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12th Regional Congress on Geology, Mineral and Energy Resources of Southeast Asia “Geoscience in Response to the Changing Earth” Geological Society of Thailand Bldg D1 Floor 1 Lumpini Condo Town 12/14 Ramindra-Laksi road, Kwang Anusaowari, Bangkhen Tel : (+66) 2-1979053 E-mail : thaigeology@hotmail.com Facebook.com/thaigeology Twitter : @thaigeology wedsite : www.thaigeology.com Bangkok, Thailand Wednesday 7 - Thursday 8 March 2012

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand


On behalf of the Organizing Committee, I would like to extend our warmest welcome to all distinguished participants to the 12th Regional Congress on Geology, Mineral and Energy Resources of Southeast Asia, or GEOSEA 2012, in Thailand. We, the Geological Society of Thailand (GST), are most honored to host the congress this year. It is a great pleasure to see the GEOSEA delegates, either geoscientists or those involved or interested in the geosciences - related fields, gather here once again to exchange ideas, information, and cooperate in geology, mineral, and energy resources in Southeast Asia as well as in other parts of the world. Geosciences have much to contribute to risk reduction in the geo-hazard processes. This contribution will become ever more important as we proceed into the 21st century as our global population approaches 10 billion people and our global climate changes begin to affect the health, safety, and well being all societies around the globe. The event theme on “Geosciences in Response to the Changing Earth” is selected to address the geo-scientific and strategic issues of common interest in the region and the world. As a general guideline, our congress comprises three main parts: namely: 1) the conference, 2) business meetings, and 3) excursions. First, the conference provides a forum for geoscientists to share geo-scientific details, experience, and expertise through review of case studies. There will be opportunities as well to hold discussions on bettering research and development for improved geological resources and environmental controls. Plenty of chances will also be available to raise awareness of some of today’s most pressing societal concerns, particularly what global climate changes and natural hazards we face, how we can secure geological resources for present and future generations, what geoscientists can and should do about current global hazard issues, and what specific global challenges geoscientists face. Congress participants will also have a chance to discuss matters related to the 2012 prophecies and how they may provide appropriate scientific explanations for society. Moreover, our congress also includes oral and poster presentations, and a panel discussion, which we hope will be a highlight of the GEOSEA 2012. The topic of this panel discussion is “Mega Geo-hazards and the Changing Earth”. Second, on the business meetings, the primary agenda item focuses on strengthening the geological societies, strengthening cooperation among the geological societies and what and how the societies can do to handle the geo-science-related problems in the region.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

And thirdly, at GEOSEA 2012, we very much want to spotlight and welcome you to join our excursion program which is a special trip from Bangkok to Kanchanaburi Province in Western Thailand from 9 to 11 March 2012. You will have an opportunity to visit some geologically exceptional sites that are also very popular tourist destinations in Thailand. I sincerely hope that the knowledge shared and the experiences gained from this conference can somewhat contribute to better the current global warming situations and menacing natural disasters, as well as in maximizing natural resources development in an environmentally friendly ways for sustainable growth of all. Finally, on behalf of the Organizing Committee I would like to express my sincere appreciation for all the assistance and support we have received in holding the This cannot be held without the support from our allied organizations and academic institutions in Thailand as well as regional collaboration, especially Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia (IAGI), Myanmar Geosciences Society, Geological Society of Malaysia, and Geological Society of the Philippines. I am also most grateful for the constant support of our sponsors, PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited, PTT Public Company Limited, Chevron Thailand Exploration and Production, Ltd., CEC International, Ltd. (Thailand Branch), Banpu Public Company Limited, Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, and Ratchaburi Electricity Generating Holding PCL. You all are very helpful. Last but not least, I would personally like to thank all of you for your participation and support that contribute significantly to the success of the GEOSEA 2012. I hope you will enjoy your stay with us during GEOSEA 2012 and that you will have a wonderful time in our Land of Smiles.


Dr. Songpope Polachan President Geological Society of Thailand


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF THAILAND COMMITTEE 2010-2012 President Vice – President Vice – President Vice – President Vice – President Vice – President Advisor Secretary Treasurer Registrar Editor Public Relations House – Master Member Association Income Promotion Sport and Recreation


Dr.Songpope Polachan Mr.Surawit Pradidtan Mr.Owas Chinoroje Dr.Tawsaporn Nuchanong Dr.Pol Chaodumrong Dr.Dacha Luangpitakchumpol Mr.Nares Sattayarak Mr.Visit Coothongkul Ms.Keeratikorn Kongjuk Mr.Jittawat Meesuk Dr.Sommai Techawan Asst.Prof.Dr.Thasinee Charoenthitirat Mr.Bandit Chaisilboon Mr.Monkol Lukmuang Mr.Somkiat Thaeppunkulngam Mr.Noppadon Poomvises


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand


Advisory Board Assoc.Prof. Swai Sundharovat Prof. Dr.Prinya Nutalaya Mr. Prakong Polahan Mr. Nopadon Mantajit Mr. Somsak Potisat Mr. Phisit Dheeradilok Mr. Chareon Chuamthaisong Mr. Araya Nakanart Dr. Chongpan Chonglakmani Assoc.Prof.Dr. Theerapongs Thanasuthipitak Assoc.Prof.Dr. Chaiyudh Khantaprab Asst.Prof.Dr. Pakdi Thanvarachorn Prof. Dr. He Qingcheng Organizer Geological Society of Thailand (GST) Co-organizers Department of Mineral Resources Department of Mineral Fuels Department of Groundwater Resources Royal Irrigation Department Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Chulalongkorn University Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University Department of Geotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University School of Geotechnology, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology School of Remote Sensing, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University Department of Earth Science Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University Geoscience Program, Kanchanaburi Campus Mahidol University Faculty of Gems, Burapha University Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology Regional Collaborators Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia Geological Society of Malaysia Myanmar Geosciences Society Geological Society of the Philippines V5 GEOSEA 2012

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand


Conference Program Dr.Tawsaporn Nuchanong Dr.Pol Chaodumrong Dr.Dacha Luangpitakchumpol Mr.Suwith Kosuwan Dr.Aranya Fuengsawat Mr.Noppadol Poomvises Mr.Kriangkrai Pomin Assoc.Prof.Dr.Punya Charusiri Assoc.Prof.Dr.Pisanu Wongpornchai Assoc.Prof.Montre Bunsanaer Dr.Prinya Puttapibarn Assoc.Prof.Tara lekutai Dr.Passakorn Pananont Dr.Kamhaeng Wattanasen Dr.Surin Intayot Dr.Sommai Techawan Mr.Noppadol Poomvises Miss.Angsumalin Puntho Protocol, Public Relations and Venue Program Mr.Somkiat Thaeppunkulngam Asst.Prof.Dr.Thasinee Charoentitirat Mr.Jittawat Meesuk Mr.Mongkol Lukmuang Mr.Supawit Yawsangrat Mr.Bundit Chaisilboon Mr.Jiratip Yodmuang Miss.Benjamad Sawadepong



Head of working group Vice-Head of working group/ Editor Vice-Head of working group Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretary Assistant Secretary Assistant Secretary

Head of working group Member Member Member Member Secretary Assistant Secretary Assistant Secretary

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Excursion Program Dr.Prinya Puttapiban Head of working group Dr.Robert B.Stokes Member Dr.Pol Chaodumrong Member Mr.Somchai Pum-im Member Mr.Lerdsin Ruksasakulwong Member Mr.Bundit Chaisilboon Member Mr.Pichaya Peumthong Member Mr.Kriangkrai Pomin Member Miss.Kridsana Dongnuai Member Miss.Piyatida Sangthong Secretary Secretary Mr.Surawit Pradidtan Head of working group Dr.Sommai Techawan Member Assoc.Prof.Montre Bunsanaer Member Dr.Tanu Harnpipatpanich Member Assoc.Prof.Dr.Punya Charusiri Member Mr.Visit Coothongkul Secretary List of Sponsor PTT Public Company Limited PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited Chevron Thailand Exploration and Production Limited Banpu Public Company Limited CEC International, Ltd. (Thailand Branch) Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand Ratchaburi Electricity Generating Holding PLC



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand


The GEOSEA Congress is a premier geoscientific event in the region. It aims to foster an exchange of ideas, information and cooperation in geology, mineral and energy resources in Southeast Asia. The first GEOSEA Congress was jointly organized in 1972, at University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur by the four co-founders; Geological Society of Malaysia, Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia (IAGI), Geological Society of the Philippines and Geological Society of Thailand. The meeting was attended by about 280 geoscientists, from Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia, as well as geologists from Europe, Australia and America. The event was then held once in every three years, rotationally among the co-founders. GEOSEA II was held in Jakarta in 1975, GEOSEA III in Bangkok in 1978, GEOSEA IV in Manila in 1981. The last four meetings, GEOSEA VIII, GEOSEA IX, GEOSEA X and GEOSEA XI were held in Manila (1995), Kuala Lumpur (1998), Yogyakarta (2001) and Kuala Lumpur (2009) respectively. It should be noted that GEOSEA XI in Kuala Lumpur was reactivated by the Geological Society of Malaysia after a lapse of almost 8 years due to unforeseen constraints, the co-founders were unable to organize the event after GEOSEA in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in September 2001. GEOSEA 2009 was organized to mark the conclusion of the United Nations’ International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE), 20072009 which aimed to ensure greater and more effective use of the knowledge accumulated by the world’s 400,000 Earth scientists by society. GEOSEA XII in Bangkok, 7-8 March 2012 was organized by the Geological Society of Thailand (GST) in cooperation with Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia (IAGI), Myanmar Geosciences Society, Geological Society of Malaysia, Geological Society of the Philippines and its geological organization. The theme of the event “Geoscience in Response to the Changing Earth” is selected to address the geoscientific and strategic issues of common interest in the region and the world, especially the mega geological hazards which are one of the greatest threats our planet is facing. In line with tradition, the GEOSEA XII includes participation from East and Southeast Asia. Guests and colleagues from other parts of the world are also invited to join the event.




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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand



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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand


GEOSEA 2012 Registration Registration desks are located on lobby level in front of the “Vibhavadee Ballroom C” of the Centara Grand Hotel at Central Plaza Ladprao, Bangkok. Registration desks are divided into “Pre-Registered participants” and “On Site registration”. Cash and US dollar are preferred for registration fee. There are 3 main rooms in the congress, as follow: Vibhavadee Ballroom C located on the lobby level Krungthep 2 room located on Mezzanine Level Rangsit 1 room located on the Lower Ballroom Area Information and Speaker Slide Room Information and Speaker Slide Room is located at the “Rangsit 1” on the “Lower Ballroom Area” of the Centara Grand Hotel. Hours are 8.00 a.m. until 5.00 p.m. during March 7-8, 2012. Personnel familiar with the Congress activities are on hand to help you. So, if you need any assistant, please do not hesitate to inform us. Speakers are requested to submit their oral “presentation files” prior to their talk session. This room is equipped with computers. Speakers can rehearse their presentation in this room. Spouse Programs Spouse programs and sight-seeing tours are available during the congress Booking can be made onsite during the congress. B1 : Royal Grand Palace Tour B4 : Canal Tour with the temple of Dawn B10B : Floating Market & Elephant Theme Show B26 : Tiger Temple, River Kwai and War Museum


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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand


Message from the President...................................................................................

GST Committee 2010-2012................................................................................... Organizing Committee.......................................................................................... Working Group Committees................................................................................ Background of the GEOSEA................................................................................. Map of Bangkok.................................................................................................... Map of the Congress............................................................................................. General Information.............................................................................................. 12th GEOSEA 2012 Conference Schedule............................................................ Keynote Papers l Southeast Asian Geological Resources Sustainable Development

“Geology: 1 Present is the Key to the Future” By Chote Trachu.............. l Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction – The Role of

Geoscience By Joy Jacqueline Pereira...................................................... l Status of Geosciences in Myanmar By Win Swe.......................................... l State of Geosciences in the Philippines By Guillerma Jayne T. Atienza....... l Status of Geosciences Workforce in Thailand By Songpope Polachan .....

l Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rising and Flooding Disasters By He

Qingcheng..................................................................................................... l Repeated Tragedy: 3.11 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011,

Northeast Japan By Hirokazu Kato ............................................................ l The Circumstance of Seismic Hazard in Japan By Hirokazu Kato........... l Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) Project and its

Contribution to Flood Mitigation in Kuala Lumpur By Dato’ Ahmad

Husaini bin Sulaiman.................................................................................. l Mega Geological Hazards and Changing Earth: Climate Change By David Manning....................................................................................... l Prospects for Potash: An Urgent Need to Feed Growing Populations

By David Manning..................................................................................... l Mega Geohazards and the Changing Earth By Hamish Campbell .............. l On Edge: the Christchurch Earthquakes, New Zealand By Hamish

Campbell...................................................................................................... l Sibumasu (Shan-Thai) in the Palaeozoic – Part of Greater Gondwana

or a Vagrant Terrane?- Evidence from Palaeontology, Geology and

Sedimentary Provenance By C.F Burrett, S.Meffre, K.Zaw,

S.Khositanont, P.Chaodumrong and M.Udchachon.......................................



1 10 12 14 15


18 19 20 22 23 24 26 28


l Potential and Prospectivity of Myanmar Mineral Resources in the

Context of SE Asian Tectonics and Metallogeny By Khin Zaw............... l The National Geohazards Mapping and Assessment Program of the .......... Mines and Geosciences Bureau-Department of Environment and

Natural Resources (MGB-DENR): The Good News and the Bad News

By Karlo L. Quea単o and the MGB Geohazards Assessment Technical

Working Group l The 2011 Mega-Flooding and Super-Express Floodway Measures to ........

Prevent the Future Flooding in the Chao Phraya Delta, Thailand By

Thanawat Jarupongsakul Natural Disasters l Slope Failures in Graphitic Schist Soils By B.K. Tan ............................... l Application of Georadar Technique on Landslide Investigation at

Taman Hill View, Kuala Lumpur and Dengkil, Selangor, Malaysia By

Nurul Fairuz Diyana Binti Bahrudin, U.Hamzah, A.Ismail and Amry

Amin bin Abbas............................................................................................. l Communicating Natural Hazards By Helmut Duerrast............................. l The Best Practices for Landslide Monitoring and Warning in Maephun

Sub District, Lublae District, Uttaradit Province By Tinnakorn Tatong..... l Central Thailand Landslides Triggering by Drought By Chanchai

Srisutam, Chayapol Techatitinan and Worawoot Uttasahapanich................. l Evaluation of Sinkhole Disaster Risk Management Using Analytic

Hierarchy Process (AHP): In Case of La Ngu District, Satun Province,

Thailand By Sakda Khundee, Raywadee Roachanakanan and

Kanchana Nakhapakorn................................................................................. l CCS Study in Thailand, Result and Way Forward By Trin

Intaraprasong............................................................................................... l Distance Earthquakes : A Seismic Threat to Northern Thailand By

Kosuwan, S., Saithong, P. and Putthapiban, P............................................ l Drilling to Study Salt Subsidence in Ban Nonsabaeng, Sakhon Nakhon

By Pramual Jenkunawat............................................................................. l Current Understanding of Pre-Historic Tsunamis in the Northern Sunda

Trench as Deduced from Paleotsunami and Paleoseismological Studies:

A Review By Kruawun Jankaew, Department of Geology, Faculty of

Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phatumwan, Bangkok, Thailand


29 31 33 35 38 39 40 41 42 43 45 47 48

l Neotectonics along the Uttaradit Fault Zone, Northern Thailand : A

Case Study of the Trench Excavation at Ban Phon Du By Preecha

Saithong, Suwith Kosuwan, Kitti Kaowiset, Passakorn Pananont, Krit

Won-in and Punya Charusiri ........................................................................

l Assessing Climate Change and Sea Level Rising Impacts on Mineral

Resources in Coastal Zone of Vietnam By Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc,

Luong The Viet and Quach Duc Tin ........................................................... Geology and Paleontology l Geology and Stratigraphy of the Kroh / Betong Formation By

Mohamad Hussein bin Jamaluddin , Mat Niza bin Abdul Rahman

and Naramase Teerarungsigul........................................................................ l Geology and Stratigraphy of the Gerik Formation By Mat Niza bin Ab

dul Rahman, Doungrutai Saesaengseerung and Savapak Imsamut............... l Lithostratigraphy of the Khuan Klang Formation, Satun Province,

Peninsular Thailand By Suvapak Imsamut................................................... l The Very First Evidence of the Ranong Fault in the Andaman Sea,

Thailand By Passakorn Pananont, Pornphimon Choosit , Mingkwan

Mingmuang, Anond Snidvongs, Sebastian Krastel and Wanida

Chantong........................................................................................................ l Evidence of Active Faults and Hazard Analysis along the Srisawat

fault, Western Thailand By Weerachat Wiwegwin, Suwith Kosuwan,

Preecha Saithong, Kitti Kaowisate, Punya Charusiri And Santi

Pailoplee........................................................................................................ l Study of Coastal Change along the Gulf of Thailand Coast Using

Remote Sensing Technique and Field Investigation: A Case Study of

Nakhon Si Thammarat Province By Namporn Wattanaton and

Chongpan Chonglakmani.............................................................................. l Lithostratigraphy of the Nawa Member : Preliminary Investigation By San Assavapatchara................................................................................. l Deltas in Asia and Their Characteristics, Evolution and Recent Changes

By Yoshiki Saito ......................................................................................... l Bimodal Cenozoic Volcanism in Central Sarawak: Hot Spots or

Extension? By Nur Iskandar Taib ........................................................... l Geochemistry and Geochronology of Volcanic Rocks in the Ngao

Basin, Lampang, Northern Thailand By Phisit Limtrakun, Sarawute

Chantraprasert, Burapha Phajuy, Boontarika Srithai, Weerapan Srichan

and Sebastien Meffre.....................................................................................

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 60 62

l Investigation Traces of Paleotsunami Deposits Using Electrical

Resistivity Imaging and Ground Penetrating Radar, Thap Lamu, Phang

Nga Province, Thailand By Supawit Yawsangratt, Witold Szczuciń

ski, Robert Jagodziński, Wachirachai Sak-apa, Stanisław Lorenc,

Siraprapa Chatprasert.................................................................................... l Geochemical Variation of Quaternary Volcanic Rocks in Papandayan

Area, West Java, Indonesia: A Role of Crustal Component By Mirzam

Abdurrachman and Masatsugu Yamamoto................................................ l Geological Map Improvement of Phutok Formation Explored from

Potash and Rock Salt Drilled Holes, Topography and Outcrops on the

Khorat Plateau By Parkorn Suwanich........................................................ l Paleo-Environment and C-14 Dating : the Key to the Depositional Age

of the Tha Chang and Related Sand Pits, Northeastern Thailand. By

Putthapiban, P., Zolensky, M., Jull, T., Demartino, M. and Salyapongse, S. ..... l Investigation of Site Characteristics of Subsoil in the Central Part of

Thailand By Nakhorn Poovarodom............................................................. l The Machinchang Formation of Langkawi Island, Malaysia: Facies and

Depositional Environment By Kamal Roslan Mohamed and Che Aziz Ali..... l Alluvial Fans of Sagaing Area in Central Myanmar and Their Bearing

on the Active Tectonic Activity of the Sagaing Fault By Myint Thein........ l Fossilized Marine Crabs at Kra Jae Subdistrict, Na Yai Am

District, Chanthaburi Province By Thanit Intarat and Rungathit Buchaindra ................................................................................................... l Provenance of Quartz Phenoclasts from the Jurassic Tomizawa

Formation in the Abukuma Belt, NE Japan By Wunnaporn Punyawai,

Punya Charusiri, Ken-ichiro Hisada.............................................................. l Analysis of Geological Structures in the Southern Mergui Basin,

Andaman Sea By Niramol Tintakorn, Passakorn Pananont, Tananchai

Mahattanachai and Punya Charusiri.............................................................. l Morphotectonic and Geochronological Analyses of the Khlong Marui

Fault, Southern Thailand By Sarun Keawmuangmoon, Suwith

Kosuwan, Preecha Saithong, Kitti Kaowisate and Punya Charusiri............ l Is Ranong fault in southern Thailand active? - Evidence from

Seismological, Paleoseismological, and Seismic Investigations By

Sumalee Thipyupas, Thanu hanpattanapanich, Santi Pailoplee and

Punya Charusiri............................................................................................

63 64 65 66 69

70 72 73 74 75 77 78

l Geology and Petrochemistry of Dike Rocks in Chatree Gold Mine,

Pichit Province: Implication for Late Paleozoic Tectonic Setting By

Tangwattananukul, L, Takasima, I, Misuta, T., Ishiyama, D.,

Lunwongsa W., and Charusiri, P................................................................... Mineral Resources l Geochemistry of Chatree Volcanic Complex Phetchabun Province,

Central Thailand By Abhisit Salam, Khin Zaw, Sebastien Meffre, and

Jocelyn Mcphie,............................................................................................ l Manganese Nodules Deposits By Pramual Jenkunawat.............................. l Characteristics of Green Zircon from Ratnapura, Sri Lanka By

Bhuwadol Wanthanachaisaeng, Nantharat Bunna, Chakkaphan

Sutthirat, Papawarin Ounorn and Visut Pisutha-Arnond............................... l Vocanic Arc and Its Associated Mineralization along the Lampang -

Phrae Area, Northern Thailand : Evidence form Geological,

Geochronological and Petrochemical Investigations By Punya

Charusiri, Worakij Khaochan, Jensarin Wiwatpinyou and Kriangsak

Kaewsaeng, Thailand.................................................................................... Fossil Fuel Resources l Jurassic Petroleum System in the Shoushan Basin, Egypt’s Western

Desert By Mohamed Ragab Shalaby, Mohammed Hail Hakimi and

Wan Hasias Abdullah.................................................................................... l The Utilization of Flare and Vent or the Reduction of GHG Emission,

Another Challenge for Thailand E&P Business By Witsarut

Thungsuntonkhun and Jirapha Skulsangjuntr ........................................... l Key Geodynamic Events for Petroleum Exploration in the Khorat

Plateau, NE Thailand By Kitsana Malila, Parichat Loboonlert,

Teenavat Lurprommas and Sucheera Thaitonglang...................................... l Relationships Between Fluid Chemistry and the Creation of Fractured

Carbonate-Hosted Fields in Thailand (Analogs for Phu Horm and Nang

Nuan Fields) By Thasinee Charoentitirat, Kanyaporn Lousuwan,

Prueksarat Ampaiwan, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Phuong Thi Lan Phung,

Supawich Thanudamrong, Christopher Morley and John Warren................ l What is Bach Ho Field in Vietnam, a Structural Trap or a Buried Hill

Play? How Similar is it to other Fractured Basement Reservoirs in SE

Asia and the World? By Warren John Keith and Trinh Xuan Cuong......

79 80 82 84 85

87 88 91 92 93

Hydrogeology l Study of Groundwater Potential Using Geophysical Method for

Industrial Usage By Nor Dalila Desa, Lakam Mejus, Jeremy Andy

Dominic and Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza.................................................. l Bank Infiltration: A Case Study for Alluvial River Bank By Mohd

Khairul Nizar Shamsuddin and Saim Suratman .......................................... l Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in Assessing Oil-

Contaminated Groundwater and Cavities By Umar Hamzah, Azmi

Ismail, Amry Abbas and Rofiqul Islam....................................................... l Groundwater and Water Works Development, Green Island Case Study

By Kriangsak Pirarai, Ocpasorn Occarach, Pranee Buarapar and

Prakorb Ukong.............................................................................................. l Aquifer Storage and Recovery Preliminary Result, Northern Chao

Phraya Basin By Wasan Chansang......................................................... l Groundwater Exploration and Detailed 1: 50,000 Mapping, Upper

Chao Phraya Basin By Phuengchat Chantawongso and Jittrakorn

suwanlert ...................................................................................................... l Shallow – Aquifer Determination for Managed Aquifer Recharge,

Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Array By Ocpasorn

Occarach and Prakorb Ukong .................................................................... l Study of Salt Contamination Using Hydrogeological Model in the

Lower Nam Kam Irrigation Project, Nakhon Phanom Province,

Thailand By Pakorn Phetcharaburanin, Kompanart Kwansirikul,

Yayee Trinetra, and Uthai Hongjaisee.......................................................... Plate Motions l Modern Stress Map of SE Asia: Origins of the Stress Pattern Deduced

from Finite Element Modeling By Chris Morley, Mark Tingay, Dave

Coblentz and losalind King........................................................................... l 3-D Deep Resistivity Structure Beneath Kanchanaburi Province:

Evidence for the Continent-Continent Collisions By Songkhun

Boonchaisuk, Weerachai Siripunvaraporn and Yasuo Ogawa...................... l Reconstruction on Plate Tectonic and Evolution of Sukhothai and Loei-

Phetchabun Fold Belt; Evidences from Geochemistry and U-Pb Zircon

Age Determination By Somboon Khositanont, Khin Zaw and

Yuenyong Panjasawatwong........................................................................... l Following Sutures and Rivers in Northern Nan Province, Thailand By

Robert B Stokes ..........................................................................................

