe. vfiqrobT, rom es gamocema, kavkasiaSi daviT sarajiSvilis moRvaweobis amsaxveli Tavfurceli iqneba, romelic SemdgomSi TandaTanobiT Seivseba da gamdidrdeba kavkasielTa da sxvaTa mier mowodebuli saintereso axali faqtebiT, mogonebebiT da SefasebebiT. ase, erToblivi ZalisxmeviT Seqmnili Semdgomi gamocemebi, udides rols Seasrulebs ara mxolod daviTis pirovnebis ukeT warmoCenaSi, aramed Tavis kvals datovebs kavkasieli xalxebis daaxloebisa da damegobrebis saSviliSvilo saqmeSi.


k

avkasia, gvian mesameulSi (daaxloebiT 10 milioni wlis winaT) mcire aziis xmeleTur forposts warmoadgenda, romelic Rrmad iyo SeWrili aRmosavleT evropis zRvaSi. am teritoriis gansakuTrebuli mdgomareoba evropisa da aziis mijnaze, erTgvari geografiuli ganmxoloeba ukve Soreul warsulSi gansazRvravda misi faunisa da floris Taviseburebas da garemos iSviaT mravalferovnebas. kavkasia, gansakuTrebiT misi samxreTi nawili, evraziis erTi im ubanTagania, sadac pliocenis bolos, daaxloebiT ori milioni wlis winaT Camoyalibda xmeleTis xerxemlianTa Taviseburi asociacia, romlis yvelaze RirsSesaniSnavi wevri sul male TviT adamiani gaxda.

6


manisi, saqarTvelos erTerTi mdidari warsulis mqone da mSvenieri adgili ukve mTel msoflioSia cnobili. igi mas Semdeg gaxda ase popularuli, rac dmanisis naqalaqaris teritoriaze uZvelesi adamianis oTxi Tavis qala aRmoaCines. Tavis qalebis detaluri Seswavlis Semdeg sabolood dadginda da mTelma msofliom gaiziara, rom dmanisSi aRmoCenili adamiani TariRdeba 1,7-1,8 milioni wliT da afrikis gareT igi yvelaze uZvelesia mTel msoflioSi. rogorc mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi mowmoben, dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom dmanisSi aRmoCenilia pirvel evrazielTa naSTebi da, swored am adgilidan iwyeba maTi gansaxleba, rogorc evropaSi, ise aziaSi. ase rom, qarTvelebi, iseve rogorc mTlianad kavkasielebi, pirveli evropelebi da azielebi arian.

10

dmanisis arqeologiuri eqspedicia

d


pirveli evrazieli dmanisSi aRmoCenili adamianebis (1,7-1,8 mln weli) Tavis qalebi


s

aqarTvelos teritoriaze Catarebuli mravalmxrivi da farTomasStabiani arqeologiur-istoriuli, paleontologiuri, lingvisturi, ampilografiuli da sxva saxis gamokvlevebis Sedegad isic dgindeba, rom samxreT kavkasia da, kerZod, saqarTvelo kulturuli vazis formaTa warmoSobis erT-erTi pirveladi keraa, rom ramdenime aTaseuli wlis winaT (9-10 aTasi weli) swored aq SeZlo adamianma, veluri vazi gadaeqcia kulturul mcenared. . .

14


v

azis gakulturebis procesi xangrZlivia. am periodSi yalibdeboda is mdidari tradiciebi, romlebic dRevandlamdea SemorCenili qarTul mevenaxeoba-meRvineobaSi. misi istoriac Soreul warsulSi iwyeba. dasturad ki gamodgeba uamravi arqeologiuri masala: vazis gaqvavebuli rqebi, eneoliTis epoqis droindeli kulturuli vazis wipwebi, uZvelesi sameurneo iaraRebi, originaluri sasmisebi, Rvinis dasayenebeli da Sesanaxi mowyobilobani, romelTa arseboba saqarTveloSi 3-2 aTasi wlis winandeli periodiT TariRdeba, da romelTac, kavkasiis garda, msoflios sxva xalxebis sameurneo kulturaSi ver SexvdebiT.

16


m

ecxramete saukunis miwuruls saqarTveloSi gamoCnda kaci, romelmac Rvino spirtad aqcia, spirti koniakad da Tavis samSoblos, saqarTvelos, rogorc mTlianad kavkasias, misTvis sruliad axali nawarmiT kidev erTxel gauTqva saxeli. es gaxldaT cnobili mrewveli da sazogado moRvawe, didi mecenati, Tbilisis sapatio moqalaqe, qimiisa da filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori daviT sarajiSvili.

18


s

aqarTveloSi koniaks daviT sarajiSvilze adrec amzadebdnen. jer kidev 1865 wels quTaiselma giorgi bolqvaZem Tavis patara sawarmoSi daamzada koniakebisa da liqiorebis iseTi produqcia, romelmac oqros medlebi daimsaxura saerTaSoriso gamofenebze da sazRvargareT iyideboda. Tavad giorgi bolqvaZe ki gaxda parizis samiwaTmoqmedo akademiis wevri da sxvadasxva qveynis 14 ordenis kavaleri.

20


21


f

ranguli teqnologiiT koniakis warmoebis ideis dabadeba saqarTveloSi arc SemTxveviTia da arc gasakviri. igi warmoiSva qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis samiaTaswlovani istoriis, uZvelesi kulturisa da umdidresi tradiciebis mqone qveyanaSi, romlis saxelic _ `georgia~ _ miwaTmoqmedebasTan aris dakavSirebuli da romelic mravali kulturuli mcenaris (vazi, xorbali, sxvadasxva xili) warmoSobis erT-erT ZiriTad kerad, samSoblod aris aRiarebuli.

22


d

aviT zaqarias Ze sarajiSvili daibada qalaq TbilisSi 1848 wlis 28 oqtombers SeZlebuli memamulis ojaxSi. mSoblebi: zaqaria daviTis Ze sarajiSvili da elisabed simonis asuli savaneli Tbilisis sapatio moqalaqeebi iyvnen. maT didi mamulebi hqondaT sofel diRomSi. zaqaria sarajiSvili ara marto vaWar-memamule, aramed mravali patriotuli saqmis wamomwyebic yofila. moxucebulobis dros zaqaria sarajiSvili sionis taZris mamamTavari da saqalaqo sabWos wevri iyo. dakrZalulia mis mierve agebul diRmis `TeTri giorgis~ taZarSi.

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25


d

aviT sarajiSvilma evropidan dabrunebis Semdeg, 1880 wlis 10 seqtembers, colad SeirTo saTnoebiTa da ganaTlebiT gamorCeuli, Tbilisis SeZlebuli moqalaqis ivane foraqiSvilis asuli ekaterine foraqiSvili. ekaterine, daviTis erTguli da usayvarlesi megobari, tols ar udebda meuRles saqvelmoqmedo saqmianobaSi. misi saocrad keTilSobiluri buneba da gulmowyale xasiaTi SesaniSnavad warmoaCines misdami miZRvnil leqsebSi didma poetebma: ilia WavWavaZem, akaki wereTelma, sandro SanSiaSvilma da sxvebma. meuRlis gardacvalebis Semdeg ekaterine TviTon Caudga saTaveSi daviTis saqmeebs da unarianad gauZRva maT.

26


d

aviTma safuZvliani ganaTleba miiRo: swavlobda Tbilisis `hakes~ pansionSi, daamTavra Tbilisis vaJTa pirveli klasikuri gimnazia, warmatebiT swavlobda peterburgis universitetSi sabunebismetyvelo fakultetze. germaniaSi miunxenis, hohenhaimis, halesa da haidelbergis universitetebSi. soflis meurneobis mecniereba da meRvineobis yvela dargi safuZvlianad Seiswavla safrangeTSi _ parizsa da sxva qalaqebSi. daicva disertaciebi qimiis, agreTve, filosofiis doqtoris samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad. mTlianad ki, ucxoeTSi safuZvliani swavla-ganaTlebis miRebas daviT sarajiSvilma 12 weli moandoma.

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`... komerciul saqmes, komerciuli

niadagi unda hqondes.~

d. sarajiSvili


samewarmeo saqmianoba, pirveli nabijebi: vladikavkazi, Tergis olqi

k

oniakisa da liqior-aryis warmoeba daviT sarajiSvilma CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi daiwyo: 1885 wels Tergis olqSi vladikavkazis maxloblad, SeiZina mamuli da aaSena aryis saxdeli qarxana; 1886 weli _ qalaqi vladikavkazi, nabereJnis 2-Si xsnis spirtis sareqtifikacio qarxanas; 1898 weli _ vladikavkazis sakuTar mamulSi xsnis spirtis sareqtifikacio qarxanas.


yizlari, Tergis olqi

q

alaq yizlarTan 1889 wels aaSena koniakis qarxana, sadac amzadebdnen spirtian sasmelebs yurZnis wvenisagan; 1900 wels qalaq yizlarTan gaxsna koniakis meore qarxana; 1900-ian wlebSi daba tarumovkaSi daaarsa koniakis kidev ori qarxana.


erevnis gubernia

d

aviT sarajiSvili, 1887 wels, spirtsaxdel qarxanas aSenebs erevnis maxloblad, mdinare zangas napiras. 1893 wels _ es qarxana gadaaqvs qalaq erevanSi, specialurad saqarxnod momzadebul SenobaSi, romelic dRemde arsebobs; 1894 wels _ q. erevanSi daaarsa koniakis qarxana, romelSic amuSavebdnen adgilobriv yurZens da amzadebdnen sakoniake masalebs.


baqos gubernia

q.

baqoSi, 1890 wels daaarsa saukeTeso aparaturiT aRWurvili spirtis sabiTumo sawyobi-qarxana; 1896 weli _ aqve, amave teritoriaze, gaxsna spirtis qarxana; 1898 weli _ daba sujaraSi daaarsa spirtis sareqtifikacio qarxana; 1901 weli _ daba geoqCaSi daafuZna koniakis qarxana; 1901 weli _ daba barguSeTSi gaxsna koniakis qarxana; 1905 weli _ q. baqoSi daiwyo denaturatis spirtis warmoeba.


