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新學堂藝術 收藏庫 亞洲計劃

香 港 女 性 藝 術 家

WOMEN IN ART: HONG KONG NEW HALL ART COLLECTION ASIA ART INITIATIVE


香港從 1960 年代起的女性 藝術工作者的地位及代表性總覽 新學堂藝術收藏庫、劍橋大學 默里。愛德華茲學院及亞洲藝術 文獻庫携手合作的研究計劃

An overview of the status and representation of women artists in Hong Kong since the 1960s A research project with New Hall Art Collection, Murray Edwards College & Asia Art Archive


院 長 的 話

A MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT

劍橋大學默里。愛德華茲學院原名為新 學堂,於 1954 年為迎接來自不同背景、年輕、優秀的女性加 入劍橋大學而成立,其宗旨是為女學員提供最優良 的教育。時至今日,我們秉持成立的初衷,學院依 然是一所只限女性入讀的大學,因為世界各地對女 性不平等的現象至今仍存在。 學院亦以其藝術收藏 庫為榮,這個館藏有逾 500 件女性藝術家的作品。 我們的舊生、學生及學者來自世界各地,亦與各地 伙伴合作,決心搜羅全球各國的藝術作品加入館藏 之中。多得我們在香港的聯絡,我們已經進行了針 對該區有關性別及藝術的研究工作。我們期待繼續 跟香港的藝術家、策展人及畫廊保持聯繫。

Murray Edwards College, or New Hall as it was originally called, was founded in 1954 to welcome outstanding young women from all backgrounds to the University of Cambridge – with a mission to provide the best education for female students possible. This remains at the heart of our existence. We choose to remain a College for women in recognition of the fact that there is still much gender inequality facing women in the world today. The College is also proud of its Art Collection, all by women and now with over 500 works. Our alumnae, students and Fellows are from across the world and we decided to expand our Collection internationally, working in partnership with those concerned. With our existing links to Hong Kong we have conducted research to contribute to conversations about gender and art in the region. We look forward to continuing our relationships with artists, curators and galleries in Hong Kong in the future.

Dame Barbara Stocking

Dame Barbara Stocking

默里。愛德華茲學院院長

PRESIDENT, MURRAY EDWARDS COLLEGE


豐 富 的 藝 術 歷 史

亞洲藝術文獻庫及新學堂 藝術收藏庫亞洲計劃 新學堂藝術收藏庫亞洲計劃是一個富挑戰性而又合時的嘗 試。它的緣起跟亞洲藝術文獻庫的承諾吻合,就是為增進 視覺藝術知識建造工具及社群。自文獻庫於2000年成立以 來,我們一直致力表揚少受關注的藝術工作,藉此貢獻一 個更豐富的世界藝術歷史;亦讓這些少受關注的藝術歷史 獲得更多機會被用於研究及教學上。亞洲的藝術生態正在 發育中,近年愈來愈多藝術中心及博物館於區內成立,而 文獻庫是當中一員。 其他同類藝術組織相似,我們積極重新審視如何回應文化 創造及公民社會的轉變。 為此,文獻庫檢視了研究項目及所關注的議題,從中反思 在館藏以至整個藝術架構內的遺漏及性別不平衡。結論令 我們更加關注女性在藝術史上的角色。正因如此,我們跟 新學堂藝術收藏庫合作,推廣香港女性藝術家的工作。我 們樂見這個高水平的研究強調包容各方的代表性,並是日 後更多項目及研究的引子。

徐文玠 亞洲藝術文獻庫聯合 創辧人及行政總監


GENEROUS ART HISTORIES Asia Art Archive and the New Hall Art Collection Asia Art Initiative

The New Hall Art Collection Asia Art Initiative is a demanding and timely endeavour. Its premise resonates with Asia Art Archive’s commitment to build tools and communities to expand knowledge in the visual arts field. Since our foundation in 2000, we have been dedicated to contributing to a more generous world art history by spotlighting less visible art histories, making them more accessible for scholarship, research, and education. We are part of a growing arts ecology in the region, which has become home to an increasing number of art centres and museums in recent years. We, similar to our fellow arts organisations, understand the importance of rethinking our urgencies to respond to the changes in cultural production and civil society. As part of these efforts to address contemporary concerns, we reviewed our project and content priorities, a process wherein we questioned the gaps and the gender imbalance within our own collections and within the larger art infrastructure. Our findings reiterated that the study of women in art history remains crucial to our mission. This is precisely why we are thrilled to collaborate with the New Hall Art Collection in their effort to advocate for work by women artists in Hong Kong. We are grateful that this incredible research underscores the importance of inclusive representation and we know that this is the beginning of many other initiatives to come.

Claire Hsu CO-FOUNDER AND EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, ASIA ART ARCHIVE


香世 港代 女及 性性 藝別 術的 工視 作差 者 :

1962

– an “Hong Kong Art Today” the City inaugural exhibition of y, City Hall Museum and Art Galler opens, The Chatham Gallery lery in the gal t firs the y edl ort rep an Dorothy Swan eric Am by territory, ran

默里。愛德華茲學院的新學堂藝術收藏暨女性藝術作品數 目為全歐洲最高。收藏品在一個 1960 年代的現代主義建 築物裡展示,並且開放予公眾參觀。學院是具有 800 年歷 史的英國劍橋大學 31 所學院之一,並已演進成為學生創 造生活及學習環境的院校。在 1954 年成立時原名為新學 堂,默里。愛德華茲學院相對其他學院年輕。它成立的目 的是增加該大學對女學員的支援及推動性別平等。

大會堂美術博 物館開幕展 《今日的香港 藝術》 開設「雅苑畫 廊」,據稱是 香港首間商業 畫廊

1963

nese Establishment of the Chi g Kon g Hon University of Fine (CUHK); Department of y tiar ter rst es fi om Arts bec s on institute to offer course ory of studio practice and hist g Kon g Hon in visual arts