94 95 97 98 99 101 103 105 106 107 108 109

l Tectonic Evolution of Myanmar: A Brief Preliminary Overview 110 By Win Swe ................................................................................................ l Stratigraphy and Tectonic Subdivisions of Thailand 111 By Pol Chaodumrong................................................................................. Applied Geology l Geotechnics, Recent Deposition Models, Irrigation Canal Systems, and

Flood on Lower Chao Phraya Plain By Suphan Saykawlard, Swang

Chomwoot, Noppadol Poomvises, Narucha Sangthong, and Chanchai

Srisutham....................................................................................................... 115 l Engineering Properties of Residual Soil: Necessity for Rainfall-

Triggered Landslide Warning in Thailand By Suttisak Soralump.............. 116 l Applied Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Monitoring Subsurface

Cavity Expansion By Peangta Satarugsa.................................................... 117 l Paleoseismological Investigations and Seismic Hazard Analysis along

the Mae Hongson Fault, Northwestern Thailand, By Weerachat

Wiwegwin, Preecha Saithong, Suwith Kosuwan, Kitti Kaowisate, Santi

Pailoplee and Punya Charusiri ...................................................................... 118 l Geopark Development Strategy in Thailand By Yudh Saradatta............... 119 l An Alternative Website of Geoinformation in Thailand By Chatchawal

Panyavateenun, Kosol Thianthongnukul, Noppadol Poomvises and

Somyos Kaewmora........................................................................................ 120 l Potential of Ex-Mining Areas to Become Sustainable Economic

Resources through Geoheritage Conservation: Some Examples from

Malaysia By Che Aziz Ali and Tanot Unjah................................................. 121 l Myanmar and Her Thirsty Neighbours By U Soe Myint............................. 122 l NEHRP Soil Type Classification and Ground Shaking Amplification of

Northern Thailand By Passakorn Pananont, Thanawat Yodden,

Mingkwan Mingmuang, Preecha Saithong and Pakawat Sriwangpol......... 124 l Analysis and Modeling of Airborne Geophysical Data in The

Phetchabun Volcanic Terrane, Northern part of Central Thailand By

Arak Sangsomphong, Thanop Thitimakorn and Punya Charusiri................. 125 List of Poster Presentations ............................................................................. 127 Post Congress Excursion Program..................................................................... 128

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Southeast Asian Geological Resources Sustainable Development Geology: Present is the Key to the Future

Chote Trachu

Permanent Secretary Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Bangkok, Thailand


In the 1700s, James Hutton, a Scottish geologist of Edinburgh made a statement “present is the key to the past”. James Hutton is now known as a founder of modern geology and a great observer of the world. In fact, in his early days, he was not known as a geologist, but as a farmer and a naturalist. His geological work, including the popular statement, “the present is the key to the past” was popularized nearly a quarter of century after his death by Sir Charles Lyell, another Scottish geologist. Ironically, Charles Lyell was originally a lawyer, who became a geologist, owing to his deep interest in geology and the work of James Hutton. In 1830, Charles Lyell published “Principle of Geology”, containing the Hutton’s famous maxim, ‘the present is the key to the past’. Charles Lyell’s book had an intention to inspire naturalists and scientists who might be fascinated by geology in an effort to understand and learn about the earth science of geology. Ever since, modern geology has been studied around the world for more than 230 years and only those who have studied and have practiced geology find themselves an understanding of true meaning of “present is the key to the past”. Billions of people around the world however are still distant to geology and the appreciation of the need to study the earth. Instead, what they are looking upon from geology and those who practice geology, is how geology can help them survive, prosper and to have a better quality of lives for a very long-term or eternity. In modern days, such perception is known as a “sustainable development”. I believe that no resource development project can be successfully executed with benefits to all stakeholders while it is simultaneously preserving the environment without understanding of geology. Presently, roles of geology are no longer limited to searching, finding, developing and producing resources, but they should also be built in a conceptual design and planning at the earliest stage of any resource development projects. Hence, I have every belief that a sustainable development calls for geology because it is “Geology” that help define “present is the key to the future”. Evolution of Geological Sciences The definition of Geology varies through time. The Greek meaning for Geology



stays the same for centuries; earth and study for geo and logos or the study of the earth; while the purposes of geological studies differ from time to time. In my context, the evolutionary definition of geology can be described into 4 phases; academic science, exploration and finding tool, economic values, and a sustainable development Phase I: Geology as Academic Science Naturalists and pure scientists started to study the earth long before any modern history. The first record was probably from the ancient Greece. Peri Lithon was probably the first geology textbook, not on paper but on stone. Geological minerals were later studied by many naturalists in the Roman period. The first fossil study, now known as palaeontology, was probably done by a Chinese scientist Shen Kua during 1031-1095, who used evidence and knowledge from fossil studies to explain how the mountain was formed. In 1603 covering the time of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo, the word “geology” was officially used by Ulisse Aldrovandi, an Italian naturalist. In 1671, Nicolas Steno published the law of superposition, the principle of original horizontality, and the principle of lateral continuity; the three defining principles of stratigraphy. William Smith was probably the first person who constructed some geological maps and began the process of ordering rock strata by examining the fossils contained in those strata. In 1799, the world’s first geologic map was constructed. In 1785, not long before the geologic world map, James Hutton presented to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a paper on, Theory of the Earth which focused on how sedimentation and sedimentary processes work. Not long after his publication, there were more studies coming out to debate his work using evidence of volcanic deposits which were not in layers. That was the period of tense arguments between the Plutonists who believed in volcanism and the Neptunists who believed in oceanic sedimentary deposition. Then in 1830, the Principles of Geology was published by Sir Charles Lyell, a British lawyer. With strong influence of Charles Darwin, Sir Charles Lyell’s book promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism and the James Hutton’s concept which was not widely accepted during his time. In contrast, catastrophism was the theory that the earth was formed by a single catastrophic event. The 19th century was the period that geological studies were shifted its focus to age dating, beginning with a few 100,000 to several billions of years. The first radiometric dating appeared in the early 20th century, providing more information on how the earth was formed and how old it was. In 1915, Alfred Wegener, a German astronomer, published The Origins of Continents and Oceans that promoted the theory of continental drift. In the 1960s, the theory of plate tectonics became the most significant breakthrough in the 20th century. Much later in 1960s, Princeton geologist Harry Hess proposed the hypothesis of

sea-floor spreading, leading to the principle of Plate Tectonics of the modern days. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


In phase I, geology gave the impression as pure academic science and therefore, there was no concept developed yet, regardless sustainability. Phase II: Geology as exploration and finding tool The period of geology as academic science paved the way to the period of exploring and finding rocks and minerals for individual entrepreneurs and pioneering countries. The 18th century was the period that Western European countries, equipped with geology, took an advantage of the knowledge to gain wealth from rocks and minerals. Since the 15th century, Spain, Portugal, France, Kingdom of England and Netherlands were the main countries that began sailing to many parts of the world. This period became world’s colonization period. Geologists from those countries were part of the voyages to search and explore rocks and minerals while local people in many countries were either hired or forced to be slaves working in either corn fields or mines. Tin and lead were identified for use since the Bronze Age or around 3,000 B.C. With better knowledge in geology, tin from mineral cassiterite or tin dioxide, was widely explored during the 18th and 19th century. There were two major tin exploration areas. One was the Bolivian tin belt in South America and the other was the East Asian tin belt, stretching from Yunnan of China, through Thailand, Laos, Malaysia and Indonesia. Gold is another good example of how geology was employed to explore the world precious natural resource. During the same period of the 19th century, the Gold Rush took place in many parts of the world, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, and the United States especially in California and Alaska. A small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 which was turned into a boomtown of about 36,000 in 1852 is now one of the most favourite tourist destinations in the well-known city of San Francisco. With geology, many countries with success in their colonization, took further advantage to conquer the world. Such efforts later put many countries into political and military tensions, leading eventually to the World War I during 1914-1918. In phase II, geology was widely used for the purposes of exploring and searching for precious rocks and minerals. However, there was still no development at this phase, regardless of sustainability. Phase III: Geology for economic values The description of Phase III is the period of employing geology for economic values. For thousands of years of human history, human beings were forced to migrate from one place to another whenever foods were depleted. Similar practices were found in the world of geology. Primary minerals’ deposits were explored and were found in many parts of the



world during Phase II geology as described previously. However, with limited knowledge in geology in those early days, no secondary or tertiary deposits were identified. In lacking of technologies and senses of economic geology, miners and mine owners migrated from place to place while abandoning of old the mining sites which later became environmental hazards to the surrounding communities. Phase III is the period when geologists have brought in the concept of economics to the study of the earth. In this period, geology became widely employed in engineering projects, involving not only those for construction materials, but also for structural engineering and stability. Resource development project owners recognized geology as a tool to be integrated into other technical, financial and managerial tools in exploration and finding of valuable minerals along with development and production. Such approach has extensively been accepted by many western companies which became major worldwide corporations, including those oil and gas, and energy companies, known to us for the last several decades. Geology has not only created more values in the exploration, development and production or the business resource chain, but it also has generated much more values from greater success in exploration and in searching due to higher financial and technological supports. Phase III is the period where scientists and engineers have learned about classification of resources and reserves. Another interesting phenomenon during this Phase-III geology was the rejuvenation of certain types of minerals which have been used for thousands of years in human history but became world-widely traded with considerable economic values such as gemstone. Thailand and some members of Asia are known to be one of the world’s famous places for gemstone including sapphire, ruby, jade and others. Phase III is also the period of economic creation by other means than pure and economic geology. Many organizations, some like cartel, were formulated not only to monopolize the market and trading of certain minerals, but also to control both shortterm and long-term pricing in order to support their exploration, development and production of their geological resources. As an example, the International Tin Committee was founded in 1931 and the International Tin Council was established in 1956. However, not long after the formation of the International Tin Committee in 1931 and the International Tin Council in 1956, new tin product substitutes, namely aluminium and petroleum products were introduced to the world. Tin was replaced by aluminium and petrochemical products such as plastic and vinyl since the 1970s. Although not all tin products were replaceable, but the abundant availability of those substitutions was more than enough to trigger the closure of many tin mines around the world. Following the collapse of the tin market in October 1985, the price of tin was nearly halved and the International Tin Council ran out of cash to help sustain the tin price worldwide. Apparently, technology and market substitution for certain geological resources have been an important factor in terminating many resource projects. From pure geology to exploration and to economic geology periods, we BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


could no longer survive the geological resource projects without looking into the future of technologies and market demands. In Phase III period, geology was considered to be the key to successful exploration and searching for rocks, minerals, groundwater, petroleum and so on, as well as successful development; but fails to achieve a sustainable development level due to technological and market challenges. Phase IV: Geology for Sustainable Development Phase IV is the period human beings have been confronting over the last decade. In this period, geology move forward to the level geologists have never seen nor have a thought of. As mentioned earlier, miners and mining project owners migrated from one place to another in a pursuit for sites with higher deposits of rocks and minerals for economic reasons. This is what we call the economic migration. In Phase III, thousands of mining sites worldwide were left unattended and became environmental hazards. With the introduction of series of international standards on environment, health and safety, in this Phase IV, governments of many countries, including nearly all countries in Asia, have adopted world standards on environmental protection, preservation, and rehabilitation. Firstly, the host government took direct responsibility in the clean-up and rehabilitation processes. As we all can imagine, the total cost has become unbearable and forced those governments to look for alternatives. The concept of “who polluted must pay� has emerged originally as codes of practice, and eventually they became law in many countries. Enforcement of those regulations has resulted in a newer definition of sustainable development, that is, you can no longer develop a profitable economic project to your own firm and shareholders, but you must also protect and preserve the environment. Not long after the environmental protection and preservation, health and safety of human beings and living organisms including animals and plants became a serious concern to any resource development projects worldwide. In less than 10 years after the implementation of the industrial standards for manufacturing and production quality management system (ISO9001, ISO14001), the standard of the environmental management system became the world’s standards for environmental protection and preservation. ISO18001, the standard for occupational health and safety management system, later became enforced in many countries and nearly all in Asia. Never before people are interested in geology this much as the world seemed to be in peril of the natural disasters. During the last 50 years, millions of fatalities have been reported due to geological hazards. The top of the list is the great China floods which took more than 2.5 million lives of Chinese people. Floods have been the most dangerous geological hazard in human history. No exception on timing and location, Asian countries are all in peril of floods. Southeast Asian nations including Thailand



have recently been facing the worst flood in history claiming thousands of lives and trillion dollars of damages. Second on the list are, of course, earthquake and tsunami. These geological phenomena have claimed several millions of Asian people, especially those surrounding the Ring of Fire of both the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The December 2004 quake and tsunami originated from the Sunda Arch of offshore Western Sumatra was the deadliest record in terms of fatalities and economic losses. Even though Japan has been equipped with State-of-the-Art safety technologies, Japan’s loss of lives and economic damages caused by the 3/11 quake at offshore Honshu is among the world’s deadliest geological hazards. Although the threat caused by radioactivity leaks from the Fukushima nuclear power plant is not a direct geological hazard, one cannot deny that the movement of the Pacific Plate tucking underneath the Eurasian Plate was the root cause of this disaster. More than half of Asian nations are sitting either on the plate boundaries or on the weak spots and therefore, subject to these disastrous quakes caused by the earth’s movement. Volcanism is next on the list. Many countries in our region are part of the famous Ring of Fire where series of active volcanoes are located. Although fatalities and damages reported from volcanic eruptions are considerably smaller than other geological hazards, it is very interesting for geo-scientists and government administrators for better handling. If we could forecast the timing and severity of other geological hazards like what we can for volcanic eruption, millions of lives and properties could be saved. Disasters caused by geological hazards have obviously brought geology and geological studies closer to people; one cannot refuse or ignore the importance of geology. However, the general public interest in geology is different from geoscientists perspectives. Their interests are mostly for specific benefit such as how to protect themselves against damage and/or benefit from geological disasters, while geoscientists’ interest is still a deep understanding of such geological phenomenon. From a crisis communication point of view, this has put great pressure on our profession in order to explain to people satisfactorily. Let me use flooding as an example since it is the most common natural disaster in Asian countries. Indeed, floods are common natural phenomena in floodplain, hence the definition of floodplain. Without clear understanding regarding geomorphology, formation of floodplain and flow of river channels, people would continue to construct buildings and structures that obstruct natural water flow. When flood disaster takes place, people try their best to manage the flood with all engineering practices without true understanding of geology. Some complain or blame deforestation (excessive cutting down trees), which is of course, one of the reasons for flash flood. However, those believe they could just replant new trees and flood would disappear. Only handful people are aware that weathered and eroded rocks and sediments are gone forever due to flash floods. In consequence, we simply cannot replant or redeposit those rocks and sediments. In this example, it is not only trees that should be preserved, but also geology and geomorphology or the BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


landscape. Without such actions, more floods and disasters are obvious. In Phase IV geology, natural resources developers still fail to achieve the sustainable development level despite the successes in exploration, development, and production of resources along with compliance with environmental, health and safety standards, and the latest stage of the Green industrial concept. Future roles of Geology What will be the roles of geology and what will be our responsibilities as geologists? From the pursuit of academic pure science, geology has advanced from being exploration and searching tools for rocks and minerals, to resource project economics and challenging through technological and environmental, health and safety barriers. Are we close to achievement of the sustainable development level? Then the real challenge, Community and Social Values, has come. For centuries, geologists can deal with rocks, minerals, groundwater, oil and gas; different people like financial and managerial disciplines, and different subjects like environment, health and safety; but never before, geologists have to deal directly with the Community and totally unfamiliar subject of Social Values. In many countries, natural resources belong to the state, and thus administration, management and distribution of those resources are run by the government. However, in some countries like the United States, landowners also own portions of the natural resources found in their properties. Many countries in the Commonwealth adopted different approaches. People in the community where natural resources are explored and developed also own portion of the resources, not as individuals but as the community. The People’s Republic of China manages resource distribution under their land and resource laws which are very unique. Considering the social and public participation, the most common system stating that the resources belong to the state is obviously not in favour of the community. From the community’s perspective, the law does not provide them the legitimate rights of ownership. Although additional and subsequent laws have been promulgated for distribution of natural resources or wealth, the community demands more participation including right from the beginning. This is the case for Thailand and many countries in Southeast Asia, whether it is under the concession system or production-sharing contract. In addition to this new way of working with the community and the public, finding and developing new alternative resources are the new roles of geologists. Energy is a classic example of such geologist roles. Following the short supply of crude oils in the 1970s and a negative prediction on their sufficiency, people have turned to natural gas. When natural gas supply became in doubt, coals especially clean coal technology has been brought to the table. Later, nuclear technology became an



answer as environmental, health and safety have become issues of great concern. However, following the radioactive leaks at the Japanese Fukushima Plant due to the Great Earthquake in Japan in March 2011, the world is calling for a new alternative. Years before that, when the world was convinced that nuclear would be the answer for the generation of power for a new world, tremendous number of nuclear power plants were built. As of mid-October 2011, there were 432 nuclear power plants worldwide and another 350 plants were under planning. In Asia alone, there were 110 operational reactors and 214 were under planning. After the nuclear reactor disaster in Japan, leaders of many countries have voiced opposition views to the use of nuclear power. If those views are truly supported worldwide, it would mean more exploration for alternative energy sources. Alternative energy types like wind, solar, bio and others have become increasingly used; however, they are still perceived as insufficient and are not economical without government and state subsidies. Geology will then be called upon to find answers for new energy sources. Another role of geologists in the future is working together. Of course, geologists from various countries have been working together over the last several decades, through international organizations and associations like CCOP, IGES, MRC and GEOSEA Conference such as this one. However, with the implementation of the AEC or ASEAN Economic Council in 2015 to be followed by the free flow of skilled workforce including geo-scientists and engineers, the new fairway will be totally different. Free-trade agreements are in rapid expansion and are coming our way. For decades, our cooperation looks more like working together and attending the same conferences from time to time. In the near future, Southeast Asian geo-scientists will likely be working together, sitting on the same desk in the same office. A new set of challenges which geologists never thought about before will have to be met. Some of which are the use of languages, understandable across different working cultures and the decision making processes, interfaced with different technologies and management theories. Water is life, everyone believes that. While water covers more than threefourths of the earth’s surface, more than 884 million people worldwide still lack an access to safe drinking water. This is about one-eighth of the total world population. The answer of geology to the world/community today, is therefore not limited to the science of geology, exploration, development, production, technology, conservation, environmental protection, or economic expansion for the community or country or for the region, but more to fully integrated project management with full involvement of stakeholders; beginning from conceptual design, planning, through project execution and even to distribution of wealth. That and only that, is the true meaning of sustainable development, and that, and only that, is the role of geology in the future. What would then be the definition of sustainable development for geological resource projects? We started off with geology as the pursuit of academic science, we then employed geology to explore and to find rocks and minerals, we broke through BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


technological barriers and have overcome market changes to develop and to produce economic resource projects; we adapted geology to cope with concerns on environment, health and safety, later with Green industrial concept. However, as long as the world needs materials and natural resources, which seems like forever, geology is the key to the future sustainability. The working fairway has developed into a totally different level for which the community and the public or social groups have brought to work closely with geologists. Geology must be completely mingled in project development in one way or the other, to result in sustainability. The resource development projects must be economic or profitable not only to investors or shareholders, but also to the environment and all stakeholders including host government, local communities and the public as a whole. This is a very long-term process which has failed to succeed because a lack of integration of geology right at the earliest phase of project initiation. It is almost impossible to start talking about geology in the resource project development when the project has gone into deep trouble with technological changes or into changes of market needs on substitution products like the case of Tin, or with natural disasters like floods. We must start with a truthful understanding of geology first. That is why I believe, “Present is the Key to the Future� for a sustainable resource project development.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction –

The Role of Geoscience

Joy Jacqueline Pereira

Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention research Institute (SEADPRI-UKM) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia Email: joy@ukm.my

Asia hosts 60% of the world’s population, with 48% of its population being urban and a majority living in the coastal zones. By the 2050s, climate change will most likely contribute to the already high levels of hydro-meteorological hazards and number of people affected in the region, particularly with respect to flooding. In Peninsular Malaysia, simulations of future river flows in several watersheds indicate increases in hydrologic extremes, i.e. higher high flows and lower low flows when compared with historical levels. Increases or decreases in water levels of rivers may give rise to various consequences. Low water flows generally affects river water quality negatively as the capacity to dilute pollution is reduced. Low water quality has resulted in the closure of water treatment plants in the past and such incidents may become the norm if there is no intervention to address the issue. Higher and extreme run-offs may result in increased risk of flooding. This would in turn heighten the risk of disasters due to landslides and mudslides in exposed areas where the geological terrain is susceptible to such hazards. Furthermore, increased flooding, particularly in areas that have never been flooded could lead to dispersal of contaminants and toxins into rivers where wastewater treatment plants are overwhelmed. The possibility of circulation of environmentally hazardous substances in surface water where industrial sites and landfills are affected cannot be discounted. Such cascading hazards and the risks associated with it have to be addressed. Cascading hazards would increase with the onset of climate change and if left unchecked, would increase the risk of disasters. Climate change is also expected to result in modifications of sea-levels and sea temperatures. This in turn may result in other forms of alterations of risk. For example increases in sea-level may increase the risk of intrusion of saltwater into aquifers and sewer networks. Sea-level rise may also put at risk coastal infrastructure as well as housing, commercial and industrial areas that are currently exposed. It would also affect ecosystems, particularly mangroves and coral reefs. It would be more cost-effective to take adaptation measures early on, especially for exposed areas and critical infrastructure with long life. Measures should be taken to identify areas such as housing, commercial and industrial areas as well as critical infrastructure that may be vulnerable to the impacts of climate change to reduce risk of disasters. In addition, current spatial planning should take into account the BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


potential of cascading hazards to avoid creating more exposed areas. However, there is currently no agreement on the climate projections for the country. Erroneous prediction may lead to wastage of large public investments. This is particularly true where the construction of expensive infrastructure is proposed as an adaptation measure to future conditions that are highly uncertain. Careful consideration should be given to the adaptation measures that are proposed. Research based on geoscience inputs has the potential to delineate local level impacts and vulnerability and subsequently identify “no regret actions� for adaptation to be considered by decision-makers. There is great potential for geoscience to contribute effectively to landuse planning and structural investments with a long lifespan such as hydropower dams, highways and other major infrastructure. For example, the existing terrain mapping programme implemented by the Minerals and Geoscience Department of Malaysia has the potential to be expanded to take into account climate related stressor and other factors that affect vulnerability. This programme serves as an illustration for the potential of generating geoscience knowledge that is policy relevant to reduce underlying risk factors and strengthen disaster risk reduction.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Status of Geosciences in Myanmar

Win Swe

President, Myanmar Geosciences Society

Myanmar is generally regarded as a country endowed with rich mineral resources. Myanmar’s mineral resources, like gemstones, oil, lead-zinc-silver, tintungsten, and gold were already discovered and were being exploited by local people, even before the Earth Sciences or Geology had made its rapid progress in late 18th and early 19th centuries. However, the earliest systematic Geological study and proper mine development of the deposits in Myanmar were made only during the British colonial period, 1824-1948. Within that period, most of the geological survey was conducted by the geologists of Geological Survey of India ( GSI), founded in 1852, followed by those of private Oil Companies, and also by a few Geologists of the Rangoon (Yangon) University. Located in the tectonically active Alpide Seismic Belt, between the east Himalayan syntaxis and the Andaman Sea to the south, washed by the Bay of Bengal on the west, Myanmar constitutes the northwestern part of mainland of Southeast Aisa. The knowledge of Myanmar geology is crucial for the understanding the link between the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt to the west and its continuation to the rest of Southeast Asia through the East Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) around which the belt bends clockwise into the northern Myanmar region. Myanmar territory is now known to be composed of two former continental fragments (Shan-Thai and Central Myanmar Blocks) of Gondwanaland origin, sutured together probably in Cretaceous. The composite landmass was accreted by an accretionary wedge on the west along the east shore of the Bay of Bengal, forming the Indoburman Ranges extending all the way from the Andaman Sea to the EHS. However, because of hyper-oblique subduction of the Indian Oceanic lithosphere beneath Myanmar, the western portion of the entire composite landmass of Myanmar was detached dextrally in Miocene by a still active transform fault, known as the Sagaing Fault, extending from the sea-floor spreading ridge in the Andaman Sea northward, through medial lowland belt of the north-south elongated country into two halves, up to the northern border with India interring the EHS region. Therefore, Myanmar is earthquake-prone, like the northern India and the neighboring provinces of China to the north, and the Andaman–Nicobar and Sumatra Islands to the south, also located within the active Alpide Seismic Belt. It is clearly indicated by the historic earthquakes. However, because of rapid growth of population, industries and urban areas, all of which could intensify the impact of disasters, and also led to environmental degradation, disasters are on the rise in Myanmar. Hence Geosciences should play more important roles for the assessment of potential of disasters, the magnitude of their impact and their mitigation, and also for BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


the protection of environmental degradation, before it is too late. These problems should have been considered since the planning stage of every major construction project, particularly dams, bridges, airfields, urban center etc. Rangoon University was founded in 1920 together with the Department of Geology and Geography, and teaching of Geology began only in 1923. However, Myanmar students were not interested in geology in those days. Altogether 24 Universities are now offering B.Sc. degrees whereas Yangon and Mandalay universities offer Masters and Doctorate degrees in various branches of the geoscience subjects and five colleges are teaching geology as minor subject. Emphasis should be laid on practical field training as most of the geoscience subjects require a strong field geology background, before we have suitable facilities to conduct experiments and theoretical studies. Currently Geoscience knowledge is increasingly utilized in Myanmar, such as in the exploration of various mineral commodities; in identifying potential impact of natural and man-made hazards or disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, land subsidence and environmental degradations etc.; and in the mitigation of the disaster impact, including geotechnical works, regional and local planning, and management sectors. In fact, Myanmar needs to utilize a broad spectrum of geosciences in various sectors by government, semi-government and non-government organizations. Close collaboration, exchange of regional and local experiences, and generous aids are required to undertake such a broad spectrum of geoscience projects for the welfare of mankind. Figure 1. Physiographic and tectonic features of Myanmar Region

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

State of Geosciences in the Philippines

Guillerma Jayne T. Atienza President of Geological Society of the Philippines Bureau of Design, Department of Public Works and Highways Bonifacio Drive, Port Area, Manila, Philippines

Geoscience deals with the study of the structure, evolution and dynamics of the planet Earth including its natural, mineral and energy resources. Geoscientists investigate geological processes such as earthquake, landslides, volcanic activity, tsunami, etc. and works together with other professions to mitigate the adverse effects of these processes/geohazards. The need to address various issues on environment, climate change, geological hazards, greater demand for minerals, groundwater, fossil fuels due to rapid growth in population, has consequently increased the demand for geologists. Degradation due to conversion of forest lands for agricultural use had also caught the attention of geoscientists in the country due to increased erosion and siltation of rivers. Frequent occurrence of geologic hazards has caused undue stress for geologists in government due to demands for larger scale (1:10,000) geohazard maps. The almost everyday increase in petroleum products burdened the geologists in the energy sector in looking for cheaper alternative sources of energy such as biogas, geothermal, wind, hydropower, and even the possibility of utilizing the moth-balled Bataan nuclear power plant. Rapid growth in population also increased the demand for exploration and extraction of natural resources such as metallic/non-metallic minerals and petroleum. Thus, the massive exodus of government geologist to mining companies because of a much higher compensation and incentives. Lately, however, non-government organizations have intensified their campaign against mining because of its perceived irreversible destruction to the environment. If unabated, possible loss of jobs in the local mining industry could happen and consequently, geoscientists will shift to overseas employment again. In the academe, for the past three (3) years, there is an increase of enrollment in geology. However, there is a decline in the number of board passers in Geologist Licensure Exam given by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) because most of the schools offering Geology is not ready in terms of faculty (majority are part-timers), and facilities and equipment do meet the minimum requirements set by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) offering the Geology program. Hence, at present, there is a low supply of geologists. For the issues besetting the geosciences, particularly the shortage of Geologists and “Brain Drain� in the country, the government should address the following: wages, education and policies (mining, environment, etc.). Media should also be used extensively in the promotion of geosciences so people will have greater appreciation of this unique field of science. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS 14

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Status of Geosciences Workforce in Thailand

Songpope Polachan

President, Geological Society of Thailand

Apart from gold, copper and tin prospecting during the pre-historic and the Bronze ages, the first and most important geological resources being mined in Thailand, particularly in the southern peninsular was tin. The well endowment and the plentiful of ore deposits at that time is probably the reason why the businesses were ran successfully without geologist and geological concept for centuries. The first law related to geology, “the Mining Act� was promulgated in 1918. In fact, it is dealing mainly with tin mining and engineering. A few years later, in 1921 exploring for coal and petroleum aiming to find an alternative souses of power for locomotive instead of woods was conducted and headed by an USGS geologist without any record of local geoscientist. The expeditions resulted in development of coal mines projects in the south and north of the country. After geology courses were included at Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University in 1958 a group of genuine geologists started to work to explore and exploit various geological resources. These resource persons including the changing world brought up new mode and varieties of utilizing the geological resources, concepts and ideas. To work and supervise the proper and more efficient way on the matters related to geology the Mining Law was amended in 1967 and subsequently the Petroleum Act and the Ground Water Act were issued. Geosciences workforce in Thailand had opened a new responsibilities and roles. Systematic geologic mapping started in 1970’s expeditiously to have enough information to understand more about the geology of Thailand and its mineral resources potential. Since 1980 it was observed that ore deposits which are easy to find and develop were diminishing quickly. On the other hand, petroleum played more important role to the country economy. Mean while, ground water and engineering geology are also countrywide topics of interesting and vital. Geo hazard and environmental geology become the topic which are more seriously debated, studied and planed for better protective and remedial management. Subsurface study and geophysical methods are more common recently. However, surface mapping and surveying are still conducted on other projects, e.g. stratigraphy and paleontology. With almost 3000 Thai geoscientists graduated since 1958 through to 2010, approximately one third of these geoscientist workforce members are reported to be employed by the government sector while others are working with either the private sector or are self-employed. The employment trend has shifted toward the private sector in the past decade when the oil and gas industry and engineering geology picked up its beat in Thailand.

