GEORGEPARFITT BACHELOR OF ARTS IN ARCHITECTURE NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY 2016
Infinitely grateful to all whom helped throughout the duration of the undergraduate degree.
LETTER FROM THE
DESIGNER AMBITION PERSISTENCE followed by
I have always found writing about myself within the learning summary section of the portfolio a slightly ‘cheesy’ process and have therefore focused on the theme of ambition and persistence to explain my experience of studying the undergraduate degree in architecture at Newcastle University. To quote the polymath Bill Bradley, “Ambition is the path to success. Persistence is the vehicle you arrive in.” Ambition is a trait I have always found to come naturally however the past three years of studying this degree has taught me the importance of seeing through my ideas regardless of the problems experienced along the way. The past three years have undeniably been both mentally and physically exhausting yet at the same time has taught me many invaluable lessons in terms of both work ethic and a more sophisticated approach to design. The depth of thinking required within both the dissertation and graduation project has allowed me to push myself far beyond original comfort zone boundaries. Writing and researching the dissertation helped me to consume a lot of knowledge on a relatively precise subject over a short space of time. The process was extremely enjoyable and helped to develop my research abilities, which I later implemented to help with formulating the brief for the graduation project. I was perhaps slightly too ambitious in my approach to the graduation project without fully understanding the format of how the year and projects are run. Despite being allowed to design a building far beyond the year’s guidelines by providing the justification of using standardization to multiply a small element of the building throughout (based on the ideas of Herman Hertzberger), the building was still 20 times larger than recommended. As I entered third year with high grades and high ambitions I was more than willing to take on this challenge. However within
the confusion of the chaos of attempting to design such a large building, I resulted back to old methods of designing form and then attempting to make the function fit within. It wasn’t until 3-4 weeks until the final crit I began to realize the mistakes I was making and decided it would be best to redesign everything again, but in the correct and more logical way, which made the process a lot easier. This did however result in a major time constraint as the final crit closed in. I used my time management skills I had built up over the three years of the degree to work quickly and efficiently whilst trying to listen to as much feedback as possible from the studio tutors. Unfortunately I did not find the time to show the full potential of both my knowledge and design ability however I do hope that what I have shown can be used to gain a very clear insight. My intentions of becoming an architect are still very strong despite the challenges of this degree. I would have never expected to progress like I have and I am therefore very proud looking back over these past three years.
CONTENTS OF THE
PORTFOLIO T H I S P O RT F O L I O I S S P L I T I N TO T H E F O U R K E Y S E C T I O N S T H AT M A K E U P T H E U N D E R G R A D UAT E D E G R E E
P R E L I M I N A RY P RO J E CT
G R A D UAT I O N P RO J E CT
116 SECOND YEAR S U M M A RY
128 D I S S E R TAT I O N S U M M A RY
Preliminary project Dismantle / Contraption
The preliminary project involved studying a series of rituals prior to building a contraption that celebrated these rituals. A ritual - according to the studio outline - is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words and objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to set sequence.
Switch OFF! Contraption 7
1930 - Dictograph
The dismantled object is called a Dictograph, which is a closed circuit telephone used during the Second World War to prevent spying on businesses. The object is assembled from 253 unique pieces, which are made primarily from either wood or metal. The object was made in England during the 1930â€™s. Post dismantling, the object has been displayed in a plywood and polycarbonate box. The exploded arrangement shows the smallest components leading into the largest whereas the display box is indicative of the object being the equivalent to a museum piece. The QR code provides a direct link to a video, which demonstrates the dismantling process.
Dismantle Process Images The images show snapshots of the chosen object being dismantled; a process undertaken during the first week of the â€˜primerâ€™ design project. The central image captures the name and branding of the object, whereas the images that surround reveal the dismantling procedure in a clockwise motion.
W. Heath Robinson
â€œI really have a secret satisfaction in being considered rather madâ€? W. Heath Robinson
â€œYour absurd, beautiful drawings... give me a peculiar pleasure of the mind like nothing else in the world.â€?H.G. Wells in a letter to Heath Robinson in 1914
William Heath Robinson (previous page) was an English cartoonist known for his witty yet whimsical illustrations of various inventions. The diagram on the left hand page, represented in the style of a cartoon, was drawn to show my frustrations with those who leave the lights on at night. The cartoon begins by showing the light leaking below the crack of the door. This keeps me awake as I begin to consider the environmental consequences. In my frustration I get up and go turn off all of the lights within the communal areas of the house. The graphical style follows that of a circuit board, which formed the original axonometric diagram (above).
Switch off, to switch off
By George ParFItt
SWITCH OFF To Switch off
switching off all the communal lights before going to bed.
Contraption instruction TR
Guilt Device The story of the
Moving Shadow By George ParfItt
The Diagram a contraption that reveals the consequences of leaving the lights on.
TR Contraption Construction
Top | Contraption as a whole. Bottom Left | Dove-tale Joint. Bottom Right |Contraption in place
The fabrication drawing on the left shows the plan, section elevation and isometric view of the contraption. The drawings lack measurements for the reason of not wanting to spoil the their representation. However the contraption measures 1200 x 400mm.
Contraption Component TR
Top Left | Steel wire guide detail. Bottom Left | Roller guide detail. Top Right | Spring detail. Bottom Right | Sprocket detail.
The diagram on the left shows an exploded view of the contraption, which is constructed from timber, acrylic, metal and cardboard.
Contraption Detail TR
Top Left | Perspective view of a fin. Bottom Left | Birds-eye view of the sprockets. Top Right | Birds-eye view of the fin detail. Bottom Right | Perspective view of the spindle
Shadow Fin Detail The shadow fin detail is used to block the light, which creates the moving shadow. A series of these are located in a â€˜zig zaggingâ€™ line at a calculated distance. The further the distance from the light, the larger the fins needed to be. The fins function similar to a spindle. The timber and acrylic layers hold it in place.
London is rapidly increasing in urban density. To sustainably facilitate this, a reduction in both travel time in and out of the city and the urban heat island effect is needed. This is achieved by reducing the amount of vehicles on a road. To reduce the amount of vehicles on the road, I am proposing the use of drones to deliver parcels into and out of London with the key port is stationed at Brentford. The droneport will utilise and connect all three infrastructures that run through Brentford (Rail, River and Road) creating a port that will function similarly to the original port (Brentford Dock) did. Similarly to the way the original dock attracted business and an economy to Brentford, the proposed â€˜transDRONEmentâ€™ port will do the same. An understanding of this logic allows the Droneport to be designed in a way to facilitate the growth the town originally experienced.
Brentford Droneport Graduation Project
1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051 2061 2071 2081 2091 2101
Historical population growth Predicted Population growth Based on Eurostat statistical data.
The effects of population growth on Britain’s existing infrastructure
he year 2006 marked the moment more than half of the world’s population would live in cities. Based on current trends, the world’s population will reach 9 billion by 2040. According to Office for National Statistics, the population of the UK has grown by over 10 million people since 1964 with approximately half of this growth having taken place within the current millennium. It is predicted the population will continue to rise by just fewer than 5 million within the next decade and 10 million by 2030. London itself is predicted to gain ‘megacity’ status – a city that has a population of above 10 million – by 2029. This will greatly intensify the pressure on existing infrastructure.