新學堂藝術收藏庫的第一個收藏作品是美國藝術家Mary Kelly 的作品。她在 1985-1986 年間是學院的駐留藝術 家。當時, Kelly 的作品是在學院裡唯一被明顯展示的女 藝術家的作品,引發在 1990 年代初的一個決定,就是牆 壁應該反映學院的生活和單單展示女藝術家的作品。學院 向一百名女性藝術家募捐,出人意表地超過 80% 藝術家捐 出重要的作品。這是一個集體捐贈的非凡時刻。建於這個 基礎,今天新學堂藝術收藏庫擁有超過 500 件不同媒體的 作品,其多元性屬「女性藝術」翹楚。

香港中文大學 (中大)成 立;中大藝術 系為香港首個 提供創作實 踐及視覺藝術 史專上教育的 學系

1966 Star Ferry Riots

Appointment of first female Legislative Councillor, Dr Ellen Li

天星小輪 加價暴動 李曹秀群博士 獲委任為立法 局首位女議員


THE PARALLAX OF GENERATIONS AND GENDERS: WOMEN IN ART, HONG KONG The New Hall Art Collection at Murray Edwards College is the largest collection of art works by women in Europe. It hangs throughout a striking 1960s modernist building and is open to the public. The College is amongst 31 colleges that have grown up to create living and learning spaces for students of the 800-year-old University of Cambridge in England. Founded in 1954 as New Hall, Murray Edwards College is relatively young. It was created to increase provision for women at the University, and continues to advocate for equality.

1967 1967 Riots

六七暴動

1969 porary “Exhibition of Contem ly cial (Offi ” Art g Kon g Hon al turned into a local bienni in 1975)

《當代香港藝 術》揭幕(自 1975 起成為 「香港藝術雙 年展」)

The Art Collection grew from the acquisition of work by the US artist Mary Kelly who had been staying at the College on a residency between 1985-1986. At the time, Kelly’s work was the only prominently displayed artwork in the College by a woman, prompting a decision in the early 1990s that the walls should reflect the life of the College and only display artwork by women. One hundred women artists were approached to donate a work, and astonishingly over 80% of them gave significant works. It was an extraordinary moment of collective giving. These are the core of a Collection that now boasts over 500 works in different media – and a diversity to challenge any essentialising of ‘women’s art’.

1970s ost Women constitute alm half of the graduates from the Department of Fine Arts, CUHK

接近半數的中 大藝術系畢業 生是女性


何謂「女性藝術家」?在 1992 年,被邀請參加成立典禮 的評論家質問這個具爭議性及複雜的術語。 正如藝術史學 家葛莉賽達.波洛克 (Griselda Pollock) 在公開發表裡所 提出:  「從作品中我們可以看出反映何謂作為『女性』 、『黑人女性』、『女同性戀』、『母親』、『藝術家』 、『公民』及類似身份的複雜性及可能性。故此在這個藝 術收藏裡我們看不見連貫性、概括性及共同軌跡。 雖然如此,它還是有軌跡及共同性 – 兩者皆是陳腔濫調和 事實 – 是每次談論「女性藝術家」時都被反覆爭議的課 題:關於它在藝術史、公營機構、及巿場裡的代表性及可 觀性。如斯例子、軼事或真實個案在添增,讓我們看到新

1971-82 The longest- serving g, Governor of Hong Kon Murray MacLehose, was responsible for much social reform

任期最長的港 督, 麥理浩大力 推動社會改革

1971 ge The passing of the Marria Act of 1971: polygamy and ger legal concubinage are no lon Now, Touring exhibition “Art , Edinburgh, Hong Kong” to London Manchester, and Bristol

香港通過《婚 姻改革條例》 ,廢除一夫多 妻或納妾的 制度 《今日香港藝 術》於倫敦、 愛丁堡、曼徹 斯特及布里斯 托巡迴展出

學堂藝術收藏庫有需要為選擇過藝術工作者生活的女性發 聲。藝術家反映我們生活的世界及我們如何培育社會的文 化,所以藝術家如何繼續工作,她們如何維持生計及作品 的用途都跟我們息息相關。性別分析的數字告訴我們驚人 的不平衡現象,就是雖然修讀視覺藝術的女性數目眾多, 但是在巿場上男性藝術家比率更高。或許更甚者是在藝術 機構及專科院校董事會裡甚少表揚由女性創作的作品:這 是一個不論在節目安排、藝術評論及傳媒報導普遍的疏 忽,而又在下一代了解藝術史過程中深化。這種疏忽在各 地各國均可見。我們希望藉表揚藝術表達的多元性正視這 個不平衡現象,同時讓一些應受關注但又未被受關注的藝 術家曝光。

1973

es Against Passage of the Offenc , allowing Bill nt) me end (Am son Per consensus er und ns rtio for legal abo s (that of two registered doctor pregnancy the continuance of the pregnant the to l would be harmfu woman or the foetus)

通過侵害人身 罪條例 (修訂), 容許孕婦在取 得兩名註冊醫 生以繼續懷孕 會危害孕婦 或胎兒的意見 後,由註冊醫 生進行終止妊 娠手術。


So what do we mean by ‘women artists’? Commentators invited to the launch of the Collection in 1992 wrestled with this contested and complex term. As Art Historian Griselda Pollock suggested in her published address,  ‘We can read the works for clues about the full complexity and possibility of what it might mean to live ‘as women’ under the sign ‘woman’, ‘black woman’, ‘lesbian’, ‘mother’, ‘artist’, ‘citizen’ and so forth. Therein this collection we will find no consistency, no generality, no common thread.’ And yet there are threads and commonalities – both clichés and facts – that arise every time a platform is raised to talk about ‘women artists’: recurring questions about representation and visibility in art history, public institutions and the market. In the proliferation of examples, anecdotes and hard numbers we have recognised the need for the New Hall Art Collection to be a voice for women who choose to live and work as artists. Artists reflect the world we live in and how we nurture culture

1974 Chinese becomes an official language in the colony

中文成為殖 民地之法定 語文

1975

The government ed progressively implement k wor al equ for pay equal

in society, so how artists are able to work, how they are supported and how art is consumed says much about us. What is striking about the statistics of gender analysis in the visual arts arena is the pervading imbalance between the high numbers of women entering arts education, and the higher percentage of men that dominate the market. Perhaps more significant is the lack of exposure of art by women in art institutions and academies across the board: an omission that reverberates and is perpetuated through programming, critical review and press, and which calcifies as the understanding of art history in the next generation. These omissions cross borders and nationalities. We hope to redress this imbalance by celebrating the diversity of artistic practice whilst shining a light on the lack of progress of those who make it.