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Many trained Thai geoscientists have gone on to achieve management positions at the highest levels in oil and gas companies and government sectors. The geoscientist community has been part of profession that delivers enormous economic value to Thailand, and much of this community is settled in the oil and gas industry. A number of geosciences specialties relevant to the oil and gas industry have been identified by the industry as already suffering skills shortages. This is one the reasons behind leading petroleum companies carrying out programs to attract young talented students at high school levels to step into future geosciences professions under their umbrellas. This is an effective approach to ensure that they will have sufficient geoscientists to work in their future ambitious plans. Currently, the shortage situation has been temporarily solved by importing expatriates with needed skills to work in their companies. In 2011, the Geological Society of Thailand conducted a preliminary survey on both the demand side, with 31 oil and gas companies, 27 private companies and 12 government departments who employ geoscientists, and on the supply side, by consulting with six universities offering training in geosciences in Thailand ( Chulalongkorn, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen, Mahidol , Kasetsart and Suranaree universities). The survey results indicate that an overall situation of an oversupply of geoscientists is certainly unavoidable. The supply rate of approximately 300- 400 fresh graduates each year will exceed the demand from the industry, both the private and government sector. During 2010 to 2021 the demand from the government sector indicated there will be a flat and small need for employing these fresh graduates and that only the private sector will be the driving employer for this workforce. By 2021 the private sector can take up approximately one fifth of the additional 3000-4000 geoscientist workforce members needed for supply into the industry. This will be a critical challenge for Geological Society of Thailand as its work with academia, industry and the government sector to satisfy specialty shortage gaps and yet also manage the difficulties of an overall oversupply of geoscientists.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rising and Flooding Disasters

HE Qingcheng

Director CCOP Technical Secretariat, Bangkok, Thailand

E-mail: heqc@ccop.or.th

Land subsidence is a slow degeneration of geological disasters. At present more than 200 cities distributed in 60 countries and regions in the world have suffered land subsidence, which produced the immeasurable economic loss. Many cities, like Shanghai in China and Bangkok in Thailand, are under different levels of threat by the geological disasters of subsidence. Sea level rising is also a slow degeneration of Meteorological disasters. The IPCC, in its 1995 assessment report, indicates that the global sea level in the last 100 years was up 18 cm (an average of 1.8 mm/a). Although annual change rate is very small, but from the long time scales it has important influence on the future. Especially in the delta low-lying plain, like Shanghai and Bangkok, they have suffered sea level rising, even faced with the danger of disappearing in some days. Flooding is one of the most serious disasters in the world wide, which normally produced the huge human and property loss. Flooding simulation and prediction, and reduction of its risk are always to be focused by the government and non-government organizations. Due to the uncertainty of flooding disasters, it becomes more difficulty to predicting and controlling. In general, land subsidence, sea level rising and flooding disasters will not occur at the same time in the same area, or influence is not very big. But with the global climate changing, the occurrence probability of the disaster stack is more and more big. This paper is trying to illustrate the seriousness of this phenomenon taking Bangkok and Shanghai as case study through a series of historical data and pictures, and proposes the corresponding countermeasure for decision-maker.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Repeated Tragedy: 3.11 Tohoku Earthquake

and Tsunami in 2011, Northeast Japan Hirokazu Kato

Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)

Throughout its recorded history, Japan has repeatedly experienced major tsunamis. Here, as repeated cases of catastrophic ones, mega-tsunami occurred at the northeast coast of Honshu (main island of Japan) are introduced. In 1896 an earthquake (M.8.5) occurred off the coastal areas of Pacific Ocean , Sanriku area, were attacked by a huge tsunami, Meiji-Sanriku Tsunami that killed about 22,000 inhabitants in nearby coastal areas. The maximum height of tsunami is 38.2m. In 1933 similar earthquake (M.8.1) associated with tsunami, Showa-Sanriku Tsunami again occurred and more than 3000 people were lost. The maximum height of tsunami is about 30m. The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) and associated tsunami, HeiseiSanriku Tsunami occurred on 11th in March. It damaged from Tohoku to Kanto districts. The focal depth is about 24km at the boundary between Pacific and North American Plates. Its source region is 200km in width and 500km in length. Maximum intensity is 7.A large number of aftershocks and induced earthquakes followed the main shock in a short time. The maximum height of tsunami is 40.5m. Huge tsunami and liquefaction gave the severe damages for buildings, road, electronic/water supply etc. Although the correct amount of victims is unknown, it may exceeds 20,000 in number. It also damages the nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture, therefore it causes the serious problem of radioactive contamination. Of course, before these tsunami-earthquakes several ones are known by historical documents and geological surveys of tsunami sediments. Japan is so-called tsunami country. To mitigate the tsunami damage, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) incorporates a sophisticated network of earthquake sensors spread throughout Japan – both onshore and offshore. Within three minutes of an earthquake, the potential for a tsunami is assessed, and warnings are issued. These warnings are based on historical records and computer simulations of possible tsunami magnitude and occurrence. Warnings and updates are announced on TV and radio. The procedures established by the JMA allow these warnings to be issued in a few minutes and the communications network is a vital component of the warning system: those warnings have to be issued to inhabitants of the affected region as quickly as possible. However, it cannot save lives this time. Not only the new technology but also effective refuge plan are required. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

The Circumstance of Seismic Hazard in Japan

Hirokazu Kato Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)


It is a fatality that Japan is attacked by various kinds of geological disasters not only in past time but also in future. It is because Japanese Islands are situated in island arc region where four plates such as Pacific, North American, Philippine Sea and Eurasia plates assemble and divide Japan, therefore she was suffered from violent and active tectonic movements caused earthquakes and volcanic activities over and over again. Here, I would like to introduce some examples of serious seismic disasters occurred in and around Japan. The magnitude of earthquakes occurred in inland area ,that is intra-plate type is not so huge (M <7.5), however their focal depth is small, damages is so severe around the epicenter. They are almost caused by active faulting. Sometimes surface faulting displaced/destroyed buildings, bridges, railways etc. directly. Two examples of these earthquakes in historical time (Edo era), Zenkoji earthquake and Ansei-Edo earthquake in central Japan are introduced. Two types of faulting i.e. reverse faulting and strike-slip faulting are important in the viewpoint of damages caused by earthquakes. The former example is Rikuu earthquake (1896, M7.2) in northeast Japan whose maximum vertical displacement is about 2.5m and the latter one is Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake (1995,M7.2) in southwest Japan whose maximum horizontal displacement is about 2.1m. The magnitude of earthquakes occurred in trench area , that is inter-plate type is so huge (M >7.5) are frequently associated with Tsunami. Two examples of these earthquakes, that is HokkaidoNanseioki earthquake (1993,M7.8) in Japan Sea and Great Kanto earthquake (1923,M7.9) in Pacific Ocean are introduced. And I also examine what we, geologists/Geological Survey of Japan, AIST should do to mitigate seismic disasters? The first one is the base-line geological survey for the assessment of earthquake occurrences/risk assessment such as active faults study where is practiced on land and off shore, Tsunami sediments study to evaluate the recurrence time/damages of tsunami earthquakes on the coastal area and developing their database etc. The second one is monitoring of deep groundwater level change to detect the regional strain of crust as the precursor of earthquake for shortterm prediction. The third one is the enhancement awareness of hazards among people /residents /decision makers, not only professional such as hazard mapping. This is indispensable for the concrete mitigation of seismic disasters. As one example, seismic hazard map is introduced.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) Project and its Contribution to Flood Mitigation in Kuala Lumpur Datoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Ahmad Husaini bin Sulaiman

Director General Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia


Climate change has brought about increased intensity and duration of rainfall in Malaysia. In Kuala Lumpur, against a backdrop of rapid urban development, the frequency of floods has increased leading to massive economic loss. Through the Klang River Basin Flood Mitigation effort, various projects have been implemented but the flood risks continue to be high as development had encroached into the river reserves. River conveyance in the Kuala Lumpur city center became hampered by the existence of bridge and highway support structures and excessive sedimentation due to under-controlled land clearing. Constraint by the lack of land reserves to construct conventional solutions, an underground by-pass channel was proposed. Driven by the need to optimise the tunnel, the engineers innovated to add traffic conveyance to the tunnel function and this gave birth to the Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel (SMART). Completed in 2007, the tunnel is the first of its kind and is capable of diverting 3 million cubic meters of water in the Klang River from entering the city center through an upstream gate diversion. Part of the tunnel serves as a major access in and out of the city for about 35,000 cars each day thereby relieving the long standing problem of daily traffic congestion in the central business district. SMART serves NOT as a singular solution to KL floods but one of several initiatives under the ongoing Klang River Basin Flood Mitigation Project. The complexity of SMART operation lies in the intricate installation of sensors, SCADA and hydro-mechanical components and an advanced Flood Detection System which forewarns of an impending flood condition and initiates the protocols to close the tunnel to traffic and then divert flood flows through it. Whilst during construction, geotechnical and tunnel engineers overcame the inherent difficulties of tunneling through karst, ex-mining lands within close proximity of the existing infrastructure above. The karst coupled with the high groundwater table underneath most of the city stretched the construction team to its full knowledge in handling the threats of subsidence, sinkholes and cavities. Until 2011, the SMART has used its extreme operation mode (fully closed to traffic) over 70 times potentially saving KL city center from approximately RM112 million (USD36 million) in damages each year since its completion.



The SMART project created a new dimension to flood mitigation in Malaysia.

The challenges presented by the construction of SMART had created opportunity for geotechnical and tunnel engineers and geoscience professionals to further refine their understanding of karst. Their combined contribution were critical to the success of SMART and their efforts have carved a place in the history of engineering in Malaysia.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Mega Geological Hazards and Changing Earth: Climate Change

David A. C. Manning School of Civil Engineering & Geosciences, Newcastle University,

Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, NE1 7RU E-mail : david.manning@ncl.ac.uk

Whether we like it or not, there is little doubt that human activity has increased atmospheric CO2, and we now face the consequences of this for the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s climate. Human perturbation of the global climate system is believed to have started with the dawn of agriculture and the cultivation of rice (Ruddiman et al., 2011). If the climate had developed as expected from previous patterns, glacial conditions would have resumed at some stage during the last 10000 years, and human activities seem to have prevented this from happening. Our use of fossil fuels, especially since the start of the Industrial Revolution, has accelerated the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2. But fossil fuels are not the only source of greenhouse gases. Other emissions of greenhouse gases include nitrogen oxides and ammonium from agriculture, and these also contribute to global warming. With current trends to increased use of coal for electricity generation to support improved standards of living and to meet the needs of growing economies and populations, there seems to be little prospect of humanity reducing CO2 emissions. Although much needs to be done and can be done to provide alternative carbon neutral energy, for example from geothermal sources, there is an opportunity for the geologist to use his/her skills to develop affordable techniques that remove CO2 from the atmosphere. One such technique includes Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), exploiting the infrastructure of petroleum production so that depleted gas and oil fields are recharged with CO2 captured from the exhaust gases of power generating plants. The financial and energy costs are high. Carbonation of silicate minerals is an alternative technique. It is known that minerals such as olivine (Mg2SiO4) will react with CO2 to give a carbonate mineral â&#x20AC;&#x201C;magnesite â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and Ca silicates react to give calcite. This process can, in principle, be integrated with a CCS activity, in areas where Ca and Mg silicate rocks occur in the subsurface, but is still expensive. Additionally, the process also occurs in soils. Mimicking the natural formation of pedogenic carbonates, both natural and artificial Ca and Mg silicates soils can be added to soils, within which comparatively inexpensive natural weathering processes form Ca and Mg carbonates. These are effectively permanent sinks for CO2. Ruddiman, W.F., Kutzbach J.E. and Vavrus, S.J. 2011.Can natural or anthropogenic explanations of late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 increases be falsified?The Holocene 21, 865-879. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Prospects for Potash: An Urgent Need to Feed Growing Populations

David A. C. Manning School of Civil Engineering & Geosciences, Newcastle University,

Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, NE1 7RU E-mail : david.manning@ncl.ac.uk

In 2050, there will be 9 billion people in the world. Geologists face the challenge of providing this increased population with the mineral resources needed to maintain civilized society and economic growth. Although pressure on strategic metals is rising, the greatest challenge is perhaps that of providing fertilizer minerals. All plants require mined nutrients, especially P and K. The reserves of each commodity are very large, with known lifetimes of 370 years for P and 290 years for K at 2010 production rates. Resources in each case are sufficient for thousands of yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; production. Nutrient audits compare the amounts of P and K removed as a content of food crops with that added to soils as fertilizer, or through crop residues etc. In most countries, addition of P is sufficient to compensate for crop offtake, but K is not being replenished adequately. Globally, using audits for the end of the 20th century, world production of K fertilizer needs to double to replenish the amount removed in crops. The problem with P and K arises from unevenness in their geographical distribution, availability and price. P occurs within phosphate rock, with 38 countries worldwide producing significant amounts (95% world production from 16 countries). In contrast, K is mined from deposits in very few countries: 11 countries produce 99% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s K, and 90% of world reserves are located in North America. In 2008, when fertilizer prices peaked, potash reached the price of $1000 per tonne. Unlike N and P fertilizers, the price did not fall to pre-peak levels, and it is now around $500-600 per tonne. To replace the K removed by cropsat the present time from soil, 30 million tonnes of additional potash need to be mined each year, equivalent to existing production. But at its very high current price, it is questionable whether those who need to buy K can afford to do so, especially in the poorer parts of the world where need is greatest. Given the demand for K that is required to make agriculture sustainable, in addition to the development of new potash mines there is scope to identify novel alternative sources of K, such as feldspars and nepheline, which act as slow-release sources particularly in tropical soils. Such materials cannot be transported far; their use requires an alternative approach to plant nutrition Manning, D. A. C., 2010. Mineral sources of potassium for plant nutrition:

a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 30, 281-294.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Mega Geohazards and the Changing Earth Hamish Campbell GNS Science, PO Box 30-368, Lower Hutt, New Zealand E-mail: h.campbell@gns.cri.nz

Mankind may have mastered nature in many ways but as has been demonstrated repeatedly within the past year (2011), we are powerless and extremely vulnerable when confronted with the awesome forces that nature can unleash, referred to here as ‘mega geohazards’. These are the natural hazards that earth scientists are very familiar with but which occur and/or impact on a very large scale. Despite our specific interest in the scale or size of such phenomena, these natural hazards all have something in common: they all involve the rapid displacement of solids, liquids and gases at the Earth’s surface. There are other hazards that threaten us such as biological, chemical, social, economic and political hazards; but these are not considered here as they are not regarded as geohazards. The earth sciences offer perspectives on natural phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, extreme weather events, climate change, fire, meteorite impacts and electromagnetic perturbations that have afflicted the surface of the Earth in the past. In so much as the so-called rock record constitutes the ‘memory banks’ of the Earth, the role that we earth scientists have is to transcribe that record, make sense of it, and make use of it for the benefit of humanity and the natural environment. Common questions that we as an expert community is asked are: how long will the event last for? how long will it take to restore ‘normality’? when will such an event happen next? How often do these events occur? From the point of view of society and the economy, the natural hazards that threaten us are worthy of significant research so that potential damage from future events can be better anticipated, better prepared for and better minimised. At the same time, we must also undertake primary or fundamental research on these natural hazards so that we can better understand them and the natural processes involved. Such research involves applied physics, applied chemistry, applied maths, applied biology, applied technology, applied engineering and applied psychology. After the damaging and disastrous 10210-2012 Christchurch earthquake sequence, the New Zealand experience can offer some insights into what happens when a major city or country is struck by a mega geohazard. This event has prompted the largest mass-movement of people in New Zealand’s history and has made a huge impact on New Zealand’s economy (>10% GDP).



In general, Christchurch was well-served with sound, modern, well-documented professional earth science knowledge and expertise relating to the seismic hazard it faced. However, there is room for improvement in communicating technical information to city planning authorities. There could have been a better outcome than there was. Most importantly, there is a clear need for much better geological knowledge of the substrate beneath the city (up to 20 metres below surface), and more rigorous attention to observing lawful building code requirements.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

On Edge: the Christchurch Earthquakes, New Zealand

Hamish Campbell GNS Science, PO Box 30-368, Lower Hutt, New Zealand E-mail: h.campbell@gns.cri.nz

Christchurch is New Zealand’s second largest city with a population of more than 300,000 people. It is the largest city in the South Island and is located at 44 ® latitude on the east coast just north of Banks Peninsula, a very prominent geomorphic feature in the landscape. This is an upstanding eroded extinct intra-plate volcanic complex of Late Miocene age. The city is built close to the sea on the edge of an extensive coastal plain (the Canterbury Plains) comprised of a thick succession (c. 500 metres) of mainly late Pleistocene sediments (fluvial and marginal marine), resting on metamorphic basement rocks (TorlesseSupergroup ‘greywacke’) of Permian-TriassicJurassic age. The centre of the city (Cathedral Square) is located about 5 metres above sea level. Much of the South Island is on continental crust of the Pacific Plate, including Christchurch. Looking inland from Christchurch to the west, the spectacular mountains of the Southern Alps are conspicuous. These mountains are relatively young (Miocene-Recent) and have formed within the plate collision zone along the western margin of the westward-moving Pacific Plate and the eastern margin of the northwardmoving Australian Plate. The Alpine Fault defines the plate boundary and is some 90 kilometres to the west of Christchurch. The so-called ‘Christchurch earthquake sequence’ commenced on 4 September 2010 with the magnitude 7.1 Darfield Earthquake. The epicentre was located at a depth of 10 kilometres c. 40 km to the west of Christchurch and caused ground rupture (c.30 km in length) on a previously unrecognised E-W oriented ‘new’ fault (the Greendale Fault). More than 10,000 aftershocks have since been recorded (up to 8 February 2012). As anticipated, there have been several aftershocks of magnitude 6 or greater, including the devastating 6.3 earthquake on 22 February 2011, which caused 184 deaths. The Christchurch earthquake sequence is on-going but the aftershocks, as expected, are diminishing in size and frequency with time. GeoNet, the seismic surveillance arm of GNS Science, regards this ‘event’ as the ‘best recorded’ in New Zealand’s history. A wealth of data is available for research and accordingly a much better understanding of active tectonismand its impacts is emerging. The deformation that has affected Christchurch is to do with relief of long-term stress accumulation (c. 20,000 years) associated with plate collision. It is thought that c.70-80% of plate boundary deformation is taken up by the Alpine Fault itself and mountain building, BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


whereas 20-30% of total deformation is distributed over a much broader zone

(c.100 km) to either side of the boundary. The Christchurch earthquakes are unusual because they have impacted directly on an understandably previously unrecognised blind fault system that happens to be located directly beneath a major city.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Sibumasu (Shan-Thai) in the Palaeozoic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Part of Greater Gondwana or a Vagrant Terrene?- Evidence from Paleontology, Geology and Sedimentary Provenance

C.F Burrett1,2 S.Meffre1, K.Zaw1, S.Khositanont3, P.Chaodumrong3 and M.Udchachon2 CODES Centre for Ore Deposit Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Palaeontological Research and Education Centre, Maharsarakham University, Maharsarakham, Thailand 3 Geological Survey Bureau, Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI Rd, Bangkok, Thailand 1



The hypothesis that the Shan Thai (or Sibumasu) Terrane was originally part of Gondwana that rifted off in the Permian or later was proposed separately by Mike Audley-Charles, Mike Ridd and Sangad Bunopas thirty years ago and has been widely accepted (e.g. by Ian Metcalfe) - despite a lack of reliable palaeomagnetic evidence. Key evidence was provided by largely unstudied and poorly dated glacial deposits in southern Thailand and northern Malaysia and the presence of detrital diamonds in dredged Quaternary deposits near Phuket. Subsequent, detailed investigations of these confirmed a Gondwana connection. Work on the early to middle Ordovician succession and faunas in S. Thailand and N. Malaysia showed a strong Australian affinity which convinced Clive Burrett and Bryan Stait that Sibumasu was part of Gondwana and probably adjacent to Australia. A Thai-Tasmanian team led by Thanis Wonwanich also discovered an outer shelf trilobite fauna in Late Ordovician Pa Kae Formation of Satun Province. Richard Fortey described the numerous species from this fauna and showed its very close affinity with South China. In this paper we assess the palaeontological evidence from Sibumasu and emphasise the importance of using shallow water endemics in palaeobiogeographic analyses. We reiterate the importance of using the heavily weighted orthoconic nautiloids which would not have floated far post-mortem. Trilobites and brachiopods from deeper shelf environments may be expected to show affinities with more distant terranes. Psychrospheric faunas inhabited cold water in both deep water tropical and shallow water high latitudes leading to polar emergence and tropical submergence of similar faunas. Detrital zircons have been obtained from the Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician of the Tarutao Group in S Thailand and from the early Permian Kaeng Krachan Group in and near Phuket. These zircons have age spectra that can be matched to those of Australia and reaffirm the contiguity of Sibumasu and Gondwana in the Palaeozoic until early Permian rifting.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Potential and Prospectivity of Myanmar Mineral Resources in the Context of SE Asian Tectonics and Metallogeny Khin Zaw

CODES ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 126, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia


The SE Asia region is characterised by an assembly of crustal plates or microcontinents that were rifted off from northern margin of Gondwana during Phanerozoic. These microplates or terranes such as South China, Shan-Thai, Indochina and west Myanmar terranes were drifted on the Tethyan Oceans northwards and accreted or collided with the Eurasian margin. These various rift, drift and subduction to collision/post-collisional processes are responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of metal deposits from gems to future metals such as REE, U and Li, and other gold and base metal ore deposits in SE Asia. Myanmar has a long history of mining for base metals, tin-tungsten, gold-silver, and gemstones. Myanmar has world class deposits such as the Bawdwin Mine (the largest polymetallic base metal deposit in the world before World War II), the Hermyingyi Mine (the largest tungsten-tin veins system before World War I), the Mawchi Mine (the largest tungsten-tin veins system before World War II) and the famous gemstone tract of the Mogok-Momeik area in northern Myanmar. Myanmar consists tectonostratigraphic terranes which now form western part of continental mainland SE Asia. Myanmar can be divided into six N-S trending tectonic domains, from west to east (1) the Arakan (Rakhine) Coastal Strip as an ensimatic foredeep, (2) the Indo-Burman Ranges as an outer arc or fore arc, (3) the Western Inner-Burman Tertiary Basin as an inter-arc basin, (4) the Central Volcanic Belt (Central Volcanic Line) as an inner magmatic-volcanic arc, (5) the Eastern InnerBurman Tertiary Basin as back-arc basin and (6) the Sino-Burman Ranges or ShanTenasserim Massif as an ensialic continental region. The Sagaing Transform Fault occurs as a tectonically significant boundary between the Eastern-Burman Basin and the continental, ensialic Sino-Burman Ranges. Of these six tectonic domains, the IndoBurman Ranges, the Inner Magmatic-Volcanic Arc and the Sino-Burman Ranges are characterised by their distinctive mineral provinces and epoches. The Indo-Burman Ranges contains Triassic to Cretaceous flysch sediments and obducted ophiolites which contains chromite, nickel, PGE and precious metals, and has potential for the discovery of Cyprus type Cu(Au) deposits. The Central Volcanic Belt forms as a magmatic-volcanic arc of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age and hosts the highsulphidation Monywa Cu (Au ?) deposit and a variety of epithermal style gold-silver

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veins. The Sino-Burman Ranges, which is also termed the Shan-Thai terrane, contains Late Cambrian to Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks and local Mesozoic clastics. The SinoBurman Ranges is an important region in terms of Myanmarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mineral potential and include at least three different styles of base metal mineralistation, the finest, world class ruby, sapphire, jade deposits and the potential for the discovery of sizable alluvial diamond deposits. In addition, tin-tungsten veins and structurally controlled, turbiditehosted, orogenic gold deposits occur at the western margin of the Indo-Burman Ranges in a narrow zone along the Sagaing Transform Fault. The enrichment of base metal mineralisation is exemplified by the Bawdin Mine (volcanic-hosted base metal deposit), the Theingon Mine (Mississippi-Valley type) and the Yadatheingi Mine (cavity-filled, epigenetic deposit). Keywords: Mineral resources, Metallogeny, Tectonics, Gondwana, Myanmar, SE Asia



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

The National Geohazards Mapping and Assessment Program of

the Mines and Geosciences Bureau-Department of Environment

and Natural Resources (MGB-DENR):

The Good News and the Bad News

Karlo L. Quea単o and the MGB Geohazards Assessment Technical Working Group

Mines and Geosciences Bureau-Department of Environment and Natural Resources North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines


Following the major landslide incident in Guinsaugon in Southern Leyte in 2006, the Mines and Geosciences Bureau-Department of Environment and Natural Resources (MGB-DENR) immediately set out to rationalize and to speed up the implementation of the National Geohazards Mapping and Assessment Program, part of which includes the mapping out of landslide-prone areas and the dissemination of geohazards information to increase public awareness. Basically useful for disaster preparedness, the geohazard maps find great application for land use planning (CLUPs), land development and the merging concerns on climate-change adaptation.The major components of the program are: (1) remote sensing analysis generates data using air photographs, satellite (Landsat ERTS) and radar images to identify features that could indicate unstable areas or impending physical events; (2) actual conduct of field surveys wherein on-site conditions are documented and ground data are generated; (3) preparation of geohazards susceptibility maps in the 1:50:000 scale for rain-induced landslides and floods/flashfloods on the basis of all available data and; (4) information dissemination through the conduct of seminars, workshops, and other information campaigns to explain the nature of geologic hazards and the use of the maps. IEC materials like posters, pamphlets, video dics (DVDs and VCDs), flyers and signages are also provided to various stakeholders. When appropriate, the barangays are given a Landslide Threat Advisory immediately following the assessment. The Advisory informs the barangays of their susceptibility to landslides and contains the corresponding recommendations particular to the barangay. The results generated by the MGB-DENR are also integrated under the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)-sponsored Hazard Mapping and Assessment for Effective Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (READY) project. As started out under the READY Project, the MGB-DENR is currently implementing the 1:10,000 scale geohazards mapping.



While the efforts of the MGB-DENR have been cited by various stakeholders, the occurrence of geohazards, some of which resulted to casualties, is still being reported. This reflects the need to strengthen the implementation by the local government units of the recommendations presented by the MGB-DENR for mitigating hazards and the need to strengthen further disaster preparedness in communities. As presented, the case of landslide in Solsona, Ilocos Norte and La Trinidad, Benguet in the Luzon Island and flooding in Cagayan de Oro in Mindanao explain why this is so.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

The 2011 Mega-Flooding and Super-Express Floodway Measures to Prevent the Future Flooding in the Chao Phraya Delta, Thailand.