5 6 1
5 6 1
5 6 1 4
DEPARTMENTAL CA 2 2
DEPARTMENTAL CAPITAL BUDGETS 2015 - 2016 SECTOR EDUCATION NHS [HEALTH] TRANSPORTATION DEFENCE WORK + PENSIONS SPENDING COMMITMENTS
DEPARTMENTAL CAPITAL BUDGETS 2015 - 2016
SECTOR EDUCATION NHS 3 [HEALTH] TRANSPORTATION DEFENCE WORK + PENSIONS SPENDING COMMITMENTS
BUDGET 4.6 BILLION 4.7 BILLION 9.5 BILLION 8.7 BILLION 0.2 BILLION 0.4 BILLION
BUDGET 4.6 BILLION 4.7 BILLION 9.5 BILLION 8.7 BILLION Data extracted from ‘Office for National Statistics’ to generate the Table. 0.2 BILLION 0.4 BILLION
Too reliant on existing infrastructure
he road network is fundamental to the UK economy” (Investing in Infrastructure, 2013, p13). Transportation infrastructure consumes £9.7 BILLION (per year); the biggest portion of the government’s annual budget. The government’s solution to high traffic and congestion levels is to provide an additional lane to most motorways (the equivalent of 221 lanes miles @ £10m per mile) and open up the hard shoulder. This is not only a dangerous and vary costly solution (211 miles x £10million = £2.1 billion) but does nothing to reduce carbon emissions. By removing the country’s reliance on road infrastructure, more money can be invested into more worthy causes such as education or healthcare.
SECTOR EDUCATION NHS [HEALTH] TRANSPORTATIO DEFENCE WORK + PENSION SPENDING COMM
INTRODUCING BRITAIN’S PIONEERING HISTORY
eorge Osbourn explains in ‘Investing in Infrastructure’ (2013) “Britain [has]... for centuries been a pioneer in infrastructure. We invented the steam engine and the first Underground system, we were the first to split the atom, built the world’s first jet engine and invented the world wide web.”
Osbourn continues to explain “in recent decades, we have let this proud record slip. It’s been the result of a collective national mindset that has privileged the short term over the long term, and has postponed difficult decisions. Our roads are congested, which costs the economy billions every year, and trains are still overcrowded with hundreds of thousands standing on their commute each day.”
Dr Kyriakos Porfyrakis - Developer of Ethohedral Fullerene.
The drones use GPS to navigate there way to and from the chosen destination.
Range > 85 Miles Payload > 75KG Speed > 60 Miles per hour Endurance > 4 hours
Advancements in unmanned aerial vehicle technology
r Kyriakos Porfyrakis, an Oxford University post-Doctoral Research Fellow has been developing a carbon molecule - Ethohedral Fullerene - to be costeffectively manufactured in commercial quantities. The technology, referred to as one of the emerging ‘miracle materials’ has many applications, from use in atomic clocks, biomedical equipment or solar panels. More importantly, the technology can be used to increase the accuracy of driver-less vehicles from metres to millimetres, therefore providing the potential for their use in the future. thohedral Fullerene can be used in Drones to increase accuracy and allow them in the future to be used commercially for delivering parcels. Doing so will reduce the UK’s reliance of roads as the ports will be linked to existing rail infrastructure networks. This eliminates the need to spend £2.1 billion on road infrastructure (allowing it to be pumped into education and health care), will increase the safety of those using the road and will reduce carbon emissions. NASA is in the process of building automated traffic control for drones below 400ft. They are doing so as the industry is expected to be worth over $80 billion and provide over 100,000 jobs by 2025.
The proposed building is a Droneport, a new port typology translated into a building. Products and materials are sent to this building via one of the key three infrastructures - Rail, River or Road - from larger warehouses in provincial locations prior to being broken down and sent into London via drone. The translation of the port into a building is based on the theory that as Brentfordâ€™s historical port (Brentford Dock) attracted trade to the town, the Droneport will likewise do the same. However instead of waiting for businesses to randomly spring up around the port similarly to how the warehouses sprang up in random locations around the dock - the building will instead integrate this capability by providing a framework for a growing supply of business incubator space, which is located above it. The buildings programme therefore consists of the following elements: + Warehouse Space (Breaking down, sorting and storing parcels/ materials) + Business Incubator Space (Processing of materials into goods) + Public Exhibition / Learning space (Space used by the businesses to exhibit new products to the general public)
droneair to london outbound goods
PRODUCTS / Recyclable material waste
The project recognises the implications caused by population growth on London’s existing Infrastructure. The previous page explained the UK’s reliance on the road network is causing a majority of the annual budget to be invested into transportation resulting in underfunded education and health care sectors. Britain has a very strong history of innovation however after recognising the stated problems the chancellor has now put out a request for a continuation of this innovative thinking to reduce the reliance on London’s road network. The Droneport project answers this request by combining the capabilities of Ethohedral Fullerene (the ability to increase the accuracy of GPS systems to millimetres as opposed to metres) with Drones to deliver London’s parcels using its airspace. This project will lower the need of London’s roads for freight and will be combined with major infrastructure projects such as HS2, which will reduce the amount of commuters using the roads. The result of doing so will remove congestion, thus reducing travel times for those that have no option but to use it (and the time it takes to have a parcel delivered) and lower the Urban Heat Island effect as a result. A reduction in the Urban Heat Island effect is a necessity for London to facilitate its growing population density. The programme understands the need for London’s population density to expand and is therefore an integration within the Droneport’s design.
Brentford Droneport is the first of six proposed ports to be positioned in towns on Londonâ€™s urban fringe. Incoming materials using one of the three infrastructures are represented by the blue lines whereas outgoing materials using the drones are represented by the red lines.
Top Left | Boats being moored approximately a 5 minute walk from the site on the river Brent. Bottom Left | One of the only other industrial factories to remain in Brentford. Top Right | The new housing development less than a 5 minute walk from the site. Bottom Right | The train line that runs parallel to the site.
Location Characteristic Brentford
Top Left | The two industrial factories the proposal looks to regenerate. Bottom Left | A closer look at the rusticated and corrugated steel cladding on one of the factories. Top Right | Looking towards both the site (left) and new residential development at Brentford Lock West. Bottom Right | Looking the other way towards the development at Brentford Lock West with the site on the right.
Area Characteristic Brentford lock West
Top Left | The exposed remains of two structures the proposal intends to regenerate. Bottom Left | The condition of the structures cladding. Top Right | A plane flying over the site to nearby Heathrow. Bottom Right | Steel frame structures on the site.
Site Characteristic Commerce road
Historical distribution dock
brentford post office
Existing train station
PROPOSED t + B hub
royal mail brentford
Infrastructure to site arrival point
... Is surrounded by key infrastructure.