1977 政府逐步實 施同工同酬 計劃

Hong Kong Arts Centre officially opens

香港藝術中心 正式開幕


為 何 選 擇 香 港 女 性 ?

1978 Nine years free schooling made compulsory and universal

港府實施九年 免費及強迫 教育

香港有複雜的政治背景,有殖民地歷史,是重要商業中心 及非一般的地理位置,讓它成為一個發展藝術的有趣的地 方。這是自從 1960 年代起開始的變革。我們的研究涵蓋 50 年的藝術活動,縱使很多資料集中在過去 20 年的當代 藝壇發展。自從 1990 年代,香港政府針對藝術及撥款政 策的改革促使香港藝術發展局在 1995 年成立,平衡的文 化基礎設施得以逐漸形成。適逢創新工業興起,香港藝術 教育在 1990 年代末擴展,而 1999 年定下的西九龍文化 區,以吸引文化旅遊業為愿景。同時期在香港以外,我們 觀察國際化藝壇漸成氣候,出現不少藝術雙年展及藝術博 覧會,強化了所謂「全球」藝術巿場。

1983 The first video art workshop was run at HK bara Goethe Institut by Bar ny rma Ge m fro nn Hamma b Setting up of Fringe Clu

香港歌德學院 首辦錄像藝術 工作坊,由德 國藝術家芭芭 拉•哈曼主持 藝穗會成立

我們有關香港女性藝術家的研究中,有三群不同年齡組別 的香港女性藝術家的交談(分別於 1970 年代、1990 年代 及 2000 年代末畢業),訪問個別藝術家、策展人及藝廊 主人。他們一同繪出香港藝術家隨年代劃分極大差異的 圖畫。年長的一代只可透過教學或從事藝術以外工作維持 生活,而年輕一代則享受更多支援機制:藝術家空間、駐 留計劃及文化基金及機構 (亞洲藝術文獻、何鴻毅家族基 金、K11、奧沙藝術基金等),還有迅速發展的商業畫廊及 藝術博覧。 這個計劃觀察的時期,由 1960 年代起,是所有藝術家經 歷殖民地主義及政治交織的時期。

1984

British tion by the Chinese and Signing of Joint Declara nd Leases”) states “La III nex (An 3 ix end governments. App ritories the male line for New Ter inheritance rights along 7 199 r afte be preserved indigenous residents will Advancement of The Association for the d nde fou is F) (AA Feminism

中國與英國政府 簽定《中英聯合 聲明》 附件三 (關於土地契

約)規定,原有 鄉村居民的合法 父系繼承人之遺 產繼承權在 1997 年後繼續予以承 認和保護 新婦女協進會 成立


THE HONG KONG CONTEXT: WHY WOMEN?

Hong Kong, in the same period, we saw the emergence of a global art world, with a proliferation of art biennales and art fairs, and a strengthening ‘global’ art market.

Hong Kong’s complex political history, colonial past, significance as a hub for trade and unusual geographical footprint make it a fascinating region to consider the growth of an art scene; it is one that has changed dramatically since the 1960s. Our research covers 50 years of art activity, although much of our data focuses on the contemporary picture of the past 20 years. A balanced cultural infrastructure in Hong Kong has gradually been shaped since the 1990s through government-led reforms on arts and funding policy culminating in the establishment of the Hong Kong Arts Development Council in 1995. This coincided with the rise of the creative industries, resulting in the expansion of arts education in Hong Kong in the late 1990s and the designation of the West Kowloon Cultural District (WKCD) in 1999, with a vision to attract cultural tourism. Beyond

1986 Videotage is founded

錄映太奇 成立

1987 The “Out of Context” y show held at 15 Kenned Road, Wanchai

《外圍》在灣 仔堅尼地道 15號舉行展覽

At the heart of our research on women artists in Hong Kong are conversations among three different artist peer groups (graduating in the 1970s, 1990s and late 2000s), and interviews with individual artists, curators and gallery owners. Together they paint a picture of significant generational differences for artists in Hong Kong. Whilst the older generation could only live through teaching or holding down jobs outside of the arts, the younger generation now have many support structures: artist-run-spaces, residencies, and the infrastructure of cultural foundations and organisations (Asia Art Archive, Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation, K11, Osage Foundation etc.), alongside a rapid growth of commercial galleries, and art fairs. For the period examined in this project, starting from the 1960s, colonialism and politics interweave the experiences of all these artists.

1989 Violent crackdown of student-led protests in Beijing by the Chinese Communist Party

中共暴力鎮壓 北京學運


1967 年暴動,在天星小輪加價暴動一年後發生,事件改 變了殖民地統治方向。有說事件承傳至今仍在的示威及政 治活動。從文化角度來說,這個時間正好是香港大會堂 在 1962 年開設香港博物美術館,以推廣及表揚「當地藝 術」:不是中國或英國/西方藝術,而是香港的藝術。1

自從 2000 年代起國際雙年展爆發極大爭論,香港藝術家 廣泛談論何謂國際及地方藝術家。國際藝壇的挖起同時刻 劃藝術家的焦點轉移至中國大陸。如今,當我們期待 M+ 的落成及它的新館藏,還有大館古蹟及藝術館(前中區警 署建築群)及香港藝術館(用9.3億元重建之後),香港 再次被受關注。藝術博覽會的影響,如巴塞爾藝術展香港 展會,整區的藝術生態都有迴響。這個似乎是審視女性在 視覺藝術代表性的最佳時機。實在,我們被問及,為何不 再進深一點,觀察所有形式的藝術工作者? 2015 年在《 南華早報》刊登的調查結果指出 女性在藝術圈裡扮演配角