Tbilisis gubernia

q

alaq TbilisSi, olRas quCaze, 1884 wels daaarsa sabiTumo sawyobi-qarxana (amJamad, am adgilze sagamomcemlo kombinatia gaSenebuli); 1886 wels, iqve xsnis spirtis #2 sareqtifikacio qarxanas; 1887 wels, aqve aarsebs sxvadasxva saxeobis specialur aryis saxdel qarxanas; 1888 wels afuZnebs koniakis qarxanas; 1895 wels, meliqiSvilis quCaze gaxsna koniakis centraluri sabiTumo sawyobi (amJamad, am SenobaSi saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis istoriis samecniero-kvleviTi instituti da samedicino biblioTekaa ganTavsebuli); 1903 wels _ avWalis quCaze daaarsa #3 spirtis sareqtifikacio qarxana; #3 qarxnebis bazaze daiwyo denaturatis 1904 wels _ #2-# warmoeba; 1906 wels _ # 3 qarxnis bazaze afuZnebs savaWro-samrewvelo sindikats `reqtifikati~.


besarabiisa da elizavetpolis guberniebi

g

arda kavkasiisa daviT sarajiSvils koniakis qarxnebi hqonda besarabiis guberniaSi. 1895 wels koniakis qarxana daafuZna qalaq pauleStetSi; 1899 wels qalaq yalarSaSi daaarsa Rvino-koniakis kombinati. mogvianebiT, daviT sarajiSvilis firmam elizavetpolis guberniaSi qalaq elizavetpolis (dRevandeli ganja) maxloblad SeiZina yofili `frankes qarxana~, sadac daiwyo koniakis warmoeba.


savaWro sawyobebi da saagentoebi

d

aviT sarajiSvili SesaniSnavad flobda marketingis xelovnebas da mis mier warmoebuli produqciis gasaRebis arxebis marTvas. misi savaWro saagentoebiT mofenili iyo mTeli kavkasia baqodan-rostovamde, amasTan, saagentoebi hqonda: kievSi, odesaSi, vilniusSi, rigaSi, xarkovSi. msxvili savaWro sawyobebi hqonda ruseTis imperiis Tvaluwvdenel teritoriaze, kerZod, qalaqebSi: baqoSi, peterburgSi, moskovSi, varSavaSi, vladivostokSi, odesaSi, kievSi, feodosiaSi, CarjouSi, samaraSi da sxv.

44


q

imiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, germaniasa da safrangeTSi miRebuli fundamenturi ganaTlebisa da

mecnieruli kvlevis unar-CvevebiT aRWurvili daviT sarajiSvili uamrav siaxleebs nergavda koniakisa da liqior-aryis warmoebaSi da udides warmatebebsac aRwevda. misi teqnologiiT damzadebuli koniakebi `Zveli~, `Zalian Zveli~, `finSampani~, liqiorebi `vardis~, `tarxunis~ da mravali sxva specialistTa saerTo aRtacebasa da aRiarebas imsaxurebda. daviT sarajiSvilis mier warmoebuli produqciidan yvelaze popularuli mainc `kavkasiis naturaluri koniaki~ iyo, romlis dasamzadebladac sarajiSvili kavkasiis mTel teritoriaze ganfenili miseuli venaxebidan miRebul saucxoo sakoniake spirtebs iyenebda. am sasmelis warmoebaSi Serwymuli iyo sruliad axali, Tanamedrove evropuli teqnologiebi, saqarTvelosa da, zogadad, kavkasiaSi meRvineobis mravalsaukunovani gamocdileba, kavkasiis sxvadasxva

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teritoriaze moweuli yurZnis wvenisgan damzadebuli spirti, romelic mTeli `kavkasiis aromats~ Seicavda. daviT sarajiSvilis firma `ruseTis saimperatoro udidebulesobis karis mimwodebeli~ iyo, rac mis mier warmoebuli produqciis umaRlesi xarisxis aRiareba gaxldaT. daviT sarajiSvilis nawarmi warmatebiT iyideboda evropis msxvil qalaqebSi, xolo ruseTSi, man msoflioSi aRiarebul frangul koniakebsac ki gauwia Rirseuli konkurencia da nawilobriv `gandevna~ kidec bazridan.

47


s

amecniero da sacnobaro literaturaSi daviT sarajiSvili moxseniebulia rogorc koniakis warmoebis pioneri ruseTis imperiaSi. bevri amas koniakis warmoebis dawyebis TariRTan aigivebs, rac mraval gaugebrobas iwvevs, radgan koniakis samrewvelo warmoeba saqarTveloSi, daviTze 20 wliT adre, cnobilma mecnier-teqnologma giorgi bolqvaZem daiwyo. daviT sarajiSvili namdvilad iyo ruseTis imperiaSi franguli teqnologiiT damzadebuli koniakis samrewvelo warmoebis fuZemdebeli. misi udidesi Zalisxmevis Sedegad, didi kamaTisa da gansjis Semdgom peterburgis teqnikurma komitetma 1889 wlis 1 dekembers miiRo dadgenileba, rom mTel ruseTSi, es sasmeli, daviTis mier SeTavazebuli wesiT _ `franguli teqnologiiT~ damzadebuliyo, da mxolod amis Semdgom eZleodaT ufleba, misTvis `koniaki~ ewodebinaT...

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d

aviT sarajiSvili gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobda endemuri jiSis (romelTa raodenoba xuTass aRemateba) venaxebis movlasa da gamravlebis saqmes. amasTan, igi mudmivad cdilobda kavkasiisaTvis jer ucnobi, axali yurZnis jiSebis gavrcelebas. am mizniT, man amerikuli jiSis vazis nergebi gamoiwera md. yvirilasTan vrceli venaxebis gasaSeneblad. daviTs, kavkasiasa da besarabiaSi gaxsnil yovel qarxanasTan sakuTari venaxis vrceli farTobebi hqonda, sadac ayenebda Cinebul Rvinos da xdida sakoniake spirts. magar spirtian sasmelebTan erTad, daviT sarajiSvili tfilissa da mTlianad kavkasiaSi warmatebiT yidda kaxeTis saukeTeso venaxebidan miRebul `kaxur Rvinos~. aseve awarmoebda CrdiloeT kavkasiis venaxebidan moweul Rvinos, romelic `severnoe vinos~ etiketiT iyideboda. amave periodSi, 1881 wels, daviTi ukve emzadeboda Rvinis spirtad ga-

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dasaqcevad da koniakis dasayeneblad. amitom, man safrangeTidan 200 cali didi tevadobis muxis xis kasri gamoiwera.

55


C

rdiloeT kavkasiis teritoriaze, daviT sarajiSvili warmatebiT eweoda mecxoveleobas. man, mdinare Tergis napirebTan, moawyo Tanamedrove teqnologiebiT aRWurvili uzarmazari ferma, romelic xuTi aTasi suli xarisa da sxva pirutyvis gamosakvebad iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. produqciis realizacias ZiriTadad ruseTSi, CrdiloeT kavkasiasa da saqarTveloSi awarmoebda. aqve, man gareuli jixvebis ferma Seqmna, risi precendentic kavkasiaSi ar arsebobda. farTod moaSena es unikaluri cxoveli da yovelmxriv Seuwyo xeli mis populacias. amitom aris, rom saerTo kavkasiuri simbolo _ jixvi, misi qarxnebis mier warmoebuli produqciis safirmo niSani gaxda.

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d

aviT sarajiSvili warmatebiT monawileobda mraval saerTaSoriso konkursebsa da gamofenebSi. miRebuli hqonda mravali jildo da diplomi, magram gansakuTrebuli interesiT igi 1901 wels, TbilisSi gamarTul kavkasiis _ ruseTTan damegobrebis 100 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil masStabur gamofenaSi monawileobda, sadac misma pavilionma sayovelTao aRiareba da didi mowoneba daimsaxura.

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`... qarTveli ise SeeCvia monobas, rom batonebis gamocvla, ganTavisufleba hgonia.~ d. sarajiSvili


k

avkasiasa da mTeli ruseTis imperiaSi aqtiuri samewarmeo saqmianobis Sedegad miRweuli warmatebebis gamo, 1902 wels, kavkasiis mTavarmarTebelma g. s. golicinma daviT zaqarias Ze sarajiSvils erT-erTi umaRlesi wodeba _ `komerciis mrCevlis~ statusi uboZa.