Existing Traffic Congestion
Proposed Traffic congestion Brentford has the largest number of ‘pinch points’ out of all of London’s roads. Pinch points are where traffic builds up as a result of entering a popular area (London) or as a result of narrowing roads. The cost to remove these would be millions if not billions and therefore the Droneport’s construction is justifiable as its functionality will reduce the need for money to be spent in this way. Over the next 20 years, it is predicted the droneport will begin to slowly reduce the effects of over congestion.
SOURCE: All statistical data displayed on this page has been taken from ‘Transport for London - Technical Note 10.’
BRENTFORD TO LONDON
ONE OF THE BUSIEST ROADS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM Data extracted from ‘TFL - Technical Note 10’ to generate the Table.
20 20 18 18 16
No. ofNo. PINCH of PINCH POINTS POINTS
16 14 14 12 12 10 10 08 08 06 06 04 04 02 02 00
A4 [brentford] listed as London’s busiest motorway
London’s Pinch Points
Motorway Corridor Motorway Corridor
Data extracted from ‘TFL - Technical Note 10’ to generate the left graph. The right graph is the proposed congestion reversal achieved by constructing the Droneport.
Highway Highway Capacity Capacity (%) (%)
110 100 100 90 90 80 80
Outer London Outer London
Inner London Inner London
Central London Central London
Reversing congestion effects
Inner city London Westminster
Travel Time : Distance Ratio Map Westminster was used as a destination point to show the differing time it would take to deliver a parcel from one of London’s ‘gateways’ to its centre during rush hour using the existing infrastructure or the proposed Droneport. The Drones will follow the path of the Thames before dispatching at a 90 degree angle to the required destination. This is done to safeguard both the privacy and safety of people below. DroneAir reduces the amount of traffic on the road, which lowers carbon emissions and saves time. People can commute and have parcels delivered faster.
Reducing travel time
London: A Commuting city?
The above graphic was extracted from â€˜London - The Information Capitalâ€™, a book from the studio reading list.
A huge percentage of people and goods entering London commute from neighbouring towns and cities. 50% of people commuting use public transport however lorries are still required for a majority of the freight entering the capital. London experiences much higher commuting times than the rest of the UK. The droneport will reduce the amount of lorries on the road, therefore lowering comute times as a result.
The Droneport travel time was calculated based on a 60mph drone traveling 10 miles. The road and rail travel times were based on data taken from Google maps (from Brentford to Westminster). The river travel time was calculated using the Thames speed limit combined with the distance.
Mode of transportation
Existing UHI Effect
Proposed Uhi effect
The image to the left reveals the consequences of the urban heat island effect in London, predominately caused by traffic entering and leaving the capital. The drones at Brentford drone port utilise solar power technology, which reduces air pollutants, Co2 emissions and lowers the air temperature. This is a key requirement of both the London Plan and Hounslowâ€™s local plan.
Reducing the urban heat island effect
The urban heat island effect - Brentford | London comparison The UHI effect causes urban areas to warm up in comparison to neighbouring rural areas. Contributing factors to the UHI effect includes building (services), lack of vegetation, a high volume of porous services, transportation and so on. According the UK’s climate change risk assessment (DEFRA, 2012), “populations, infrastructure, and ecology of built environments are potentially vulnerable to climate change.” The report continues to explain “the nature of the land surface is a key factor influencing the sensitivity of near-surface climates to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.”
6 5 4 3 2 1
Westminster [inner London]
Heathrow Brentford is between the two
The graph above shows a comparison of temperature values at Kew, Heathrow and Inner City London (westminster). Brentford, which is located roughly between Kew and Heathrow Airport (closest data found), is not within central London and has a reduced urban density. Therefore logically the town should have a much lower UHI Intensity as a consequence. This is the case throughout the majority of the day, however at peak commuting times [17:00] the UHI effect is shown to rapidly increase and surpass that of greater London. more cars
More Greenhouse gas emmisions
more Road Infrastructure
Increased UHI EFFECT
More Porous Surfaces
An increase in cars on the road (as a result of population growth) increases the urban heat island effect as a result of the CO2 emissions they produce. In addition, even if cars are designed to be more environmentally efficient in the future, it does not remove the problem of increased road infrastructure to support them. Increased road infrastructure increases the UHI effect by reducing city cooling via evapotranspiration. The proposal of using drones reduces the need for road infrastructure, lowering the UHI effect as a result.
Historical Image of the Site
[Proposed used similar to historical use] Brentford, a Historic Transport, Distribution & Trading Town
Historical Image of brentford dock
Historical Image of M4 motorway [Running through Brentford}
‘The Idea’ Constructing the dock brought industry to Brentford. Constructing the motorway took it away. Constructing the Droneport will use the principles of the past to bring industry back.
“The Thames is Liquid History” - John Burns
The strategic importance of Brentford influenced it’s fast transformation to an industrialised town with a variety of river related industries clustered along the river Thames, the River Brent, the Grand Union Canal and the railhead. The transportation of freight too and from London dominated its industrial past as a result of the town being situated the furthest up the Thames a reasonably sized boat could and can travel. The motorway took over took over from the role of the Thames in the 1960s. Brentford is now the furthest a lorry can get into London without hitting heavy traffic. Brentford would have been saturated with the warehouses similar to those present on the site and in the above image. Only two of these structures now remain. Due to a combination of their original functional requirements complementing the spaces specified in the brief (storage) and Brentford’s historical heritage acting as a source of inspiration, its seems only logical to occupy such a structure. Words: George Parfitt Graphical Content: Brentford H Archives
Learning from the past
Historical Infrastructural Motive Isambard Kingdom Brunel [Designed Brentford Dock]
Karl Benz [Inventor of Modern day automobile]
Arm Wrestling over the passageway into London Isambard Kingdom Brunel - designer of Brentford Dock - arm wrestling with Karl Benz - inventor of the modern day automobile - over the passageway into London. London is symbolised by Big Ben - Londonâ€™s most famous landmark - whereas the passageway (the M4 during construction) isolated Brentford from its historical economic source. Brunel was a designer of many key infrastructures that brought the United Kingdom prosperity whereas Benz invention of the modern day car is responsible for long term economy and environmental damage to both towns, cities and the planet as a whole. Unfortunately Benz won the arm wrestle (as symbolised by his visibly stronger arm) and Londonâ€™s road network is now reaching maximum capacity, lowering its ability to deal with Londonâ€™s growing population.
River Brentford was one of many towns surrounding London.
Only the river and high street existed. The town used the river for farming purposes.
Brentford joins Londonâ€™s urban fringe.
Brentford gains two railways and the dock.
Gaining Infrastructure with density
Brentford is consumed by Londonâ€™s urban sprawl. The Greenbelt is introduced to prevent further sprawl. London is forced to start expanding upwards.
Brentford welcomes its final layer of major infrastructure - the road.
London is very near full capacity with increased requests of using Greenbelt Land. The only option left is for buildings to start rising in height.
The final layer of infrastructure - the road - has significantly lowered the usage of the towns original infrastructure and put the dock (which brought an economy to the town) out of use. The road however is very problematic environmentally and economically and is reaching maximum capacity.
1884CE - Boston Manor Road underground was constructed linking Brentford to the rest of London’s underground infrastructure network.