1990 Quart Society, an artist-run space, is founded

藝術家自營 空間「Quart Society」成立

1991

Kong Relocation of the Hong City Museum of Art from the eHall to its present purpos g Hon the by es mis built pre Kong Cultural Centre in Tsim Sha Tsui

香港藝術館從 大會堂移遷至 尖沙咀香港文 化中心旁的 現址

(Women Playing Second Fiddle in Arts Groups)2 環觀 視覺藝術、音樂、劇場及舞蹈,顯示一個性別分歧:整體 來說,男性在藝術領域上決定重要的事項,而女性只執行 男人的政策。

我們的研究專注於視覺藝術領域,但我們希望喚起藝術製 作人及對廣泛藝術議程有影響力人士的關注。通過很多機 構及商業畫廊的協助,我們對香港女性藝術家的代表性進 行研究,亦有查看由營及非牟利機構舉辦的重要展覽及活 動的調查。 整個概覽包括信息圖表及政治和歷史時間表,以及更長篇 的文章討論香港女性藝術工作者,可通過新學堂藝術收藏 庫及亞洲藝術文獻庫獲取。我們希望這些工作成果會引發 更多相關的討論及評論,以及勾勒出女性對藝術實踐、教 育及公眾參與的貢獻。

1992 “City Vibrance”, the first thematic exhibition on contemporary Hong Kong art, was held at Hong Kong Museum of Art

香港藝術館舉 辦首個本地當 代藝術展《城 市變奏》


The 1967 Riots that changed the course of colonial rule erupted a year after the locally charged Star Ferry Riots that arguably created a legacy of demonstrations and political activism that survives today. Culturally, this was a time marked by the opening of The City Museum and Art Gallery in 1962 at City Hall with a clear-cut policy to promote and recognise ‘local art’: not Chinese or British/ Western art, but Hong Kong art.1 Since the cacophony of international biennales that exploded in the early 2000s, the meaning of global and local has been widely debated by artists in Hong Kong. This rise of an international art world also marked a moment when the focus on artists moved to the Mainland. Today, attention returns to Hong Kong as we await the openings of M+ and its new collections, the Tai Kwun Centre for Heritage and Arts (in the restored Central Police Station compound) and the Hong Kong Museum of Art (after a HK$930 million renovation). The impact of art fairs, such as Art Basel Hong Kong, also reverberates throughout the art ecology of the region. It seems an opportune moment to look at the representation of women in the visual arts. Indeed, why not

1993 Appointment of Hong Kong’s first female and first Chinese Chief Secretary, Mrs Anson Chan

陳方安生獲 委任為首位 華人女布 政司

1994

New Territories Land (Exemption) Ordinance en is passed permitting wom the in d lan erit inh to New Territories

立法局通過《 新界土地(豁 免)條例》, 使新界女原居 民也可享有土 地物業承繼權

go further, we were asked, and look at people working in all the arts? Results from a survey published in 2015 in the South China Morning Post, Women Playing Second Fiddle in Arts Groups 2 which looked at visual arts, music, theatre and dance, show the marked breakdown of gender right across the sector: on the whole the men get to make the big decisions, while the women ‘man’ the administration. While our research stayed focused on the visual arts, we hope it will raise questions for the producers and influencers who shape the wider arts agenda. We gathered data about the representation of women artists in Hong Kong through the help of many institutions and commercial galleries, and we considered surveys from key exhibitions and events organised by both the public and non-profit sectors. Infographics and a political and historical timeline are included throughout this overview, and a longer paper about women artists in the region will be available through the New Hall Art Collection and Asia Art Archive (AAA). We hope that this body of work continues to stimulate debate and institutional critique as well as charting the contribution of women to art practice, education and public engagement in Hong Kong.

1995 Hong Kong Arts Development Council is officially established

香港藝術發展 局正式成立


尋我 找們 女研 性究 :的 焦 點

我們的研究以人誌學方式進行,觀察香港女性藝術家在過 去數十年的人生經歷,同時配合在2017年搜集的定量數 據。我們舉行小組訪問,企圖以小組交談勾起個別藝術家 的故事及想法。 展開了三組不同年齡組群的對話。每組對 話以一個人的人生經歷為中心:她作為藝術家的志願及掙 扎。她們的經歷可能有相叠,即使沒有,總體而言當這些 對話寫成詳盡的描述 3 披露在香港獨特的社會文化環境下 發展出來的藝術「世界」。 第一組 - 嬰兒潮年代 – 包括蔡仞姿、王禾璧及盧婉雯,她 們出生於 1940 至 1950 年代間。大部分本地嬰兒潮代出 生的人,特別是那些來自工人階級背景的,在戰後香港的

社會政治環境中艱苦成長。當時在香港的藝術教育機會有 限,只有一家藝術學院,這些少女為理想掙扎。她們選擇 到海外留學,在 1970 年代末及 1980 年代初回流香港,跟 其他同期回流人士成為 1980 年代中推動香港當代藝術的 主要動力。 王志恒、林嵐及徐世琪在嬰兒潮後出生 (1960 年代中之 後),是第二組藝術家。她們在香港經濟開始起飛及殖民 地政府開始改善公共服務,改進社會平等下有關語言、婚 姻和勞工法例的環境成長。相對早一代,她們對英殖民地 政府不存在複雜的情結。

1a 空間成

1996

Art Space Founding of the Para Site and Artist Commune

tunities Commission

al Oppor Establishment of the Equ

vention of the Extension of the UN’s Con Discrimination of ms For all of tion Eradica Hong Kong to ) DAW (CE n Against Wome

Para Site 藝術

空間及藝術公社 成立 平等機會委員會 成立 聯合國《消除對 婦女一切形式歧 視公約》(婦女 公約)引入香港

1997 Hong Kong handover from Britain to China; Establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR)

香港主權 由英國 移交至 中國;香 港特別行 政區成立

1998

the Oil Founding of 1a Space: plies Depot Street Government Sup village converted into an artist of Creative Founding of the School sity of ver Uni Media (SCM), City g Kon g Hon

立;北角油 街前政府物 料供應署成 為「油街藝 術村」 香港城市大 學創意媒體 學院成立


FINDING WOMEN: THE FOCUS OF OUR STUDY Our research took the form of an ethnographic study, examining the life experiences of women artists in Hong Kong over the past few decades, alongside quantitative components gathered in 2017. We organised group interviews to prompt individuals to relate their stories and thoughts through conversations among themselves. Three such group-conversations with artists of different generations were conducted. Each conversation centres around the individual’s life story: her aspirations and struggles as an artist. Their experiences may overlap, or otherwise, but collectively these conversations when penned down as ‘thick description’ 3 reveal a glimpse of the development of the art ‘world’ in the specific socio-cultural context of Hong Kong.