60


d

aviT sarajiSvilis moRvaweobiT dainteresda cnobili germaneli mecnierekonomisti, profesori adolf vagneri, romelmac 1902 wels qalaq ienaSi gamocemuli wigni miwaTmoqmedebisa da mrewvelobis Sesaxeb daviT sarajiSvils miuZRvna. wignis winasityvaobaSi naTqvamia: `am gamocemas me vuZRvni b-n doqtor daviT sarajiSvils, Cinebul praqtikos ekonom-mrewvelsa da vaWars, romelsac sruli Teoriuli politikoekonomikuri codnac aqvs... gasul wels, man Tavisi kavkasiis samSoblo maCvena da ecada yovel gziT iqauri sul sxvagvari ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli urTierTobani CemTvis gaecno da Seeswavlebina. es iyo iseTi azrTa gaRviZeba da swavleba, romlis msgavsi mTel Cem politiko-ekonomikur Segneba-SemecnebisaTvis arc wignebs da arc msoflioSi sxvadasxva naqeb Teoriebs, ar mouciaT...~

62


d

aviT sarajiSvils, Tavisi saqmianobiT aRtacebaSi mohyavda ara mxolod ekonomikisa da sameurneo saqmianobis cnobili specialistebi, mis mier gaweul Rvawlsa da amags Rirseul Sefasebebs aZlevdnen cnobili ucxoeli mwerlebi, mecnierebi, kulturisa da xelovnebis TvalsaCino moRvaweebi. artur laisti _ SesaniSnavi germaneli mwerali, kavkasiaSi pirveli germanuli gazeTis `Kaukasische Post~-is damfuZnebeli, qarTveli da kavkasieli xalxebis didi megobari, romelsac guliT uyvarda Cveni xalxebis sulieri kultura, misi buneba, Tavis umniSvnelovanes publicistur nawarmoebebSi xSirad aRniSnavda daviT sarajiSvilis Rvawlis Sesaxeb. daviT sarajiSvilisadmi Tavisi didi pativiscema am bumberazma germanelma mweralma imiTac daadastura, rom 1909 wels, drezdenSi gamocemuli Tavisi wigni `mogzauris dRiurebi~ mas aseTi teqstiT uZRvna: `daviT sarajiSvils, Cems Tbilisel megobars, visTanac mravalwlovani urTierToba makavSirebs, qarTuli industriis fuZemdebels, germanuli ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis megobars, Tavis samSobloSi sazogadoebriv-kulturuli muSaobis moamages, germanuli erTgulebiTa da megobrobiT ZRvnad avtorisagan~.

64


s

asaxle, romelic daviT sarajiSvilma 1905 wels aago da Semdgom, anderZiT, xalxs dautova, kulturis namdvil savaned iqca. aq ikribebodnen `Zlierni ama qveynisani,~ imdroindeli kavkasiis mTavarmarTvelni, cnobili kavkasieli sazogado moRvaweni, ucxoeli mogzaurni, literatorebi da mecnierebi. damswre sazogadoebriobas aq acnobda Tavis ukvdav qmnilebebs qarTvelTa sulieri mama ilia WavWavaZe. saqarTvelos mgosani akaki wereTeli aq uZRvnida Tavis leqsebs daviT sarajiSvilis ojaxs, aq asrulebda `saqarTvelos bulbuli~ _ vano sarajiSvili Tavis ukvdav partiebs, aq amzeurebda Tavis SesaniSnav tiloebs didi mxatvari gigo gabaSvili da mravali sxv. yoveli aseTi Tavyriloba, romelic ZiriTadad SabaT dRes imarTeboda, rogorc wesi, didi nadimiT mTavrdeboda. dRes, am sasaxleSi, saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSiria ganTavsebuli.

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`...kaci sicocxliT savse unda iyos, uyvardes cxovreba, xalxi, keTili saqme.~

d. sarajiSvili


daviT sarajiSvili maspinZlobs kavkasiel megobrebs da axloblebis jgufs


aviT sarajiSvilis sasaxlis istoriul rolsa da mniSvnelobaze is faqtic metyvelebs, rom swored am SenobaSi umaspinZla sarajiSvilis ojaxma da Tbilisis Tavad-aznaurobam kavkasiaSi stumrad myof sruliad ruseTis imperators, nikoloz meores. miReba daiwyo saRamos eqvs saaTze. lamazad dekorirebul SesasvlelSi xelmwife imperators maspinZlebTan erTad miegeba Tbilisis Tavad-aznaurTa winamZRoli, Tavadi konstantine afxazi. orkestri da momReralTa gundi asrulebdnen himnsa da simRerebs `samSoblo~ da `mravalJamier~. xelmwife imperatorma, konstantine afxazis xeliT miwodebuli saukeTeso kaxuri RviniT savse sasmisiT daloca damswre sazogadoeba da sTqva: `guliTad madlobas gixdiT Tqven gulTbili miRebisaTvis da mTeli suliT vsvam batonebo Tqvensa da Tbilisis TavadaznaurTa janmrTelobisa da ayvavebis sadRegrZelos~. miRebis dasasruls, damswre sazogadoebam, xelmwife imperatori aRfrTovanebuli `vaSas~ SeZaxilebiT gaaciles.

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xelmwife imperatori daviT sarajiSvilis sasaxleSi

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aviT sarajiSvilis keTilSobiluri buneba saukeTesod vlindeboda axalgazrda TaobasTan mama-Svilur urTierTobaSi. vin moTvlis ramdeni axalgazrda kaci gaiyvana cxovrebis farTo asparezze da amiT, raoden didi samsaxuri gauwia qveyanas. aRiarebuli mecnierebi, kulturis, literaturisa da xelovnebis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebi, gamoCenili sazogado moRvaweebi da politikosebi didad afasebdnen im uangaro daxmarebas, romelsac daviTi sityviT da saqmiT uSurvelad iRebda maT dasakvalianeblad. erTi maTgani iyo ioseb stalini. meistorie gvamcnobs, rom daviT sarajiSvilTan saxlSi Sekrebilan ilia WavWavaZe da sxva sazogado moRvaweni saqveyno saqmeTa gansaxilvelad. daviTis megobars ilia mamacaSvils maTTvis warudgenia axalgazrda ioseb juRaSvili, romelsac sakuTari leqsebi waukiTxavs damswre sazogadoebisaTvis. misi pirovnebiT didad dainteresebulan maspinZlebi da xangrZlivad ubaasiaT sxvadasxva saWirboroto sakiTxebze. saubris dasasruls, iliam gamoxata ra iq myofTa saerTo azri, ioseb juRaSvils uTxra: _ Svilo, Seni leqsebi kargia, magram gezi, romelic Seni saubridan gamosWvivis ufro mniSvnelovania samSoblosaTvis, vidre leqsebi da girCevT, im gzas nu uRalateb. daviT sarajiSvilis saxlSi naTqvamma am sityvebma udidesi zegavlena moaxdines axalgazrda ioseb stalinze. SemdgomSi mas leqsebi aRar dauweria da Tavisi cxovreba mTlianad did politikur moRvaweobas daukavSira.

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emdgomSi, ioseb stalini Tvals adevnebda da saqmis kursSi iyo, Tu rogor viTardeboda daviT sarajiSviliseuli mdidari tradiciebi saqarTveloSi. amis sailustraciod erT istoriul faqts gavixsenebT. 1945 wlis Tebervali. ialtis samSvidobo konferencia. `didi sameulis~ saqmiani Sexvedris damTavrebis Semdeg stalinTan gamarTul vaxSamze, koniakis SesaniSnavi mcodnisaTvis _ ser uinston CerCilisaTvis franguli koniaki miurTmeviaT. mas gemo gausinjavs,

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sasmeli ar moswonebia da gverdze gadaudgams. maspinZlis, ioseb stalinis winadadebiT, CerCils sasmeli qarTuli koniakiT _ `eniseliT~ Seucvales. mas dauWaSnikebia mirTmeuli koniaki da aRtacebiT uTqvams: `Cinebulia, SesaniSnavi franguli koniakiao~. _ franguli ki ara, qarTuliao! _ RimiliT SeuniSnavs sabWoTa mTavrobis meTaurs. _ frangi specialistebis mier mainc iqneba damzadebulio, _ kvlav ucdia pirvandeli azris dacva CerCils da saocrad gaocebula, rodesac ganumartes, rom Tbilisis koniakis qarxanaSi arc erTi ucxoeli specialisti ar muSaobda. im saRamos `didma sameulma~ faSizmze gamarjvebis sadRegrZelo swored qarTuli SampanuriTa da koniakiT Sesva! stalini Zalian kmayofili darCa am patara diplomatiuri gamarjvebiT da gankarguleba gasca Rirseulad daejildoebinaT koniak `eniselis~ avtori. ase gaxda Tbilisis koniakis qarxnis mTavari teqnologi, daviT sarajiSviliseuli tradiciebis erTguli gamgrZelebeli vaxtang ciciSvili saxelmwifo premiis laureati da leninis ordenis kavaleri.

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aviT sarajiSvilis sasaxlis mSveneba, misi ojaxis biblioTeka iyo. es umdidresi wignsacavi regularulad ivseboda ruseTisa da evropis wamyvani sagamomcemlo saxlebis mier gamoSvebuli unikaluri literaturiT. aqve Tavmoyrili iyo kavkasiaSi gamocemuli yvela ZiriTadi sazogadoebrivpolitikuri da samecniero literatura. niSandoblivia, rom 1912 wels, qalaq baqoSi, calke wignad gamoica daviT sarajiSvilis biblioTekis bibliografia. daviT sarajiSvilis gardacvalebis Semdeg es umdidresi biblioTeka Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitets gadaeca. daviTi kavkasiur enebTan erTad, SesaniSnavad flobda frangul, germanul da rusul enebs.

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aviTis zrunvis sagani yovelTvis iyo ganaTlebuli kavkasia. man Tavis qarxnebSi biblioTekebis farTo qseli Seqmna da sakvirao skolebi daaarsa. igi yovelmxriv axalisebda da xels uwyobda ganaTlebis moyvarul muSaaxalgazrdobas. magaliTisTvis, mokle cnobari kavkavSi (vladikavkazi) sarajiSvilis xarjiT misive qarxanasTan daarsebul sakvirao skolis angariSidan. skolaSi swavlobda: pirvel wels _ 49 moswavle; meore wels _ 54; mesame wels _ 67; meoTxe wels _ 76 moswavle. maT Soris TiTqmis Tanabrad iyvnen rogorc qarTveli, ise osi erovnebis adamianebi. daviT sarajiSvili sakvirao skolebs sistematurad exmareboda saWiro literaturiTac. misi dafinansebiT, 1895 wlidan, sakvirao skolebis moswavleebi Seuferxeblad iRebdnen popularul periodul gamocemas _ `jejili~ da sxvebs.