1841CE - Brentford Flooded. Many lives were lost.
1815CE - Start of Britains Industrial Revolution
for the next 2000 years.
Brentford would become part of the main route to the west country
50BCE - London became the United Kingdom’s capital city.
the towns distance from the sea.
15BCE - Julius Caesar invaded southern England. Sir Montague Sharpe suggests Brentford was the crossing point after discovering stakes in the river and analysing
Brentford gains an infrastructure as the city grows 01 | Brentford joins London’s urban fringe. 02 | Brentford gains two railways and the dock.
Urban Density Growth
Brentford Dock was linked to the Great Western Railway. The project was one of Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s last. 10% of Britain’s trade once passed through the dock.
The history of London’s density growth road
Brentford is consumed by London’s urban sprawl. The Greenbelt is introduced to prevent further sprawl.
London increases in population density. The Greenbelt forces in-fill development. The city has a continuing need to facilitate an increased population density.
King George V opened The Great West Road. It was later renamed the Golden Mile as many large factories relocated to take advantage of its good communications. This brought high employment to the local economy.
Commerce Road was constructed on the proposed site and various factories and warehouses were constructed on the site including a packaging works, rock works (plastics), engineering works, and a water softening factory. An area of the site was also dedicated as ‘public convenience’.
1961CE The elevated M4 motorway was constructed and opened releasing the high street from its congested state. This pulled the attention away from the town centre and turned Brentford into a drive-by town sucking away most of its economy. Brentford dock closed 3 years later.
The ‘international style’ was introduced to Brentford when the GLK building was built.
Planning permission is granted on a £500 million private investment to develop Brentford High Street.
Brentford high street had a visibly strong and compact economy.
2010CE - Planning permission is granted on a large scheme to develop Brentford Lock West.
2007CE - Brentford Area Action Plan documentt
1930CE - Prior to the proposed site being developed
2004CE - Proposals are submitted to redevelop Brentford Lock West but fail to gain planning permission.
in the 1930’s, it was originally used to grow strawberries.
Phase04 [Current Phase] 2030
Statistical data from ONS suggests the UKâ€™s population will reach 70 million whereas London itself will have a population of above 10 million, causing it to gain mega city status. The roads leading into London will become too congested justifying the droneports construction
S s w L p L a t b
KEY Lowest Demand Medium Demand Highest Demand
The future of the droneports density Growth
Reaching Max Capacity
Max Capacity Reached, New Droneport needed.
Statistical data from ONS suggests the UKâ€™s population will reach 75 million whereas London itself will have a population of above 13 million. Land will become very scarce and expensive forcing the city to loosen planning restricts on building height limits.
The worlds population will be at 11 billion. London would potentially be 7 degrees hotter on average. Droneports will be needed across the capital to deliver everything from food products, clothing, health care supplys and so on.
The following diagrams show the whole scheme of the buildings expansion and are a continuation of the ‘historical timeline’ presented on the previous page. The phasing stages are dependant on London’s housing density limits expanding over the duration of the next century. The diagrams span from phase one - the existing structures on the site - to phase eight where the building reaches maximum capacity and the business incubators consume the droneport. The droneport is still capable of supporting the business incubators but is no longer plugged into by the infrastructures. This creates the demand for a new port, and thus the process starts again.
Phase 01 - Aquire Site
2000CE Phase 02 - Construct Core
2020CE Phase 03 - DronePort Active > Attracts First few buisnesses
2030CE Phase 04 - Current Phase [Designed]
Droneport expansion Phase 05 - Continues to attract buisnesses
2050CE Phase 06 - Nearing max. Capacity
2060CE Phase 07 - Reaches Maxium Capacity > infrastructure can no longer be plugged into
2080CE Phase 08 - A demand for a new droneport is generated > Process starts again
DronePort Active > Attracts First few buisnesses
Current Phase [Designed]
Pha DRONEPORT PHASE04
The previous pages have shown the build up of the brief. The droneport at Phase 10 would be too big and too complex to design for a graduation project. I have therefore taken Phase 04 (much closer in size to the project guidelines) and used a design methodology similar to those proposed by Herman Hertzberger (following page) where a small element of the building can be replicated over and over again using a standardised set of rules.
Droneport Building expansion
The above model was designed and 3D printed in the format of a 3D Puzzle. Phases 02, 04 (current phase) and 10 were chosen to explain how the building grows over the course of the next century.
The diagrams on the previous pages has led to the precedent studied on this page - Herman Hertzberger’s Central Baheer. Herman Hertzberger, challenger of the belief that “form follows function” was a key influence in the designing of the Droneport. Hertzberger is said to have believed “the core function of a building does not provide the total solution of space usage: it is a framework users should be able to define and interpret how they inhabit it.” The Droneport utilises the idea of office break out spaces. These would be described as Hertzberger flexible ‘in between’ spaces that encourage our deeper human needs of dwelling and social activity. His exemplary workplace Central Baheer (pictured left) in Apeldoorn (1968-72) was designed with the needs of the individual at its core and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment in The Hague (1979-90) was one of the first buildings to develop the idea of the internal street or elongated atrium to encourage social interaction and get light into all the rooms. Graphical Content: Willem Diepremm Words: A combination of George Parfitt and Dezeen.
Design by function
The above diagrams explain the processes that happen within the droneport (from taking orders online, by visiting or by phone to â€˜droningâ€™ parcels out across London) and how this will be used to design each of the different spaces. Please note these diagrams were created prior to the buildings form and are therefore not representative of it in any way.
CC aa ll ll
OO nn ll ii nn ee
vv ii ss ii tt
03 02 01 02 01 03
01 02 02 03 03 01
00 22 uu nn ll oo aa dd
Sort 02 Seperate // recycle recycle 03 Store 01 Sort 02 Seperate 03 Store 01
01 02 02 03 03 01
tt rr ii bb uu tt ee
00 44 BB uu ii ss nn ee ss ss ll ii aa ii ss oo nn
62 London London
Call CC aa ll ll Online OO nn ll ii nn ee visit 01 Initiate order
vv ii ss ii tt
00 11 II nn ii tt ii aa tt ee oo rr dd ee rr
03 02 0
03 03 02 02 01 Sort 02 Seperate / recycle
00 22 uu nn ll oo aa dd
01 Sort 02 Seperate // recycle recycle 01 Sort 02 Seperate
London London London
03 02 01
01 02 03
0 3 M a n u f a c t03u r02e 01o r d i s t r 01i b u02t e03
04 Buisness liai
00 33 M M aa nn uu ff aa cc tt uu rr ee oo rrStoredd ii ss tt rr ii bb uu tt ee 01 Sort 02 Seperate / recycle
00 44 BB uu ii ss nn ee ss ss ll ii aa ii
02 01 recycle 01 Sort 02 Seperate / 03 03 Store
01 02 03
01 Sort 02 Seperate / recycle 03 03 Store
London London London
05 Distribute 03 Store
00 55 DD ii ss tt rr ii bb uu tt ee Store 03 03 Store
01 | Parallel Extension. 02 | Vertical Insertion. 03 | Above Extension. 04 | Hugging the Existing. 05 | Insertion. 06 | Slide. 07 | Adding Segments. 08 | Side Wings. The diagrams created to recognise the function of the building were then used to map out potential massing forms to assess their functionality. The initial 3D image represents form, the next image represents the function of this form and the third image shows the scheme physically modelled within the context of the site. The concepts that naturally made their way back into the design for functionality reasoning (as explained on the next page) include
numbers 01, 02 and 05.