Thanawat Jarupongsakul Unit for Disaster and Land Information Studies, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

E-mail: jthanawat@ymail.com


In 1995, His Majesty the king Bhumiphol advised and warned that a Thai king, some 100 years ago, dedicated a vast track of land, on the Easter side of Bangkok, into the Gulf of Thailand-by-passing Bangkok- when there is just too much flooding water for various rivers in the delta to handle. Bangkok is a vast metropolis situated at the Chao Phraya River delta that connects the river to the Gulf of Thailand, and the city of Bangkok and in surrounding provinces had been expanding in all direction, blocking the natural floodway. We have allowed housing estates, factories and industrial parks to be built in natural swampy areas. They are located in areas where floodwaters naturally flow. His Majesty further advised that waterways needed to be constructed to ensure that estates do not get flooded. His Majesty also noted that encroachment had occurred in many of the canals snaking through Bangkok and in surrounding provinces. The king urged reclamation of these canals so that flooding waters could flow and drain more efficiently. The king also suggested that a floodway should be constructed to avoid a repetition of the 1995 floods which struck Bangkok. His Majestic gave all this advice 16 years ago. Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Chao Phraya delta naturally differs from that of the past, the land in delta has continued to change momentarily. This paper would attempt to heed the kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s advice and to portray, schematically, the disaster management plan of the delta in terms of its natural landscape and long-tern flooding reduction measures. The Super-express floodway model and 10 other measures to prevent future flooding from devastating the Central Thailand region were developed and modified from the research report in 1999 under the financial support by the Thailand Research Fund (TRF).One of the urgent solutions is a super-express floodway. The artificial floodway will link with existing canals to drain the excess runoff, starting from the ChainatPasak canal stretching from Chao Phraya dam to Rama VI dam in Tha Rua district, using the South Rapeepat canal from Rama VI dam to connect with the Phra Ongchao Chaiyanuchit canal to the sea at Klong Dan, Samut Prakan. The total length of the artificial floodway would be about 200 km. It would hold about 2.0 billion cubic meters of water and drain runoff by gravity at a rate of about 500 million cubic meters



per day. There should be 2 kilometer of empty land for paddy field and two motorways (inbound and outbound) 6 m. above ground level along both sides of the floodway.This artificial floodway is much cheaper than digging a new Chao Phraya river and very effective to prevent communities or properties next to the floodway from being inundated. In the past, there were several natural swamps and waterways, mostly in the east of Bangkok area, which had been turned into the new airport, industrial estates and communities, so that the natural floodway was blocked, resulting in Bangkok areas being heavy flooded in this year. To ease the flood problem, the super-express floodway should be built to directly drain the excess runoff into the sea. Other measures should include an early flood warning system and water management as a whole, flood tax, land- use control and urban development, public participation in disaster management, land subsidence control, master plan for control the flood mitigation by structural measure, master plan for control the crop cultivation season in the flood-prone areas of the Chao Phraya delta, New regulation or laws should be amended to support the disaster management process, and an special agency should be set up to battle future disasters by using the knowledge of technology and research finding. The proposal for a super-express floodway in the Chao Phraya Delta. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Slope Failures in Graphitic Schist Soils B.K. Tan

Consultant Engineering Geologist Petaling Jaya, Malaysia E-mail : tanboonkong@gmail.com


Graphitic schist soils refer to residual soils formed from the weathering of graphitic schist. They are readily recognizable by their dark grey-black colour, and schistose or foliated texture. Invariably, the graphitic schist soils would contain variable amounts of pyrite (FeS2), developed under the reducing environment (lack of oxygen) for the formation of the original sedimentary rock, i.e. black, carbonaceous shale which is later metamorphosed to graphitic schist. Slope failures in graphitic schist soils have been encountered in cut-slopes of parts of the North-South Expressway near Air Keroh (Melaka), Rawang & Bt. Beruntung (Selangor), and the Lojing Highway (Perak). Repeated failures occurred at the same slope even after re-grading to much gentler slopes. Various attempts at remedial and stabilization works had been attempted in the past, but without success. The cut-slope failures in the Air Keroh case occurred within less than a year of the opening of the Senawang-Air Keroh segment of the N-S Highway, and were first dealt with in early 1990’s, Tan (1992), but the slope failures continue till today (2010) in spite of re-grading and various other attempts at preventive and remedial measures. The main reason why slope failures in graphitic schist soils have not been successfully dealt with is that the root cause of the problem has not been recognized or addressed by the Engineer. The main “culprit” contributing to the problem is the PYRITE contained in the graphitic schist soils. As long as the pyrite remains buried at depths, it remains stable. However, as soon as the pyrite is exposed to the elements (air, water), such as on excavation of the graphitic schist soils, a series of chemical reactions set in involving the oxidation and hydrolysis of the pyrite, producing various secondary chemical products and minerals (oxides/hydroxides of Fe, gypsum, jarosite, etc.). These secondary chemical products and minerals cause swelling and disintegration of the soil structure, hence severely lowering the shear strength of the soil. In addition, these chemical reactions also produce sulphuric acid as one of the byproducts, thus rendering the soil and pore fluids highly acidic (pH as low as 2 has been recorded). Turfing or vegetating the slope becomes problematic under such acidic conditions. The oxides/hydroxides of Fe also cause severe iron staining of concrete structures (pavement, drain, etc) – which, incidentally, helps to identify the existence of the problem at a particular location/slope. The time involved in these chemical and mineralogical changes is in the order of weeks or months, i.e. very much within the engineering time scale (in contrast to the



geological time scale!!) as evidenced by the Air Keroh case. Moreover, the process can continue for years, as long as there is pyrite exposed and accessible to air and water. So, repeated failure of slope and removal of debris/re-grading of slope expose more pyrite, and the process continues, again, as evidenced in the Air Keroh case. Strength parameters (c, Ď&#x2020;) for the design of cut slopes are usually based on preconstruction site investigation boreholes and laboratory test data of the unexposed soil samples, which are high since the original residual soils of graphitic schist are mostly stiff to hard silts and clays, as in most other residual soils. However, these high c, Ď&#x2020; values are not sustained on exposure or excavation of the soils, but deteriorate rapidly with time, leading to failure of the slope. References: Tan, Tan,

B.K. (1992). A survey of slope failures along the Senawang-Air Keroh Highway, Negeri

Sembilan/Melaka, Malaysia. Proc. 6th Int. Symposium on Landslides, 10-14 Feb. 1992,

Christchurch, 1423-1427. B.K. (2007). A Glimpse of Engineering Geology and Rock Mechanics in

Malaysia. Proc. 16th SEAsian Geotechical Conf., 40th Anniversary Commemorative

Volume, May 2007, Kuala Lumpur, 147-157.



Figures 1 & 2: Examples of slope failures in graphitic soils in Malaysia.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Application of Georadar Technique on Landslide Investigation at Taman Hill View, Kuala Lumpur and Dengkil, Selangor Malaysia Nurul Fairuz Diyana Binti Bahrudin, U.Hamzah, A.Ismail and Amry Amin bin Abbas


Georadar or also known as Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the most widely used geophysical techniques especially in landslide geotechnical investigation. This technique was applied in two landslide areas with the aim of determining the sliding planes and potential weak zones within and surrounding the landslide. A 100 MHz frequency antenna model RAMAC/GPR? was used in the survey as a source for penetrating the electromagnetic wave into the ground and the same antenna was used as a receiver to record the returning reflected waves. A control unit (CUII) was used in monitoring the antenna via a laptop and a build up software was used for analyzing the recorded data. This paper presents some results of GPR survey in delineating fractured or weak zone at Taman Hill View and Dengkil. Radargram section obtained from Taman Hill View can be classified as having two reflection patterns namely chaotic reflection type representing weak or fractured zone when compared to the nearest borehole. These highly fractured and faulted zones appeared at depth of up to 5m from the surface. At depth deeper than 5 m, the observed reflection pattern is categorized as high frequency parallel and continuous associated with moderately weathered to fresh granitic bedrock. Almost similar results are observed at Dengkil site from 0 to 5m depth, where the reflections are characterized by discontinuous, subparallel and wavy corresponding to highly weathered metasediment. At depth greater than 5m, the reflection pattern is dominated by high frequency and parallel patterns interpreted as representing lower weathering grades to fresh metasediment. The GPR section also shows some features indicating the presence of small normal faults plus several low angle sliding planes trending towards NE-SW in direction. The maximum total depth of about 12m was observed from this survey site. Keywords: ground penetrating radar, site investigation, faults & sliding planes



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Communicating Natural Hazards Helmut Duerrast

Geophysics Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science,

Prince of Songkla University, HatYai 90112, Thailand

E-mail : helmut.j@psu.ac.th


Natural hazards, like earthquakes, tsunamis, or flooding, pose a constant risk to people and livelihoods. Most of these hazards cannot be prevented but rather only be mitigated in their effects, for example, flood or landslide early warning systems. For understanding natural haz-ards it is necessary to comprehend complex earth processes and their physical-chemical bases; something usually done by scientists with their special expertise and interest. However, peo-ple in areas exposed to natural hazards need to know and need to understand the hazards they are facing in order to understand the mitigation efforts and decisions that were put in place to protect them and by this also to be part of and participating in these efforts and decisions in order to make them more effective. Communicating natural hazards therefore is crucial and it is the role of politicians, at all levels, of related government agencies, and of scientists, mainly at universities, using all available media channels, from television, over newspapers, to blogs, and social media. The paper will explore the obstacles and difficulties in this ongoing process, looking at different angles, and using recent examples from Thailand.

39 39


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

The Best Practices for Landslide Monitoring and Warning in Maephun Subdistrict, Lublae District, Uttaradit Province Tinnakorn Tatong

Bureau of Geological Environment and Geohazards, Department of Mineral Resources, Thailand


Maephun Subdistrict, Lublae Disdict, Uttaradit Province was seriously affected by large landslide in 2006. The landslide caused 17 casualties, 4 still missing and a lot of property damage. The landslide area or mountainous area of Maephun is underlain by sedimentary rock mixed with volcanic fragments. When the rock is weathered to be soil it becomes a soil layer that is very suitable for fruit trees. Therefore the area is covered by orchard. On 23 May 2006 there was a heavy rain from evening to late of night time and on the same night landslide occurred. In the same year Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) has installed the landslide monitoring and warning system in the area by establishing landslide watch networks and supporting them the weather information. The networks are local volunteers who were trained to have the basic knowledge on landslide behaviors and how to avoid the landslide impacts. When heavy rain is approaching or they receive watch bulletin from DMR the networks will be on alert to monitor rainfall and stream level. If they notify landslide signs they will inform their heads of villages to issuing warning. After the networks were established Maephun Subdistrict was affected by many flash floods but there was no casualty and very small property damage. For the reason the networks get support from their villagers and authorities. They also become the landslide mitigation model for other areas.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Central Thailand Landslides Triggering by Drought

Chanchai Srisutam, Chayapol Techatitinan and Worawoot Uttasahapanich Soil engineering investigation division, Office of Topographical and Geotechnical surveys, Royal Irrigation department, Thailand


The central part of Thailand is made of sediments from the higher level areas. The deltaic sediment covers the lower region of central Thailand, which is the outlet of Chao Phaya River in Bangkok and surrounding area. Since the deltaic sediment is mainly soft clay, channel embankment landslides are always triggered by drought. The Central Thailand Landslides cause property damages such roadways and irrigation structures. Ground morphology and geological structure influence landslides in central Thailand. Geotechnical information is needed for landslide analysis to find a cause of landslide, remedial measure and protection of channel embankment in the central part of Thailand. This paper discusses the geotechnical investigation and the use of investigation data in the slope failure analysis. The back analysis method is useful to evaluate soil engineering properties. Also, an adequate data helps engineer to have a confident determination for remedial measure and slope stability management. Keywords : landslide, drought, central part of Thailand, geotechnical investigation

41 41


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Evaluation of Sinkhole Disaster Risk Management Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP): In case of La Ngu District, Satun Province, Thailand Sakda Khundee, Raywadee Roachanakanan and Kanchana Nakhapakorn Technology of Environmental Management Program, Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University


The objective of the research was to apply Risk Management Index (RMI) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for prioritizing the intense activities of sinkhole risk management implemented by organizations in the La Ngu district of Satun province, an area which has never before been assessed the performance of sinkhole risk management. Six indicators with respect to each of four criteria: risk identification, risk reduction, disaster management, and financial protection and governance were comparatively analyzed using relative weights obtained from the AHP. In order to best fit in assessing the intense activities of sinkhole risk management, the explanations of the RMI indicators were clarified by the related literature reviews. Twenty-four government officers, directly responsible for sinkhole risk management, from both local & regional levels and national organizations were requested to make a subjective pairwise comparison of indicators (activities) with respect to each criterion (groups of activities) during two time periods: prior to 2004 and 2007-2010. The indicators obtaining high relative weights were considered as the concentrated activities. The trend of sinkhole management was indirectly influenced via a number of highly weighted indicators containing the criteria. The results indicate that the risk reduction were found at rather high concentrations, whereas the remaining groups, including risk identification, disaster management, and financial protection and governance were found in a smaller number of activities. The entire activities of sinkhole risk management did not changed substantially, and there were very few new measures for handling sinkhole disaster risk. The seven activities were concentrated on by government since before 2004 until 2010, including community preparedness and training, public information and community participation, training and education in risk management, implementation of hazardous events control and protection techniques, risk consideration in land use and urban planning, inter-institutional, multi-sectoral and decentralizing organization, and the implementation of social safety nets and budgetary response. Keywords: Sinkhole; Sinkhole risk management; Analytic Hierarchy Process; AHP; Risk Management Index; RMI BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

CCS Study in Thailand Results and Ways Forward

Trin Intaraprasong

Department of Mineral Fuels


In 2005, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, released global warming goal of reducing 62 Gtco2eq/yr or 77% of baseline emission in 2050 and mitigation plans. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS, accounts for 10 Gtco2eq/yr or 19%. In 2010, IEA/OECD published CCS action plan stating groups of countries which are responsible for more than 3,400 CCS projects by 2050. OECD members are responsible for 35% of the CCS projects, and non-members are responsible for the rest. China, non-OECD country, is the largest CO2 emission and is accountable for about 18% of the total CCS projects. While United States (OECD member) which is the second largest CO2 emission, is accountable for about 13% of the total projects. Thailand, non-OECD country, falls into subcategory of other Developing Asia which account for about 10% of the total CCS projects. Currently, uncertainties in futures of Clean Development Mechanism Fund and Kyoto Protocol delay CCS plan. Despite of ambiguous future of CCS mitigation plan, Thailand has been preparing for various aspect of CCS through various organizations such as Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Energy (MoE), PTT, and universities. Thai researchers from universities are interested in source of CO2, capture, and transport aspects and have been conducting researches for years. However, storage aspect of CCS project is lacked because of some of required data are confidential. In 2009, MoE established MoEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Global Warming Task Force, inter-departments working group within MoE, and appointed Department of Mineral Fuels (DMF) to be focal point in CCS study. The task force has been conducting 3 projects: over-view, storage potential, feasibility study for the CCS project in Thailand. The goal of the over view study is to access all aspect of CCS in Thailand from high level point of view and to gain better knowledge for the storage potential and feasibility studies. The storage potential study goal is to evaluate storage potential in petroleum fields. The feasibility project studies two general cases: on-shore and offshore cases. Gulf of Thailand where CO2 separator units are in operation provides a source of low-cost CO2. This is great advantage because cost of capturing CO2 is majority cost of CCS project. However, Gulf of Thailand have disadvantage because there are more than 4,000 petroleum production wells. After these 3 studies will be completed in 2012, the MoE Taskforce will

43 43


propose Thailand CCS road map. Meanwhile MoE is drafting CO2 reduction goal and it mitigation plans, but the goal can be achieved by energy efficiency, renewable, and forestation. In case of proposed lower cost mitigation plans fail to achieve the goal, CCS project can fill the gap. This presentation focuses on storage potential aspects of MoE Task Force over-view and storage potential projects.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Distance Earthquakes : A Seismic Threat to Northern Thailand Kosuwan, S.1, Saithong, P.1 and Putthapiban, P.2 1 Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. 2 Geoscience Programme, Mahidol University Kanchanaburi Campus, Sai Yok, Kanchanaburi 71150, Thailand


Distance earthquakes can cause various degrees of damage to human societies. Good examples are : the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, a magnitude 8.0 with an epicenter over 350 kilometers from the severe damaged greater Mexico City Area and the 2004 gigantic earthquake of magnitude 9.1 off the West coast of Northern Sumatra in Indian Ocean, hundreds and thousands of kilometers from the coastline. A moderately strong shallow earthquake with a hypocenter of 10 kilometer deep, of magnitude 6.8 that hit Eastern Shan State of Myanmar at night on 24 March 2011 with an epicenter approximately 110 km from Chiang Rai caused chaotic and panic to many northern Thai provinces. Such earthquake has killed at least 150 people and caused a great loss of properties and intra-structures of the Shan State. Although Thailand is distance away from the epicenter, this earthquake has claimed a woman life from Mae Sai and caused a considerable damage to private housings, school buildings and monasteries. Wide spread surface fractures and liquefaction showing sand blow, sand dikes or sill in many places of Mae Sai and Chiang Saen areas were observed. Approximately 20% of surface ground acceleration or 0.2 g for the recent earthquake was estimated. This paper we have reviewed and present the regional tectonic setting, focal mechanisms and the present 窶電ay crustal deformation around the Sagaing fault system, Shan Scarp fault system and their splays in the region. Movement of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, motion of the rigid Sunda Block and related platelets of the areas are also discussed. Current information, taking into account the nature of local regolith and regional attenuation of the seismic waves, we are positive that the distance earthquakes may not be the real threat for the northern Thailand provinces when compared to the local active fault zone of the area. Keywords : distance earthquake, seismic threat, Eastern Shan State, Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, liquefaction, sand dikes, Sagaing Fault System, Sunda Block References

Department of Mineral Resources, 2011, An Earthquake of Magnitude 6.7, 24 March,

2554 and its effected to Thailand, 34 p.



Earthquakes, USGS. “PAGER – M 6.8 – MYANMAR”. United States Geological

Survey. PAGER. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/pager/events/us/

c0002aes/index.html. Retrieved March 25, Fang, Yang (March 25, 2011). “Death toll of Myanmar’s earthquake rises to 74, 111

people injured”. Xinhua. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-03/

25/c_13798341.htm. Retrieved 25 March 2011. Hallet, B. And Molnar, P., 2001, Distorted drainage basins as markers of crustal strain

east of the Himalaya, Jour. Of Geophysical Research, v. 106, No. B 7, p. 13,697

- 13,709. Holt, W. E., J. F. Ni, T. C. Wallace, and A. J. Haines (1991), The Active Tectonics of

the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis and Surrounding Regions, J. Geophys.

Res., 96(B9), 14,595–14,632, doi:10.1029/91JB01021 Charusiri, P. Kosuwan, S. Fenton, C. H. Tahashima, T. Won-in, K. and Udchachon,

M. 2001. Thailand Active Fault Zones and Earthquake Analysis: A Preliminary

Synthesis. Jour. Asia Earth Sci. (submitted for publication). Nutalaya, P. Sodsri, S. and Arnold, E. P. 1985. Series on Seismology-Volume II-

Thailand. In: Arnold, E. P ed., Southeast Asia Association of Seismology and

Earthquake Engineering: 402pp. Putthapiban, P., 2011, Thailand Earthquake Risk : Geological and Tectonic Model,

Jour. Geological Society of Thailand, v. 1, ISSN 1513 2587, p. 15-21. Saithong , P., Kosuwan, K., Kaowiset, K., Pananont , P., Won-in, K., and Charusiri,

P. , 2011, Neotectonics along the Pua Fault in Nan Province, northern

Thailand : A case study of the trench excavation at Ban Hua Nam, Proceedings

of the International Conference on: Geology, Geotechnology and Mineral

Resources of Indochina”(GEOINDO 2011), 1-3 December 2011, Kosa Hotel,

Khon Kaen, Thailand, P511 Saithong , P., Pananont , P., Kosuwan, K., Kaowiset, K., Won-in, K., and Charusiri,

P. , 2011, Neotectonics along the Uttaradit Fault Zone, Northern Thailand:

Evidence from Remote sensing and Thermoluminescence dating, Proceedings of

the International Conference on: Geology, Geotechnology and Mineral

Resources of Indochina”(GEOINDO 2011), 1-3 December 2011, Kosa Hotel,

Khon Kaen, Thailand, P511 Vigny, C., A. Socquet, C. Rangin, N. Chamot-Rooke, M. Pubellier, M.-N. Bouin, G.

Bertrand, and M. Becker (2003), Present-day crustal deformation around

Sagaing fault, Myanmar, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B11), 2533, doi:10.1029/

2002JB001999. Searle, M.P. and Morley, C.K., 2011, Tectonic and thermal evolution of Thailand in the

regional context of SE Asia, The Geology of Thailand, Edts; Ridd, Barber and

Crow, p. 539-571. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Drilling to Study Salt Subsidence in Ban Nonsabaeng, Sakhon Nakhon

Pramual Jenkunawat

Department of Primary Industries and Mines, Bangkok, Thailand


Drilling was conducted to study occurrence of salt cavities induced by brine pumping. The main purpose is to delineate disaster area and monitor land subsidence. Drill holes were totally 12 with depth ranged 100-200 m. A number of holes were constructed as monitoring wells to observe circulation patterns of the brine by cased them with PVC pipes. Drilling results showed claystone at top, salt dome located under the salt production area at depth of 40-50 m. Rocksalt was located at depth 40-200 m. Anhydrite and gypsum were observed in holes around the salt dome. Rocksalt was in a number of colors, but mostly white and dark gray. Potash composition with a bitter taste and a high solubility was locally found. The first 11 holes discovered no underground cavities. The final hole assigned beside a subsidence hole found cleanly washed claystone fragments at depth between 38-53 m. Data showed a 3D picture of salt dome, brine zone and occurrence of salt cavities. Disaster area can be delineated. Sinkholes are circular in shape, with diameter of 50-100 m. Land usually starts subsiding at pumping well and moves in a series of subsidence which can be traced in a line. They occur in only on a salt dome, where there are fractures, brine zone and dissolution of salt. Areas out of the salt dome are not under risk of salt subsidence.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Current Understanding of Pre-historic Tsunamis in the Northern Sunda Trench as Deduced from Paleotsunami and

Paleoseismological Studies : A Review

Kruawun Jankaew Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,

Bangkok, Thailand 10330


This presentation will review and summarize research conducted around the Indian Ocean following the giant earthquake and resultant tsunami of Dec 26, 2004. Prior to this event the northern segment of the Sunda Trench was never believed to be a source of giant earthquakes capable of generating a transoceanic tsunami. Over the past seven years there have been numerous geological research carried out in the areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami with the aim to better understand the behavior of the subduction zone earthquake and tsunami in this area. Characteristics and ages of inferred past seismic activities and tsunami deposits in this area as reported by various authors will be discussed in this presentation. Effective tsunami mitigation and early warning for future events require reliable average recurrence intervals and sizes of past earthquakes and resultant tsunamis deduced from correctly identified and dated geological evidence which provides longer records than those offered by instrumental records and historical documents. Results from these studies pointed to a similar conclusion that tsunamis similar in size to those of the 2004 event are a recurring event (e.g. Jankaew et al., 2008; Monecke et al., 2008; Rajendran et al., 2008, Fujino et al., 2009) with at least several hundred years apart. References

Fujino, S., Naruse, H., Matsumoto, D., Jarupongsakul, T., Suphawajruksakul, A. and

Sakakura, N., 2009. Stratigraphic evidence for pre-2004 tsunamis in

southwestern Thailand. Marine Geology, v. 262, p. 25-28. Jankaew, K., Atwater, B., Sawai, Y., Choowong, M., Chareontitirat, T., Martin, M.E.

and Prendergast, A., 2008, Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean

tsunamis in Thailand, Nature, 455, 1228-1231. Monecke, K., Finger, W., Klarer, D., Kongko, W., McAdoo, B.G., Moore, A.L.,

Sudrajat, S.U., 2008. A 1,000-year sediment record of tsunami recurrence in

northern Sumatra, Nature, 455, 1232â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1234. Rajendran, K., Rajendran, C.P., Earnest, A., Ravi Prasad, G.V., Dutta, K., Ray, D.K.

and Anu, R., 2008, Age estimates of coastal terraces in the Andaman and

Nicobar Islands and their tectonic implications, Tectonophysics, 455, 53-60. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS 48

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Neotectonics along the Uttaradit Fault Zone, northern Thailand :

A case study of the trench excavation at Ban Phon Du

Preecha Saithong1, Suwith Kosuwan1, Kitti Kaowiset2, Passakorn Pananont3, Krit

Won-in3 and Punya Charusiri4 1 Bureau of Enviromental Geology and Geohazard Department of Mineral Resources,

Rama VI road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand 2 Bureau of Geology Survey Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI road,

Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand 3 Department of Earth Sciences, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10903, Thailand 4 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 1330,


ABSTRACT Neotectonic investigation along the Uttaradit Fault Zone (UTFZ), northern Thailand was conducted in order to identify the detailed characteristics of active faults along this fault zone. The remote-sensing analysis was integrated for evaluating the evidence of the faults in the study area. The main purposes of this study are to identify the faultsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;geometries, slip-rates, and the paleo-earthquake magnitudes. Results from the remote-sensing interpretation indicate that the UTFZ is the northeast-southwest trending, oblique fault with a total length of about 160 km. Thirtythree fault segments with length ranging from 4 to 23 km, are detected along the boundary of Cenozoic basins. The integration between the remote-sensing interpretation and the ground-truth surveys reveals several morphotectonic features in the study area, such as triangular facets, offset streams, scarplets, linear valleys, fault scarps, wine-glass canyons, and shutter ridges. Based on the reconnaissance surveys, several kinds of morphotectonic landforms along the Phon Du segment including fault scarp and offset stream, are clearly detected at the Ban Phon Du site. A detailed topographic map at a scale of 1:1,000 was conducted along with a trench excavation in order to determine the age of the paleoearthquakes. The surface rupture length of about 6 km of the Phon Du segment indicates that earthquake could occur in this area with the maximum magnitude of Mw 5.98. The TL dating of the sediments indicates that the age of the movement was about 4.2 Ka. The estimated slip rate of this fault segment is about 0.1 mm/yr. This suggests that the UTFZ is still an active fault. Keywords: Pua Fault Zone, northern Thailand, morphotectonic, paleoearthquakes, paleoseismology 49 49 GEOSEA 2012

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Assessing Climate Change and Sea Level Rising Impacts on Mineral Resources in Coastal Zone of Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Minh Ngoc, Luong The Viet and Quach Duc Tin Department of Sciences, Technology and International Cooperation, General Department of Geology and Mineral Resources of Vietnam, No. 6 Pham Ngu Lao, Hanoi, Vietnam

ABSTRACT Mineral resources distribute in Vietnamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coastal zone are rich and diverse, showing great potential for economic development. However, these are at risk of impact of the global climate change and sea level rise. Evaluation results show that, corresponding to the sea level rise scenario of 0.65 m and 1 m, up to 149-254 (corresponding to 6.3 to 10.8%) of the total 2350 ore deposits are submarined or isolated in the sea. Locals with mineral mines under intensive impacts of sea level rise distribute in the coastal zones of Red River Delta and Mekong Delta, including the coastal diverse ore deposits from Hai Phong to Nam Dinh (i.e. deposits of Titan zircon, clay, natural gas, phosphorite, Puzzolan, thermal mineral water) and from Long An to Ca Mau (i.e. medium to large scale deposits of clay or peat). In the context of global climate change, mineral deposits are directly affected by sea level rise which leads to loss of reserves, quality, pollutant emissions, increase of operating costs, etc. as well as indirect effects linked with fluctuations in temperature and rainfall, intensification of geological hazards which make difficult for survey, exploration and exploitation. To adapt to climate change in the geological and mineral sector, it can be proposed to priority planning of investigation, exploration and exploitation of the mines which are immediately affected as sea level rises 0.65 - 1 m, combined with the protection of mines, mine waste management and control of pollutant emissions, environmental restoration and rehabilitation of closed mine. For the mines under direct impact of sea level rise but not suffer to changes in quality or risks of pollution emissions, it can be planned to nationally reserved for 90 years later.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geology and Stratigraphy of the Kroh/Betong Formation Mohamad Hussein bin Jamaluddin, 1Mat Niza bin Abdul Rahman and

2 Naramase Teerarungsigul


Technical Services Division, Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia, Sultan Azlan Shah Road, 31400 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia 2 Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of Mineral Resources,Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand 1