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arajiSvili didZal Tanxebs xarjavda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolebis dasaarseblad. misi ZalisxmeviT, fuladi da materialuri SenawirebiT aSenda pirveldawyebiTi saswavlebeli sofel did diRomSi (1891w.), vladikavkazsa (1893w.) da baTumSi (1894w.). igi aqtiurad monawileobda qarTuli saTavadaznauro gimnaziis aSenebaSi. daviT sarajiSvilma didi fuladi saxsrebi gaiRo Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis mSeneblobisaTvis. misi iniciativiTa da finansuri mxardaWeriT Camoyalibda qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba, saqarTvelos saistorio-saeTnografio sazogadoeba da mravali sxv.

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aviT sarajiSvilma sakuTari gamocdilebiT SesaniSnavad icoda, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba hqonda im droisaTvis karg da safuZvlian ganaTlebas. amitom yovelTvis didi rudunebiT arCevda, saswavleblad gzavnida, stipendiebs uniSnavda da Semdeg materialuradac exmareboda gamorCeuli niWis mqone axalgazrdebs. oficialuri wyaroebiT daviTma 250-ze met axalgazrdas gaumarTa xeli da cxovrebis asparezze gaiyvana. SemdgomSi am `evropulad~ ganaTlebulma adamianebma udidesi wvlili Seitanes ara marto saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis, aramed mTlianad yofili sabWoTa kavSiris mecnierebisa da kulturis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. maTgan, mxolod ramdenimes davasaxelebT:

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akaki SaniZe _ saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akademikosi, saqarTvelos mecnierebis damsaxurebuli moRvawe, ssrk mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondenti, somxeTis mecnierebis damsaxurebuli moRvawe, praRis aRmosavleTmcodneobis institutis wevr-korespondenti, Sileris sax. ienis universitetis sapatio doqtori, inglisis `filologTa sazogadoebis~ sapatio wevri. igi Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis erT-erTi damaarsebelia. safuZveli Cauyara saqarTveloSi enaTmecnierebis kvleva-Ziebis saqmes.

eqvTime TayaiSvili _ saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akademikosi, profesori. daaarsa saqarTvelos saistorio da saeTnografio sazogadoeba da misi pirveli Tavmjdomare iyo. aqtiurad monawileobda Tbilisis universitetis daarsebaSi da iyo universitetis erTerTi pirveli profesori, arqeologiis kaTedris gamge. udidesi Rvawli miuZRvis qarTuli da kavkasiuri istoriis mecnierul Seswavlasa da ganzogadebaSi.

dimitri arayiSvili _ kompozitori, qarTuli profesiuli musikis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli. saqarTvelos saxalxo artisti, saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis akademikosi, ssrk saxelmwifo premiis laureati. misi uSualo iniciativiT daarsda Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoria.

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mose ToiZe _ fermweri, axali qarTuli ferweris erTerTi fuZemdebeli, ssrk saxalxo mxatvari, ssrk samxatvro akademiis namdvili wevri, Sromis gmiri. Tbilisis samxatvro akademiis profesori. misi iniciativiT 1922 TbilisSi daarsda samxatvro studia, romelic dRes mis saxels atarebs.

iakob nikolaZe _ Tanamedrove qarTuli realisturi qandakebis fuZemdebeli. saqarTvelos saxalxo mxatvari, ssrk samxatvro akademiis namdvili wevri, Tbilisis samxatvro akademiis erT-erTi damaarsebeli da misi pirveli profesori.

filipe gogiCaiSvili _ ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, saqarTvelos mecnierebis damsaxurebuli moRvawe, Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis erTerTi damaarsebeli.

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vano sarajiSvili _ saqarTvelos saxalxo artisti. qarTuli profesiuli vokaluri xelovnebis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli qarTveli xalxis usayvarlesi momRerali _ `saqarTvelos bulbuli~ sicocxleSive legendad iqca. misi saxeli miniWebuli aqvs Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatorias.

giorgi (gigo) gabaSvili _ fermweri, saqarTvelos saxalxo mxatvari, axali qarTuli realisturi mxatvrobis erT-erTi damfuZnebeli.

kalistrate cincaZe _ saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi.

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mose janaSvili _ qarTveli istorikosi, enaTmecnieri, eTnografi, publicisti, pedagogi, sazogado moRvawe. igi qarTuli eTnografiis erT-erTi fuZemdebelia.

meliton balanCivaZe _ kompozitori da sazogado moRvawe, qarTuli saopero musikis fuZemdebeli. saqarTvelos saxalxo artisti.

vladimer aRniaSvili _ sazogado moRvawe, pedagogi, eTnografi, folkloristi. daviT sarajiSvilis daxmarebiT Camoayaliba qarTvel momReralTa gundi `qarTuli xoro~, romelmac didi istoriuli roli iTamaSa saqarTvelos kulturul cxovrebaSi _ mkvidri safuZveli Cauyara qarTuli erovnuli sasimRero Semoqmedebis aRorZinebas, mis propagandasa da Semdgom ganviTarebas. da mravali, mravali sxva.

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mdroindel kavkasiaSi soflis meurneoba mxaris ekonomikur cxovrebaze mkveTr gavlenas axdenda. es problema, mudmivad iyo daviTis interesis sagani. ZirZveli tradiciebisa da axali, progresuli meTodebis Serwymisa da ganviTarebis amocana, mudmivad karnaxobda mas soflad sazogadoebrivi mowyobis Tanamedrove formebis Ziebas. swored amitom Cauyara safuZveli da SemdgomSic yovelmxriv exmareboda `qarTveli glexobis aRmdgenel komitetsa~ da `samiwaTmoqmedo saxelosnos _ axalSenTa da TavSesafarTa sazogadoebas~. daviTma daJinebiT sTxova im drois gamoCenil politikur moRvawes noe Jordanias (romelic, Semdgom, 1918-1921 wlebSi, saqarTvelos pirveli demokratiuli saxelmwifos mTavrobis ucvleli Tavmjdomare iyo) wasuliyo italiaSi da safuZvlianad Seeswavla soflad kooperaciuli warmoebis progresuli gamocdileba. sarajiSvilma daafinansa noe Jordanias xangrZlivi droiT yofna italiaSi, da Sedegmac ar daayovna. italiidan dabrunebulma Jordaniam, SesaniSnavi wigni gamosca _ `kooperativebi italiaSi: piradi dakvirvebani~.

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mdroindeli qarTveli mwerlebi da kulturis moRvaweebi yovelTvis grZnobdnen daviT sarajiSvilis mxardaWeras da mzrunvelobas. igi moralurad da materialurad exmareboda quTaisis dramatul sazogadoebas, qarTuli filarmoniis sazogadoebas, qarTuli sityvakazmuli mwerlobis sazogadoebas, moskovis, peterburgisa da rigis qarTvelTa sazogadoebebs. misi uSualo ZalisxmeviT Camoyalibda xalxuri TviTSemoqmedebis didostatebis: lado aRniaSvilisa da ioseb ratilis simRerisa da cekvis ansamblebi. 1895 wels, manve daafinansa `qarTuli galobis notebad dawyoba~ da gamocema, da mravali sxv.

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lado aRniaSvili da misi xoros wevrebi


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aviTi ara mxolod materialurad exmareboda kulturisa da xelovnebis moRvaweebs, igi maTTan megobrobda da SeZlebisdagvarad TanamSromlobda kidec. ukiduresi mouclelobis miuxedavad, SemoqmedebiT TanamSromlobaze uari ar uTxra saqarTveloSi stumrad myof cnobil ungrel Semoqmeds, ruseTis imperatoris karis mxatvars mixai ziCs, romelic SoTa rusTavelis ukvdavi poemis `vefxistyaosnis~ gmirTa suraTebs acocxlebda Tbilisis Teatrebis scenebze. istoriam Semogvinaxa mixai ziCiseuli naxati, sadac warmodgenilia SoTa rusTavelis mier Tamar mefisaTvis misi qmnilebis _ `vefxistyaosnis~ mirTmevis scena. aq, mTavari moqmedi piris _ SoTa rusTavelis saxes, ulamazesi garegnobisa da axovani aRnagobis mqone _ daviT sarajiSvili asaxierebs.

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f

ilosofiis doqtori daviT sarajiSvili humanisturi idealebis erTguli iyo. misi es msoflmxedveluri pozicia kargad gaacnobiera dRes ukve msoflioSi aRiarebulma primitivistma mxatvarma niko firosmanma. mis erTerT SesaniSnav tiloze gamosaxulni arian daviT sarajiSvili, misi meuRle ekaterine foraqiSvili da mravalSviliani, xelmokle qvrivi qali. geniosma mxatvarma, mTlianobaSi, SesaniSnavad warmoaCina sarajiSvilebis ojaxis sulieri misia, maTi roli da adgili imdroindel sazogadoebaSi. firosmanma mkafiod gamokveTa am didbunebovan moRvaweTa socialuri portretis mTavari Strixi – obolTa da upovarTa gankiTxvis, cxovrebis umZimes wuTebSi gaWirvebulTa gverdiT yofnisa da uangaro daxmarebis gawevis RvTiT boZebuli niWi.

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aviT sarajiSvili aqtiurad monawileobda mcxeTis sveticxovelis sarestavracio komitetis Seqmnasa da sarestavracio samuSaoebis dafinansebaSi. daviT sarajiSvilis ojaxma didi fuladi saxsrebi gaiRo: _ qaSveTis wminda giorgisa da diRmis `TeTri giorgis~ eklesiebis asagebad; _ didubis taZrisa da panTeonis, mTawmindis (mamadaviTi), lurji monastrisa da sxva mravali istoriuli Zeglis dasacavad da aRsadgenad; Tbilisis centrSi Zveli, dabzaruli qaSveTis nacvlad, axali eklesia aigo. taZris samxreT karibWis brinjaos karebze misi da misi meuRlis Rvawlis aRsaniSnavad asomTavrulad amotvifres inicialebi `doni~ da `eni~, anu daviTi da ekaterine...