2000s Artists, musicians and take creative practitioners ustrial up vacant spaces in ind , areas as studios – Fo Tan i Kwa n, Wa i Cha g, Kwun Ton Fong, and subsequently Wong Chuk Hang

藝術家、音樂人及創 意工作者逐步進駐位 於火炭、觀塘、柴 灣、葵芳、以及黃竹 坑等地空置的工廠大 廈,設立工作室

2000 itage Museum opens

Hong Kong Her

tre (HKAC) nt of Hong Kong Arts Cen The Education Departme (HKAS) ool Sch to the Hong Kong Art was officially upgraded Kong by Eva n Visual Artists in Hong The Free Tribe: 10 Wome owed suit foll e nam e sam ibition of the Man published. An exh ished

Asia Art Archive is establ

The first group – the baby boomers – comprised Choi YanChi, Wong Wo-bik and Yvonne Lo, who were born in the late 1940s and 1950s. Most local baby boomers, especially those from working class origins, were subjected to certain hardships growing up, given the socio-political situation in post-war Hong Kong. With limited art education opportunities in Hong Kong – there was only one art school in the territory back then – these young women struggled to pursue their ambitions. They chose to study overseas, returning to Hong Kong in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Together with other returnees, they were the major force in bringing contemporary art practice to Hong Kong from the mid-1980s. Sara Wong, Jaffa Lam and Angela Su were born in the post baby boom period (after the mid-1960s), and form the second focus group of artists. Growing up at a time when Hong Kong started to prosper economically and the colonial government was seen to bring improvements to public services, and social equality in terms of language, marriage, and labours laws, this generation did not have such a complex relationship with the British colonial administration as the previous generation.

香港文化博物館正 式對外開放 香港藝術中心課程 部升格為藝術學院 文潔華出版《自主 的族群 : 十位香港新 一代女性視覺藝術工 作者》;後舉辦同 名展覽 亞洲藝術文獻庫成立

2001

men’s Commission Establishment of the Wo body for CEDAW ent em orc enf l as the loca Opening of the Cattoe HK ‘Pavilion’

Depot Artist Village

nnale debut at the Venice Bie

港府根據《 婦女公約》 委員建議而 成立婦女事 務委員會 牛棚藝術村 成立 香港於威尼 斯雙年展首 度亮相


最後一組藝術家是何倩彤、高倩彤及頼明珠,她們在 1980 年代中出生,正是香港變成富庶及相當穩定的時 期。但 同時一股政治暗流正在形成,而且因為香港對 1989 年北京暴力鎮壓學生運動的反應及臨近 1997 年英國 向中國移交香港主權而加強。隨着更多藝術學校成立,這 一代藝術家有更多選擇,亦有被藝術社會接納的更多創作 方式。平衡的文化基建及有規模的藝術巿場 在她們畢業時 出現 而創造機遇及挑戰。 我們搜集資料累積的結果並非意想不到。結果告訴我們一 個普遍的現象:博物館偏愛男性藝術家的作品,節目安排 往往忽視女性藝術家的個人展覽,巿場亦不推廣她們的作 品至同等程度。我們只要看看最新的機構M+,16%的館

藏是女性藝術家作品,2.4%是香港女性的作品。令人鼓 舞的是,在 1969 年開辦的香港藝術雙年展,代表女性的 作品在 34 年內,由 20%上升至近 30%。有趣地,這是一 個公開競賽的展覽,並無策展人參與。 再看女性接受藝術教育的數字,香港中文大學的藝術文學 士畢業生有 80% 女性,但相對有名的商業畫廊只有 6.5% 女藝術家代表。4 這是紐約和倫敦的翻版。5 在國際上最受 尊重及以國家或地域展示藝術家作品的威尼斯雙年展,香 港曾參加九次(從 2001 年起),展示過 25 位藝術家,其 中 8 位是女性。6 但從 2009 年起,香港館以展示一位藝術 家為主,給予這一個人重要的國際平台,卻未曾有女藝術 家被選中參展。

1a 空間舉辦《

2003 e Outbreak of SARS (Sever drome) Acute Respiratory Syn million July 1 Rally with half a SAR HK t firs the protesters; eChief Executive Tung Che n dow ps ste hwa

「沙士」(嚴 重急性呼吸系 統綜合症) 爆發 超過五十萬香 港人參與七一 遊行;香港首 任特首董建華 下台

2004 The Women’s Foundation is established

婦女基金會 創立

2005

n/Traveller” and “If Hong Kong, A Woma Approach” exhibition “Schema: A Traveller’s sed by 1a Space and conference organi s, Hong Kong Baptist Academy of Visual Art Visual Arts Degree its es nch lau sity Univer Programme

如果香港,一 個「女/旅」 人》及《圖

式:「女/旅」 人的國度》展 覽及研討會 香港浸會大學 文學院開始啟 動視覺藝術( 榮譽)文學士 學位課程


The last group of artists, Ho Sin-tung, Ko Sin-tung and Elva Lai, were born in the mid-1980s: a time when Hong Kong had become an affluent society with considerable stability. Yet at the same time a political undercurrent prevailed, fed by Hong Kong’s reaction to the violent suppression of the student movements in Beijing in 1989 and the approaching handover of Hong Kong from Britain to China in 1997. With the founding of more art schools, this generation had more educational options, and have developed as artists in an art world with a broader acceptance of art practices. The balanced cultural infrastructure and a substantial art market emerged at the time of their graduation creating both opportunities and challenges. Our findings, as they accumulate, are not surprising. They tell a universal story: museum collections still favour works made by men; programming often lacks solo exhibition support of women; and the market does not promote them to the same degree. We need only reflect on the newest institution, M+, where 16% of the collection is by women, and 2.4% by women from Hong Kong. More encouragingly, if we