E-mail: 1mhussein@jmg.gov.my


The objective of this paper is to correlate the geology and stratigraphy of the Kroh Formation in Malaysia and Betong Formation in Thailand based on field evidences gathered during the Malaysia-Thailand Border Joint Geological Survey Project jointly undertaken by the Minerals and Geosciences Department Malaysia and the Department of Mineral Resources Thailand. On the Malaysian side, the term Kroh Formation is used to describe a sequence consists mainly of very thin- to thin-bedded graptolites and Tentaculites bearing black carbonaceous shale, siliceous shale, mudstone, siltstone and sandstone in the lower part, and subordinate chert and argillaceous limestone and limestone lenses in the middle to upper part of the rock sequence. These rocks are commonly metamorphosed to hornfels, calc-silicate hornfels, metasandstone and marble. The formation is well exposed in the the Pengkalan Hulu area, Upper Perak. This rock unit was believed of Ordovician to Silurian age but current investigation revealed that it is belonging to Silurian-Devonian age. On the Thai side, the term Betong Formation is used to describe a sequence of fossiliferous sedimentary rocks of Silurian-Devonian age in the Yala-Betong area. The rocks consist of mudstone, silicified shale, shale, very fine-grained sandstone, chert and locally, limestone lenses. Fossil assemblages found within the shale strata of both the Kroh and Betong Formations such as Monograptus, Spirograptus, Tentaculites elegans, Tentaculites sp. and Styliolina indicating the age of the rock sequence is Silurian-Devonian. Keyword: Kroh/Betong Formation, Graptolites, Tentaculites, Silurian-Devonian.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geology and Stratigraphy of the Gerik Formation Mat Niza bin Abdul Rahman1, Doungrutai Saesaengseerung1 and Suvapak Imsamut3 Technical Services Division, Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia, Sultan Azlan Shah Road 31400 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia 2 Bureau of Fossil Protection, Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 3 Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand 1

E-mail: 1mniza@jmg.gov.my


The objective of this paper is to revise the Grik tuff in term of name and its stratigraphic position based on field evidences gathered during the Malaysia-Thailand Border Joint Geological Survey Project jointly undertaken by the Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia and the Department of Mineral Resources Thailand. The term Gerik Formation is proposed to replace the term Grik tuff introduced by Jones in 1970 that was believed of Middle Ordovician to Early Silurian in age but without any fossil evidence. Current investigation showed that the Gerik Formation is represented by sequence of pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks that is well exposed in the Gerik area, Upper Perak, Malaysia. The rocks comprise predominantly tuffs of rhyolitic to rhyodacitic composition with subordinate tuffaceous sandstone, limestone, calcareous shale, schist, phyllite and pelagic chert. Anisopyge sp. and Phillipsia sp. (trilobite) were discovered in the calcareous shale and Chonetid (brachiopod) was recorded in the shale. Radiolarian of Follicucullus scholasticus, Albaillella levis, Hegleria mammilla, Latentifistula sp., Triplanospongos sp. Gustefana sp. and others had been discovered in the chert. The fossil assemblages indicated that the age of Gerik Formation is Permian.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Lithostratigraphy of the Khuan Klang Formation,

Satun Province, Peninsular Thailand

Suvapak Imsamut

Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok 10400, Thailand


The Khuan Klang Formation (120-250m thick) is one of the main rock units in southern Thailand representing the Carboniferous rocks. The Formation, medium thickness and index fossils abundant, is characterized by the presence of various types of argillite intercalated with sandstones, sandy siltstones and siliceous mudstones or chert. Environment of deposition is interpreted as having been deposited in the tidal flat to upper subtidal environment. Several fossil assemblages indicating the age of sequence is Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous period. The Khuan Klangâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s type section and laboratory works has been done. The results of this study and its general information can be explained that the Khuan Klang type section, approximately 150.65 thick, comprises 5 subunits or 30 lithostratigraphic rock units. Detailed lithology of each unit is described in ascending order the Lower mudstone, claystone and quartzitic sandstone member, the Chert member, the Middle thick mudstone and claystone member, the Upper lithic sandstone member and the Upper mudstone member. The Khuan Klangâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s type section represents the continuously conformable contact boundaries with the Devonian Pa Samed Formation and the Early Permian Kaeng Krachan Group. XRD analysis of the argillite lithostratigraphic units showing a composition of rocks is separated into 5 types of XRD Diffraction Patterns. The results are interpreted that the argillite in the Khuan Klang Formation are separated into of 5 clay mineral components. XRF analysis present the argillite is more clay mineral components but the quality of them are not enough for support the high grade ceramic industry.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

The Very First Evidence of the Ranong Fault in the Andaman

Sea, Thailand Passakorn Pananont 1 *, Pornphimon Choosit 1, 2, Mingkwan Mingmuang 1, Anond Snidvongs3, Sebastian Krastel 4 and Wanida Chantong 5


Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand 2 PTTEP, Bangkok, Thailand 3 Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,

Bangkok, Thailand 4 GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany 5 Department of Mineral Fuels, Bangkok, Thailand * E â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mail : fscipkp@ku.ac.th


This work reveals a very first evidence of the extension of the Ranong Fault in the Andaman Sea, from the high resolution, multichannel shallow marine seismic reflection survey. This survey was a part of the German-Thai cooperation, the Morphodynamics and Slope Stability of the Andaman Sea Shelf Break (Thailand) project, a.k.a. the MASS-III project, conducted in January, 2011. The shallow structure of the Ranong Fault in the Andaman Sea was imaged at the location about 80 km to the west of Phuket Province and at about 350 m water depth. The seismic reflection data shows a clear image of the Ranong Fault with at least 40 m offset on the seafloor. The shallow part of this fault has normal offset with near vertical fault plane. In addition to the image of the Ranong Fault from the MASS-III project. The image of other faults in the vicinity of the Ranong Fault from both MASS-III project and other data source will be discussed, including the 2011 earthquakes occurring near the Thailand coast in the Andaman Sea. Keywords: Ranong Fault, Andaman Sea, Earthquake, Seismic Hazard, Active Fault, Marine Seismic Survey



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Evidence of Active Faults and Hazard Analysis Along

the Srisawat Fault, Western Thailand

Weerachat Wiwegwin1, Preecha Saithong1, Suwith Kosuwan1, Kitti Kaowisate1, Punya Charusiri2 and Santi Pailoplee2

Environmental Geology Division, Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI, Bangkok 10400, Thailand 2 Earthquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), c/o Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand 1

E-mail : pailoplee.s@gmail.com


Active fault study and seismic hazard analysis have been performed along the Srisawat Fault (SSF) in northern and western Thailand. The objectives of this research are to locate active fault, to determine the ages of fault movement, and to estimate the paleoearthquake magnitude, and to analyze the seismic hazard zone. The SSF is the N-S trending fault in the north which swings to the NW-SE trend in the southeastern part. The SSF shows an oblique-slip movement with both rightlateral and normal dip-slip components. Our remote-sensing interpretation demonstrates that morphotectonic landforms along the SSF are fault scarps, triangular facets, offset streams, shutter ridges, hot springs, and linear mountain fronts. The SSF with total length of about 218 km consists of 66 geometrical fault segments ranging in length from 4 to 44 km. Our paleoearthquake and luminescence dating analyses show that the SSF used to produce earthquakes with the maximum magnitude of

Mw 5.8-7.0. At least two paleoearthquake events were identified; they are 36,000 years (Umphang and Ban Teen segments) and 10,000-12,000 years (Pa Ka segment). Deterministic seismic hazard analysis reveals that north of western Thailand may be posed by the earthquake ground shaking around 0.4g based on the MoeiTongyi fault zone located along Thai-Myanmar regions whereas in is affected mainly by the SSF with the approximate level of 0.26g. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, the south of western Thailand has 10% probability that the ground shaking level equals to or exceeds 0.32g in the 50 years. Moreover, in terms of earthquake intensity scales, the area has 40-44% and 12% probability that the upcoming earthquake may generate the ground shaking level eqal to IV and V on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale, respectively. Keywords: Active Fault, Srisawat Fault, Western Thailand, morphotectonic, luminescence dating

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Study of Coastal Change Along the Gulf of Thailand Coast Using Remote Sensing Technique and Field Investigation: A Case Study of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province Namporn Wattanaton and Chongpan Chonglakmani

Suranaree University of Technology, 111 School of Geotechnology,

Suranaree, Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand E â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mail : dtrn11@hotmail.com


Thailand has an extensive coastal area covering 23 provinces of eastern Gulf of Thailand coast of the Pacific Ocean and western Andaman Sea coast of the Indian Ocean. There are about 12 million peoples living in this area. In the gulf of southern Thailand, the coast of Nakhon Si Thammarat province is about 190 kilometers in length and it lies within the Khanom, Sichon, Tha Sala, Muang, Pak Panang and Hua Sai districts. This study uses the Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery scene Path 128 / Row 54 and Path 129 / Row 54 acquired in two periods of 1994 and 2001. The satellite images are processed and analysed by using Band Ratio and Band Math tool of ENVI software. The geomorphologic feature of Quaternary deposits is classified and mapped. It is characterized by subtidal flat, intertidal flat, old tidal flat, young sandy beach, old sandy beach, and old lagoon. The classification of land and water and the mapping of coastline of two periods have been accomplished by using the remote sensing technique. The result of study indicates that several kilometers of the coast of study area especially the Tha Sala and Hua Sai districts have been eroded.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Lithostratigraphy of the Nawa Member: Preliminary Investigation

San Assavapatchara Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI Rd., Bangkok, Thailand, 10400


The Na Wa Member was first designated for the lowermost clastic sequence of the Phu Thok Formation by the working group of Mapping Section II, Bureau of Geological Survey, in order to geological study and mapping on the saline soil area development project in Sakhon Nakhon- Nakhon Phanom- Nong Khai in 2004. The member is widespread in Amphoe Nawa, Changwat Nakhon Phanom, and Pannanikhom, Song Dao, Changwat Sakhon Nakhon. Lithostratigraphic study at the Na Wa stratotype indicate dominantly deep red to dark-brown of friable clayey to muddy siltstone and chocolate like color of claystone. According to previous literatures and additional results on present outcrops investigation and core study indicate varies thickness approximately 30 to 300 m of the member is conformably underlain by the Maha Sarakham Formation and is conformably overlain by the Kam Ta Kla Member (new named). Depositional environment of the member was mention as fluvial, lake and flooding deposits.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Deltas in Asia and Their Characteristics, Evolution

and Recent Changes

Yoshiki Saito

Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. Central 7, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8567, Japan E-mail: yoshiki.saito@aist.go.jp


Asian coasts are characterized by large-river deltas, called megadeltas, which are identified as one of most vulnerable areas in the world with respect to global climate change currently, and by mountainous small-river deltas in islands. Three keywords characterize the present delta crisis: shrinking deltas, sinking deltas, and ecosystem collapse. Shrinking and sinking deltas are caused mainly by a decrease in the amount of sediment supplied by rivers to deltas and deltaic coasts, as well as by a relative sea-level rise, either eustatic or caused by land subsidence. Deltas are important interfaces at landâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;ocean boundaries. They are influenced by processes on land and offshore, and their natural evolution has been greatly affected by human activities. Deltas and their surrounding areas are important for the physical and economic well-being of humans. After systematic and global research on river deltas began in the 1960s and 1970s (e.g., Coleman, Wright and Galloway), delta research progressed through marine geologic and oceanographic projects in the 1980s (e.g., Amazon, Changjiang, Huanghe and Mississippi rivers). These studies were characterized by comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations of the water column, sub-seafloor investigations combining sediment coring and seismic-reflection survey, and covered the different phases of river and tidal conditions. These large studies spread globally in the 1990s and 2000s. They have continued to grow in sophistication and now integrate onshore and offshore data, multi (transcending) time-scale approaches, in situ seafloor monitoring, and numerical simulations and experimental studies of sediment transport and delta evolution. The significance of episodic sediment transport events also has been recognized through these studies. In the 21st century, the importance of delta research has grown in response to our understanding of the need to address global climate change. The 2007 fourth assessment report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change) identified deltas as one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change, particularly mega-deltas in Asia. Human impacts on and modifications of deltas are significant and are making deltas more vulnerable. Today, basic research must focus on not only the delta itself, but also its sustainability, and conclusions must be based on a systems-science understanding of deltaic functions. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


Asian mega-deltas were initiated at ca. 8.0 ka after a rapid sea-level rise at

8.4–8.5 ka, as well as deltas in islands. Outbuilding (progradation) of mega-deltas has occurred continuously seaward, related to huge sediment supply and relatively stable sea level since the middle Holocene. Particularly continental large rivers in Southeast and East Asia together supplied ~2.5 × 109 tons/y of suspended sediment 30–40 years ago, which is more than 10 % of global sediment discharge, and formed more than 40 km2 of new land annually as delta plains, resulting from increased sediment discharge by human activities (e.g., deforestation) on a millennial scale. However they are delivering less than 1 × 109 tons/y currently because of another human activities (e.g., the reduction of sediment supply and relative sea-level rise caused by human activities), which is close to a pristine level of sediment discharge on these rivers in the middle Holocene. New land formation has come to a standstill, and some deltas are even shrinking, currently. The mega-deltas of Asia are thus at risk of destruction at present after delta construction since the middle Holocene. References Wang, H.J., Saito, Y., Zhang, Y., Bi, N.S., Sun, X.X., Yang, Z.S. (2011) Recent changes

of sediment flux to the western Pacific Ocean from major rivers in East and

Southeast Asia. Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 108, no.1–2, pp. 80–100. Woodroffe, C.D., Nicholls, R.J., Saito, Y., Chen, Z., Goodbred, S.L. (2006) Landscape

variability and the response of Asian megadeltas to environmental change. In

Harvey, N. (ed.), Global Change and Integrated Coastal Management: the Asia-

Pacific Region. Coastal Systems and Continental Margins, Vol. 10. Springer, pp.


59 59


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Bimodal Cenozoic Volcanism in Central Sarawak: Hot Spots or Extension?

Nur Iskandar Taib

University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur


Several prominent Cenozoic volcanic edifices are found in the Upper Rajang Valley, in central Sarawak, Borneo. The late Eocene Bukit Mersing volcanics are potassic basalts, erupted during the deposition of the Bawang Member of the Rajang Group. Later tectonism has caused folding of the Rajang, and the volcanic layers now lie on their side, forming a prominent ridge. It has not been successfully dated using radiometric methods as yet. REE are highly enriched (La is enriched 400-500% over EMORB), with the steep chondrite-normalized patterns associated with OIBs and rift basalts. There is no Eu anomaly, and normalized incompatible element plots reveal a slight depletion in HFSE (i.e. Ta, Nb, Ti and Y). Pliocene to Recent volcanism is present in several locations – Usun Apau, the Hose and Niewenhuis Mountains, Linau-Balui, and several others across the Malaysian-Indonesian border. These volcanics form large plateaus, and are bimodal, early dacite being followed by a later balsaltic phase. The Linau-Balui basalts are thought to be very recent, since they were erupted on existing river terraces. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar geochronology work reveals far older ages than suspected – 4 m.a. for Usun Apau dacites (Cullen, personal communication), and 2-2.5 m.a. for Usun Apau and Linau-Balui basalts. REE profiles for both Usun Apau and Linau-Balui basalts again show steep, enriched patterns, but the enrichment is less than that of the Bukit Mersing basalts (La enriched 50-400% over EMORB), and no HFSE depletion is seen. Bimodal volcanism is often associated with rifting or extension, however it should also be possible wherever a stratified magma chamber has developed. In the case of Borneo, there is no evidence of extension or rifting at the present time, nor are there reports of signs of imminent volcanism, such as hot springs or microseismicity. However, the region is heavily forested and access is difficult, so such signs may have gone unnoticed. There may be a causal link between late Cenozoic volcanism in Borneo and that found along the eastern edge of Sundaland – in Thailand, Vietnam, Hainan and as far north as Korea. 60 BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geochemistry and Geochronology of Volcanic Rocks in the Ngao Basin, Lampang, Northern Thailand

Phisit Limtrakun1*, Sarawute Chantraprasert1, Burapha Phajuy1, Boontarika Srithai1,

Weerapan Srichan1 and Sebastien Meffre2

Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University 2 CODES, ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, University of Tasmania


* E-mail : plimtrak@chiangmai.ac.th

ABSTRACT Volcanic rocks were collected from exposures at the Doi Pha Plung, the Baan Cham Pui, the Baan Mae Theep and the Baan Pang La areas, Ngao district, Lampang province, northern Thailand. Based on the geologic map of the area have given those volcanic rocks from the Doi Pha Plung to have Permian in age, whereas the volcanic rocks from the Baan Cham Pui and the Baan Mae Theep areas have Permo-Triassic in age. The younger dike rocks from the Baan Pang La area have an age of Late Triassic. Lithologic and petrographic studies suggest that the Permian and Permo-Triassic volcanic rocks are felsic to intermediate composition, whereas the Late Triassic dike rocks are intermediate in composition. In this study, the Permian and Late Triassic volcanic rocks show distinct geochemical components of felsic and intermediate respectively, whereas a composition gap between intermediate and felsic volcanic rocks occurs in the Permo-Triassic volcanic rocks of the Ngao area. A few rocks of Permo-Triassic age with SiO2 content ranging between 55 and 58 weight percent have been found, mainly in the Baan Mae Theep area. They probably are the result of magma mixing between intermediate and felsic magmas. Lack of compositions in the range 58â&#x20AC;&#x201C;68 weight percent SiO2 is indicative of a real silica gap and not due to incomplete sampling. Therefore the Permo-Triassic volcanic rocks in the Ngao area are bimodal suite of intermediate (basaltic trachyandesite and trachyandesite) and felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolite). Recent age dating of felsic volcanic rocks in the Ngao area yielded U-Pb zircon ages of 252-251 Ma and 224-215 Ma. Keywords: geochemistry, geochronology, U-Pb zircon age, Thailand



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Investigation Traces of Paleotsunami Deposits Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Ground Penetrating Radar, Thap Lamu, Phang Nga Province, Thailand Supawit Yawsangratt 1,2 *, Witold Szczuciński 1, Robert Jagodziński 1, Wachirachai

Sak-apa 2, Stanisław Lorenc 1, Siraprapa Chatprasert 2

Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland 2 Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand


* E-mail : supawit@dmr.go.th


The geological record is the main way to assess tsunami hazard along Andaman Sea coast of Thailand impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The present study aimed to apply the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) along with the sediment trenching to provide new insights in search of paleotsunami evidence. The study was conducted nearby Thap Lamu Navy Base in Phang Nga Province where likely paleotsunami boulders were found before. The applied methods appeared useful in identification of buried finding sites with preserved sedimentary records and in following spatial changes in near subsurface sediments. However, trenching and coring are necessary for more detail investigations. Keywords: paleotsunami deposits, electrical resistivity imaging, ground penetrating radar, Andaman Sea, Thailand

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geochemical Variation of Quaternary Volcanic Rocks in Papandayan Area, West Java, Indonesia: A Role of Crustal Component

Mirzam Abdurrachman and Masatsugu Yamamoto2

1 Geological Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia 2 Department of Geosciences, Geotechnology, and Material Resource Engineering, Akita University, Akita-shi 010-8502, Japan 1


Papandayan and adjacent Cikuray (Papandayan area) are part of the active volcanoes in the Triangular Volcanic Complex, surrounding Bandung Basin, West Java. Papandayan volcanic rocks consist of basaltic andesite (Early Stage), andesite (Middle Stage) and dacite (Late Stage) belonging to medium-K series, with high 87Sr/86Sr (0.705243 - 0.705907) and low 143Nd/144Nd (0.512504-0.512650) ratios. The Cikuray volcanic rocks are in contrast to Papandayan, belong to low-K series, with low 87Sr/86Sr (0.704172-0.704257) and high 143Nd/144Nd (0.512823-0.512858) ratios. New K-Ar age data are obtained for two samples of Papandayan Early Stage (3.3 + 0.7 Ma) and Middle Stage (1.0 + 0.4 Ma). Detailed petrological and geochemical studies indicate that systematic changes in mineral composition, isotopic, major and trace elements in the Papandayan volcano are attributed to the variety in intracrustal process. The primary cause on the diversities in K2O and isotopic ratios of the Papandayan area is due to the influence of the Gondwana continental fragment which is contaminated by original low-K type Cikuray magma to produce the medium-K type Papandayan magma. Keywords: Papandayan, Cikuray, West Java, isotopic ratios, intracrustal process, Gondwana continental fragment



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geological Map Improvement of Phutok Formation Explored

from Potash and Rock Salt Drilled Holes, Topography and Outcrops on the Khorat Plateau

Parkorn Suwanich1

Faculty of Environment and Resources Studies, Mahidol University E-mail : enpsn@mahidol.ac.th


Phutok Formation is one of the most significant rock units in Khorat plateau. It is normally cover on the tremendous rock salt of Maha Sarakham Formation. Theoretically, the Phutok Formation should extend widely as a topmost layer of rock on the Khorat plateau. However, actually it is normally covered by weathered top soil. Moreover, the Khorat plateau is rather flatted with low and small undulating hill. However beneath the basin, there are complicated rock structures of both Phutok and Maha Sarakarm Formation under the top soil. This is the obstruction to locate where Phutok or Maha Sarakarm are on geologic map on the Khorat plateau. The data from drilled holes are details to tell about the location and extension of Phutok Formation more clearly. On the other hand, if these data are analyzed together with some outcrops and some mountain ranges on the basin such as Phutok, Phu Woa, Phu Sing, Phu Langka etc. in Bung Karn and Nakhon Phanom Province, the geological map on Khorat plateau will be more accurated. The result of the study is found that the extension of Phutok Formation rock unit is broader than in 1:1,000,000 (1999) geologic map of Department of Mineral Resource of Thailand. Meanwhile, the area of Maha Sarakham Formation is limited particularly at the southern basin of Khorat plateau; the extension of Maha Sarakham Formation is not southern beyond the Muun River. Application for improving this geologic map of Phutok and Maha Sarakham Formation is useful for the next relating researches clearly, for example the study of salt domes, salt basins, saline soil as well as fresh and brine and artesian spring groundwater on the Khorat plateau. Key Words: Phutok Formation, Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Plateau

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Paleo-environment and C-14 dating : the Key to the Depositional Age of the Tha Chang and Related Sand Pits, Northeastern Thailand Putthapiban, P.1*, Zolensky, M.2, Jull, T.3, Demartino, M.3 and Salyapongse, S.1

Geoscience Programme, Mahidol University Kanchanaburi Campus, Sai Yok, Kanchanaburi 71150, Thailand. 2 Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science KT, NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX 77058, U.S.A. 3 NSF-Arizona AMS Laboratory, Physics Building 1118 East Fourth St. PO Box 210081, University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721-00081, USA 1

* E-mail : kappt@mahidol.ac.th


Tha Chang sand pits, Nakhon Ratchasima Province and many other sand pits in the area adjacent to the Mun River are characterized by their fluviatile environment in association with mass wasting deposits, along the paleo-river channel and the flood plain of the Mun River. Sediments of these deposits are characterized by clasts of various rock types especially the resistant ones with frequent big tree trunks, logs and wood fragments in different sizes and various stages of transformation from moldering stage to lignification and petrification. Widespread pyritization of the lower horizon suggests strongly reducing environment during burial. The Tha Chang deposits have been received much attention from geoscientists especially paleontologist communities, as they contain fragments of some distinct vertebrate species such as Stegadon sp., hominoid primate, rhinoceros Aceratherium and others. Based on the associated mammal fauna and hominoid fossils, the late Miocene ( 9 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6 Ma) was given for the time of deposition of this sand and gravel unit (Chaimanee et al. 2006; Deng et al. 2011). Some other reports believed that sediments and materials of these sand and gravel quarries (pits) were deposited by high-energy flood pulses contemporaneous with the tektites forming event during mid-Pleistocene at c. 0.8 Ma (Howard et al. 2003; Haines et al. 2004). Interpretation from Palynostratigraphical study suggested that the lower horizon of Tha Chang sand pit was deposited during Pliocene/Pleistocene period and the upper horizons are Pleistocene/Holocene (Bunchalee, P., 2005). It is crystal clear that all the fluviatile sediments including tektites and almost all fossil fragments being deposited in these sand pits were, likely a multiple times reworked materials. Only some old bamboo trees, some old crowling trees and fossils grasses observed on the old river bank are considered in situ. C-14 dating of 5 old wood specimens from Tha Chang Sand Pits, 15 old wood specimens from Chumpuang Sand Pits and one sample of old pottery from a Chumpuang Sand Pit were carried out BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


in the NSF- Arizona AMS Laboratory. Although, there is no sharp boundary between the unconsolidated sedimentary horizons in the pits, C-14 ages obtained from the Tha Chang vary from 34,340 BP at the middle horizon (appx 10 m below ground zero) to > 49,900 BP at the lower horizon with unknown basal formation (highly pyritized zone appx 20 - 25 m below ground zero). The ages for the Chumpuang vary from 41,700 BP, >45,900 BP and >49,900 BP from the upper most to the lower most of a broad horizon (appx 8 m to appx 12 m below ground zero). The C-14 age of the pottery collected from layer approximately 5 m below ground zero is 2,514 BP. The nature of fluviatile together with occasional mass wasting characteristics of all sand pits studies suggest the relatively faster depositional rate of the lower horizon which involved more flooding and mass wasting deposits than those of the upper horizons. The apparent of some mixing of the wood ages may indicate reworking and lag deposits nature of the area. The depositional rate of the upper most sand and soil horizon (5 m thick) is approximately 1 m per 500 years which mean both erosion and deposition had played a significant role during that time period. In term of the true age of the formation, we argue that since most of the materials deposited are reworked materials, all ages obtained from fossil fragments could not be the age of sand and gravel formation. Furthermore, the maximum age of all the tektite bearing horizons cannot be older than 0.8 Ma. The oldest C-14 age of 49,900 BP is interpreted as the minimum age of the Tha Chang and related sand pits formation when geomorphology of the area was a lot more hilly and much higher gradient than that of the present day. Key words : Paleo-environment, Tha Chang depositional age, reworked materials,

C-14 Dating, fluviatile, mass wasting, reducing, moldering stage References Bunchalee, P., 2005, Palynology and Stratigraphy of Floodplain sediments along the

Mun River, Amphoe Non Sung, Changwat Nakhon Ratchasima, Chulalongkorn

Univ. , 81p. (upb MSc Report, Chulalongkorn University) Chaimanee, Y., 2009, Diversity of Cenozoic Mammals in Thailand; Contribution to

Palaeoenvironments, Jour. Geol. Thailand, no 1, p. 11-16. Chaimanee, Y., Yamee, C., Tian P., Chavasseau, O., Jaeger, J.J., 2006,

Khoratpithecus piriyai, a Late Miocene hominoid of Thailand, American Journal

of Phys. Anthrop., v. 131, p311 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 323. Chaimanee, Y., Yamee, C., Tian P., Chavasseau, O., Jaeger, J.J., 2008, First middle

Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand : Jour. Of Human Evolution, v. 54,

p434 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 443. Chalmers, R.O., Henderson, E.P. and Mason,B., 1976, Occurrence, distribution and age

of Australian tektites, Smithsonian /contributions to the Earth Science , No 17,

p. 46. Fiske, P.S., Putthapiban, P. and Wasson, J.T., 1996, Excavation and analysis of layered

tektites from northeast Thailand, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, v. 31, p 36-41.