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`... codva gZuldes, codvili gebralebodes.~ d. sarajiSvili


d

aviT sarajiSvili udides pativs miagebda kavkasiel xalxTa religiur rwmenas. misi tolerantuli buneba saqveynod iyo cnobili. daviTma pirvelad kavkasiis istoriaSi, qarTul enaze aTargmnina `yurani~ da cnobili sazogado moRvawis _ zaqaria WiWinaZis xeliT qarTvel mahmadianebs gaugzavna aWaraSi. maSin, am faqtma, sayovelTao aRiareba da sixaruli gamoiwvia kavkasiel morwmuneTa Soris.

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avkasiel xalxTa Zmoba da erToba, yvela wamoWrili problemis mSvidobiani gziT gadaWra _ ai, ra iyo daviT sarajiSvilis cxovrebiseuli kredo. daviTi ambobda: `kavkasia unda iyos ara veluri da umowyalo konkurenciis, interesTa dapirispirebis, aramed didi Tu mcire erebis saukeTeso SvilTa TanamSromlobis farTo asparezi~. rodesac meoce saukunis gariJraJze CrdiloeT kavkasiis or moZme xalxs Soris SuRli Camovarda, daviTma yvelaferi iRona, raTa Tavis sawarmoebSi momuSave TanamSromlebis magaliTze yvelas enaxa, _ Zmebs gasayofi araferi aqvT. suraTze asaxulni arian sarajiSvilis qarxnebSi momuSave muSa-mosamsaxureTa warmomadgenelni, agreTve uxucesni, romlebmac, ori moZme eris Serigebis niSnad, samaxsovro foto gadaiRes. centrSi zis adam foraqiSvili _ vladikavkazSi daviT sarajiSviliseuli mamulisa da qarxnebis gamgebeli, romelsac daviTis-

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gan piradad hqonda davalebuli mediatoroba am uaRresad sapasuxismgeblo saqmeSi. istoriam Semogvinaxa faqtebi, rom daviTis iniciativiT ZmaTa Serigeba kavkasiuri tradiciisamebr, didi saerTo nadimiT dasrulda, romelSic ara mxolod mis sawarmoebSi momuSave, aramed Crdilo-kavkasieli xalxebis mravali saxelovani Svili monawileobda.

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arajiSvili uyuradRebod arasodes tovebda kavkasiel xalxTa gasaWirs. igi ara marto saganmanaTleblo da kulturul RonisZiebebs afinansebda, man, erT-erTma pirvelma, gaiRo saxsrebi 1902 wels miwisZvriT dazaralebul SemaxelTa (baqos gubernia) dasaxmareblad. daviTi, arc kavkasiis udidesi istoriuli warsulisadmi iyo gulgrili. man didi fuladi saxsrebi gaiRo axalcixe-axalqalaqi-artaanis mazrebis arqeologiuri eqspediciis dasafinanseblad da mravali sxv.

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q. Semaxa miwisZvris Semdeg

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aviT sarajiSvili WeSmaritad `socialurad orientirebuli~ kapitalisti iyo. igi azRvevda mis sawarmoebSi momuSave yvela muSis sicocxles, uzrunvelyofda maTi Sromis umaRles anazRaurebas, zogadi ganaTlebis miRebisa da kvalifikaciis amaRlebas. kavkasiaSi man, erT-erTma pirvelma, SemoiRo 8-saaTiani samuSao dRe, muSa-mosamsaxureebs dauwesa xelfasiani Svebuleba da sadResaswaulo dReebSi, premiis saxiT, asaCuqrebda mis qarxnebSi warmoebuli produqciiT _ umaRlesi xarisxis koniakebiTa da liqiorebiT. sarajiSvili yovelTvis zrunavda xalxTa daaxloebisaTvis da am mizniT eqskursiebsac ki awyobda. imdroindel presaSi (`iveria~, 1904 w.) farTod gaSuqda faqti, tfilisis qarxnis noqrebisa da msaxurTaTvis, daviTis xarjiT, qalaq erevanSi eqskursiis mowyobis Sesaxeb.

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iyo, a d n i u i k a c ni.~ n a s p a t i o is patro i erSi b f a iSvil ione l j e a v l y r i a m a yo d. s n d re i lga e d v i y v `... etia, ro m f u es

daviT sarajiSvili TanamSromelTa Soris


i

mdroindeli Tbilisi, kavkasiaSi yvelaze mravalerovani qalaqi iyo, da, araoficialurad, mas kavkasielTa dedaqalaqsac uwodebdnen. daviTi yovelTvis exmianeboda TanaqalaqelTa gasaWirs da yovelmxriv zrunavda maTi problemebis Sesamsubuqeblad. misi iniciativiTa da ZalisxmeviT gadawyda tfilisSi kaxeTis moednidan navTluRamde `cxenis rkinigzis~ (konkis) gayvana, diRomSi (tfilisis mazra) xidis gadeba da mravali sxv. daviT sarajiSvilma didad Seumsubuqa mdgomareoba tfilisis uRaribes mosaxleobas, rodesac man xelSekruleba gaaforma qalaqis sammarTvelosTan didi raodenobis saklavi saqonlis Cabarebis Sesaxeb. amiT mniSvnelovnad gaaiafa fasebi dedaqalaqis bazarze. erT-erTi pirveli telefonis zari tfilisSi daviT sarajiSvilis binaSi awkrialda, rac misabaZi gaxda bevrisTvis da, ramac, am siaxlis farTod danergvas didad Seuwyo xeli.

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aviT sarajiSvilis saqvelmoqmedo da filantropiuli moRvaweoba mxolod kulturul-saganmanaTleblo sferoSi moRvawe pirovnebebiT ar ifargleboda. igi yovelTvis exmareboda damwyeb mewarmeebsac. mravalTagan SeiZleba gamovyoT daviTis amagi didi qarTveli teqnologis, ualkoholo sasmelebis qarTuli skolis fuZemdeblis mitrofane laRiZisadmi. daviT sarajiSvilma axalgazrda, niWieri, energiuli mewarme quTaisidan Tbiliss gadmoiyvana, sruliad uangarod gaumarTa xeli warmoebis dafuZnebaSi da Sedegmac ar daayovna _ sul male `laRiZis wylebi~ saqveynod gaxda aRiarebuli. daviTis dasaflavebisas, mitrofane laRiZem, mTel gzaze _ sasaxlidan sasaflaomde, yovel 100 metrSi gamagrilebeli wylis aparatebi dadga da Tavisi araCveulebrivi nayeniTa da civi limonaTiT usasyidlod gaumaspinZlda samgloviaro procesiaSi monawile uamrav adamians.

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mitrofane laRiZis nawarmis etiketi daviT sarajiSvilis saiubileod Camosxmuli limonaTis etiketi


k

avkasiaSi, mewarmeTa amqari, erToblivad, mraval saSviliSvilo saqmes uyrida safuZvels. daviT sarajiSvilisa da Zmebi zubalaSvilebis erToblivi mecadineoba rom ara, dRes Tbiliss kote marjaniSvilis saxelobis dramatuli Teatris Senoba ar eqneboda. sarajiSvilma da cnobilma somexma biznesmenma aramiancma qalaq TbilisSi erTad aages imdroindel kavkasiaSi yvelaze didi da Tanamedrove saavadmyofo, sadac bevr gaWirvebulsa da upovars hqonda SesaZlebloba gamojanmrTelebuliyo. saerTod, daviT sarajiSvili gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobda TanamSromlebisa da megobrebis janmrTelobis sakiTxs. cnobilia, rom igi, muSa-mosamsaxureebs ufasod mkurnalobda adgilobriv saavadmyofoebsa da ambulatoriebSi. megobarTa wridan mZime avadmyofebs, xSirad, sazRvargareT, evropis saukeTeso klinikebSi (ZiriTadad germaniaSi) gzavnida samkurnalod. amis samagaliTod ilia WavWavaZis ojaxisadmi gaweuli uangaro daxmarebac ikmarebda. yvelaze zrunavda, yvelas janmrTeloba enaRvleboda, magram sakuTari TavisTvis ver moicala. albaT gangebam ineba, es jan-RoniT savse, Warmagi kaci, 62 wlis asakSi ukurnebeli seniT daavadebuliyo...

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qarTvel mewarmeTa amqari: d. sarajiSvili, n. nikolaZe, a. xoStaria da sxv.


gardacvaleba

d

idi qarTveli mamuliSvili daviT sarajiSvili 1911 wlis 20 ivniss gardaicvala. mTelma kavkasiam didi gulistkiviliT daitira RviZli Svili. gamoiyo damkrZalavi komisia valerian gunias TavmjdomareobiT. panaSvidi gadauxades rogorc saxlSi, ise qaSveTis wm. giorgis eklesiaSi, quTaisis sakrebulo taZarSi, baTumis Zvel kaTedralur soboroSi, diRmis `TeTri giorgis~ eklesiaSi, sadac mravali gulTbili sityva warmoiTqva. daviTis cxedari 26 ivniss misma naTesavebma da megobrebma sionis sakaTedro taZarSi daasvenes, xolo Semdgom, didi pativiT dakrZales didubis sazogado moRvaweTa panTeonSi. procesias win miuZRoda Tbilisis amqari Tavisi droSebiT, mihqondaT 300 gvirgvini, maT Soris _ 33 vercxlis. procesias mihyveboda kavkasiis mowinave sazogadoebrioba (qarTveli, rusi, somexi, azerbaijaneli da sxv). galobda egzarqosi, filarmoniisa da erovnul kostiumebSi gamowyobili kavsaZis gundebi. SeCerda tramvais moZraoba...