Massing Studies DIAGRAM KEY EXISTING WAREHOUSE EXTENSION POSSIBILITY MOVEMENT OF GOODS FROM MANUFACTURING TO SORTING FACILITY -
05 I N C U B A T O R S
P O S T
Key Red | Movement of Parcels Yellow | Movement of People
Massing study 04 was combined with the need for a drone tower and crane. The drone tower stores drones and allows them to fly from a high point to separate them from low flying objects such as birds. The crane is used to construct the building by taking modules from the railway line and placing them into a steel frame. The crane also has a use during the buildings life-cycle, which is moving parcels around the building. The central positioning of the crane is to provide it with a maximum span to reach all parts of the warehouse space - a mandatory necessity in future phases.
Massing study 02 was combined with the need for business incubators to be located within the droneport. Locating the business incubators within the warehouse portal frames would significantly reduce its capacity whereas an adjoining position - as proposed by the other massing studies - would reduce the buildings ability for future expansion when it reaches maximum capacity at phase 10.
Massing study 01 was used in conjunction with the requirements of Phase 04 to expand the warehouse space of the droneport to meet the demand of both incoming parcels from the three key infrastructures and the business incubators that are now located above it.
[Links to high street & M4]
[6% Disabled Parking]
[6% Disabled Parking]
[+5 Lorry rest spots]
Context + Public Ream
(Sheltered by Solar PV Cells - see sustainability)
(Separately heated zones to required conditions)
INSIDE | OUTSIDE 67
[Footpath to high street]
01 Access from A4 via Commerce road
02 Access from High Street via Lock path
Proposed Site A large quantity of new residential housing is being constructed across Brentford with little consideration of adding to its Urban Green Space. The area surrounding the site is visually pleasing to spend time within and is rich in history. A small park has therefore been proposed as part of the scheme providing the planning officer allows for it to be constructed on when it is needed in the next century. This creates a soft use for the land allowing the natural decontamination process of the brownfield to take place. This reduces future re-mediation costs whilst in the meantime can be enjoyed by the general public.
01 Advertising opportunity
Large advertising notice boards can be rented on the front of the droneport. These are visible to people entering the Droneport and those walking or driving down Commerce Road.
02 Modular Breakouts
These landscape breakout spaces are constructed from the offcuts used to build each of the modules. They provide a more secluded area for groups of people.
03 Benched pathway These landscape breakout spaces are constructed from the offcuts used to build each of the modules. They provide a more secluded area for groups of people.
A4 05 04
02 CO M
ST DE PE
KEY Incoming People 01 | LOGICAL ENTRANCE
+ Pedestrian vehicle access via M4 motorway. + Safely seperated from incoming goods.
02 | Logical Entrance
+ Pedestrians access via canal sidewalk. + Safely seperated from incoming goods.
Incoming goods 03 | Goods In (Road)
+ Direct access for lorries.
04 | Goods In (Rail)
+ Direct access for trains.
05 | Goods in (river)
+ Direct access for boats.
Combining Brentford and International styles The brick is symbolic of the â€˜Brentford styleâ€™, an element that distinguishes the town of Brentford to the city of London. The locals have repeatedly expressed in various planning applications that it is a town feature they want to keep. The international style is however moving into Brentford as the city of London is sprawling outwards. Despite the prevalence of the international style, it is the design style of this era and is symbolic of innovation and change. The Droneport proposal therefore combines the two styles. The rendered image to the top right shows how both styles are visible looking towards the site from Brentford Lock West.
New Railway bridge over commerce road A bridge linking the High Street to the A4 along commerce road has been added below the railway. This is justified by the many requests from the locals in a planning application for a housing development scheme in Brentford Lock West.
BUILDING IN CONTEXT
VIEW FROM BRENTFORD LOCK WEST ROUTE FROM HIGH STREET
VIEW FROM RAILWAY
ROUTE THROUGH TO COMMERCE ROAD
BUILDING IN CONTEXT 73
PROPOSED STEEL Crane
Precedent Study > Cedric Price ‘Fun Palace’ Similarly to the ability of the droneport crane to move modules from the rail network and onto the building, Price used a gantry crane to move floor plates around his fun palace.
Dock Yard . The building is a futuristic interpretation of a dock yard and therefore combines the function of a crane to move heavy materials around the building with its ability to also add modules to the building so that it can grow over time as London’s Density expands.
PROPOSED STEEL SKELETAL FRAME
Oil rig structural solution. The droneport is extremely large and land is extremely expensive in Brentford. I therefore pushed the structure up into the air so it could hover over an existing building. Primary columns go down to the ground every 10 metres whereas secondary columns rest on a trans-loading truss every 5 metres.
Precedent Study > Bernard Tshchumi ‘Le Fresnoy’ Similarly to the Droneport, Tschumi kept as much of the existing structure as possible and integrated the new building by dropping it down from above. One side is clad in corrugated steel, whilst the other is left open to show connection between old and new. The roof structure blocks out the rain whilst the modules retain the warmth.
Reuse STEEL PATCHWORK CLADDING
The cladding of the existing structures on site share similar traits to those up-cycled by Langdon. The proposal is to also flatten this material and use it to re-clad the building prior to adding a bronze tint for weather protection and to allow it be in keeping of the ‘Brentford Brick’.
Precedent Study > Ross Langdon (See ARC 3014) Ross Langdon set up a charity that took and replaced the roofs from African houses. The material was then flattened and used to clad his design. This gave back to the community whilst contextualising his building.
Reuse STEEL PORTAL Frame
This historical site photo shows the original structures were used for a very similar function to what I am proposing. The form is highly functional for use as a large warehouse space. The large spans created by the portal frame allows flexibility of space and free movement of goods and materials.
The derelict structure (centre and left of the above photo) are all that remains of the historical structure. The proposed structure will site alongside and respect the existing.
VOIDS Voids are used throughout the building to provide sufficient light, air quality and building functionality. Primary voids, as shown in the above diagram, are uninterrupted and continue down into the warehouse space (warehouse vents open and close). Secondary voids do follow down into the warehouse space but can still be accessed from above [The crane carries materials out through a primary void and then drops them back down into a secondary void]. Walkways and breakout spaces (small planted areas used for contemplation or relaxation) are located within secondary voids.
SOLID | VOID
Solid Void Beakout
Water | Electricity Heat (Hot flue gas) Final Destination
Building Services overview The services are located within the core and use the underside of the bridge walkways. Hot flue gas is used to heat the modules (see environmental strategy).
