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Fooding: Platform for Sharing Food Anhalt University of Applied Sciences Department of Design Dessau 2012 Project by George Shatirishvili


Content

09 / Abstract 12 / Introduction 14 / Research on Food Waste 20 / Collaborative Consumption 24 / Case Studies 31 / Online Platform for Sharing 32 / Fooding 63 / Fooding Logo 72 / Web Icons

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Abstract One third of food produced worldwide is lost or wasted every year. The significant part of it includes post-consumer food waste. Studies show that more food is bought then actually used. The project’s objective is to reduce food waste in domestic spaces by socializing private kitchens. The kitchen becomes a sharing space for friends and neighbors, creating an efficient and healthier environment. Food products become sharable in communities based on concept of collaborative consumption. Indigenous communities have proven for thousands of years that barter is efficient. People buying, selling or borrowing from each other avoiding retailer is a growing phenomenon, which thanks to development of internet technologies is possible on much larger scale then before.

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Advertisement for Ajax, Good housekeeping, featuring kitchen as an open space

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Introduction Food has both social, economic and environmental aspects. Nutrients that it provides are essential for normal life. Contemporary human being, living in a developing or developed country doesn’t need to hunt or cultivate to acquire essential nutrients. Food industry today provides big variety of products from all over the world. Simplifying access to it also results inefficient consumption, resulting wasted food products through reaching use-by-date. Industrialization accelerated pace of life of modern society. There is less time spent on obtaining needed ingredients for cooking and even less time on cooking itself. More then a billion tons of food is wasted annually. Significant part of this type of waste cosists of products, that reached use-by-date. Nearly one third of food purchased by households is wasted. Robert Lilienfeld and William Rathje (authors of Use Less Stuff: Environmental Solutions for Who We Really Are) suggest that consumers must take a lead in reducing negative environmental impact: “the simple truth is that all our major environmental concerns are either caused by or, contribute to, the ever-increasing consumption of goods and services.� Goods are massproduced and easy to obtain. Nowadays it is very normal to find food of different varieties in supermarket not depending on season. This drives consumers to buy more products then needed. Big amount of food is wasted in the fridge, not reaching table. Food in developed industrialized countries had lost its value. Studies show that today average person gives only ten percent of his annual income for food, when just fifty years ago it was forty percent. Significant amount of food is wasted even not reaching consumer at

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all. To be competitive, supermarkets sort out food, which doesn’t not qualify under recognized beauty standards. It is simply more expensive to pay workers sorting single spoiled fruits from the box, then throwing the whole box away. Milk products for instance are sorted out from the shelves of supermarkets even before reaching use-by-date. Milk producers print shorter use-by-dates on packaging to provide more milk and sustain business, while consumers have no information that milk, even after reaching the date of expiry is safe to use. Stephan Grünewald, psychologist argues that: “We do not always buy things that are essential for us, but we buy to use them optionally someday in the future. We want to be prepared for every mood and occasion. That is why we eventually buy more.” Project aims to reduce food waste in by socializing private kitchen, not by radically transforming it, but by finding integral solution in current environment.

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Research on Food Waste Significant amount of food is wasted even not reaching consumer at all. To be competitive, supermarkets sort out food, which doesn’t not qualify under recognized beauty standards. It is simply more expensive to pay workers sorting single spoiled fruits from the box, then throwing the whole box away. Milk products for instance are sorted out from the shelves of supermarkets even before reaching use-by-date. Milk producers print shorter use-by-dates on packaging to provide more milk and sustain business, while consumers have no information that milk, even after reaching the date of expiry is safe to use. Another interesting case is bread. No other product is wasted in such big amount. Studies show that almost ten to twenty percent of bread is thrown away in Germany during production process. Annually 500000 tons of it is wasted. It would be possible to supply the whole Niedersachsen(one of German states) during the whole year with this amount. Not only food, but also other resources are wasted on producing goods aimed to be wasted in the future. One fourth of all water consumed globally is wasted for this reason. This and many other cases can be discussed analyzing contemporary food industry. It is true, that it’s impossible to minimize waste totally, but is quite possible to waste fifty percent less. Food in developed industrialized countries had lost its value. Studies show that today average person gives only ten percent of his annual income for food, when just fifty years ago it was forty percent. There are two types of food waste in general: Pre-Consumer (supply chain food waste) and Post-Consumer (household food waste).