112


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idma mamuliSvilma da sazogado moRvawem daviT zaqarias Ze sarajiSvilma mTeli Tavisi qoneba xalxs uanderZa. daviTisa da misi meuRlis ekaterine foraqiSvilis datovebuli anderZis Tanaxmad, kulturul-saganmanaTleblo da sazogadoebriv saqmianobas 2 milion 500 aTasi oqros maneTi moxmarda. maT Soris:

800 aTasi maneTi da 90 aTasi maneTis procentiani qaRaldebi

_ saqarTvelos wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebas, aqedan 150 aTasi maneTi aucileblad unda moxmareboda im studentebis stipendiebs, romlebic warmatebiT swavlobdnen evropis sxvadasxva universitetebSi; 150 aTasi maneTi ki gamiznuli iyo erovnuli muzeumis asaSeneblad;

10 aTasi maneTi

_ pirvel klasikur gimnazias;

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5 aTasi maneTi

_ Tbilisis sasuliero seminarias;

296 aTasi maneTi

_ daviT sarajiSvilis sawarmoTa muSa-mosamsaxureTaTvis;

200 aTasi maneTi

_ istoriul-eTnografiul sazogadoebas;

150 aTasi maneTi

_ quTaisis Teatris asaSeneblad;

25 aTasi maneTi

_ quTaisis dramatul sazogadoebas;

50 aTasi maneTi

_ Tbilisis politeqnikuri an sxva umaRlesi saswavleblebis dasaarseblad;

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30 aTasi maneTi

_ kavkavis (vladikavkazi) Rarib moswavleTaTvis swavlis fulis gadasaxdelad (ganurCevlad erovnebisa);

25 aTasi maneTi

_ saqarTvelos saeTnografio sazogadoebas wignebis gamosacemad;

100 aTasi maneTi

_ Tbilisis qarTul dramatul sazogadoebas;

10 aTasi maneTi

_ samiwaTmoqmedo saxelosnos axalSenTa da TavSesafarTa sazogadoebas;

5 aTasi maneTi

_ filarmoniis sazogadoebas;

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20 aTasi maneTi

_ qarTuli sityvakazmuli mwerlobis sazogadoebas;

50 aTasi maneTi

_ avlabarSi saprofesio skolis dasaarseblad da Sesanaxad;

10 aTasi maneTi

_ moskovis qarTul sazogadoebas;

10 aTasi maneTi

_ didubis taZars;

5 aTasi maneTi

_ mevenaxeTa da meRvineobis sazogadoebis sadgurs odesaSi;

200 aTasi maneTi

_ qirurgiuli saavadmyofos asaSeneblad TbilisSi.

119


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aviTs arc is skolebi daviwyebia, romlebsac TviTon meurveobda da maT, misi gardacvalebis Semdeg, samwliani fuladi daxmareba dauniSna. sakuTari saxli ki qalaqis TviTmmarTvelobas uanderZa, raTa iq samxatvro galerea an Sinamrewvelobisa da xelovnebis muzeumi gaxsniliyo. es saxli Sefasebuli iyo 500 aTas maneTad. didZali Tanxa gadaeca avlabris wm. marines eklesias, dariis monasters, diRmis orive eklesias, kaloubnis, sionis, mcxeTis soboros eklesiebs, martyofis orive eklesias, lilos eklesias, somxeTis wm. stefanes eklesias, Tbilisis samebis eklesias, mamadaviTis taZars da a.S.

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aviT sarajiSvilis gardacvalebam ara mxolod saqarTvelos, mTlianad kavkasiis xalxTa saukeTeso Svilebi daamwuxra. kavkasiis presa farTod gamoexmaura am faqts. ramdenime amonaridi imdroindeli sagazeTo publikaciebidan:


«...Ìû, ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ãîðöåâú Ñåâåðíàãî Êàâêàçà, èíãóøè è îñåòèíû, âûðàæàåìú ãëóáî÷àéøåå ñîáîëåçíîâàíiå ñåìüå ïîêîéíàãî Äàâèäà Çàõàðüåâè÷à è åãî áëèçêèìú. Ãîðå, ïîñòèãøåå âàñú, ïîðàçèëî íàñú è ïîâåðãëî âú âåëèêóþ ñêîðáü è óíûíiå. Íåçàáâåííîé ïàìÿòè Äàâèä Çàõàðüåâè÷ú, ÿâëÿÿñü ïiîíåðîìú êóëüòóðû è ïðîìûøëåííîñòè ñðåäè èíãóøåé è îñåòèíú, ïîäíÿëú áëàãîñîñòîÿíiå íàøåé ðîäèíû äî âûñîêîé ñòåïåíè, äàëú åé ãðîìàäíûé òîë÷îêú êú ëó÷øåìó áóäóùåìó. Áëàãîäåÿíiÿ ýòîãî âåëèêîé äóøè ÷åëîâåêà, çàùèòíèêà, âú áóêâàëüíîìú ñìûñëú ýòîãî ñëîâà, âñåõú óíèæåííûõú è áåäíûõú, ñòîëü ãðîìàäíû, ÷òî êàæäûé ãîðåöú ñú áëàãîñëîâåíiåìú Áîæièìú ïðîèçíîñèòü èìÿ ïîêîéíîãî. Ïàìÿòü åãî âú ñåðäöàõú âñåõú íàñú îñòàíåòñÿ íàâåêè íåèçãëàäèìîþ. Ìû

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ìîæåìú ïðèâåñòè òûñÿ÷è ïðèìåðîâú, êàêú ïîêîéíûé ëè÷íî, ÿâëÿÿñü ïîâñþäó ñðåäè íàñú, îêàçûâàëú âñåìú íóæäàþùèìñÿ ïîìîùü äåëîìú: âñÿêîå ãîðå è íåñ÷àñòüå íàõîäèëî ce6å îòêëèêú âú ýòîé áëàãîðîäíîé, ïîèñòèíå, äåøå; ïîýòîìó ãîðå è ñêîðáü ñåìüè ïîêîéíàãî è åãî áëèçêèõú ìû, èíãóøè è îñåòèíû, ðàçäåëÿåìú âñåìú íàøèìú ñåðäöåìú è äóøîþ. Ìèðú ïðàõó è ïîêîé äóøå áëàãîðîäíàãî è ñåðäå÷íàãî äåÿòåëÿ, êàâêàçöà, Äàâèäà Çàõàðüåâè÷à Ñàðàäæåâà...» Ñóëåéìàí Òóëàòîâ, Áàíóõî Áàòàåâ, Èñàé Áà÷àëîâ, Ìóõòàð Êîòàåâ, Ìàãîìåä Ìóòàëèåâ. «Çàêàâêàçñêàÿ ðå÷ü», ¹140, 25 èþíÿ, 1911 ã.

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«...Áåçâðåìåííàÿ ïîòåðÿ ýòîãî ÷óòêàãî, áåçêîðûñòíàãî äåÿòåëÿ, îòçûâ÷èâàãî ìåöåíàòà, íà âñå äîáðîå è ïîëåçíîå è êðèñòàëüíî ÷èñòîé äóøè ÷åëîâåêà âûçîâåòú èñêðåííåå îãîð÷åíiå è íåïîääåëüíóþ ïå÷àëü ñðåäè âñåãî ìåñòíàãî îáùåñòâà áåçú ðàçëè÷iÿ íàöiîíàëüíîñòåé è ñîñòîÿíié. Ïåðåäú íåîñòûâøèìú åùå ïðàõîìú Ä. 3. íåòú ñèëú ïóñêàòüñÿ âú ïîäðîáíûÿ ðàçñóæäåíiÿ îáú åãî äåÿíiÿõú, îáú åãî îòçûâ÷èâîñòè, îáú åãî âûäàþùåéñÿ òðóäîñïîñîáíîñòè è ýíåðãiè, áëàãîäàðÿ êîòîðûìú îíú ñîçäàëú êðóïíîå ïî âñåé Ðîññiè êîììåð÷åñêîå ïðåäïðiÿòiå, äîõîäàìè ñú êîòîðàãî øèðîêî ïîëüçîâàëñÿ äëÿ îêàçàíiÿ ïîìîùè ó÷àùåéñÿ ìîëîäåæè (îíú âûäàâàëú åæåãîäíî îêîëî 20,000 ð. íà ñòèïåíäiè), êóëüòóðíûìú è ïðîñâåòèòåëüíûìú ó÷ðåæäåíiÿìú è ÷àñòíûìú ëèöàìú áåçú ðàçëè÷iÿ ïðèíàäëåæíîñòè èõú êú òîé èëè èíîé íàöiè...» «Çàêàâêàçñêàÿ ðå÷ü», ¹136, 21 èþíÿ, 1911 ã. 124


«...Óìåðú ðåäêié ÷åëîâåêú, ðåäêié òðóæåíèêúêóçíåöú ýêîíî-ìè÷åñêàãî áûòiÿ êðàÿ... Äåÿòåëüíîñòü åãî âú ýòîé ñôåðå áûëà ñòîëü æå ðàçíîîáðàçíà è ïëîäîòâîðíà, êàêú è âñÿ åãî æèçíü. Âñåãäà îòçûâ÷èâûé, êîððåêòíûé, èñòèííûé äæåíòëüìåíú, êàêú î íåìú ãîâîðèëè âú êîìèòåòå, îíú, çíàÿ íóæäû êðàÿ, çíàëú, êóäà íóæíî íàïðàâèòü è ïîìîùú âú âèäå êðåäèòà. È íàïðàâëÿëú... È åñëè ýêîíîìè÷åñêàà æèçíü êðàÿ ñäâèíóëàñü òåïåðü ñú ìåðòâîé òî÷êè çàñòîÿ, åñëè âèäèìú ïðèçíàêè åÿ âîçðîæäåíiÿ, òî ýòèìú ìû âú çíà÷èòåëüíîé ÷àñòè îáÿçàíû ïîêîéíîìó Äàâèäó Çàõàðüåâè÷ó. Âú ýòîìú åãî ãðîìàäíàÿ çàñëóãà...» «Çàêàâêàçüå», ¹141, 25 èþíÿ, 1911 ã.