Public Semi Public Private
Recognising Public | Semi Public | Private The spaces shown in red are dedicated public space with benched seating, planting and additional room for various exhibition functions that are put on throughout the year. The building is based on the idea of a village of businesses in the sky and therefore the public are free to walk around exploring these businesses and talking with their employees providing they are not disruptive.
Zinc U Value = 0.14W/m2K
+ 75mm Zinc Panel on Timber stud-work. + 170mm Cross Laminate Timber + 150mm Insulation + 12mm plasterboard on timber studs.
Exposed / Protected CLT U Value = 0.14W/m2K + 170mm Cross Laminate Timber (Treated for weather protection) + 150mm Insulation + 12mm plasterboard on timber studs.
Option Three Polycarbonate
+ 100mm GluLam Column + 200mm Polycarbonate Panel
Standardisation | Customisation The above axonometric shows the material and component options the Droneport newcomers can choose from up to the current phase (04). A new material option is released with each phase to prevent a visual cluttering. This is because a droneport that does not portray a professional aesthetic will deter future businesses. The modules can however be customised using sign-age, a numbering system or suer graphics to give a sense of individuality and provide distinction.
Business modules UP TO 4000mm
5 x 5m [ 25m2 ]
10 x 5m [ 50m2 ]
100 0 mm
10 x 10m [ 100m2 ]
Droneport Rules Newcomers rules The droneport has been designed to support three different sizes of business incubator module of which there are five variations. The rules of the droneport, to ensure sufficient light, air quality and functionality, are: - Two Person Modules = 0.5 Void. - Five Person Module = 1 Void. - Ten Person Module = 2 Voids. - Do not block a primary void. - Do not block windows. - Do not block access routes. - Do not block horizontal voids. - 1 breakout per 20 people.
01 Factory | Module Section
02 Circulation Section
Droneport explanation The layout of the building has been designed to be very functional yet simple. Section 02 (bottom left) shows the route through the building is along a horizontal and vertical circulation core. How this core is used is dependant on the type of person using the building. Warehouse workers will likely go straight down into the warehouse, business owners will likely use their business modules, the break out space and some of the public spaces whereas the public will use the restaurant or study cells / seminar rooms.
(Breaking down, sorting and storing parcels/materials)
(Processing of materials into goods)
Business Incubator Space
Public Exhibition / Learning Space
Located on the ground floor with large floor to ceiling height spans, the warehouse is the core of the building where everything is dropped down into or lifted away from. The warehouse space contains the three docks (Lorry, River and Rail) in addition to various sorting, separating and recycling facilities. Dedicated zones within the warehouse space includes workman routes, forklift routes, forklift parking, and uplift zones. All of the conveyor belts that are located within the warehouse lead to the Drone tower.
The Business Incubator modules are located above the warehouse and are accessed by bridge walkways that connect to the circulation core. The randomness of the placement of these modules (they are added when needed and therefore follow a set of rules - previous page - as opposed to a specific layout) results in winding walkways to get to each module. When the modules reach a point where the walkways overlap, a breakout space is formed. Otherwise the layout of breakouts follow the buildings rules.
The exhibition gallery was provided to encourage members of the public to visit the building, learn about the processes that are occurring within it, and to communicate with the business incubator workers (to share ideas and so on). The building also contains a self service kitchen and restaurant (a variant on the Innocent Smoothie Brand HQ), seminar rooms (with the potential for businesses to carry out research by surveying members of the public) and studying rooms.
(Exhibiting new products to the general public interest)
03 Building as a whole
SITE PLAN - 1:500 @ A2 01
09 01 | Car Park [6% Disabled] 02 | Entrance A 03 | Cycle Storage A 04 | Lorry Entrance / dock 05 | Entrance B 06 | Cycle Storage B 07 | River offloading dock 08 | Railway offloading dock 09 | Pathway through park 10 | Grassed Picnic Area 11 | Landscape Breakouts 12 | Pathway to High Street
GROUND FLOOR PLAN 01
01 | Main Entrance Atrium 02 | Open Reception 03 | Disabled Lift Access to intermediate connecting level 04 | Lorry Offload Dock 05 | Pedestrian Circulation 06 | Forklift Circulation [Grey Strip] 07 | Incoming Material Separating Area
08 | Forklift Parking 09 | Material Uplift Zones (red) 10 | Sorting and shelving zones 11 | Storage Areas 12 | Drone Tower / Circulation Core 13 | Staff Toilets 14 | Rail Offload Dock 15 | River Offload Dock
First FLOOR PLAN 01
01 | Bar 02 | Gallery 03 | Public Toilets 04 | Public Seminar Rooms (with mov-
able partitions to have a variety of flexible room layout options)
05 | Warehouse (gallery looks down onto) 06 | Restaurant / Cafe Seating 07 | Self Service Restaurant / Cafe 08 | Drone Tower
Third FLOOR PLAN 01
01 | Private / Public Study Pods.
FOURTH FLOOR PLAN Three typologies of business modules connection to the practically designed central core / circulation by a more enjoyable bridged walkway that has varying breakout spaces along the way. 01 | Break out space 02 | <10 Business Incubator Module 03 | <5 Business Incubator Module 04 | <2 Business Incubator Module 05 | Conference Rooms (with movable partitions to have a variety of flexible room layout options)
FIFTH FLOOR PLAN Three typologies of business modules connection to the practically designed central core / circulation by a more enjoyable bridged walkway that has varying breakout spaces along the way. 01 | Break out space 02 | <10 Business Incubator Module 03 | <5 Business Incubator Module 04 | <2 Business Incubator Module 05 | Conference Rooms (with movable partitions to have a variety of flexible room layout options)
Package to Drone Interchange PROCESS DESCRIPTION Parcels track up the conveyor belt at an automated speed to meet the Dronepad. The drones vacuum grips clamp the parcel into position as it continues to rise up through the drone tower. The drones propellers begin to pick up speed readying the drone for take off. The electromagnets holding the drone to its pad release as the drone nears the top of the tower. Dodge and avoid technology is used to dodge the crane and incoming drones as the drone is propelled into London. Incoming drones also use this dodge and avoid technology to navigate their way to the tower. In addition, the combination of high landing accuracy as a result of the advancement in the carbon molecule â€˜Ethohedral Fullereneâ€™ [p.46] and the electromagnets on the landing pad allows the drone to easily navigate and stick to the pad prior to being taken back down into the port. The drones are charged on their pads as they move down through the tower using the energy generated by the buildings photovoltaicâ€™s. The pads rotate using a mechanical locking system and gravity so the drones take up minimal room when they are not carrying a parcel. The drones are concealed within the tower to protect them from the elements and to prevent interferences with expanding the tower, which would be the result of an exterior placement. The belt carrying the drone pads is purposely oversized and folded in preparation to be expanded.
Package to Drone Detail
Tower Capacity Calculations (per phase) 01 Drone = 01 parcel to London return trip every 12 minutes [see p.48]. With 15 Drones per phase and 10 phases in total: - Designed Phase : 60 Drones = 60 parcels to London every 12 minutes [Or] 5 Parcels per minute [Or] 7,200 parcels per day. - Maximum Capacity : 150 Drones = 150 Parcels to London every 12 Minutes [Or] 12.5 Drones per minute [Or] 18,000 parcels per day.