On the opposite page: Freegans and dumpster divers, choosing limited participation in conventional economy as a protest against consumerist society. Searchin for abandoned food in dump. Photo: RenĂŠ Clement

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Household food waste: Post consumer food waste is a waste produced by households and disposed of through the municipal waste collection system. This form of waste is distinct from supply chain food waste, which is mainly produced by groceries, food manufacturers, retailers and foodservice companies and is disposed as a commercial or industrial waste. There are mainly two types of household waste: - The largely inedible waste from food preparation activities. - Edible waste consists mainly from products reaching use-by-date and so called plate waste. The amount of this type of food waste reaches almost one third of food purchased in general in developed and some developing countries. The casts of this type of waste is significant without even including the casts of disposing it. Significant amount of food is going to the ordinary dustbins against other disposal methods. There are numbers of reasons for high amount of this waste going to landfill and the environmental effects of it are large. Food decays produce greenhouse gas methane. Also the casts for transportation of most of foods in carbon equivalent terms and in addition energy used to manufacture food products is significant. Felicitas Schneider, waste researcher argues that: “many households throw things away, before product reaches use-by-date, because they say, they don’t need it anymore. And if they do need it, they buy it new.”

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Supply chain food waste: As opposed to the food waste generated by households supply chain food waste is produced during the production, processing and distribution of food to the consumer and is disposed in a commercial waste stream. There are many reasons to be found for this type of waste and number of them is avoidable. There is unavoidable food waste, for instance inedible parts of raw food that can not be processed as by-products or co-products. But it is very scandalous to find that products even before reaching use-bydate are thrown away by supermarkets, though the financial benefits of food waste minimization can be large. The Fareshare study estimated that redistributing rejected food towards charities for disadvantaged is profitable from reduction in disposal casts and and increased spending of the charitable organizations. Good example for this is Social Market in Austria, an initiative for people with low income offering products of daily use, that are near to reach the use-by-date or are rejected by market due defected packaging, but is still acceptable for consumption. According to philosophy of Social Market, they sell products of wide range for symbolic price. First market was opened in Linz in september 1999 and had great success from the beginning.

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The Limits to Growth The Limits to Growth is a book based on prediction of Thomas Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population. It was published in 1972. Book models economic and population growth with finite resource supplies. its authors are Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, and William W. Behrens III.

On the opposite page: Projection of development of the world’s population, resources, industrial output and food. Source: Food for the City, NAi Publishers, Stroom Den Haag

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Population 1900

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Collaborative Consumption Collaborative consumption is an emerging economic trend producing new type of consumers based on idea of sharing information, knowledge, goods, services, etc... Like the nature of recycling and the concept of cradle to cradle, collaborative consumption looks at the advent of social sharing networks, commonly known as peer to peer (P2P) networks. People buying, selling or borrowing from each other avoiding retailer is a growing phenomenon, which thanks to development of internet technologies is possible on much larger scale then before. Internet allows to connect billions of its’ users across vastly different locations all around. This type of consumption creates efficient environment through sharing. TIME names collaborative consumption as one of the “ten ideas that will change the world�.