125


«...Îíú áûëú èçâåñòåíú ñâîåé ùåäðîñòüþ è íåîãðàíè÷åííîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîñòüþ. Êàæäîå íàöiîíàëüíîå ó÷ðåæäåíiå ïîëó÷èëî èçú åãî áîãàòñòâú ñâîþ äîëþ è ïðè òîìú âú áîëüøèõú ðàçìåðàõú. Âú ëèöå åãî Êàâêàçú ëèøèëñÿ îäíîãî èçú ñâîèõú êðóïíûõú ïðîìûøëåííèêîâú, à ãðóçèíñêié íàðîäú ñâîåãî äîáðàãî è áëàãîðîäíàãî ñûíà...» «Ìøàê», ¹132.

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«...Îíú áëàãîòâîðèëú íå äëÿ òîãî, ÷òî áû ðåêëàìèðîâàòüñÿ è ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü áëàãîñîñòîÿíiþ ñâîèõú ïðåäïðiÿòié, à ýíåðãè÷íî ðàçâèâàëú ñâîè ïðåäïðiÿòiÿ, ÷òîáû èìåòü âîçìîæíîñòü ïîáîëüøå áëàãîòâîðèòåëüñòâîâàòü. Ìíîãî áûëî ëþáâè âú äóøå ó ýòîãî ÷åëîâåêà. Åÿ õâàòèëî è äëÿ äåëà, è äëÿ ëþäåé, è äëÿ ëþáèìîé ðîäèíû. È íà ìîãèëå ýòîãî ÷åëîâåêà æóðíàëèñòú è ãóáåðíàòîðú, êóïåöú è ðàáî÷ié, ãîðîäñêîé ãîëîâà è îáûâàòåëü ñîøëèñü âú îäíîìú ñëîâå: — Óìåðú ÷åëîâåêú. Âú ýòîìú ñëîâå ñàìûé öåííûé, ñàìûé áëàãîóõàííûé è íåóâÿäàþùié âåíîêú âîçëîæèëè îíè íà ãðîáú åãî...» «Êàñïèé», ¹142, 28 èþíÿ, 1911 ã.

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«...Âðåìÿ îöåíèòú ïîëåçíóþ äåÿòåëüíîñòü ïîêîéíàãî íà Êàâêàçå. À ïîêà ïóñòü íå çàðîñòåòú òðîïà êú åãî ìîãèëå è ïóñòü íàñëåäíèêè åãî áóäóòú ïðîäîëæàòü íà÷àòîå èìú áîëüøîå òîðãîâî-ïðîìûøëåííîå ïðåäïðiÿòiå, äàáû èìÿ åãî è èìÿ åãî ôèðìû ïåðåõîäèëî èçú ðîäà âú ðîäú, èçú ïîêîëåíiÿ âú ïîêîëåíiå. Ýòî áóäåòú ïîêîéíîìó âå÷íûìú è íàèëó÷øèìú ïàìÿòíèêîìú...» «Çàêàâêàçñêàÿ ðå÷ü», ¹138, 23 èþíÿ, 1911 ã.

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«...Âú ïðîìûøëåííîñòè ïîêîéíûé Äàâèäú Çàõàðüåâè÷ú áûëú íå òîëüêî ïåðâûìú ïiîíåðîìú èçú ãðóçèíú, íî ñäåëàëñÿ îäíèìú èçú ñàìûõú êðóïíûõú ïðîìûøëåííèêîâú âñåãî Êàâêàçà. È ýòî äåëî âåëú íå âú óçêèõú ïðåäåëàõú ðóòèíåðñòâà, íî ïðîãðåññèâíî è èíòåëëèãåíòíî, êàêú íàñòîÿùié ïðîñâåùåííûé åâðîïååöú. Äàæå âú ãëàçàõú ñàìûõú îáðàçîâàííûõú èíîñòðàíöåâú îíú áûëú îäóøåâëåíú ñàìûìè áëàãîðîäíûìè íàìåðåíiÿìè. Ðàáîòàÿ áåçú óñòàëè, âñåãäà äóìàëú î ïîëüçå, êàêóþ ìîæåòú ïðèíåñòè ñâîåìó íàðîäó, êîðìèëú âú Òèôëèñå, Âëàäèêàâêàçå è äð...» «Çàêàâêàçüå», ¹142, 26 èþíÿ, 1911 ã.

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«...Ñú 1885 ã. îíú ïîñòåïåííî îòêðûâàëú âèíîêóðåííûå çàâîäû âú Òèôëèñå, Åðèâàíè, Êèçëÿðå è Áåññàðàáñêîé ãóáåðíiè, âûäåëûâàÿ ñïèðòú è êîíüÿêú. Áëàãîäàðÿ åãî îïûòíîñòè è òðóäîëþáiþ ýòè ïðåäïðiÿòiÿ ïðèíîñèëè åìó áîëüøiå äîõîäû. Îíú áûëú îäíèìú èçú íàøèõú ðåäêèõú ïåðåäîâûõú ëþäåé...» «Îðèçîí», ¹140.

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«...Âú òî âðåìÿ, êîãäà ìíîãiå èçú êàâêàçöåâú - àðìÿíå, òàòàðû, ãðóçèíû - ñú ïðåíåáðåæåíiåìú ñìîòðåëè íà òîðãîâëþ è ïðîìûøëåííîñòü, âú îñîáåííîñòè òå èçú íèõú, êîòîðûå íåñêîëüêî ïîñâÿùåíû â ãðàìîòó è íå æåëàþòú çàíèìàòüñÿ òîðãîâëåé, ìû âèäèìú, ÷òî Ä. 3. Ñàðàäæåâú, ëèöî, ïîëó÷èâøåå âûñøåå îáðàçîâàíiå, îêîí÷èâøié ñïåöiàëüíûÿ ó÷åáíûÿ çàâåäåíiÿ, ïîñòóïèëú íå âú ÷èíîâíèêè, à îñíîâàëú äåëî, êîòîðîå ïîñëóæèëî ýêîíîìèåñêîìó ðàçâèòiþ ñòðàíû; ñîçäàëú ñâîå áëàãîïîëó÷iå, äàâøåå åìó âîçìîæíîñòü áëàãîòâîðèòü, êàêîâàÿ äåÿòåëüíîñòü âú ñâîþ î÷åðåäü îáåçñìåðòèëà åãî âú ñâîåìú êðóãó. Êú ãîðþ ãðóçèíñêàãî íàðîäà ìû òîæå èñêðåííî ïðèñîåäèíÿåìñÿ, è ãëóáîêî ïå÷àëèìñÿ, ÷òî êðóïíûé òèòàíú âú äåëå ðàçâèòiÿ ïðîìûøëåííîñòè íà Êàâêàçå íàâåêè óøåëú îòú íàñú...» «Ñóðàíäàê», ¹330. 131


«...Ó÷ðåäèòåëüíèöû ïðîôåññiîíàëüíîé øêîëû ïðè âëàäèêàâêàçñêîìú ãðóçèíñêîìú ó÷èëèùå è ó÷åíèöû åÿ, ïîðàæåííûÿ ïå÷àëüíîþ âåñòüþ î êîí÷èíå íåçàáâåííàãî Äàâèäà Çàõàðüåâè÷à, âûðàæàþòú âàìú ãëóáîêîå ñåðäå÷íîå ñîáîëåçíîâàíiå è ó÷àñòiå âú ïîñòèãøåìú âàñú òÿæêîìú ãîðå è âìåñòå ñå âàìè ãîðüêî îïëàêèâàþòú ýòó ÷óâñòâèòåëüíóþ äëÿ âñåé Ãðóçiè ïîòåðþ...» «...Ïðàâëåíiå Áàêèíñêàãî îòäåëåíiÿ Îáùåñòâà Ãðàìîòíîñòè ãëóáîêî îïå÷àëåíî êîí÷èíîé íåçàáâåííàãî Äàâèäà Çàõàðüåâè÷à, ñàìîîòâåðæåííàãî äåÿòåëÿ íà íèâå ãðóçèíñêîé îáùåñòâåííîñòè è ïîêðîâèòåëÿ âñåõú êóëüòóðíî-ïðîñâåòèòåëüíûõú ó÷ðåæäåíié...» Ïðàâëåíèå. Áàêó.