Site Plan Diagram
3D shadow gap detail Structural Members > Sizing
Transloading Steel Truss : 1016mm depth @ 10000mm span
356x356mm Primary Universal Column
Castellated Beam : 500mm depth @ 10000mm span
254x254mm Secondary Universal Column
The shadow gap detail - as shown on these two pages runs throughout the building. The gap is in-between the bridge walkways and modules. The gaps are as follows: 100mm to primary column and 175mm to secondary column.
Structural Solution Inside
1100mm Handrail 12.5mm Plasterboard 75mm Services VoiD (timber batten) Vapour control layer 150mm Kingspan K5 Insulation 170mm Cross Laminate timber Zinc rainscreen cladding
(Waterproof membrane behind)
reccesed timber deck
(to run flush with Bridge Beam)
Services (to run below bridge) 1016mm steel transloading truss (Steel conection Plate to CLT)
356 x 356mm Universal Column
1:20 Shadow Gap Detail | Section
1100mm Handrail lightweight Steel C Section
Timber floor deck / I beam
1016 Steel Transloading Truss
356 x 356 Unvieral column Steel connection PLate to CLT 150mm Kingspan k5 Insulation
Services Void (timber studs)
1:20 Shadow Gap Detail | Plan
Steel + Common construction method in London (expertise). + Best material to use as the building has to grow alongside Londonâ€™s density limits (see diagram) and therefore member sizing is over engineered to support the maximum building capacity (long term solution).
Timber + Lighter material to hold a lesser weight. + The loadings on timber are fixed throughout the buildings life-cycle and can therefore panel sizing can be reduced to a minimum. This is both more environmentally friend and cost effective.
07 10 02
Promoting Low Emissivity Transport + Car / Lorry charging stations. + Promotes low emissivity vehicles to use the droneport.
Waste Material Collection + The drones are used to collect waste from London prior to their return journey to the port. A recycling zone is located within the warehouse space.
Wind Energy The initial up-front cost : output ratio is unjustifiable and therefore an investment will be made into the â€˜London Arrayâ€™ off-shore wind farm. Hydroelectrical Energy The stretch of river Brent running adjacent to the building lacks a strong current. Instead, an investment will be put towards the new Thames Barrier proposal.
Environmental strategy On Site Live | Work Proximity
LIVE LIVE LIVE
WORK WORK WORK
+ The building provides many jobs within walking distance from a large quantity of residential properties. + Available jobs within the building cater to a range of skill-sets from office jobs to manual labour work.
WORK Natural Ventilation Strategy
LIVE LIVE LIVE
<12m <12m <12m <12m
+ Pods less than 12m wide can use cross-flow ventilation. + Pods less than 6m wide can use single side ventilation. + Trickle Vents provide controlled ventilation. + Open-able windows provide purge ventilation.
WORK WORK WORK
Reused | Locally source | Standardised materials + Re-used steel frame / cladding. + Red brick made using Thames clay (see technology). + Universal columns / castellated beams.
<12m <12m <12m
Warm Warm Warm
Cool Cool Cool
Warm Warm Warm
Cool Cool Cool
Individually Insulated | Heated warehouse / modules + The building is extremely large and therefore only the zones that need heating are heated. + This provides more control for specific use of the module. + Refer to next page for more details on how the modules use heat generated within the warehouse.
Geothermal Heat Pump
+ Horizontal loop ground source heat pump used to take advantage of large south facing open space adjoining the site.
Centrally Located Services
+ Services located centrally within drone tower / core. + This reduces the amount of ductwork and increases efficiency (less travel distance of solid / liquid / gas).
+ Concrete warehouse floor with large south facing windows to absorb thermal mass.
+ Lead directly onto the core. + Reduced travel distances for services provision.
+ Plentiful cycle storage provision with space for additional parking racks in the future as the building is predicted to grow. + Encourages cycle to work scheme.
+ Large roof scape. + Modular design to be moved in and out of place as the building increases in size. + See next page for more details.
Railway Turbine [T - BOX]
+ Consistent energy bursts throughout the day. + Naturally slows down trains as they pass by the building (a negative force is generated as a result of the turbines using energy produced by the positive force) reducing wear on breaks.
Heating Strategy - Utilising the heat from gas fired radiant heaters Heating the whole of the warehouse space is too impractical due to its size : occupant ratio. Nonetheless the workers still need to be kept warm enough to carry out their job. The warehouse has been designed so the workers will remain in distinctive zones. Gas fired radiant heaters warm these zones to the required temperature. The remaining heat is retained by a new thick layer of insulation. Flues containing very hot gas have to pass up through the building. When these pass by a module, plate heat exchangers use the hot gas to warm incoming fresh air without contaminating it. The excess gas is then passed up through the remainder of the building before being exhausted to the outside. The modules themselves are separately insulated to the rest of the building with an external CLT structure to ensure no thermal breaks within the insulation.
Gas Fired Radiant Heaters + These warm pre-determined zones where workers are stationed.
Plate Heat Exchanger + Fresh incoming air is warmed by the flues containing hot gas. The left diagram shows how the two air flows pass over each other but do not physically touch.
RED = HOT BLUE = FRESH
Separately Insulated Module + The modules are insulated and warmed separately from the external structure due to the size of the building. This is cheaper and provides more control.
Exhaust Excess Fumes + Excess gas is exhausted far away from the building to prevent lowering the air quality of the buildings micro climate.
Open / Close
Modular Photovoltaic Roof System The integration of the Droneports expansion alongside Londonâ€™s density growth results in the traditional solar panel being too impractical for this building. However solar panel technology has rapidly developed over the past decade and the energy type they produce [electrical] can be used within the business modules and to charge the drones. I therefore designed a modular system that can be easily lifted and put to one side as a new layer of business modules are added to the Droneport. The system is then moved back and bolted into place. A very simple plug-in connection will connect up its electricity supply to the building. Each set of four panels has its own biocathode resulting in the ability to upgrade the panels as the technology develops and prevents inefficiencyâ€™s if overshadowing ever becomes a problem in the future with Londonâ€™s rising buildings. As previously explained, the modules and warehouses are insulated separately from the rest of the structure. The rest of the structure is therefore left open and needs protection from the weather. The solar panels have the ability to open and close depending on the weather. When it is raining, the solar panels automatically close to shield the buildings users from the elements whereas when its sunny the solar panels open to allow in sun light.
Driving in Perspective
ENTRANCE ATRIUM 106
Exhibition Gallery 107
Business Module 108
Breakout space 109
Lorry drop off zone
RACKED STORAGE CAM
Second year Projects Short Projects
Second year was divided into four relatively short projects. An insight into three of these projects can be seen within this portfolio whereas a more in depth viewing in addition to the fourth project can be seen by following the link at the bottom of this page. The projects increased in length and complexity throughout the year as a way of preparing us for the graduation project we undertook this year. Prospect and Refuge is clearly the strongest of the three projects and a clear link can be seen between it and the graduation project in terms of ideas taken across.