On the opposite page: Chart from collaborativeconsumption.com

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Producing Consumers With Emergence of Digital Networks In the era before industrial revolution the majority of women worked alongside their husbands and children on subsistence farms, doing the hard work necessary for the family to survive: spinning whole and flax and making clothes, grinding grain into flower and making bread, cooking in iron pot over an open fire, making soap and candles, tending kitchen gardens, rising animals. This round activities contributed to their families’ food, clothing and shelter, and perhaps produced some surplus to barter with neighbors. With the beginning of the industrialization, women began to be involved in national economies as both consumer of manufactured goods and a wage worker. They started to purchase textile, soap, candles and canned foods. Women married and single started to earn wages, in textile mills, commercial laundries, and shops as well as their traditional occupations, domestic services. Because domestic space was as much an economic and social product as public, urban space, the farmhouse, with its workspaces, gave way to urban and suburban dwellings with less space and more areas devoted to consumption and display of the manufactured goods (source: The Grand Domestic Revolution; Dolores Hayden). The electronic revolution, especially the emergence of digital networks creates a platform for sharing, or a form of barter for instance, which was a common phenomenon existing in preindustrial era. As Marshal McLuhan puts it: “The new electronic revolution recreates the world in the image of global village.” In The Third Wave, Alvin Toffler predicted the emergence of a producing consumer, a prosumer, out of the translation from the Industrial to the Information Revolution. Advances in technology have indeed given capability to the consumer. McLuhan said that photocopier makes everyone a publisher. Now, with digital video editing software, everyone’s a filmmaker; with flash everyone’s an animator; and with

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eBay, everyone’s both buyer and seller. The information age has also reintroduced nonmoney exchange to where the markets were already flourishing. Indigenous communities have proven for thousands of years that barter is efficient. Governments commonly barter: India makes exchange agreements with China and Russia for power plants, heavy machinery, oil and trucks. Corporations barter to for a trillions of dollars’ worth of services: bandwidth, airline seats, hotel rooms. Along this same electronic circuits, citizens of all nations are making nonmoney exchange agreements towards a unified social economy; worldwide civic society is rising up through the crack of corporate globalization (Source: Mas- sive Change, Bruce Mau and the institute without boundaries). Ten or Twenty years ago it would be hard to imagine, that you could buy a product via internet from a complete stranger and hope that the ordered product would actually arrive.

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Case Studies Social Market in Austria (SOMA) Social market is an initiative for people with low income offering products of daily use, that are near to reach the use-by-date or are rejected by market due defected packaging, but is still acceptable for consumption. According to philosophy of Social Market, they sell products of wide range for symbolic price. First market was opened in Linz in september 1999 and had great success from the beginning. Teller statt Tonne Almost forty percent of food is not consumed. Every second potato will be sorted out, every fifth bread won’t be consumed and will be wasted. Everything that doesn’t correspond the beauty ideals ends up in the waste bin. Only in Germany this type of waste represents 15 Million tons of food. Regarding this issue Slow Food Germany developed a project “Teller statt Tonne”, which deals with unnecessary waste in food sector due to standardized sizes and shapes of fruits and vegetables. Together with local partners Slow Food Germany used this waste food and cooked meal for 1000 people out of it. EcoChallenge EcoChallenge is an App, helping its’ user to achieve sustainability in their daily life. It helps to rise awareness by providing information in a graphical way and gives helpful tips for changing habits to become more eco friendly: “every week we add new topic related to sustainability to maintain the users interest. You’ll discover that small changes make big differences. Topics such as Local produce energy or energy efficient lightning help provide small, but effective solutions.” Application also integrates calculator helping to monitor personal footprint and comparing it to national average.

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“At the heart of EcoChallenge are, of course, the challenges that can easily be integrated into daily lives. Every week each topic reviles two assignments that the user attempts to complete using everything they have learned from the topic. Comparing results with your friends on Fa- cebook isn’t just fun, but it also wakes competitive spirit.” Interesting is that EcoChallenge applications is integrated in social networks and enables to challenge your friends. Safe Food from the Refrigerator: rethinking Food Storage It is not well known that apples prevent potatoes from spouting or that aborigine and zucchini are biologically fruits and therefor should be treated like fruits. Dutch designer Jihyun Ryou tries to bring that kind of knowledge back to everyday life, calling it “shaping traditional oral knowledge”. She suggests that we shouldn’t hand over the responsibility for our food to the refrigerator but instead reestablish traditional and more natural way of preserving food: “Observing the food and therefore changing the notion of food preservation, we could find answers to current situation such as overuse of energy and food wastage. My design is a tool to implement that knowledge in a tangible way and slowly it changes the bigger picture of society. I believe that once people are given a tool that triggers their minds and requires a mental effort to use it, new traditions and new rituals can be introduced to our culture.”