67 67


Gentner, W., Storzer, D. and Wagner, G.A., 1969, New fission track ages of tektites and

related glasses, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 33, Issue 9, p. 1075 –

1021. Haines, P.W., Howard, K.T., Burrett, C.F., Ali, J. and Bunopas, S., 2004, Flood deposits

penecontemporaneous with 0.8 tektite fall in NE Thailand : Impact-induced

environmental affects? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 225, p. 19-28. Howard, K.T., 2011, Tektites, The Geology of Thailand, Edt. Ridd, Barver and Crow,

p. 573-591. Howard, K.T., Haines, P.W., Burrett, C.F., Ali, J.R. and Bunopas, S., 2003,

Sedimentology of 0.8 m.y. log-bearing flood deposits in northeast Thailand and

mechanisms for pre-flood deforestation, Proceedings, 8th International Congress

on Pacific Neogene Stratigraphy, Chiang Mai, Thailand, p. 49-67. Tao. D., Hanta, R. and Jintasakul, P., 2011, A new species of the rhinoceros

Aceratherium from the Late Miocene of Nakhon Ratchasima, northeastern

Thailand, Proceeding world conference on Paleontology and Stratigraphy,

Nakhon Ratchasima, p. 45 – 46. Udomchoke, V., 1988, Quaternay Stratigraphy of the Khorat Plateau Area,

Northeastern Thailand, Proceedings of the workshop on Correlation of

Quaternary Successions in South, East and Southeast Asia, Ed. Thirapongkol,

N., p 69 – 94.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Investigation of Site Characteristics of Subsoil in the Central

Part of Thailand

Nakhorn Poovarodom1 and Preecha Saithong2

Faculty of Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand 2 Active Fault Research section, Bureau of Environmental Geology and Geohazard,

Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand 1


Geological resources have played a major role in generating the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s income in the This study quantitatively investigates site effects of subsoils, which govern intensity and characteristics of ground motion, by microtremor observations. The technique of single point observation with Horizontal-to-Vertical spectral ratio (H/ V) method to estimate the predominant period and the technique of array observation with Spatial Autocorrelation (SPAC) technique for exploration of shear wave velocity profile are conducted for 31 sites in six provinces in the central part of Thailand; Singburi, Suphanburi, Ang-thong, Chainat, Lopburi, and Uthaithani. The variation of the site characteristics can be clearly distinguished where the average of shear wave velocity from the surface to 30-m depth varies from 200 to 680 m/s and the predominant periods varies from 0.1 to 0.8 second. The hardest soil type in this study located in the northern part yields highest shear wave velocity and shortest predominant period. The area with lowest average of shear wave velocity and longest predominant period is located in the southern part of the study area. Site classifications based on average shear wave velocity reveal that subsoils in Uthaithani, Chainat and some part of Lopburi are classified as class C (very dense soil and soft rock). In Singburi, Suphanburi, Ang-thong Chainat and some part of Lopburi are classified as class D (dense soil or stiff soil). Keywords: Site characteristic, Thailand, Microtremor, Spatial Autocorrelation, H/V spectral ratio



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

The Machinchang Formation of Langkawi Island, Malaysia: Facies and Depositional Environment. Kamal Roslan Mohamed Che Aziz Ali Faculty of Science & Technology Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi, Selangor Malaysia

ABSTRACT Machinchang Formation is the oldest sedimentary rocks in Malaysia, found on the western side of Langkawi Island, from Tanjung Belua to Pulau Jemuruk in Langkawi. The formation consists of thick sequence of quartz arenite, arkose and subgreywacke, with minor amounts of shale, mudstone and conglomerate. A good exposure of the sequence can be found along the coast and road cuts from Teluk Datai to Teluk Kubang Badak. After reviewing the lithology, texture, sedimentary structures and fossils of the entire sequence in the Machinchang Formation, we found that the sequence is md eup of seven major sedimentary facies. There are; a) F1: shale facies, This facies is oucrops in Telok Datai, and several other localities along the

coastal area. It consists of parallel laminated shale. Thin layers of siltstone and

fine-grained sandstone are are found within this facies. b) F2: interbedded shale and medium sandstone facies, This facies consists of interbedding between shale and fine to medium size

sandstone. The thickness of the layers range from several centimeters to 20cm.

The sandstone layers are seem to be dominant and graded bedding is a common

feature found within it. c) F3: sandstone with parallel lamination and low angle cross-bedding facies, This facies consists of medium-sized sandstone with 20 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 50cm thick layers

showing parallel lamination and low angle cross-bedding. d) F4: pebbly sandstone with planar and trough cross-bedding facies, This facies consists of coarse sandstone and pebbly sandstone. Size of pebble

ranges from several millimeters up to 3 cm. Sedimentary structures such as

troughs and planar cross-beddings are commonly found in this facies. Some of

the pebble were arranged during deposition forming cross bedding-like

structure. e) F5: thick sandstone with large-scale cross-bedding facies, This facies consists of very thick layers of coarse sandstone, and exhibits large-

scale cross-bedding, interbedded with mudstone and siltstone. This planar and

sometime trough cross-beddings show one way unimodal paleocurrent direction,



mostly from the west to east. Other sedimentary structures such as water escape

structures, ripple marks, and load casts can also be found in this facies. f) F6: sandstone with trace fossils facies, This facies is quite similar to the third facies (sandstone with parallel lamination

and low angle cross-bedding facies), but the sandstone in this facies contains

trace fossils and fragment of body fossil. Fine to medium sandstone layers of

several centimeters up to 50 cm thick with parallel laminations and cross-

beddings can be fond within this facies. g) F7: interbedded thinly layer of mudstone, fine sandstone and limestone facies This facies consists of interbedding between thinly bedded shale, calcareous

sandstone and carbonate rock units. The topmost part of this facies is overlain by

a this sequence of limestone belongs to the Setul Formation. Field evidences from the distribution of the facies, and strike and dip directions of the bedding plane, show that the shale facies (F1) is the oldest facies and located at the bottom of the sequence. This facies is subsequently overlain by F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 and finally F7 at the very top of the sequence. Studies show that in general, the lower part of the sequence (units F1, F2, and F3) was initially deposited in deeper deltaic environment may be in prodelta area which was then subsequently overlain by river mouth or estuarine environment (F4) during the delta progradation. Changes from unit F1 to unit F4 is due to transgression during period of stable sea-level. When the progradation stopped because of the sea levels rise during the transgressive period the river mouth or estuary environments changed into holomarine environments where the sandstones of F5 were deposited as shallow marine bars. This is evident by the shallowing- upward nature of this facies as observed at Pasir Tengkorak. In quieter or sheltered environments the F6 facies was deposited. At the end of the sequence, Machinchang clastic environments was slowly replaced by carbonate environments, when the F7 was being deposited. After this period, the precipitate and deposition of carbonate materials become more dominant and finally the deposition was dominated by calcareous sediments.

71 71


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Alluvial Fans of Sagaing Area in Central Myanmar and Their Bearing on the Active Tectonic Activity of the Sagaing Fault

Myint Thein,

Myanmar Geosciences Society


North of Sagaing in Central Myanmar, the Upper Neogene alluvial fans are among the most striking geomorphic features around the Sagaing fault, and they are broadly differentiated into two groups: the older fans (Lower Pleistocene) and the younger fans (Upper Pleistocene-Holocene). The present work studies the nature and development of both groups alluvial fans, in order to document the tectonic activity of the Sagaing fault. Depending on the local tectonic setting, processes of development of the alluvial fans along the Sagaing fault within the study area can be classified into at least three categories, viz. (1) growth of fans where tectonic signatures, should they ever formed, are overwhelmed by rapid sedimentation, (2) uplifting of alluvial fans by the transpressional stresses related to strike-slip tectonics and (3) laterally displacing alluvial fans relative to their provenance areas by the dextral motion of the Sagaing fault, with an average velocity of 15 mm/yr. It is concluded that the Upper Neogene alluvial fans bear a valuable proxy record of the active tectonic activity of the Sagaing fault. Keywords: Pleistocene, Holocene, alluvial fan, Sagaing fault, Mezaligyaung Fanglomerate, sediment-gravity flows, provenance area, Irrawaddy Formation, bajada, right-lateral offset.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Fossilized Marine Crabs at Kra Jae Sub - District, Na Yai Am District, Chanthaburi Province

Thanit Intarat and Rungathit Buchaindra Faculty of geoinformatics, Burapha University, Chon Buri, Thailand E-mail: thaniti@buu.ac.th


There were many fluctuation of sea level in the past 10,000 years which cause some of the areas in the gulf of Thailand were developed back and forth. Marine crab fossils were abundant found in these coastal areas and especially preserved under ancient mud flat and mangrove due to the fluctuation. There were a report of founding marine crab fossils in Na Yai Am District, Chanthaburi Province, where the present shoreline is approximately 3,000 meters away, and in order to identify ancient ecology of the area where the fossilized crabs were found as well as to locate an approximate paleo-shoreline. The marine crab fossil samples were collected in the study area with 70% more than other types of fossils, most of which were mollusks. These marine crab fossils were identified as Macropthalmus latreillei, dwelling in mud flats since the Pleistocene until the Present time. Noticing that large numbers of the crab fossils were commonly broken into pieces and accumulated in one mass or concretion, some of which were mixed with mollusk fossils which were in a much better shape. It can be concluded that the study area was a mud flat, previously, adjacent to a shoreline an under the influence of tide effect. There was a mass mortality event, possibly a submarine landslide or storm surge, to the crabs and other livings on the shore which was responsible in breaking and accumulating large numbers of the crabs and shell fragments. This event could occur about 2,500 years ago, based on the thickness of overlying soils, which was relatively shallow, and the distance to the present shoreline.

Keywords : Fossil, Macropthalmus latreillei, Marine crab, Sea level

73 73


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Provenance of Quartz phenoclasts from the Jurassic Tomizawa Formation in the Abukuma belt, NE Japan


Wunnaporn Punyawai1, Punya Charusiri2, Ken-ichiro Hisada3

Bureau of mineral resources, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok 10400 Thailand Eatrhquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10300 Thailand 3 Graduate school of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba , Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 Japan



Quartzitic clasts have been found abundantly in various places in the Japanese Islands. However a few places were known for their provenance, and no specific sequence was identified as a source for clast-bearing strata in Japan. This study deals with the provenance of quartzitic clasts in conglomerate and pebbly sandstone beds of the Jurassic Tomizawa Formation in northeastern Japan. We made a transect across the sequence and collected fresh samples from the outcrops. A detailed investigation was made using petrographic and cathodoluminescence methods. Emphasis was placed on the pebble â&#x20AC;&#x201C;size clasts. The studied clasts can be subdivided into three types based on textural and mineralogical characteristics. The principal clast type is metamorphic (metaquartzite) clast type (or type 3) is the most abundant and contain up to 57 % of the total clasts. The subordinate type is semi-metaquartzarenite (old and new grains) (or type 2) which attains up to 31%. Sedimentary (quartzarenite) (or type 1) is the least abundant type which is about 12% of the total clasts. Clasts in the Tomizawa beds were compared with the Marumori metamorphic rock in the northern part of the Abukuma plateau. We considered that the Tomizawa metaquartzite clasts (type 3) are quite similar to the Marumori quartzite. Based on our stratigraphic correlation and petrographic investigation, the type 1 clasts are believed to have been derived from a long distant across the major fault to the west. At present, it is difficult to identify the appropriate provenance for type 2 clasts. A good candidate for the type 1 clast provenance is the central eastern peninsular Korea where the Precambrian quartzitic sedimentary rocks are exposed. However to confirm the source target, trace element concentrations and REE pattern of type 1 clasts are required to determine its appropriate source. Key words: Tomizawa, Conglomerate, Provenance, Cathodolumiscenc. Japan



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Analysis of Geological Structures in the Southern Mergui Basin, Andaman Sea

Niramol Tintakorn1, Passakorn Pananont2, Tananchai Mahattanachai3,

Punya Charusiri1*,

Earthquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), Chulalongkorn

University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand 2 Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand 3 Department of Mineral Fuel, Bangkok, Thailand 1

* E-mail: cpunya@chula.ac.th


Structures of the southern part of Mergui Basin (22,000 km2) have been investigated using results of seismic interpretation in conjunction with previous core– log, and biostratigraphic analyses. In this study, baselap (downlap and onlap), toplap and truncation structures have been applied to indicate clearly defined seismic horizons and structures using Kingdom enhancement software program. Eight horizons have been discovered from the enhanced seismic sections including Top Yala, Top Ranong, SH-1 (or top Kantang), SH-2 (Top Tai /Top carbonate), SH-3 (lower Surin with prograding clinoforms), SH-4 (top Trang), SH-5 (top Thalang with erosion truncation), SH-6 (top Takuapa with distinctive onlaps). Prograding clinoforms encountered at eastern edges of the basin suggest deposition onto the continental slope with the thicker sequences in the south than in the north Two obvious fault zones have been recognized – one is the north-south trending Mergui Fault with the normal slip component and the other is the northeast – southwest trending Ranong Fault with the major strike – slip component. The latter principally controls the eastern boundary of the basin. Both faults form half graben structure, and some have the total slip of more than 50 m. The Mergui Fault displays steep dipping to the west more than those to the east. Some branches show the fault planes extending to seafloor. Inversion along the Mergui Fault exhibits very steep dipping to the east and is usually encountered in the old horizons, particularly Yala, Ranong, and Kantang horiozons. The compressive stress has been attributed to the back-arc stress development in the western part of the Andaman Sea. The different slip movements along these two faults lead us to consider that there exists not only a change in depocenters but also tectonic regimes through Neogene times. The north to northnorthwest- trending Mergui Fault with the essential normal component is interpreted to cut through Top Ranong, giving rise to the thickness to the west is much more than that to the east. Moreover, the Mergui and the Ranong Faults

75 75


also cuts through Top Takuapa to the seafloor, suggesting that both faults are still active till present. Epicentral distribution along and within the fault strongly support this scenario. Moreover, the Mergui Fault is herein interpreted to situate between two major active faults viz. the northwest â&#x20AC;&#x201C; southeast trending Sumatra Fault and the north â&#x20AC;&#x201C; south trending Sagaing Fault and is regarded active. Keywords: Andaman, Mergui Fault, Ranong Fault, Seismic, Earthquake, Active fault



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Morphotectonic and geochronological analyses of the Khlong

Marui Fault, southern Thailand Sarun Keawmuangmoon1, Suwith Kosuwan2, Preecha Saithong2,

Kitti Kaowisate3, Punya Charusiri1

Earthquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), c/o Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand 2 Environmental Geology Division, Department of Mineral Resources,

Bangkok 10400 Thailand 3 Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok 10400 Thailand 1

ABSTRACT Khlong Marui Fault (KMF) in southern Thailand has been investigated for identifying its characteristic using morphotectonic and geochronological analyses. Evidence from field survey and remote sensing interpretation advocate that the KMF (about 180 km long) along strike orientates principally in the NE-SW direction. The fault generally dips westward, shows a left-lateral sense movement with northward dips, and consists of 14 fault segments. Khao Panom in the southern KMF segment depicts a well â&#x20AC;&#x201C; defined tectonic geomorphology along both sides of the mountain. Four geomorphic indices including mountain front sinuosity index, (S) stream length gradient index (SL), Transverse Topographic Symmetry factor (TTS) and Ratio of valley floor width to valley floor height (Vf) have been applied. The highest SL values, the lowest S and Vf values, and low TTS have been used to estimate the activeness of the KMF fault. The results from these geomorphic indexes help to select areas for palaeoseismic trenching exploration at Ban Bang Luek at the eastern flank of Khao Phanom. Field investigation at Ban Bang Luk shows the clear-cut triangular facet and linear valleys. The results on C-14 AMS, TL and ESR method for sediments collected in the trench reveal that the KMF generated 3 paleoearthquake events. The first detected movement is the 9,000-10,000 yr event with the slip rate of about 0.11 mm/yr. The second earthquake event occurred at about 2,700-3,000 yrs ago with the slip rate of about 0.4-0.5 mm/yr. The last event happened about 2,000 yrs with the slip rates of about 0.43mm/yr. with the recurrence interval for the KMF is 1,000 Âą 300 yrs. The maximum paleoearthquake magnitudes estimated from the length of fault segments the KMF generated several paleoearthquakes with magnitudes of about 6.3 to 7.2 on the Richter scale. It is also believed that the active fault segments can produce earthquakes of large to small magnitudes in the future. Key word: Active fault, Klong Marui, morphotectonic, Luminescence dating, C-14 AMS



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Is Ranong fault in southern Thailand active? - Evidence from seismological, paleoseismological, and seismic investigations.

Sumalee Thipyupas , Thanu hanpattanapanich2, Santi Pailoplee3 and Punya Charusiri3,* 1

Royal Irrigation Department, Bangkok, Thailand 2 Panya Consultant Co., ltd., Bangkok, Thailand 3 Earthquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand * E-mail: cpunya@chula.ac.th 1

ABSTRACT Earlier and recent works confirm that the Ranong Fault (RNF) in southern Thailand has been known for a long time to cut across Late Paleozoic clastic rocks and Late Cretaceous granites. However, our result on remote sensing interpretation reveals that the RNF also cuts Quaternary alluvial and colluvial deposits. So this research is aim at to decipher the activeness of the RNF using remote sensing, tectonic geomorphology, trench log data, Quaternary dating information. On land the RNF is estimated to have the total length of 300 km from Prachuab Khirikhan to Ranong province and consists of 19 fault segments. Seismic interpretation reveals that the RNF extend to the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. Its extended segments to the Andaman and the Gulf have been estimated to be 45 km and 100 km long, resapectively. Additionally, a few epicentral distributions in 2006 in the western Gulf of Thailand support our work that the earthquake swamps have been produced as a result of movement along the northern part of the RNF. Our result shows that the RNF on land strikes in the northeast- southwest direction and dips eastward at steep angles. The RNF shows a major strike slip component with the left lateral sense of movement. Our seismic reflection data reveal that the RNF cuts through the seafloor. In the sea many lines of evidence support that the RNF posses oblique slip movement with the major normal sense. Our seismic interpretation conforms very well with the focal mechanism data and field relation regarding several morphotectonic features. The stratigraphic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; log results from two paleoseismic trenches across the RNF along with the previous and recent geochronological data and structural section from seismic interpretation lead to the conclusion that there are at least 6 earthquake events and the latest movement occurred at about 2,000 yrs. The Ranong segment of the RNF used to trigger the largest earthquake with the magnitude of 7.4 Mw. The maximum slip rate of 0.7 mm/yr has been seen from the Nong Ki segment. We therefore conclude that the RNF is the active fault with the major sinistral sense of movement and the recurrences interval of 2,000 yr. Keyword: Ranong Fault, Focal mechanism, Strike slip, Remote sensing, Morphotectonic, Quaternary dating BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geology and Petrochemistry of dike rocks in Chatree gold mine, Pichit province: Implication for Late Paleozoic tectonic setting

Tangwattananukul L1, Takasima I1, Misuta T2 Ishiyama D2 and Lunwongsa W3, Charusiri P4

Graduate School of Engineering and Resource Science, Center for Geo-Environmental Science, Akita University, 1-1 Gakuen-Machi, Akita 010-8502, Japan 2 International Center for Research and Education on Mineral and Energy Resources, Akita University, 1-1 Gakuen-Machi, Akita 010-8502, Japan 3 Exploration section, Issara Mining Company, Phechabun, Thailand 4 Earthquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), c/o Department of Geology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand 1

ABSTRACT The inferred Permo-Triassic Loei-Phetchabun volcanic rocks of mainly intermediate to mafic large and volcaniclastic were cut by dike rocks of intermediate composite in the Chatree gold mine. Almost all the least-altered dike rocks can be divided into two types, based on their field occurrence, i.e. the NE-SW and N-S trending dikes. The latter are cross cut by the former. Most dikes are cut ore vein/ veinlets but dike postdate then. The north-south trending dikes chemically compositions have more mafic than northeast-southwest trending dike rocks. Most northeast-southwest dike rocks have porphyritic texture with phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of mainly plagioclase with minority of clinopyroxene, olivine and Fe-oxide opaque. The groundmass generally range from felty to trachytic, the northsouth trending dikes usually show ophitic to subophitic and glassy textures, however a few samples are holocrystalline. The N-S trending dike rocks seem to contain more mafic minerals than the NE-SW trending rocks. However both dike rocks are much for hydrothermally altered than the volcanic host rocks. Geochemically, the dike rocks contain silica content ranging from 40.2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 56.6%. Immobile elements geochemistry of dike rocks indicates the composition between andesite or basalt and subalkali basalt. Trace element data show north-south dikes are tholeiitic in composition than the northeast-southwest dike. The geochemical characteristics of the high-magnesium are typical of subduction-related magmas, with negative Sr and Zr spikes in mantlenormalized diagrams. Chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) pattern indicated that the both dike rocks are somewhat enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), with flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) pattern. Then, chondritenormalized patterns of dike rocks compared to that of the Andean continental show a parallel pattern, suggesting that both dike rocks may have formed by subduction of Nakhon Thai-oceanic plate beneath than Indochina continental plate with the contratins melts. Keywords: Dike, Chatree, trace element, REE, subduction, Late Paleozoic 79 79 GEOSEA 2012

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geochemistry of Chatree Volcanic Complex, Phetchabun Province, Central Thailand

Abhisit Salam, Khin Zaw, Sebastien Meffre and Jocelyn Mcphie

CODES ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, University of Tasmania,

Private Bag 126, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia E-mail: asalam@utas.edu.au


The Chatree Volcanic Complex (CVC) is an extensive Late Permian to Early Triassic volcanic sequence distributed in area between Phichit and Phetchabun Provinces, central Thailand in the Loei Fold Belt. The CVC have a well-defined volcanic stratigraphy comprising four main units of volcanic facies/facies associations. The mafic to intermediate units occur at the base and intermediate to felsic units occur at the top of the sequence. The mafic to intermediate units consist of thick coherent basaltic andesite, overlain by andesitic monomictic to polymictic breccia; the intermediate to felsic unit at the top consists of rhyolitic fiamme breccia. Volcanogenic sedimentary rocks occur between the major volcaniclastic units, mainly in the northeastern part of Chatree mine. The CVC includes the products of explosive (e.g., fiamme breccia facies) and effusive (e.g., rhyolite breccia facies and probably the andesitic units) eruptions. At Chatree, source volcanic vents cannot be recognised, though the units dominated by coherent and monomictic andesitic breccia facies (e.g., plagioclase-phyric and plagioclase-hornblende-phyric andesite facies) are probably proximal, whereas the fiamme breccia facies are probably more distal. The facies that have only a minor volcanic input (e.g., volcanogenic sedimentary facies association) probably represent periods of minor volcanic activities. The presence of thick laminated mudstone contains abundant fossils suggesting a submarine setting. Lithofacies of the matrix-rich polymictic breccia, volcanogenic sedimentary facies association typically have bedforms characterised by graded bedding, gravity flow transport (principally high- and low-concentration turbidites implying that much of the sequence accumulated below storm wave-base). However, the presence of wood fragments in many facies/facies association (e.g., lower fiamme breccia and volcanogenic sedimentary) indicate very clearly that the depositional setting was somewhere near land. Major, low abundance trace element and REE data reveals at least two major suites of volcanic sequence (host to Chatree epithermal mineralisation) and late volcanic rocks (post-Chatree mineralisation dykes). The Chatree volcanic sequence is low in their incompatible element contents in comparison to the late dykes that have tholeiitic and calc-alkaline affinities respectively. The Chatree volcanic sequence is BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


further classified into Volcanic Suite 1 characterised by low Ti, P, Mg, Zr, Ce and Y basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite with very low LREE, whereas Volcanic Suite 2 contains andesite to dacite with slightly higher Ti, Zr, Y, Ce, P and LREE. In addition, the intruded dykes which are ranging in composition from basalt to andesite also consist of two magmatic suites: a) Xenolithic dykes characterised by high Mg and moderate Ti; b) High-Ti andesitic dykes characterised by higher Ti than all other magmatic suites at Chatree. On the basis of facies analyses, Volcanic Suite 1 is represented by the plagioclase-hornblende-phyric andesite facies and associated breccia facies (e.g., monomictic andesitic breccia and polymictic mafic-intermediate breccia) together with fiamme breccia facies which occurs at the mine area only, whereas Volcanic Suite 2 contains the plagioclase-phyric andesite facies association ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite and occurs in the mine area as well as within the wider Chatree District. Volcanic Suite 2 is mostly stratigraphically above the Suite 1. The geochronology and geochemistry indicate that the early Volcanic Suite 1 yielded LA ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age of 258.6 to 250 Ma and has low Ti, Zr and LREE characteristics of arc tholeiites. In contrast, the mostly younger Volcanic Suite 2 yielded LA ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age of 250-247 Ma and is relatively higher in Ti and Zr and trends towards the calc-alkaline composition of the post-mineralisation andesite to basaltic dykes. The data suggest that Ti, Zr, P, and Ce increase from the early Volcanic Suite 1 (258.6-250 Ma) to late Volcanic Suite 2 magmatism suggesting that the Chatree host of Volcanic Suite 1 and 2 were derived from an evolving magmatic source characterised by increasing Ti, Zr and LREE.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Manganese Nodules Deposits Pramual Jenkunawat

Bureau of Mines and Concession, Department of Primary Industries and Mines,

Rama 6 Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400 E-mail: pramual@dpim.go.th


The world reserves of manganese nodules in the international sea are gigantic. Major metals Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and etc. can be extracted from the mineral. It was said that if the manganese nodule mining is feasible, the continental mining would be collapsed because of excessive metal production and consequent much less cost. Millions of million tones of nodules rich in iron and manganese with 3 percent of Cobalt, Nickel, and Copper are major targets. Most of the resources have been explored. U.S.A., Germany, France, India, Japan, South Korea, and many other countries own exploration areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. There are also nodule deposits in the Atlantic Ocean but with less abundance of nodules and Cobalt, Nickel and Copper. Mining technology has far been developed inside the company systems. The principle is only to remove the nodules which are just lying on top of the muddy seafloor. Mining would be feasible when the metal price rises and the mining them on the continents is critical. This historic event will come sooner than Thailand would aware of. Metal industry would be done simply by using acid leaching process. Copper, Cobalt, Nickel and also other minor valuable constituent metals would be dissolved in sulfuric acid and then extracted from the fluid by electrolysis. Should Thailand be involved with the manganese nodules. Thailand may not be fully oceanic country. Thai people are not skilled in the marine exploration. The country is not well advanced in the marine mineral technology. The country is not prepared for this coming event. Even though, the country has a capability of taking part into this business. The country is well developed and ready. Private mining sectors such as Ban Poo and Ital Thai are doing multi million mining business in the global scale. It is possible to import modern marine machines and obtain marine technology from other country. Many geologists in the country have been trained in Marine Department of The Geological Survey of Japan. It is possible to join the venture with the Royal Navy. A company from any country can obtain an exploration license from the United Nations. The exploration may be conducted a few times annually. The cost of one month exploration would be less than 100 million baths per trip. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


In the training course at the Marine Geology Department of the Geological Survey of Japan in 1993-1994, the author found that it was simple to do manganese nodule exploration. During the field trip in the Central Pacific manganese nodule deposit, the author learned that manganese nodules could be easily removed from the seafloor by sampling tools equipped on an exploration vessel. The nodules were lying on the clayey seafloor. There was no hard rock there or any objects to obstruct the sampling tools.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Characteristics of Green Zircon from Ratnapura, Sri Lanka Bhuwadol Wanthanachaisaeng 1, Nantharat Bunna2, Chakkaphan Sutthirat3,4, Papawarin Ounorn4, and Visut Pisutha-Arnond3,4 Gems Enhancement Research Unit, Faculty of Gems, Burapha University, Chanthaburi Campus, Chanthaburi 22170, Thailand 2 Faculty of Gems, Burapha Univisity, Chanthaburi Campus, Chanthaburi 22170, Thailand 3 Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand 4 The Gem and Jewelry Institute of Thailand (GIT), 140, 140/1-3, 140/5 ITF-Tower Building. 1st - 4th and 6th Floor, Silom Road, Suriyawong, Bangrak, Bangkok 10500,Thailand 1