PROSPECT & REFUGE
LIFE ON THE EDGE
A BEACON OF LIGHT Weightlessness
Japanese Lanterns The structure of the building appears as if it is floating on the sea when viewed from a distance, similarly to the lanterns floating across the water. This can therefore be viewed as a physiological separation from land, fulfilling a similar role to that of a lantern, a â€˜protector of evilâ€™. This source of inspiration was carried through to the interior, with floating modules providing double, triple and quadruple height spaces.
Greek Temples The buildings plinth is firmly set into the ground, offering the appearance of rigidity and longevity, similarly to the temples of Ancient Greece. The modules that slot into the frame are interchangeable and adaptable, whereas everything (services) within the plinth will remain the same throughout each life-cycle of the building.
Weight | Weightlessness Footnotes: Temple of Concord - www.wanderingtrader.com The Floating Lantern Ceremony - www.frontbehindtheopen.wordpress.com
PROSPECT & REFUGE
â€œIt is not the strongest... that survives, nor the most intelligent. It is the one that is the most adaptable to changeâ€? - Charles Darwin
Tables are suspended from a timber structure, which consist of four arms that open and close together using an electrical pulley system. Steel cables are structurally rigid enough to provide a stable tensile platform yet are versatile enough to wrap around the wheels that open and close the table system. The system is symmetrical and therefore its key components are replicated parts. There are only 10 unique parts in total to create one of these systems.
Closed - Group Work
Half Open - Cluster Work
Open - Individual Work
System One - Raise the tables The steel wires act on a mechanical or electrical pulley system, and lift up all 16 tables at once. This provides an open space that can be used for interactive learning.
System Two - Closing & Opening together The second system is the closing together and opening up of the arms to produce three different internal layouts. These three layouts allow students to work in small clusters, large groups or as a whole class.
The replicated floor plate forms the ceiling of the module, as well as the floor if another module is intended to be placed above.
Horizontal Sips Insulated Panels’.
Steel Reinforcement Beams
To provide support and rigidity to the horizontal ‘SIPs’.
The modules are slotted into a Glulam frame. The beams and columns measure 450 x 120mm and 300 x 300mm respectively.
Insulated vertical ‘SIPs’ help to carry the load of the floor plate above and act as cross bracing to the Glulam frame.
CROSSOVER Sir William George Armstrong 26th November 1810 - 27th December 1900 The first engineer to join the House of Lords, William Armstrong was an English Industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth company. Armstrong Whitworth & Co was located along the quayside (near to the site) and was the largest crane company in the world for a large period of time. The company utilised the use of hydraulics, which Armstrong pioneered. When Armstrong’s company was not arming warships, they were developing the mechanisms that would operate London’s Tower Bridge and Newcastle’s Swing Bridge.
Exploded Hydraulic Lift Diagram
The dead weight of the lift is supported by a combination of the staircase weight and the increased force produced by the hydraulics. Visitors can walk on to the lift, release the break, and slowly descend to the ground.
Modular Compressive Arch
Elastic bands are wrapped around the metal bars, tensioning the structure into the ‘open’ position, allowing it to be easily transported. The arch is then put under compression and slotted between the two narrow walls of the Chare, meaning there is no longer a requirement for fixings.
LIFE ON THE EDGE
Stack Affect Ventilation - Air Intake through shutter doors. - Heat produced by the workers, factory machinery and underfloor heating rises. - North Facing windows are open-able to release the heat.
Thermal Mass Privacy Facade - Red = Solar Energy. - Increased Privicy to upper levels (more bars). - Form is representational of â€˜singular and multiple formsâ€™ concept. - Structural support for the cantilever
Methodical Arrangement of Space. The living space is positioned to take advantage of the south light and heat gains, whereas the workshop is position to the north, taking advantage of the indirect sunlight. The central circulation space divides both work and living, yet provides the fastest route to both.
Remove unused space from existing Volume. Living space for tutor and guests accounts for a majority of the overall volume. This is to be located to the top of the site where privacy is advantageous and the views are enhanced.
Regeneration of Neighbouring Building to contain: - Bin and bike Storage. - Material Waste (Timber / Metal). - Biomass Boiler (uses material waste). - Water Wheel (hydro power used during the winter when solar energy is low and the Ouseburn river is high). - Solar Panel Storage Batteries. - Other Services.
Further Distribution of Space. The space has then been further distributed based on site analysis information. The guest living takes precedent over privacy. The tutors living has easy access to a majority of the building, yet maintains an enhanced level of privacy. The kitchen, dining and social space has the advantage of being on the southern side of the building. The gallery has views over the workshop. Circulation space is centralised and the workshop is positioned to the Northern part of the site, where indirect sunlight is a requirement.
FUNCTIONALITY 120mm k5 kooltherm External wall board insulation - [mechanical fixings]
12.5mm Kingspan k17 Plasterboard [attached via timber battens]
mechanical fixings 115mm thermalite Aircrete (concrete) blocks 82.5mm Services Void [Vertical Timber Studs] Tounge and grove Timber floor Finish
floor-board Expansion gap DAMP PROOF COURSE 155mm
100mm Cast In-situ Ground bearing Conrete floor slab 120mm Kingspan Thermafloor TF70 Damp Proof Membrane
40 x 115mm Kingspan Insultation Upstand
60mm Sand Binding
Reinforced Concrete Pile Cap
Ă˜300 x 4000mm Rerinforced Concrete Pile
Single Ply Roofing Membrane [non bitumus - Waterproof] VApour Control layer
30mm Insulation upstand
140mm Kingspan Thermaroof tr26 lpc/fm 25mm Sands screed 200mm Cast In-situ one way Conrete Warm-roof deck
10mm Advanced polymer render [eml or Glass Fibre reinforcing Mesh]
50mm Suspended Ceiling [50 x 25mm TImber Battens @ 600mm Centres]
115mm Thermalite Aircrete (concrete) blocks
12.5mm Plasterboard ceiling 12.5mm Kingspan k17 Plasterboard [attached via timber battens] 120mm k5 kooltherm External wall board insulation [mechanical fixings]
Tutor and Guest private outdoor space is added. Two sheltered south facing private spaces for guest (bottom) and tutor (top).
Addition of the Saw Tooth Roof. The Victorian designed factory roof is added with respect to the surrounding architecture.
Modern Interpretation. A Modern twist is applied to the roof type to integrate it with the rest of the buildings form.
Privacy Facade. A structural element that links the workshop with the living space, whilst providing privacy and a thermal mass.
STRATEGIC SMART GROWTH
This dissertation studies how housing density can be sustainably increased by producing more urban green space on what would otherwise be derelict brownfield land too contaminated for development. Urban Green space delivers the benefits of vegetation to where it is needed most, the heart of a city. The barriers and incentives of doing so are considered throughout. The dissertation concludes by proposing relaxed planning rules on strategically located areas of the greenbelt of low environmental importance to fund this solution.
Fig 01. Urban Parks can help increase the density of cities to support a growing nation.
Fig 02. Jesmond Dene, a city park that was a quarry.
Stage Three Undergraduate Architecture Portfolio, Newcastle University 2015/16