2006 Appointment of Dr. r Margaret Chan, forme Hong Kong Director of Health, as the DirectorGeneral of World Health Organisation

香港前衞生 署署長陳 馮富珍博士 出任世界衛 生組織總 幹事

2006-7 The Star Ferry and Queen’s Pier Anti-demolition Movements

保衛天星碼 頭、皇后碼頭 運動

take the Hong Kong Art Biennial that began in 1969 as a case study, the number of women represented went up from 20% to nearly 30% over its 34 year legacy. Interestingly, this is an open call competition-based exhibition, not one shaped by curators. Dipping into the numbers of women going through arts education, we see at The Chinese University of Hong Kong this is as high as 80% for a BA in Fine Art: a figure in stark contrast with the 6.5%of women artists represented by noted commercial galleries.4 It is a picture that is replicated in New York and London.5 At the Venice Biennale, the most internationally significant and politically endorsed display of artists defined by country or region, Hong Kong has participated nine times (since 2001), showing 25 artists, eight of whom were women.6 Since 2009, however, the Hong Kong pavilion has featured a solo artist, giving one person this significant international platform. No woman has yet been selected.

2007 M+ museum for visual s up culture, Hong Kong set

香港視覺文 化博物館 M+ 成立


下 一 步 然而,觀察香港女性藝術工作者不只是為了顯現不平 等現象。亦是表揚香港女性對藝術的貢獻。在我們的 研究中,不少名字經常出現: 方召麐及周綠雲的前瞻 性的風格影響 1960 至 1970 年代的新水墨運動;士磺 女士(Dorothy Swan)在 1962 年創立雅苑畫廊是香 港第一家商業畫廊 。蔡仞姿在1985年在香港藝術中 心開展第一個裝置藝術展覽。女性在創立由藝術家營 運的藝術空間扮演重要角色,Para Site藝術空間七位 創辦人其中四位是女性(張思敏、 梁美萍、文晶瑩及 黃志恒); 1a 空間由蔡仞姿、Irene Ngai、馮美華及 Wendy Chow共同創立, 馮美華與鮑藹倫是錄影太奇 的幕後功臣,在推廣本地錄象創作及新媒體藝術起了 重要作用。這些優秀的女性對香港的藝術社區發展及 推動創新貢獻良多。

2008 Debut of ART HK (Hong el Kong Art Fair) [Art Bas bought ART HK in 2011]

香港國際藝 術展開展

[2011年香 港國際藝術 展被巴塞爾 藝術博覽會 收購]

伊莉莎. 格魯克曼 策展人, 新學堂藝 術收藏庫

香港視覺藝術正處於重大改變的時刻,我們希望這些研究 結果會引發更多對話及討論對於塑造、支持及創建香港藝 壇生態的女性的表揚。

黃小燕 首席研究員

2011

hop, Opening of Spring Works s art ded a privately fun to space, also committed sscro al tion rna an inte artist disciplinary program of s and curatorial residencie

我們更詳盡的研究會在以下更廣泛數據的背景下探討結 果:女藝術家在展覽調查、畫廊代表、藝術教育及藝術行 政的可見程度,並列於我們同輩組別的調查。我們會從一 系列層面進行反思,包括本土意識、「移民思維」,改變 稱呼女性藝術家的方式及藝術家的求生之道。最後,我們 會對結果進行更普遍的反思(跟其他國家比較),顧及「 女性」的分類、女權主義論及藝術家抗衡相對社會平等及 宏觀政治迫切性。

Spring Workshop

揭幕

2012 Asia Official opening of the tre Cen g Kon g Hon Society

Kong Founding of the Hong tion ocia Ass y ller Ga Art

亞洲協會香 港中心正式 對外開放 香港畫廊協 會成立


Yet the idea of looking at women artists in Hong Kong is not just to shine a torch on inequality. It must also be to celebrate the contribution of women to the art scene in Hong Kong. Certain names cropped up time and again during our research: Fang Zhaoling and Irene Chou whose pioneering styles impacted the New Ink movement in the 1960s and 1970s; Dorothy Swan, who started Chatham Gallery, one the first commercial art galleries, in 1962; Choi Yan-chi, who opened the first installation art exhibition at Hong Kong Arts Centre in1985). Women were prominent in setting up the first artists-run spaces: four of the seven founders of Para Site are women (Lisa Cheung, Leung Mee-ping, Phoebe Man Ching-ying, and Sara Wong Chihang); 1a Space was co-founded by Choi Yan-chi, Irene Ngai, May Fung and Wendy Chow; May Fung and Ellen Pau were behind Videotage, the most important local collective promoting video and new media art. These remarkable women, amongst others, developed the support of an artistic community and pioneered new areas of art practice.

NEXT STEPS

Eliza Gluckman CURATOR, NEW HALL ART COLLECTION

Phoebe Wong RESEARCH LEAD

2012-13 “Hong Kong Eye: Contemporary Hong Kong Art” Exhibition at Saatchi Gallery, London g; and ArtisTree, Hong Kon with a survey publication

《Hong Kong Eye 當

代藝術展》先在倫敦 Saatchi Gallery 展

出,翌年移師至香港 太古坊 ArtisTree;並 出版專書

2013 Art Basel in Hong Kong inaugurated

Oil Street Art Space (Oi!) opens

Our fuller research will analyse these findings in the context of broader data which examines the visibility of women artists in exhibition surveys, gallery representation, arts education and arts administration, and alongside the experiences of our peer group artists. We reflect on these from a range of perspectives, including localism, ‘migrant mentality’, shifting terminology when addressing women artists, and survival strategies for artists. Finally, we adopt a more universal reflection on the findings (compared with other countries), taking into consideration the categorising of ‘woman’, feminist discourse, and resistance by artists in the face of relative societal equality and a wider political urgency.