ABSTRACT Zircon is a famous gem in the gem and jewelry market. It can be found several of color such as reddish brown, yellow, colorless, blue, pink and green. The well known green color is from Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka. The specific gravity of Ratnapura zircon is almost around 4 g/cm3. The Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the decrease of the degree of metamictization of the green zircon which is showed the amorphous state. The uranium content that is an important trace element in zircon is about 3500-8000 ppm which is the cause of metamictization in green zircon. The annealing of metamict zircon influence the partially recrystallization which is also affect to the increasing of the specific gravity and the narrowing of the Raman spectrum.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Volcanic Arc and Its Associated Mineralization Along the Lampang – Phrae Area, Northern Thailand: Evidence from Geological, Geochronological and Petrochemical Investigations Punya Charusiri1, Worakij Kaochan2, Jensarin Wiwatpinyou1 and Kriangsak Kaewsaeng3 1

Earthquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand 2 Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok 10400 Thailand 3 Mineral Exploration Section, Phadaeng Mining Co. Ltd., Amphoe Muang, Tak, Thailand

ABSTRACT We conduct geological mapping across the Lampang-Phrae area in northern Thailand to unravel magmatism associated with mineralization. We discover that magmatism occurs within the 300 km-long, arcuate, and deformed NE-SW-trending belt. The igneous rocks are of both volcanic and plutonic affinities, the former being more widespread in exposures and more mafic in compositions than the latter. Petrographic investigation shows that compositions of the volcanic rocks are of two varieties- basaltic and andesitic to rhyolitic, and the more felsic affinities are more abundant. The more felsic volcanic rocks include coherent lavas and volcaniclastic s. The felsic plutonic rocks are mainly granite to granodiorite in composition. Result on new isotopic age dating reveals that the andesitic rocks occurred between 240 to 250 Ma whereas the felsic plutonic rocks took place during 220 Ma. We recognize that the basaltic rocks cut across Tertiary semi-consolidated sedimentary strata, suggesting the Late Cenozoic in age. Trace element and rare – earth element patterns suggest that the intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks as well as the felsic plutonic rocks belong to calc-alkaline affinity whereas the more mafic volcanic rocks are of tholeiitic to alkaline affinity. We therefore believe that the intermediate to felsic igneous rocks have formed as a result of oceanic subduction beneath the continental block in response to compressive tectonic setting. Moreover trace element data from these rocks advocate that subduction have occurred from the east to the west. Afterward the more felsic plutonic rocks have occurred due to continuous westward subduction. Hydrothermal alteration associated with Cu-Pb-Zn-Sb-Au-Ag mineralization have formed principally in brecciated volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks as veins/veinlets and stockworks during the late – stage episode after the emplacement of this Permo-Triassic magmatic belt. XRD analysis indicates that major alteration mineralogy includes

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quartz-kaolinite-illite-sericite and quartz 窶田hlorite-epidote+albite assemblages, suggesting that hydrothermal fluids become more neutral and perhaps are dominated later by meteoric water. We consider that hydrothermal fluids and associated mineralization have been derived from more felsic plutonic rocks rather than those of the volcanic affinity. On the contrary, the Late Cenozoic basalts have formed due to continental rifting when crustal rocks become more relaxed due to extensional tectonic setting during Tertiary time. However, they do not host any chalcophile mineralization. Gem deposits (mainly sapphire) have been temporally and spatially associated with the more alkaline magmatism. Keyword: Volcanic, Permo-Triassic, Subduction, Mineralization, Granite, Arc



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Jurassic Petroleum System in the Shoushan Basin, Egyptâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Western Desert Mohamed Ragab Shalaby1, Mohammed Hail Hakimi2 and Wan Hasiah Abdullah2 Petroleum Geoscience Department, Faculty of Science, University of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei 2 Department of Geology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


ABSTRACT The systematic analysis of potential petroleum system of the Jurassic Formations has identified the coals and organic-rich shales are the most important source rocks within the Khatatba Formation. These sediments are characterised by high total organic matter and have good to excellent hydrocarbon generative potential. Kerogen type is predominantly type II-III with type III kerogen. The Khatatba source rocks are mature and, at the present time, is within the peak of oil window with determined vitrinite reflectance values in the range of 0.81 to 1.08 Ro%. The Khatatba sandstones are characterised by fine to coarse-grained, moderate to well sorted, which deposited in fluvial channels and shallow-marine environments. The measured porosity and permeability indicate that good-quality reservoir rocks are deposited in a high energy fluvial channel depositional environment, with no diagenetic problems. The carbonate rocks of the Masajid Formation occur as regional seals and the shales within Khatatba Formation is a local seal rock. Modelling results suggest that the hydrocarbon generation from Khatatba Formation began in the Late Cretaceous and maximum rates of hydrocarbon generation occurred during the end Tertiary time. Hydrocarbon migrated from the source rock to Khatatba sandstones via fractures pathways created by abnormal pore pressures resulting from hydrocarbon generation. Keywords: Petroleum system, basin modelling, Shoushan Basin



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

The Utilization of Flare and Vent or the Reduction of GHG Emission, Another Challenge for Thailand E&P Business

Witsarut Thungsuntonkhun and Jirapha Skulsangjuntr Department of Mineral Fuels, 21st -22nd Floor Energy Complex Tower B, Viphavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok Thailand E-mail: witsarut@dmf.go.th


Thailandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oil and gas business operates legally under the Petroleum Act and concession agreement, controlled by Department of Mineral Fuels (DMF). The petroleum business in Thailand has been continuously expanded since the discovery of the Erawan gas field in 1972 with many successful natural resources findings and development that drive economic and social development of the country. Meanwhile, natural gas plays a key role to Thai economy since all of natural gas found in the Kingdom was consumed domestically in power plants and manufacturing industry. Hence, from the beginning of the oil and gas or exploration and production (E&P) industry in Thailand, DMF has encountered many challenges that we need to overcome in order to sustain the development of natural resources. One of the biggest challenges we experienced is to dealing with one of the most complex geological structures and reservoirs in the world. These highly faulted structures in the reservoir require good management in terms of technological approach and economical process. Following the technology and economic challenges, E&P business is also facing the environmental issues. This is a challenging situation for E&P business in Thailand, which needs to operate with a very high cost technology while they have to emphasize their concerns over environmental and social responsibility. Recently, global warming has become the most significant concern in every sector not only in Thailand, but also all over the world. Therefore, DMF, as the regulator has encouraged and promoted concessionairesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; projects to reduce green house gas (GHG) emission by reducing the emission of carbon dioxide and methane from vent and flare gas. However, as a business point of view in order to strengthen an effectiveness of the industry, the policy should be viewed as one of embracing change in a cost effective approach, enhancing risk management and avoiding costly overreaction while ready to seize opportunities. Although the category of GHG from emission the E&P industry can be classified into four main categories which are: 1) combustion of fuel for stationary devices such as electric generators and mobile devices such as supply boats, helicopters and trucks, 2) flare or vent, 3) fugitive leaks such as leak from equipments,



and 4) indirect source such as imported electricity, but in the beginning, DMF is focusing only the reduction of flare and vent gas. Flare and vent gas utilization policies have been successfully promoted since 2007 due to benefits of the projects that will not only reduce the GHG emissions, but also increase production efficiency in term of maximizing use of gas resources. As a result of the policies, ongoing flare gas utilization project in Thailand as listed below; A power generation project using flared gas from Pratu Tao Field, beginning in mid-2007, uses 0.4 MMcfd of natural gas to produce 1.8â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2 MW of electricity. A project to recover natural gas from a condensate stabilizer through vapor recovery in Bongkot Gas Field, beginning in mid-2007, recycles about 4 MMcfd into gas processing. An LPG substitution project using flared gas from Nong Tum Field as fuel for community-enterprise agricultural product processing, beginning in 2008, consumes about 0.1 MMcfd of natural gas in favor of 1,600 tons of LPG a year. An LNG production project using flared gas from Nong Tum Field was put on trial in November 2010 to produce around 15.6 million tons of LPG and 10.3 million tons of liquid hydrocarbons (C2+) from 1.7 MMcfd of natural gas. A project to reduce flare gas by the installation of well unloading unit at Benchamas Field, expected recycles about 1 MMscfd. Thailand is one of the Kyoto Protocol signatories, which means that Thailand has to share vision for long-term cooperative action. Also, Thailand has responsibility to develop the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Thus, one of a commitment for developing countries in NAMAs is to report the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Therefore, DMF will take the next step to develop GHG inventory for the E&P business in Thailand which will be completed in very near future. The GHG inventory that we developed will be standardized and international accepted by using international standard such as API and IPCC to calculate the GHG emission. Moreover, once the GHG inventory for E&P business has been developed, efficient mitigation method for reducing GHG emission can be effectively applied. Currently, DMF started to build some mitigation for E&P business, for instance, the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) potential project and Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) technology. For CDM potential projects, two reducing flare projects have been fully encouraged and promoted into CDM project namely 1) Vented gas & vapor recovery unit at Benchamas Field in Block B8/32 in the Gulf, operated by Chevron Offshore (Thailand) Ltd. 2) Power generation using flared gas from Sao Thian Field, operated by PTTEP. However, it is still necessary that CDM guidelines, procedures, requirements and incentives should be analyzed for Thailand in E&P sector. In addition, as we know that CCS is the technology that can help mitigating GHG emission from large-scale fossil fuel usage, for example, coal fired power plants, high CO2 gas separation plants, cement plants and refineries. However, Thailand still



requires in depth study and understanding of CCS technology in terms of technical approach, liability and economical issues. Furthermore, since the technology involve with CCS is similar to the technology use in the E&P industry, DMF has launched the project to study on this issue. In conclusion, DMFâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s duty is not only to regulate the oil and gas business in Thailand, but also to cooperate with regulations, economic, technologies and environmental and societal concerns in order to sustain the development of E&P business along with environmental friendly and safely. Importantly, in order to impose GHG emission reduction policy on Thailandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s E&P industry, we should concern about economical approach to avoid the burden of running the business.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Key Geodynamic Events for Petroleum Exploration in the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand

Kitsana Malila, Parichat Loboonlert, Teenavat Lurprommas, and Sucheera Thaitonglang

PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited, 555/1 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak,

Bangkok, Thailand E-mail: kitsanam@pttep.com


Tectonically, Indosinian I, Indosinian II, and Himalayan orogeny have played a key role in structural closure and petroleum preservation in the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand. The secondary porosity is believed to be a key for carbonate reservoir enhancement. Fracture timing in relation with tectonic events is still controversially. This manuscript addresses an observation from seismic data from several structural closures underneath the Khorat Plateau. It should be noted that, the Pre-Indosinian I (Permian-Middle Triassic) folding and thrusting is likely a major control for reservoir architecture and compartmentalization. Fault direction is considered moving from NNE to SSW indicated by low angle detachment for example Chonnabot and Nam Phong structures. Subsequently, fractures were developing in association with hydrothermal fluid process. This phenomenon is observed from Sinphuhorm gas field and Chonnabot structures. However, fracture aperture and healing is still doubtful and absolutely affected reservoir performance. At this stage, structure like Pre-Indosinian I folding and thrusting is likely high degree of confident for petroleum hunting in the region.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Relationships between Fluid Chemistry and the Creation of Fractured Carbonate-Hosted Fields in Thailand

(Analogs for Phu Horm and Nang Nuan Fields) Thasinee Charoentitirat, 2Kanyaporn Lousuwan, 2Prueksarat Ampaiwan,

3 Anh Tuan Nguyen, 3Phuong Thi Lan Phung, 2Supawich Thanudamrong, 2

Christopher Morley and 1John Warren1 1

Petroleum Geosciences, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2 PTTEP, Enco, Soi 11, Vibhavadi-Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, 10400, Bangkok, Thailand. 3 Exploration and Production Center (EPC) Vietnam Petroleum Institute (VPI), Petrovietnam, Ha Noi, Vietnam. 1


Thailand hosts a number of gas fields producing from fractured Permian carbonates; they include Nam Phong and Phu Horm in Northern Thailand, and Nang Nuan in the Gulf of Thailand. The timing of fluid events associated with the formation of fracture porosity that hosts the hydrocarbons is poorly understood in both regions. A regional study of stable isotope signatures (carbon and oxygen) of fracturefilling carbonate cements was undertaken to better understand the nature of regional fluid events accompanying deformation, and the formation of secondary porosity. Sampling focussed on outcrops of Permian limestones in the Saraburi and Chum Phae regions (near Phu Horm and Nam Phong fields), where structures hosting carbonate veins were mapped and interpreted. In addition, set of reconnaissance samples were collected from the Nang Nuan field, mostly in Permian limestone clasts and calcite cements present in a core recovered from a portion of the Tertiary sandstone reservoir that overlies fractured Permian carbonates. Two distinct isotope trends are evident in the Saraburi and Chum Phae outcrops. Both areas show a regional burial trend related to the Indosinian orogeny and associated increasing burial temperatures. Samples from the Chum Phae region show a separate isotope cluster, likely related to a later catagenic fluid migration event possibly tied to Palaeogene transpression. It is likely that the same catagenic fluids system was associated with the reservoir-creating fracture system in the nearby Phu Horm gas field. If so, the exploration paradigm for fractured reservoirs should be guided by Palaeogene, not Indosinian structural trends. The isotope results from Nang Nuan show the regional burial trend but do not encompass the cluster associated with the likely Palaeogene fluid event. This research is ongoing, and more detailed sampling is planned in Nang Nuan and Phu Horm reservoirs in order to understand what appears to be distinct fluid histories on opposite sides of the Indosinian suture. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS 92

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

What is Bach Ho Field in Vietnam, a Structural Trap or a Buried Hill Play? How Similar is it to Other Fractured Basement Reservoirs in SE Asia and the World?

Warren John Keith1 and Trinh Xuan Cuong2

Petroleum Geoscience, Department of Geology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand 2 Exploration and Production Center (EPC) Vietnam Petroleum Institute (VPI), Petrovietnam, Ha Noi, Vietnam



Bach Ho Field is an unusual fractured basement reservoir in that the reservoir matrix is largely made up of unweathered and tight igneous lithologies (mostly granites and granodiorites), yet it has produced something like a billion barrels of oil. Fieldwide, the igneous basement in Bach Ho field is divided vertically into three zones (A-C): the two lower zones (below 3800-3900m), which are considered sub-economic, tend to be more weakly deformed and fractured, while the upper zone, which constitutes the main reservoir, is strongly altered by various fractures that encompass tectonic, stress release, exfoliation and contraction styles. A major NE-SW Late Oligocene reverse fault crosscuts the field generating approximately 2000m of displacement within the central part of the field. The fault placed a block of brittle granitic rock atop easily compacted fine-grained Eocene sediments in this central, most productive, part of the Bach Ho basement high. The resulting cantilevering and gravitational rotation of the basement block is the main mechanism creating a highly interconnected open-fracture network with effective porosities mostly from 3-5% and occasionally up to 20%, hosting wells capable of producing more than 10,000 bbl/days in the early life of the field. Other factors influencing reservoir quality include minor porosity from surfacerelated weathering of the uppermost part of this exhumed basement block prior to its Eocene reburial; Neogene reactivation of fractures previously occluded by hydrothermal cements; and early oil migration (from Tertiary lacustrine sources) into open fractures. In a comparison to other fractured hard-rock basement reservoirs worldwide, Bach Hoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s closest analog is La Paz-Mara field in Venezuela. It too is a giant field, with a 915m oil column, in a fracture system created by Neogene compression Many other hard-rock basement reservoirs are more tied to the creation of secondary porosities in subaerially-weathered haloes (granite-wash grus) and tend to occur along the upturned edges of rotated basement blocks in extensional horst-graben settings, not in compressionally-fractured overprints.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Study of Groundwater Potential Using Geophysical Method for Industrial Usage

Nor Dalila Desa, Lakam Mejus, Jeremy Andy Dominic and Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor


Rembia Industrial Area in Alor Gajah, Malacca will become the first solar valley in Malaysia once the solar cell factory which costs RM2.3 billion starts its operation. The operation of this plant requires maximum use of water, but this area faces problems in obtaining adequate supplies of water resources to support its use. Therefore, there is a need to prepare for alternative sources of water supply for the proposed use of this industrial area from groundwater resources, by building a groundwater production well to cover the shortfall. In this study, six different locations have been identified which is Rembia Line 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential usage of groundwater for industrial usage. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), a type of geophysical technique, has been used in order to locate the groundwater potential in those locations. This technique helps to locate fresh water resources based on the subsurface geological formations, as well as to delineate shallow unconfined aquifers to ones that are deeply confined. Geophysical studies are also used as a non-destructive method which can produce preliminary information to potential areas of land with suitable water supply for the industry before any drilling work is carried out. A study from drilling boreholes found that the study area consists of several layers of lithology consisting of interval layer of sandstone, gravel and clay layer where the lithology changes from that of medium dense to very dense. In this study, the resistivity values obtained can be classified in three major ranges; less than 100 Ohmmeter (m), 100-200m and more than 200m. For resistivity value that accounts for less than 100m, it could represent a layer or layers of brackish water containing clay, and less suitable as a layer of fresh water aquifers. The layer that has a range of resistivity values more than 200 m is interpreted as a layer of weathered rock or bedrock, the less water layer or layers of soil near the surface. Based on previous experience, the resistivity value between 100-200 m is the most appropriate layer to be defined as the layer of fresh water. From the resistivity profiles, a few places have been identified as a potential location for groundwater resources. Keywords: electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), groundwater, aquifer.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Bank Infiltration: A Case Study for Alluvial River Bank

Mohd Khairul Nizar Shamsuddin and Saim Suratman

Geohydrology Research Centre, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment,Lot 5377, Jalan Putra Permai, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia E-mail: nizar@nahrim.gov.my


It is known that most surface water sources in Malaysia are polluted to ascertain degrees by various pollutants coming from point sources such as landfills and industrial waste, and non-point sources of agriculturally related activities, transportation etc. The water operator incurred high cost of water treatment particularly in conventional sedimentation treatment plant in which high concentration of pollutants requires higher volumes of chemicals. At the same time, the disinfection byproduct (DBP) is also increasing. Hence, the R&D work is being carried out on Bank Infiltration (BI) or Riverbank Filtration (RBF) method as a form of natural treatment in increasing the quality of raw water sourced for public water supply system. Bank infiltration refers to the process of surface water seeping from the bank or bed of a river or lake to production wells. During the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s passage through the ground, its quality changed due to microbial, chemical and physical processes, and due to mixing with groundwater. The BI study in Jenderam Hilir, located in Langat Basin, Selangor, Malaysia is a pilot project to develop a better and sustainable source of water, and will provide a good platform to introduce this method in Malaysia which has been successfully implemented in many Asian and European countries. This site was chosen due to the high water demand in the area and groundwater is seen as one of the sources capable of supplementing the need for high public water supply demand. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of BI in reducing the concentration of selected water quality parameters and improving the quality of river water as a whole. In the study, 25 monitoring wells and 2 test wells were constructed at the study site and pumping tests have been carried on those two test wells (DW1 and DW2). The pumping tests indicated that DW1 and DW2 were able to produced more than 15.9 m3/hr and 128 m3/hr respectively during the duration of 72 hours pumping test with drawdown for DW1 was 4.17 m and DW2 was 2.63 m. The distance between the surface water source and the test wells is more than 18 m, and the shortest travel time is 10 days.

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The effectiveness of BI in improving the quality of the river water which is filtered through 16 m thick silty sand for DW1 and 13 m thick gravely sand for DW2 was evaluated in the study. Both wells are located in confined aquifer close by Langat River, and to determine the effective rate of water extraction between different two lithologies of study area. Water quality testing was carried out on Langat River and groundwater from wells at the study site. The water quality analysis show decreased in turbidity, arsenic, nitrate, aluminium and sulphate in groundwater from BI well but very high concentrations in Langat River. Microorganism count (Coliform, E-coli, Cryptosporidium and Giardia) was carried out. Results from sampling from the 2 test wells confirmed that microorganism counts are significantly reduced during the passage in BI and capable to achieve more than 99.9 % removal of E-coli, total Coliform and Giardia. The R&D on BI method is a proactive effort of NAHRIM to improve the surface water quality for domestic drinking water of the modern urbanised area. BI is seen a natural way of improving the quality of raw water to meet the high demand of treated water in the Langat Basin, Selangor, Malaysia.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in Assessing OilContaminated Groundwater and Cavitiesâ&#x20AC;?

Umar Hamzah1, Azmi Ismail2, Amry Abbas2 & Rofiqul Islam1 1

Program Geologi PPSSSA

Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, UKM Bangi Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi


E-mail: umar@ukm.my

ABSTRACT GPR sections clearly indicate the presence of groundwater table and the chaotic reflection patterns representing highly oil-contaminated zones. In some places, the oilcontaminated layer exhibits discontinuous and subparallel reflection patterns. GPR sections for the Kuala Dipang and Gopeng surveys also highlighted the positions of buried sinkholes at depth of about 6m in the form of V-shaped features. The soilcovered sinkhole shows chaotic reflection pattern in the GPR section. As for the undisturbed areas consisting of alluvium and soil cover, The GPR sections are dominated by parallel reflections pattern. The water saturated layer below the groundwater table will show up as a free-reflection zone.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Groundwater and Water Works Development, Green Island

Case Study

Kriangsak Pirarai, Ocpasorn Occarach, Paranee Buarapar and Prakorb Ukong

Department of Groundwater Resources Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

ABSTRACT The groundwater and water works development at Phaluay Island, Surat Thani Province, is part of the Community Development with Clean Energy, a project which the Department of Groundwater Resources has participated with a goal to identify potentiality of groundwater development to supply the infrastructure development of the Island. Exploration, potentiality assessment and development of groundwater are handled by the Department of Groundwater Resources including the Groundwater Exploration and Assessment Bureau, Groundwater Development Bureau, Groundwater Resources Regional Center 1 (Lampang) and Groundwater Resources Regional Center 6 (Trang). The fieldwork includes 170 geophysical shotpoints producing 4 crosssections of 2D subsurface geophysical interpretation, 12 exploratory wells of which 3 are dry, wireline data from 10 wells, well test data from 9 wells, water sample collection from 9 wells for water quality analysis, geographical leveling, investigation and design of the groundwater works. From the preliminary investigation, there are 9 wells capable of producing good quality groundwater at a rate ranging from 1 to 5.5 cubic meters per hour, sufficient to develop a groundwater works. The ultimate system yield is up to 80,000 liters a day, sufficient to respond the need of 500 population of 4 bay areas of Phaluay Island. The project not only helps resolve inadequacy issue of water supply for consumption on Phaluay Island, but it also proves the concept of total approach and effectiveness of the methodology and budget management.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Aquifer Storage and Recovery Preliminary Result, Northern Chao Phraya Basin

Wasan Chansang

Department of Groundwater Resources Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment


The Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project was initiated by Department of Groundwater Resources as a solution to alleviate drought crisis in the Northern Chao Phraya Basin. The conceptual design was drawn up with the idea to recharge aquifers with excessive surface water after the public and agricultural consumption. The integration of surface water and groundwater management through the ASR is deemed to be sustainable, not only the project can maintain high level of groundwater in the aquifers, water is also available for consumption throughout the year. The project covers a wide range of technical work programs; data compilation and geophysical investigation, exploration drilling and water well construction, wireline logging, flow and pumping tests to define hydrological properties of the aquifers, groundwater quality analyses to identify ASR site, drilling wells for monitoring, installation of automatic water level metering and execute the ASR recharging plan. Ban Khung Yang, Pa Kum Ko Subdistrict, Sawankhalok District, Sukhothai Province, was selected as an ASR pilot project. It was selected by high volume of water consumption, continuous depletion of groundwater and proximity to Yom River, the supply source of water for the recharge. The site is located near the Sukhothai Irrigation Office of the Irrigation Department. The hydrogeological setting consists of 3 separate sedimentary aquifers; the Present terrace aquifer, the Quaternary younger terrace aquifer, and the Quaternary older terrace aquifer. The ASR pilot was conduct with a well in the semi-confined to confined younger Quaternary terrace aquifer, 34-43 meter deep, at a recharging rate of 35 cubic meters per hour, equivalent to 840 cubic meters per day. Another ASR well was tested in the confined older Quaternary terrace aquifer, 72-84 meter deep, at a recharging rate of 50 cubic meters per hour, equivalent to 1,200 cubic meters per day. The ASR program includes conceptual design, construction of water quality improvement system, recharging system, recharge testing, and economic assessment with the Visual MODFLOW Program. A baseline testing dataset was analyzed and evaluated to form the front-end design of the ASR, its economic viability and potential environmental and social impacts. The dataset comprises (1) recharge volume and the recovery rate, (2) water quality differentiation between pre- and post-recharge, (3) geotechnical data, (4)

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groundwater level changes. The pilot test confirms the suitability and the potentiality of the area for the ASR. For the 34-43 meter deep Quaternary younger terrace aquifer, recharging the 14-inch diameter well with the 20 Kg/cm2 pump pressure at 840 cubic meters per day rate, the radius of influence and the increased wellhead were 130 meters and 4 meters respectively. For the 72-84 meter deep Quaternary older terrace aquifer, the same recharge setting increased the water wellhead to 4.51 meters and radius of influence of 220 meters. Other hydrological analyses were also conducted to ensure no significant impacts to the hydrogeological system, including hydraulic parameter analysis, water well efficiency and clogging analysis. The preliminary analysis indicates no deviation in the hydrological system caused by clogging of suspensions of the recharge water. It is also in line with the flow efficiency of the recharge wellbore when the recharge volume and timing are higher. On the other hand, it was found from SAR and SP that chemical reactions could generate clogging. It is advised to adjust pH of the recharge water to prevent such reactions. In general, Ban Khung Yang is found to be a suitable site for the field development and project expansion, as well as the economical viability of the ASR.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Groundwater Exploration and Detailed 1:50,000 Mapping, Upper Chao Phraya Basin

Fuangchat Chantawongso and Jitrakorn Suwannalert

Department of Groundwater Resources Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment


Demand for groundwater and its development has been dramatically increased to serve the need of water supply as a consequence of rapid growth of population and economic expansion. The responsibility in finding and supplying groundwater lies with various government agencies, private entities and local administration bodies. Under the decentralized administration policy, the local administration bodies are directly responsible for providing water sources for community consumption. To effectively manage this valuable resource, a set of accurate and most-updated basic groundwater technical data, shall be available for detailed project planning for optimal and sustainable development. The Royal Decree B.E. 2545 was promulgated with authority given to the local administration bodies to procure and dispend water resources for population consumption within their administrative boundary. Groundwater Resources Department is the sole governmental agency dealing with groundwater resources, including effective management, prepare and provide accurate and most updated groundwater sources, as part of the basic information for infrastructure development. To ensure successful handover and cooperation, a complete database of nationwide groundwater sources and maps must be developed. The first step was to generate the regional groundwater maps, 1:500,000 scale, in conjunction with the production of 1:1,000,000 Groundwater Resources Map of Thailand. The project was completed in 1978. The 1:100,000 groundwater resources provincial maps project was in the second phase, completed during 1989-2001. These sets of map provide both quantitative and qualitative groundwater potential which could be instantaneously used for drilling water wells. Nevertheless, these maps were not for groundwater resources and water works system development, partly due to its large scale which could not contain accuracy and precision to a very detailed level. The two pilot projects were initiated to generate the groundwater resources map of 1:50,000 scale, one for Nan Province in2008 and another for Upper Chao Phraya Basin in 2010-2011. The important outcome of the detailed groundwater mapping of the Upper Chao Phraya Basin in 1:50,000 scale, provides sufficient details for the classification of hydrogeologic units, both in unconsolidated and consolidated aquifers. For the unconsolidated aquifers, the Chiang Rai aquifer unit (Qcr), mapped as a single unit