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Case Study: TimeBank On the website of TimeBank, Time Banking is described as a tool by which a group of people can create alternative economic model, where they exchange their time and skills, rather than acquire goods and services through the use of money or any order state based value. “TimeBank at e-flux is modeled on existing time banks. Every TimeBank transaction will allow individuals to request, offer, and pay for services in “Hour Notes.” When a task is performed, the credit hours earned may be saved and used at a later date, given to another person, or contributed towards developing larger communal projects. For example, if you happen to be in Beijing or Hamburg and need someone to help you shop for materials or translate a press release, you would be able to draw on resources from Time/Bank without exchanging any money.” “Through Time/Bank, we hope to create an immaterial currency and a parallel micro-economy for the cultural community, one that is not geographically bound, and that will create a sense of worth for many of the exchanges that already take place within our field—particularly those that do not produce commodities and often escape the structures that validate only certain forms of exchange as significant or profitable (foreword from Julieta Aranda and Anton Vidokle).” TimeBank is an interesting example of collaboration between individuals and is based on trust. One of the initiatives of TimeBank is TimeFood, that function both as a visualization of the parallel economy and its practical deployment. One of the “unofficial” restaurant in Berlin is offering lunch in exchange of time credits and time currency, that you can earn through TimeBank Community.

On the opposite page: Time currency from TmeBank

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Case Study: Share Your Food Share Your Food is a food event by Camila Soares, Tainá Guedes and Thomas Meyer (I found out about project through TimeBank, where Tainá was searching for an assistant in the kitchen). Event is a good opportunity for tasting good food, meeting people and sharing ideas. “We believe that by sharing our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with others, we can make this world a better place. To “share” is a mottainai concept. To recycle, to re-use, and to reduce is an attitude of gratitude andrespect for others and for our environment. Every manifestation arising from this concept is always welcome. share with us what you think can influence our life in a positive way.” One of the recent events topic was bread. Aim was to awake consciousness about how valuable is bread Through artistic performance.

On the opposite page: Tainá Guedes, one of the founders of Share Your Food

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Online Platform For Sharing Idea is to create online platform for sharing food between individuals, which is based on trust. It aims to reduce waste and create more efficient environment. The kitchen becomes a sharing space for friends and neighbors, creating healthier environment. “We do not always buy things that are essential for us, but we buy to use them optionally someday in the future. We want to be prepared for every mood and occasion. That is why we eventually buy more (Stephan Grünewald, psychologist).” This type of behavior is one of the main reasons for waste and is a product of consumerist society. On the other hand Collaborative consumption is an emerging economic trend producing new type of consumers based on idea of sharing information, knowledge, goods, services, etc... Enhancing the concept of sharing in relation with food can create more efficient environment and therefore reduce food waste: surplus food may be shared instead of being wasted. “Community may be opposite of Consumers. Consumers get everything mass-produced for them as individual entities, while communities take action and make more conscious chooses. Groups tend to emancipate more easily then individuals and the internet is powerful catalyzer. Since the rise of that network, number of communities has exploded, for better or worse. Commercialization of online communities is mirrored by revival of offline communities. cooking together may form an important kind of collective agency(Source: Open Design Now, Bas van Abel, Lucas Evers, Roel Klaassen, Peter Troxler).” As in case of TimeBaink, which is using time as the medium of exchange, making connections between people and rebuilding a sense of trust.

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Fooding Service integrates between web and mobile devices. First People to use the platform are usually visitors and tourists. Target group is open to new technologies and like meeting people. Service is based on time and location. A visitor is able to get information about host willing to share food depending on his current location. Iconography and visual language enables fast and easy readability of a post. It gives relevant information about the food and aims to reduce steps for application for sharing event.

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FOODER: PERSON LOOKING FOR FOOD

MOBILE AND WEB DEVICES FOODING: PLATFORM FOR SHARING FOOD

PERSON OFFERING FOOD TO SHARE

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Posting Posting is simple and fast, so that anyone can optionally upload picture of the cooked meal. It is also possible to post without adding a picture.