首屆香港巴塞 爾藝術博覽會 「油街實現」 藝術空間啟用

At this time of monumental change for the visual arts in Hong Kong, we hope that these findings enable conversation and debate on the visibility of the many women who shape, support and create the vibrant arts ecology of Hong Kong.

2014 2017 Umbrella Movement

雨傘運動

First woman takes the position of the HKSAR Chief Executive, Mrs Carrie Lam

林鄭月娥是首 位女性獲任命 為香港特區行 政長官


個案研習 博物館藏品:

展覽:

香港藝術雙年展 (1969-2013)

屬於女藝術家 的作品。

的作品來自香港 女藝術家。

0s

29.9

1 98

s

%10s

註:相比有策展人研討的展覽,女性在這個活動展示相對高。 大概是因為香港藝術雙年展是公開競賽活動。

31.1%

收藏庫內 66 個香港藝術家的 作品中,僅僅三分之一屬於 女性藝術家的作品。香港女 性藝術家在整個收藏庫裡只 2.4%。

1

19.8%

20

截至 2017 年 11 月為止,有 關所有收藏品的數據顯示, 只有 16% 是女性創作的。

2.4%

96

s 970 1 9

%2 9 . 00 0 0

16%

20.5 %

整個收藏庫的

這個活動在 1969 年開始,名為香港當代藝術。從 1975 年起是個比 賽形式的活動,至 1979 年才自稱為「雙年展」。最後一屆在 2012 至 13 年舉行,共辦了 19 屆。 在活動展示女性藝術家平均百分比 (每十年計算)

1990s

M+是一家將於2019年開幕的重點公共博物館。M+的國際性收藏品集中 在 20 及 21 世紀藝術作品、設計、建築及視像,地域超越香港。

3

M+


CASE STUDIES MUSEUM COLLECTIONS:

EXHIBITIONS:

M+

Hong Kong Art Biennial (1969-2013)

M+, a major public museum scheduled for completion in 2019. The international collections of M+ focus on 20th and 21st century art, design and architecture and moving image and goes beyond Hong Kong.

The event started in 1969 with the title, Exhibition of Contemporary Hong Kong Art. It was formally structured as a competition-based event from 1975, not calling itself a ‘biennial’ until 1979. With its last edition taking place in 2012-13, the event totalled 19 editions. The average percentage of female artists presented in the events by decade are as follows:

31.1%

%2 9 . 00 0 0

20.5 %

0s

29.9

1 98

s

%10s

Of the 66 works by Hong Kong artists in the Collection, one third are by women. Work by Hong Kong women represents 2.4% of the total Collection.

1

1990s

ARE WOMEN FROM HONG KONG

19.8%

20

As of November 2017, 16% of works in the Collection are by women

2.4%

3

16%

OF THE ENTIRE COLLECTION ARE WOMEN

96

s 970 1 9

Note: There is a higher presence of women artists than in researched curated survey exhibitions. This is probably because Hong Kong Art Biennial was an open call event.


個案研習 威尼斯雙年展

展覽館的

32% 展品由女性 創作。

藝術行政管理

香港藝術行 政人員協會的 會員當中有

62.5% 是女性。

藝術學院畢業生 香港中文大學藝術系 香港中文大學藝術系在 1957 年成立,是香港首間教授工作室實習及 視覺藝術史的大專學院。中文大學藝術系提供 10 年的數據,顯示每 五年畢業生的平均性別分析如下:

藝術文學士課程 2008-2012 2013-2017

76.5% 80%

藝術碩士 香港從 2001 年起參加威尼斯 雙年展。在這段時間,展示 過 25 位藝術家的作品 - 其中 只有 8位是女藝術家。自從 2009 年起,當個人藝術家被 邀請代表香港,再沒有女性 被選中。

香港藝術行政人協會200 位 成員中,62.5%是女性。協 會包涵各種藝術行政工作: 顧問/研究、管理、文化交 流、表演藝術、視覺藝術、 教育、音樂及舞蹈。

2008-2012 2013-2017

68.8% 61.5%

藝術文學碩士 2013-2017

65.9%

雖然有很多女性畢業於香港的藝術課程,但是本地市場仍然由男性佔領。


CASE STUDIES Venice Biennale

32%

OF THE PAVILLION WERE WOMEN

Arts Administration

62.5% OF THE HKAAA ARE WOMEN

STUDENT GRADUATES FROM ART SCHOOLS

Department of Fine Arts, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Founded in 1957, the CUHK’s Department of Fine Arts is the first tertiary institute to offer courses on studio practice and history of visual arts in Hong Kong. With 10 years of data provided by the Department of Fine Arts, CUHK, the average gender analysis of graduates over each 5-year period for different courses is as follows:

BA PROGRAMME IN FINE ARTS

76.5% 80%

2008-2012

Hong Kong has participated in the Venice Biennale since 2001. In this time, 25 artists have been featured – of which only 8 are women. Since 2009, when solo artists were invited to represent Hong Kong, no woman has been featured.

Of the 200 members of the Hong Kong Arts Administrators Association (HKAAA), 62.5% are women. The HKAAA members cover wide categories in terms of art practitioners: Consultant / Research ● Management ● International Cultural ● Performing Arts ● Visual Arts ● Education ● Music ● Dance

2013-2017

MASTER OF FINE ARTS 2008-2012 2013-2017

68.8% 61.5%

MASTER OF ARTS IN FINE ARTS 2013-2017

65.9%

Despite the high number of women graduating from art programmes in Hong Kong, the market is still male dominated.