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daviTis gardacvalebam saqarTvelo daamwuxra. misi didi Tanamedroveni, gulwrfelad afasebdnen mis amags:

akaki wereTeli `daviT sarajiSvilma qarTvelebis siyvaruli moipova siyvaruliTve, im siyvaruliT, sadac yvedrebis drosac ki Wirisuflis siyvaruli ixateboda... daTiko Tavisis ofliTa da SromiT da inteligenturis gamWriaxobiT mopovebul qonebasac qarTvelobas unawilebda: vin ar icis, rom axal Taobas swavla-ganaTlebis miRebis saSualebas aZlevda stipendiebiT. amas unda davumatoT isic, rom daviT sarajiSvili saidumlo qvelmoqmedic iyo, sadac ki xeli miuwvdeboda.~

iakob gogebaSvili `daviT sarajiSvils mamisagan darCa mciredi Tanxa, da man es Tanxa Tavisi codniT da mxneobiT milionebad gadaaqcia, Tumca Taviss momuSaveT aZlevda imdens safass, ramdensac arc erTi masze mdidari milioneri ar imetebda da imetebs. da bolos mTeli Tavisi didi qoneba, SeZenili patiosani gziT da umwikvlo moqmedebiT, man dauteva qveyanasa... ~

noe Jordania `SeaerTeT qarTvelis gulkeTiloba da purmarili evropiul saqmianobasTan da miiRebT daviT sarajiSvils... roca TiTeuli Cvengani iswavlis evropiul saqmianobas _ da Tan Tavis nacionalur xasiaTs ar davkargavT _ Cveni gaevropieleba faqti iqneba. daviT sarajiSvili qarTveli-evropieli iyo.~

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artur laisti `daviT sarajiSvili iyo qarTuli mrewvelobis damfuZnebeli, mravali moswavle axalgazrdisa da saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis mfarveli. daviTi ganaTlebuli kaci iyo, uyvarda sazogadoeba da ganaTlebuli pirebi. iliasa da daviT sarajiSvils Soris megobruli ganwyobileba mudam sufevda...~

mose ToiZe `xelovnebis motrfialeTa Soris bevrni xSirad siRaribisa gamo uRrmes zneobriv tanjvas ganicdian, aq mdidari kaci ara kmara, saWiroa megobari, da aseTi megobari iyo daviT sarajiSvili. miuxedavad imisa, rom yvelaze maRla idga swavliT, niWiT, xarisxiTa da sxva, ise miiRebda axalgazrda ymawvil kacs, ise guliTa da suliT gamohkiTxavda, TiTqo Soridgan Svili Camouvidao~.

kaTolikos-patriarqi kalistrate cincaZe `...SevwiroT madloba zecier mamasa daviT sarajiSvilis qveynad movlenisaTvis da SevevedrneT, rom msgavsi misi kvalad mohniWebodes qveyanasa Cvensa ara erTi da ori. amin.~

135


d

aviT sarajiSvilis gardacvalebisTanave, misi saflavis Zeglis dadgma gamoCenilma moqandakem iakob nikolaZem iTava. iakobi am dros, mTawmindaze muSaobda saqarTvelos eklesiis mier wmindanad Seracxul ilia WavWavaZis saflavis Zeglze, _ `mwuxare saqarTvelo~, romelic ilias megobris _ daviT sarajiSvilis mier finansirdeboda. daviTs didi amagi hqonda gaweuli TviT iakob nikolaZisadmi, man daxmarebis uangaro xeli gauwoda damwyeb moqandakes, raTa is parizSi gamgzavrebuliyo, sadac es niWieri axalgazrda msoflios udidesma xelovanma, XIX saukunis franguli renesansis erT-erTma Semoqmedma ogiust rodenma SeniSna da mowafed aiyvana. TbilisSi dabrunebuli iakob nikolaZe daviT sarajiSvilma RviZli SviliviT miiRo da SemoqmedebiTi saxelosnos mosawyobad, qalaqis centrSi, Tavis erT-erT sawarmoSi, saukeTeso farTi dauTmo.

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i

akobma Zeglze muSaoba 1912 wels daamTavra. ai ras werda TvalsaCino qarTveli poeti akaki wereTeli nikolaZis namuSevarze: `...es Zegli warmoadgens erTad Tavmoyrils sam qals. erTi maTgani moxuci, SuaSi rom sdgas, emblemaa mwuxarebis. marjvniv udgas nugeS-imedis gamomxatveli qali da sevdianis, magram tkbilis RimiliT amxnevebs; marcxniv sdgas pirdafaruli sve-bedi da anTebuli lampari, lampari saukuno sicocxlisa uWiravs xelSi. maRlidan gadmofafqvia boroti suli, sikvdilis ange-

140


losi, da mrisxaned suls uberavs lampars, rom gaaqros ... es aris diadi idea, romelic bevrs rames agulisxmebs qarTvels. da es diadi mosazreba, moqandakes daukavSirebia gansvenebuli sarajiSvilis sve-bedTan da apirobs miuZRvnas Zeglad. Sehyureb da ar ici, ras unda misce upiratesoba. ideas? Tu mis ganxorcielebas. es brwyinvale ram, ucxoels vismes rom gaekeTebina, maSin, rasakvirvelia, gagebuli gveqneboda, da vin icis, mis sanaxavad adgilobrivad Sorsac wavidodiT~. Zalze samwuxaroa, rom momavalma Taobebma ver SeZles, mis saflavze, am Zeglis dadgma...

141


k

omunisturi epoqis gariJraJze, orTodoqsi komunistebi daviT sarajiSvilis amags qveynisa da xalxis winaSe arafrad agdebdnen. es udidesi mamuliSvili saflavSic ar gaaCeres da `kapitalistis~ iarliyiT didubis sazogado moRvaweTa panTeonidan, vakis `miyruebul~ sasaflaoze gadaasvenes. mxolod axal, Tavisufal da demokratiul saqarTveloSi aRsdga samarTlianoba. 1995 wels qveynis xelisuflebis, eklesiisa da saqarTvelos warCinebul SvilTa ZalisxmeviT daviTisa da misi meuRlis neSti, vakis sasaflaodan qaSveTis wminda giorgis eklesiaSi gadaasvenes da pativiT dakrZales im eklesiis ezoSi, romlis agebaSic maT ojaxs udidesi wvlili hqonda Setanili.

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`... bedi diacia: mdidarsa da Roniers elaquceba.~ d. sarajiSvili

daviT sarajiSvilisa da ekaterine foraqiSvilis saflavi qaSveTis wminda giorgis saxelobis taZris ezoSi


d

aviT sarajiSvilis `reabilitacia~ 1983 wlidan daiwyo, rodesac saqarTvelos xelisuflebam, misi dabadebis 135 welTan dakavSirebiT, saqarTvelos ssr ministrTa sabWos gadawyvetilebiT ukvdavyo misi saxeli. amis Semdgom daviT sarajiSvilis Zeglebi daidga: Tbilisis koniakis qarxanaSi, saqarTvelos mweralTa kavSiris SenobaSi, TbilisSi riyis teritoriaze. qalaq Tbilisis meriis gadawyvetilebiT erT-erT centralur gamzirs daviT sarajiSvilis saxeli ewoda. misi saxelobisaa Tbilisis metropolitenis erT-erTi sadguri. mis cxovrebasa da moRvaweobaze Seiqmna araerTi mxatvruli nawarmoebi, wigni, daiwera uamravi sagazeTo publikacia. dokumenturi filmebis studia `mematianem~ da saqarTvelos centralurma televiziam gadaiRes araerTi dokumenturi filmi da a.S.

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daviT sarajiSvilis saxelobis auditoria, eleqtronuli biblioTeka da biusti ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi


a

m udidesi pirovnebis yvelaze did aRiarebad da Rvawlis dafasebad mainc unda miviCnioT saqarTvelos prezidentis mier 2003 wlis 14 aprilis brZanebulebaa, romlis mixedviTac dawesda `daviT sarajiSvilis dRe~, romelic yovelwliurad noembris TveSi sadResaswaulo viTarebaSi aRiniSneba. 2004 wlidan gaTvaliswinebulia, daviT sarajiSvilis dRe aRiniSnos rogorc kavkasiel mewarmeTa erTianobisa da megobrobis saerTo dResaswauli.

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`daviT sarajiSvilis dRis~ emblema daviT sarajiSvilis saxelobis ordenisa da medlis eskizi


k

avkasia, erTi, mTliani regionia, romelic uZvelesi kulturis xalxebiTaa dasaxlebuli da, romelsac zogadsakacobrio civilizaciis istoriaSi gansakuTrebuli roli da adgili aqvs miniWebuli. mis wiaRSi ara erTi mZlavri saxelmwifo aRmocenebula, romelTac didi gavlena mouxdeniaT evropasa da aziaSi mimdinare movlenebze. istoriulad, kavkasielTa tolerantuli bunebis miuxedavad, erTmaneTs Soris iyo qiSpic da dapirispirebac, magram, saerTo kavkasiuri fenomeni, romelic patiosnebaze, vaJkacobasa da urTierTmitevebazea dafuZnebuli, ara mxolod aerTianebda am xalxebs, aramed saerTo mtris winaSe brZolaSi arnaxul gamarjvebebsac moapovebinebda. daviT sarajiSvilis cxovreba da moRvaweoba mkafio magaliTia imisa, rom erTad yofnis SemTxvevaSi da erTiani ZalisxmeviT kavkasielebs arnaxuli warmatebebis miRweva SeuZliaT rogorc ekonomikur, ise kulturul cxovrebaSi. aseTi magaliTebi ki istoriam, sxvac bevri Semogvinaxa...

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avtori da mTavari redaqtori

zurab jiblaZe

sagamomcemlo-saredaqcio jgufi:

rusudan TurqaZe

Tamila oniani

giorgi arabuli

rati abulaZe

lela TvaraZe

Tamar araTanaSvili

vasil marsagiSvili

nana qenqaZe

eka kenWaZe

madlen mirianaSvili

gaga amaSukeli

kaxa nozaZe

giorgi sarajiSvili

goCa xuciSvili

nodar zedelaSvili

marine kucia

naTia kervaliSvili

ia WiRlaZe

lela abramiSvili

viqtor koxreiZe

saredaqcio jgufi madlobas uxdis: s. janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos istoriul muzeums, S. amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis saxelmwifo muzeums, g. leoniZis saxelobis literaturul muzeumsa da saqarTvelos parlamentis ilia WavWavaZis saxelobis erovnul biblioTekas fotomasalebis mowodebisaTvis.

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