On the opposite and next two pages: Posts on Facebook

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Target Group Target group is open to new technologies and like meeting people. They use social networks and like to share their personal information, pictures, music, etc‌ They like to eat healthy, but not always have time to cook.

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Rating Option It is possible to rate people, what makes easier to choose between different offers. Rating provides more information about the profile and helps to avoid meeting people with not very good reputation (see picture on opposite page).

On the opposite page: Angels of Revenge, Photo: Christian Jankowski

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VEGERETIAN

POSTS

MEAT

NUTS/GRAINS FOOD TYPES EGGS/DAIRY

FISH/SEAFOOD LOCATION ADITIONAL MENU EDIT SETTINGS HOME PAGE TIME/DATE ACCOUNT LOG IN

REGISTER

PAGE LAYOUT

MAP

LIST

FACEBOOK LINK

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APPLY TO OFFER

SEE PROFILE POSTS

COSTUMIZE/POST AN OFFER

EDIT PROFILE PROFILE

LOG OUT

PERSONAL INFO.

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Blanch Website uses font “Blanch� for Headlines. Font is from a graphic communication studio Atipus, created in Barcelona in 1998. It uses simple geometric shapes. On resolution 72 pixels per square font has a digital look.

On the opposite page: Blanch, Atipus

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Fooding Logo The name of a logo originates from the name of a movement(art of cooking antedating) invented in 1999 by the French journalists Alexandre Cammas and Emmanuel Rubin in France. Two “o�-s in the word food form a tomato devided into two parts to underline concept of sharing. Font used is Helvetica Rounded, which is adaptable and readable on various backgrounds and small sizes. Rounded shape gives friendly appearance.

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Helvetica Rounded is a version containing rounded stroke terminators

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Food Icons Food can be any substance normally drunk or eaten by a living organisms. Term food also includes liquid drinks. It is a main source of energy and has plant or animal origins. Icons visualize five types of food: fruits and vegetables, eggs and dairy, fish and seafood, grains and nuts and meat. This division is used to easily filter food types on Fooding platform according to the taste of the user. They are illustrative and easy to understand. Categorization helps to identify content of the meal for avoiding allergic reactions, or informs if it contains meat to the user with plantbased diet.

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Bibliographical Note 1. Dolores Hayden, The Grand Domestic Revolution: A History of Feminist Designs for American Homes, Neighborhoods and Cities, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England. 2. Stefan Kreutzberger / Valentin Thurn, Die Essenvernichter, Warum die Hälfte aller Lebens mittel im Müll landet, 2011, Verlag Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Köln. 3. Theodor W. Hänsch (Hg.), 100 Produkte der Zukunft, Wegweisende Ideen, die unser Leben verändern werden, Ulstern Buchverlage GmbH, Berlin 2007. 4. Create: Eating, Design and Future Food, The Future Laboratory, published by Gestalten, Berlin 2008. 5. Michael Braungart, William McDonough (Hg.), Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things, North Point Press, 19 Union Square West, New York 2002. 6. Michael Braungart, William McDonough (Hg.), Die Nächste Industrielle Revolution, die Cradle to Cradle-Community, EVA/Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg 2008. 7. Eike Wenzel/ Anja Kirig/ Christian Rauch, Greenomics: Wie der grüne Lifestyle Märkte und Konsumenten verändert, Redline Wirtschaft, FinanzBuch Verlag GmbH, München 2008. 8. Bruce Mau and the Institute without Boundaries, Massive Change, Phaidon Press Limited.

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10. IGD: Food and Grocery experts. 11. NSW Food Authority, Food Labels. 12.Simon Zadek, Sanjiv Lingayah and Maya Forstater, Social Labels: Tools for Ethical Trade, New Economics Foundation for the European Commision 1998. 13. Open Design Now, BIS Publishers, Amsterdam. 14. Food for the City, NAi Publishers, Stroom Den Haag.

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Fooding