鳴 謝 我們衷心感謝捐出或借出藝術品的個人及圑體,我們亦感 謝新學堂藝術收藏庫。 還有感謝在研究過程中跟我們分享 她們經歷及故事的藝術家。特別感謝香港顧問圑隊的成員 對我們的提點,還有在過去一年花過時間協助我們、提供 資訊及接待過我們的人士,我們萬分感激。 香港顧問圑隊 唐凱琳,香港蘇富比當代水墨部主管及副總監 Jennifer Caroline Ellis,馬凌畫廊項目及發展主管及 Young Collectors Collective 創辦人 徐文玠,亞洲藝術文獻庫聯合創辦人及行政總監 郭心怡,佳士得美術學院亞洲區總監 官綺雲,香港大學藝術學系副教授 伍詠瑜,《亞太藝術》雜誌編輯兼出版人 Karen Smith,藝術史家、評論人、策展人兼 OCAT 西安 館執行館長 孟淑娟,亞洲協會香港中心行政總監 姚金昌玲,藝倡畫廊總監

感謝 Rosamond Brown, 張頌仁, 程壽康, 蔡仞姿, 朱楚珠, 鍾玉 文, Derek Collins, Özge Ersoy, 方詠甄, 何倩彤, 高倩彤, Jasja Kotterman, 季玉年, 賴明珠, 林嵐, Sir David Li, 盧婉雯, 文晶瑩, 彭綺雲, 鮑藹倫, Anita Phillips, 徐世琪, 黄志恒, 王禾璧 香港大學博物館學會 方召麐基金會 香港女性律師 Herbert Smith Freehills 蘇富比 婦女基金會 香港浸會大學視覺藝術院 香港中文大學藝術系 C&G 藝術單位 香港藝術行政人員協會 香港畫廊協會 香港藝術學院 (香港藝術中心附屬機構) M+ 視覺文化博物館 香港文化博物館 香港大學藝術學系 Georgia King Design 洪婉萌 Langham Press


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are honoured to offer thanks to those who have donated or loaned art works for display at Sotheby’s and to the New Hall Art Collection. We are indebted to the artists who have shared their stories with us and contributed to the research. Special thanks are also extended to the members of the Hong Kong Advisory Group who have provided invaluable guidance for this project, and to those who have given their time, knowledge and hospitality over the past year. Hong Kong Advisory Group Katherine Don, Deputy Director, Head of Department, Contemporary Ink Art, Sotheby’s Hong Kong Jennifer Caroline Ellis, Head of Projects and Development, Edouard Malingue Gallery and founder of the Young Collectors Collective Claire Hsu, Co-Founder and Executive Director of the Asia Art Archive Elaine Kwok, Director, Christie’s Education, Asia, Hong Kong Faculty Dr Yeewan Koon, Associate Professor, Fine Arts Department, Hong Kong University Elaine Ng, Editor and Publisher, Art Asia Pacific Karen Smith, Art Historian, Critic and Curator based in Beijing and Director at OCAT Contemporary Art Museum Xi’an Alice Mong, Executive Director, Asia Society Hong Kong Daphne King Yao, Director, Alisan Fine Arts

Thanks to Rosamond Brown, Chang Tsong-zung, Kevin Ching, Choi Yan-chi, Nancy Chu, Susanna Chung, Derek Collins, Özge Ersoy, Stella Fong, Ho Sin-tung, Ko Sin-tung, Jasja Kotterman, Catherine Kwai, Elva Lai, Jaffa Lam, Sir David Li, Yvonne Lo, Phoebe Man, Tina Pang, Ellen Pau, Anita Phillips, Angela Su, Sara Wong, Wong Wo-bik, The University of Hong Kong Museum Society, Fang Zhoaling Foundation, HK Women in Law, Herbert Smith Freehills, Sotheby’s, The Women’s Foundation, Academy of Visual Arts, Hong Kong Baptist University, Department of Fine Arts, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, C&G Artpartment, Hong Kong Arts Administrators Association (HKAAA), Hong Kong Art Gallery Association (HKAGA), Hong Kong Art School (A division of Hong Kong Arts Centre), M+, Department of Fine Arts, The University of Hong Kong, Georgia King Design, Venus Hung, Langham Press


註 FOOTNOTES 1. 張頌仁及Serenella Ciclitira編著《Hong Kong Eye;

Contemporary Hong Kong Art》 (Paralel Company Arts and Thames and Hudson: 2012) 朱錦鸞著《The Hong Kong Eye: A Legacy Revisited》 第28頁

1. Tsong-Zung Chang and Serenella Ciclitira, eds., Hong Kong Eye; Contemporary Hong Kong Art (Paralel Company Arts and Thames and Hudson: 2012) The Hong Kong Eye: A Legacy Revisited, Christina Chu p.28

2. Women Playing Second Fiddle in Arts Groups 21st 2015年10月 – 《南華早報》

2. Women Playing Second Fiddle in Arts Groups 21st Oct 2015 – South China Morning Post

3. ‘thick description’ 一詞在人誌學文獻為文化人類學 者 Clifford Geertz 採用,他從哲學家Gilbert Ryle借用此 詞。詳見Clifford Geertz, “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture,” in The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 3–30.

3. The notion of ‘thick description’ as a form of ethnographic writing that integrates description with interpretation was popularised by cultural anthropologist Clifford Geertz who adopted the term from philosopher Gilbert Ryle. See: Clifford Geertz, “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture,” in The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 3–30.

4. 全面的畫廊調查結果將於 2018 年 3 月可供參考

4. Fully gallery tally survey results available March 2018

5. Maura Reilly著, What is Curatorial Activism? ARTNews, 17/07/17 http://www.artnews.com/2017/11/07/what-iscuratorial-activism/ and Great East London Art Audit

5. Maura Reilly, What is Curatorial Activism? ARTNews, 17/07/17 http://www.artnews.com/2017/11/07/what-is-curatorial-activism/ and Great East London Art Audit

https://elartaudit.wordpress.com/the-results/ 2012-13 6. 在 2003 年,被選的藝術空間Para/Site Collective

是 六男五女組合

https://elartaudit.wordpress.com/the-results/ 2012-13 6. For the 2003 iteration, the chosen Para/Site Collective were a 6 man and 5 woman team.


MURRAY EDWARDS COLLEGE

ART COLLECTION

NEW HALL


Women In Art: Hong Kong, A4 brochure, 32pp  

An overview of the status and representation of women artists in Hong Kong since the 1960s. A research project with New Hall Art Collection,...

Women In Art: Hong Kong, A4 brochure, 32pp  

An overview of the status and representation of women artists in Hong Kong since the 1960s. A research project with New Hall Art Collection,...

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