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under the previous provincial groundwater map, was remapped with two distinctive hydrostratigraphic sequences namely Quaternary alluvial fan deposit aquifers (Qaf) and the underlying Quaternary younger terrace deposit aquifers (Qyt). The Qaf unit contains 2 aquifers, the younger Qaf1 and the older Qaf2. Likewise for the Qyt; the overlying younger Qyt1 is underlain by the older Qyt2. Similarly, the older aquifer system known as Chiang Mai aquifers (Qcm) was remapped and renamed as Quaternary older terrace deposit aquifers (Qot) which comprises of 3 hydrostratigraphic sequences; overlying Quaternary older terrace deposit aquifers Qot1, the middle unit Qot2, and the underlying Qot3. Additional hydrogeological details of this latest effort, including groundwater usage and need, details of aquifers and their hydraulic properties, flow system, aerial extent of the recharge and discharge areas, have become much more valuable for sustainable development of groundwater resources, quantitatively and qualitatively.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Shallow-Aquifer Determination for Managed Aquifer Recharge, Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Array

Ocpasorn Occarach and Prakorb Ukong

Department of Groundwater Resources Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment


The Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) project was initiated by Department of Groundwater Resources to maintain groundwater level in the shallow aquifers. Not all aquifers are appropriately selected for the recharge, only those with specific characteristics fit the criteria. The 2D electrical resistivity imaging array helps define suitable characteristics of the aquifers, reservoir continuity and depositional aerial extent. Continuous and rapid groundwater depletion in the Northern Chao Phraya Basin has been a chronic drought crisis for public consumption and agricultural usage. As part of the solution, the Department of Groundwater Resources conducted variety of researches and eventually adopted a shallow-aquifer recharge technology to maintain high level of groundwater in the aquifer. The implementation starts with selection of the recharge area, an area with specific recharge zone characteristics. These include shallow rechargeable aquifers, absence of overlying sealing clay, and availability of surface water. If the thickness of overlying clay is low, creating a recharge zone by digging through the clay layers is possible. Stratigraphic reconstruction is easily made by data from many shallow wells drilled for the community agricultural consumption. However, correlation of these subsurface data has not been established. With the application of 2D electrical resistivity imaging array, a model of recharge zone with quality characteristics can be put up for practical recharge. Ban Nong Kwai of Phitsanulok Province has been selected for the pilot study. It is located in the northern part of Thailand Central Plain. Geology of the area consists of river sedimentary deposits of gravel, sand and clay. The main shallow aquifer is 25-35 meters thick. A 2D electrical resistivity imaging array, with dipole-dipole configuration and 25-40 meters depth resolution depth, was laid out for the investigation. The geophysical interpretation of the outcome reveals series of stratigraphic layers of differing resistivity cross-section. Two main layers of clay were identified with low resistivity of 10-15 ohm-meter at 3-5 meter deep and another at 28-35 meter

103 103


deep. In between is the gravel bed with high resistivity of 100-200 ohm-meter relatively continuous at 5-28 meter deep. Wherever the cross-section shows absence of continuity of the overlying clay, the area can be selected for natural groundwater recharge. Other available subsurface data such as wireline logs and stratigraphic correlation from cross-sections, shall be incorporated to help define the best suitable recharge area for the MAR Project.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Study of Salt Contamination Using Hydrogeological Model in the Lower Nam Kam Irrigation Project, Nakorn Panom Province, Thailand Pakorn Phetcharaburanin, Kompanart Kwansirikul, Yayee Trinetra, and Uthai Hongjaisee Office of Topographical and Geotechnical Survey, Department of Royal Irrigation Department


The salt contamination in the Lower Nam Kham Irrigation Project area possibly causes from geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics, and effecting to the soil and groundwater. The study area is underlain by the two aquifer units; the Quaternary and the Phu Tok aquifer which is the upper aquifer and fresh water, and the Mahasarakham aquifer with rock salt which is the lower aquifer and salt water. These aquifers are separated by the clay confining layer and the salt contamination caused by the salt groundwater flowing through fracture cut upward from the Mahasarakham aquifer to the Quaternary and the Phu Tok aquifer. The hydrogeological model is used to study the salt contamination and the purpose of this model is also to simulate the groundwater flow system. Furthermore, the model leads to the better understanding of the groundwater flow system, pattern and direction of groundwater flow, and piezometric head of groundwater. Additionally, the results obtained from this hydrogeological model study can be applied for planning, operating and maintenance of the irrigation project area. Keywords: Hydrogeological model, Groundwater flow, Salt contamination

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Modern Stress Map of SE Asia: Origins of the Stress Pattern Deduced from Finite Element Modeling Chris Morley1, Mark Tingay2, Dave Coblentz3 and Rosalind King2 1 PTTEP, Enco, Soi 11, Vibhavadi-Rangsit Road, Bangkok, Thailand 2 Australian School of Petroleum, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia 3 Los Alamos National Laboratories, New Mexico, USA


Understanding the modern stress field of SE Asia is important for a variety of geological and geomechanical studies (e.g. structural geology, fractured reservoirs, borehole stability, natural hazards, tectonic setting). In 2003 the world stress map only had 37 A-C quality intraplate stress indicators for SE Asia. The authors have examined ~200 wells in Brunei, Malaysia and Thailand, plus 80 wells in Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam from other studies, to increase the number of intraplate stress indicators to 273 A-D quality and 177 (A-C quality), in addition to 72 centroid moment tensor solutions. On a local scale stress orientations can show considerable variation due to local perturbations, such as deflections around fault blocks (a common feature in the Cenozoic basins of Thailand), or the effects of shallow gravity-driven deformation (e.g. Baram Delta). Average stress orientations were calculated for 18 distinct provinces in SE Asia. In Thailand SHmax directions are predominantly N-S to NW-SE. The data shows significant regional variations in maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) orientation, and that SHmax is not parallel to plate motion. This is an atypical characteristic, since most plates show maximum horizontal stress orientations that are primarily parallel to plate motion (i.e. forces driving plate motion also control the intra-plate stress field). SE Asia displays intense intraplate deformation during the Cenozoic, extensive volcanism, widespread uplift, and deep, rapidly subsiding basins. The region is bounded by collision zones. While the influence of the Himalayan collision has been featured in models of stress patterns in SE Asia the other boundaries are often ignored. In order to better understand the influence of all the plate boundaries on stress patterns in SE Asia a thin shell (100 km) 2D finite element model was made for the region. The model forward models hundreds of thousands of permutations of the boundary forces, where the orientation of the force was kept constant, but the magnitude was varied. The analysis identifies common boundary forces for the models that best fit the observed stress patterns in SE Asia (e.g. the best 1% or 5% of models). The models indicate that the most important regions of forces affecting intraplate stress orientations are the Himalayan Syntaxis area, West Sulawesi, and the subduction margins of Java and Sumatra. Understanding the origins of the present-day stress pattern is the first step in building similar models for older Cenozoic plate configurations in order to better understand the impact of tectonics on the structural development of basins. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

3-D Deep Resistivity Structure Beneath Kanchanaburi Province: Evidences for the Ancient Continent-Continent Collisions

Songkhun Boonchaisuk1,2 Weerachai Siripunvaraporn1,2 and Yasuo Ogawa3 1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand 2 ThEP Center, Commision on Higher Education, 328, Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok,

Thailand 10400 3 Volcanic Fluid Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan


39 magnetotelluric (MT) stations were deployed as a pioneer survey to cover most of the Kanchanaburi province during early 2010. Kanchanaburi, western Thailand, is located in the middle of Shan-Thai terrane where paleomagnetic and geological data indicating the continent-continent collision during the late Triassic on the east resulted in a westward subduction and that in early Tertiary resulting in an eastward subduction. Three-dimensional (3-D) inversion was conducted using WSINV3DMT (Siripunvaraporn et al., 2005; Siripunvaraporn and Egbert, 2009) to generate the 3-D resistivity structure which can be divided into the upper crust and mid to lower crust. The near surface resistivity structures correspond well with the surface geology. The mid and lower crusts are conductive with two conductors lying separately on the west and east sides of the province. The conductive crust is interpreted the mafic granulites with 3% porosity. The origin of the fluid is from the accumulation from the underplated subducted slabs during the subductions. In addition, both conductors are interpreted as the mafic/ultramafic intrusions from the westward and eastward subductions.

107 107


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Reconstruction on Plate Tectonic and Evolution of Sukhothai and Loei-Phetchabun Fold Belt; Evidences from Geochemistry and U-Pb Zircon Age Determination

Somboon Khositanont1 Khin Zaw2 and Yuenyong Panjasawatwong3 1 Department of Mineral Resources 2 CODES, University of Tasmania 3 Department of Geological Sciences, Chiang Mai University


Reconstruction of the tectonic setting and evolution of the Sukhothai and Loei – Phetchabun Fold Belts was made based on geochemical characteristics and U-Pb zircon age determination. The formation of Silurian-Devonian calc-alkalic acid to intermediate volcanic rocks (424 -434 Ma) in the Loei – Phetchabun area may represent the formation of island arc causing by westward subduction prior to the amalgamation between Indochina and South China. Previous study shows the presence of depleted mid oceanic ridge basalt source mantle may represent the remnant of Paleotethys and the presence of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous volcanic rocks in conjunction with the deposition of Devonian chert indicate that the westward subduction in Central Thailand may take place in this period. The presences of Carboniferous volcanic and granitic rocks in Laos and Phetchabun area may be responsible for the westward subduction in Central Thailand. Late Carboniferous (approximately 300 Ma) metamorphism of blue schist metamorphic rocks in the Nan – Uttaradit suture may represent the subduction event, which lead to the formation of the Sukhothai Fold Belt. Other study also show the presences of Late Permian calc-alkalic intermediate volcanic rocks (247 Ma, and 240 Ma) in northern Thailand in conjunction with the formation of granodiorite as well as volcanic rocks (280 Ma and 244-250 Ma) in the Phetchabun area may be responsible for the formation of paired subduction. The presences of widely spread Triassic granites (224 -228 Ma) as well as Triassic (219 232 Ma) acid to intermediate volcanic rocks (rhyolite/dacite/andesite) in Northern Thailand in conjunction with the presence of Triassic granodiorite (230 Ma) without volcanic rocks in Loei area followed by the deposition of Jurassic redbeds may be responsible for closing down of Paleotethys and the initiation of collision and amalgamation between Shan – Thai and Indochina. Keywords: Tectonic reconstruction, geochemistry, age determination, amalgamation, paleotethys BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Following Sutures and Rivers in Northern Nan Province, Thailand

Robert B Stokes

Mahidol University & Surbiton Geological Services E-mail: surbitongs@gmail.com


Recent fieldwork conducted in the northern part of Nan Province (Petroleum exploration Block L1/50 covering the Pua Basin) on behalf of Northern Gulf Oil has led to a reconsideration of the trace of the Nan-Uttaradit Suture of Mesozoic age, and the drainage of the Nam Nan (River) during the Quaternary. The extension of the Nan-Uttaradit Suture into Laos has long been highly speculative. An extension north-eastwards past Luang Prabang and onwards to Dien Bien Phu to meet the Song Ma Suture has been a widely accepted hypothesis but unsupported by field evidence. The observation of serpentinites (previously noted but not mapped) to the north-west of Pua suggests a north-west displacement of the suture zone on a series of north-west trending sinistral faults of which the Nam Yao Fault is the closest to the outcrops. This supports the recent suggestion that the Nan-Uttaradit Suture extends northwards into Laos where it is seen on the Udomsay to Pakbeng road. The drainage of Nan Province is dominated by the Mae Nam Nan. This river rises at about 19o20’N close to the Lao border and then flows N to 19o33’N where it turn to the SW and then W before turning to flow S for the remainder of its passage through the Province. The reversed flow of the Mae Nam Nan (from S to N in the East to N to S in the West) is probably due to river capture. Initially the Mae Nam Nan probably continued to flow N into the valley of the Nam Yang passing through the Ban Dimi Basin (now in Laos) to join the Nam Gnum and thence NE to the Mekong. Headwaters of an eastern tributary of the Nam Ngaem (at the latitude of Ban Pon) eroded eastwards to capture the headwaters of the Mae Nam Nan in the region of 101o03’E, 90o33’N. The flow southwards along the Pua Basin could be expected to have been along the eastern margin of the trap-door like basin with a major fault on the eastern side. It appears that fault movements during the Quaternary raised the mountains to the east which shed vast amounts of detritus over the fault scarp to form an extensive series of alluvial fans over the basin. These fans can be interpreted from topographic maps, and are especially clearly seen on SRTM DTM imagery. They forced the Mae Nam Nan to keep to the west side of the basin. Of greater speculation is the hypothesis that the Mae Nam Nan formerly flowed along the eastern side of the Pua Basin and southwards into the Santi Suk Basin, and that it was diverted westward into the Nong Luang Basin by the Quaternary fans.

109 109


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Tectonic Evolution of Myanmar: A Brief Preliminary Overview Win Swe

President Myanmar Geosciences Society


The present-day Myanmar territory is underlain by at least two formerly independent continental blocks and an accretionary terrane. The continental blocks are regards as former fragments of Gondwanaland. They were the smaller Central Myanmar Block and the larger Shan-Thai Block which is broadly addressed as Sibumasu Block. The Sibumasusubducted beneath the Indochina block to the east, also of the Gondwana origin, ptior to their collision in Late Trassic, forming the Sunda Block along the southern margin of Southeast Asia. However, the southern Asian margin remained passive until Jurassic when it became an active margin in Late Miocene. The Central Myanmar Block, probably an intra-oceanic island arc, considering its Wintho-Salingyi Mesozoic Ace with pre-Albian andesitic basalts intruded by midCretaceous I-type granodiorite batholiths along its medial axis, subducted and collided in mid-Cretaceous with the Sunda Block to the east, forming the Greater Sunda Block, while located farther south of their present, and creating the Mogok Metamorphic belt along the suture zone. The Indian Plate brushed past, subducting highly obliquely beneath the Greater Sunda Block before its collision with the Asian Plate in Eocene, the consequence of which is still affecting the Asian region widespread, Southeast Asia in particular which was extruded to the east from the collision zone. In Myanmar the Western Ranges and Rakhine Costal Belt were successively uplifted as an accreted terrain along the western margin of the Central Myanmar Block (CMB) in Oligocene and Pliocene. The CMB was detached from the Sunda Plate along the Sagaing Fault due to the highly oblique subduction of the India/ Australia Plate beneath it and was translated northward by the opening of Andaman Basin and its sea-floor spreading, and collided with the Sagaing Fault, Sunda subduction zone, and the Andaman Spreading Ridge is commonly addressed as the Burma (Myanmar) Plate, a Silver Plate. It is also addressed as the West Burma Block although it is now much larger than its original size, because of the accretionary terrane added to it. Keywords: Myanmar- component continental blocks and accreted terrane, major structures tectonic history, Mogok Metamorphic belt. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Stratigraphy and Tectonic Subdivisions of Thailand

Pol Chaodumrong c/o Department of Mineral Resources Bangkok, Thailand


Three Tectonostratigraphic Gondwana-derived terranes were recognized in Thailand, from east to west Indochina including Loei-Phetchabun fold belt on its western margin, North Thailand comprising Sukhothai fold belt and Inthanon zone, and Shan-Thai terrane. Nan-Uttraradit suture has long been believed to represent closure of the Paleotethys between the Indochina and the Shan-Thai during Late Triassic (Bunopas, 1981; Chaodumrong, 1994). But recently it was interpreted as closure of backarc basin within the Indochina and assigned Chiang Mai suture instead (e.g. Sone and Metcalfe, 2008). This paper was largely carried out during joined the 1:5 million International Geological Map of Asia Project. Indochina terrane Paleozoic sequence was exposed only along Loei-Phetchabun fold belt. Middle Devonian to Upper Carboniferous shallow marine clastics with sporadic carbonate predominated in the lower part. In some places, there were Lower Carboniferous carbonates bearing Cathaysian affinity, Middle Carboniferous paralic coal and evaporite (Fontaine et al., 2005). They were overlain conformably by Late Carboniferous to Middle Permian carbonates with diversity of fauna that occurred widely in the Indochina terrane. Deep sea Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous radiolarian cherts marked the rifting age away from the Gondwana. Regional hiatus occurred wildly in Indochina terrane during Lower to Middle Triassic. Both LoeiPhetchabun fold belt and the Khorat Plateau were covered by open folded, gentle dipping Mesozoic continental red beds. North Thailand North Thailand terrane is a new name, largely equivalent to the Sukhothai fold belt (Bunopas, 1981) plus the Inthanon zone (Barr and Macdonald, 1991). Low grade metamorphic rocks, mapped as Silurian-Devonian age on stratigraphic ground, occurred locally in the Sukhothai fold belt. Upper Paleozoic shallow marine clastics were partly overlain conformably by Triassic deep to shallow marine sediments. Permian carbonate sporadically cropped out and contained Cathaysian fauna. The Inthanon zone formerly mapped as part of the Shan-Thai, due to similarity in their Lower Paleozoic sequences. Discovery of Lower Carboniferous to Permian limestones with Cathaysian affinity (Fontaine et al., 1994) indicate no longer belonging

111 111


to the Shan-Thai. The seamount limestones were interpreted by some authors, based on pure limestone quality and stratigraphy overlying oceanic basalt. However, this interpretation is still controversial. Evidences from Lower Devonian black shale bearing graptolite, north of Chiang Mai, overlain conformably by radiolarian chert not only indicate its Early Devonian rifted age from the Gondwana, but also argue against as fragment of the Indochina and the South China. Occurrence of Devonian to Triassic radiolarian cherts were regarded as major Paleotethys ocean. Shan-Thai terrane Lower Paleozoic sequences of the Shan-Thai terrane (also called Sibumasu) commence with Upper Cambrian shallow marine siliciclastics with Trilobite, cropped out only at Tarutao island, whereas on the mainland consists mainly of quartzite. They were conformably overlain by Ordovician shallow marine carbonates, changing upward to Silurian-Devonian deep marine fine-grained sediments with graptolite and tentaculite, and Lower Carboniferous shallow marine sediments containing Posidonomya sp. There was a hiatus during Late Carboniferous in the Shan-Thai terrane. Lower Permian diamictite was taken as evidence for rifted age away from the Gondwana. It changes upward to Middle to Upper Permian epieric carbonate platform. Fauna are rich in brachiopods and bryozoans, but low diversity. Coral is mainly tabulata and solitary; Sinopora sp. with rare compound rugosa. Fusulinid genera, are of low diversity, occurring locally such as Pseudofusulina sp., Yangchienia sp, Eopolydiexodina sp, Polydiexodina sp. Shanita sp. Faunal evidences indicated that during Middle Permian, the Shan-Thai terrane moved northward to a warm-temperate area between Gondwana and Cathaysia. During Late Permian, it still remained at a distance from the Indochina terrane. In some places, carbonate continued to Triassic. Magmatism Granites in Thailand were lineated in 3 major belts with ages seem younging to the west: the Eastern belt consists mainly of I-type Triassic granite; the central belt consists of S-type Triassic granite, and the Western belt consists of I- and S-type Cretaceous granites. Devonian basalt in Loei- Phetchabun- Phai Sali vocanic belt is interpreted as MORB and arc related volcanics (Panjasawatwong et al., 2006). Nan-Uttraradit and Sa Kaeo sutures contained Permian ocean basalts of the Ocean Plate Stratigraphy, while Triassic Lampang volcanic of the Chiang Khong-Tak volcanic belt belonged to subduction related volcanics (Bunopas, 1981; Barr et al., 2000). Permian MORB and ocean island basalt are interpreted from Chiang Rai-Chiang Mai volcanic belt

(Phajuy et al., 2005).




Barr, S.M., and Macdonald, A.S., 1991, Toward a Late Paleozoic- Early Mesozoic

tectonic model for Thailand: Journal of Thai Geoscience, v. 1, p. 11-22. Barr, S. M., Macdonald, A. S., Dunning, G. R., Ounchanum, P. and Yaowanoiyothin,

W., 2000, Petrochemistry, U-Pb (zircon) age, and palaeotectonic setting of the

Lampang volcanic belt, northern Thailand: Journal of the Geological Society of

London, v. 157, p. 553-563. Bunopas, S., 1981, Paleogeographic history of western Thailand and adjacent parts of

Southeast Asia â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A plate tectonics interpretation: Victoria University of

Willington, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 810 p.; reprinted 1982 as Geological

Survey Paper no.5, Geological Survey Division, Department of Mineral

Resources, Thailand. Chaodumrong, P., 1994, Sedimentology and tectonic implication of Triassic submarine

fans, Lampang group, central north Thailand, in Angsuwathana, P.,

Wongwanich, T., Tansathien, W., Wongsomsak, S., and Tulyatid, J., eds.,

Proceedings of the international symposium on stratigraphic correlation of

southeast Asia: Bangkok, 1994, Department of Mineral Resources, IGCP 306, p.

208-225. Fontaine, H., Salyapongse, S., Suteethorn, V., Tian, P., and Vachard, D., 2005,

Sedimentary rocks of the Loei Region, Northeast Thailand: Stratigraphy,

Paleontology, Sedimentology: Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of

Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand, 165 p. Fontaine, H., Suteethorn, V., and Vachard, D., 1994, Carboniferous corals of southeast

Asia with new discoveries in Laos and Thailand, in Angsuwathana, P.,

Wongwanich, T., Tansathien, W., Wongsomsak, S., and Tulyatid, J., eds.,

Proceedings of the international symposium on stratigraphic correlation of

southeast Asia: Bangkok, 1994, Department of Mineral Resources, IGCP 306, p.

25-42. Panjasawatwong, Y., Zaw, K., Chantaramee, S., and Limtrakul, P., 2006, Geochemistry

and tectonic setting of the central Loei volcanic rocks, Pak Chom area, Loei,

northeastern Thailand: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 26, p. 77-90. Phajuy, B., Panjasawatwong, Y., and Osataporn, P., 2005, Preliminary

geochemical study of volcanic rocks in the Pang Mayao area, Phrao, Chiang

Mai, northern Thailand: tectonic setting of formation: Journal of Asian Earth

Sciences, v. 24, p. 765-776. Sone, M., and Metcalfe, I., 2007, Parallel Tethyan sutures in mainland Southeast Asia:

New insights for Paleo-Tethys closure and implications for the Indosinian

orogeny: Comptes Rendus Geosciences, v. 340, p. 166â&#x20AC;&#x201C;179.



Figure 1 Map showing tectonic framework of thailand



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geotechnics, Recent Deposition Models, Irrigation Canal Systems, and Flood on Lower Chao Phraya Plain

Suphan Saykawlard, Swang Chomwoot, Noppadol Poomvises, Narucha Sangthong and Chanchai Srisutham

Office of Topographical and Geotechnical Surveys, Royal Irrigation Department, Thailand E-mail : s_yus@hotmail.com


Recent deposition models around the Gulf of Thailand from satellite images control the irrigation canal systems. Geotechtonics and long shore currents play important role in deposition models such as deltas and sandbars from past to present. The present sand bars, lineament, and tectonic blocks cause difficulties in flood water drainage on the Lower Chao Phraya Plain.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Engineering Properties of Residual Soil: Necessity for RainfallTriggered Landslide Warning in Thailand

Suttisak Soralump

Geotechnical Engineering Research and Development Center, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University

EXTENDED ABSTRACT The natural landslide that occurred in Thailand is mostly triggered by heavy rainfall. Landslide warning could be effective if the threshold of the rainfall parameters is known. These thresholds are normally described in term of rainfall intensity and antecedence rainfall in which can be determined by either statistical or analytical method. This research is a part of the attempt of using analytical method to determine the rainfall thresholds and be verified by statistical data. The assumption of the analytical model is considered the landslide as the failure of the residual soil over the weathered rock layer due to the strength reduction of residual soil from the infiltration of the precipitation. In order to make a proper warning, the dynamic landslide hazard mapping system is required. The saturation of the residual soil can be analyzed continuously through the infiltration model if the rainfall data is known. Stability of the residual soil is then able to be known stochastically. These analyses are required the knowledge of the engineering properties of the residual soil in which have to be grouped properly based on the engineering characteristics of weathered product of each landslide rock group in Thailand. The disturbed and undisturbed samples have been collected in the landslide prone area all around the country. The statistical data of the rainfall triggered landslide from the past decades is collected and organized in the data base system and used for the initial grouping. At least 10 landslide rock groups are classified to have unique engineering propertiesof their residual products. The engineering properties of residual soil used for infiltration and stability model are the permeability function, soil water characteristic curve, drained shear strength and strength reduction behavior. 116 BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Applied Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Monitoring Subsurface Cavity Expansion

Peangta Satarugsa

Department of Geotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Email: peangta@kku.ac.th


Collapsing into sinkholes of near-surface rock salt cavities is one of geoenvironmental hazards in the Northeastern Thailand. Detailed subsurface studies in the sinkhole-prone areas may lead to the prevention of possible and significant damages and thus relieve the fear of the hazard. This study presents an application of the utility of 2-D resistivity tomography or imaging technique for monitoring the expansion of subsurface rock salt cavities. Two 2-D resistivity tomography profiles were conducted: one profile passed over the core-drilling test well, while the other profile passed nearly across an active sinkhole whose apparent resistivity profile was measured repeatedly in the same month over six years together with measurements of the sinkhole’s diameter. Results from the resistivity image passing over the core-drilling test well reveals a close match of depth to rock salt as evidenced from core-drilling. Results from the six repeated measurements together with the sinkhole’s diameter expansion show that the 2-D resistivity tomography can be of utility in determining subsurface deformation through time. The images are consistent with the dissolution of rock salt corresponding to the sinkhole’s expansion. Keywords: 2-D resistivity survey, subsurface cavity mapping, subsurface cavity monitoring, sinkhole expansion.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Paleoseismological Investagations and Seismic Hazard Analysis Along the Mae Hong Son Fault, Northwestern Thailand.

Weerachat Wiwegwin1, Preecha Saithong1, Suwith Kosuwan1, Kitti Kaowisate1, Santi Pailoplee2 and Punya Charusiri2

Environmental Geology Division, Department of Mineral Resources, Rama VI, Bangkok 10400, Thailand 2 Earthquake and Tectonic Geology Research Unit (EATGRU), c/o Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand 1


Paleoseismological investigation has been carried out along the Mae Hong Son Fault (MHSF), in Mae Hong Son province, northwestern Thailand with aims to locate active faults, to determine the ages of fault movement; and to estimate the paleoearthquake magnitudes. Based on our remote sensing and field investigations, the MHSF is approximately 202 km long and an N-S trending fault with an oblique right lateral movement which normal dip-slip component is more prominent. Several morphotectonic features indicate recent seismological activities, viz. fault scarps, triangular facets, offset streams, shutter ridges, hot springs, and linear mountain fronts. The MHSF consists of 42 geometrical fault segments with the length varying from 2.85 to13.53 km. Results on paleoseismological trenching as well as luminescent dating data along the MHSF reveal that the MHSF have triggered at least 5 paleoearthquake events with the paleomagnitude magnitudes between 5.6-6.2 Mw during 80,000 years (Konphung segment), 24,000-31,000 years (Mok Chum Pae segment), 22,100 years (Phra That Chomkitti segment), 20,000 years (Mae La Noi segment), and 7,800-11,900 years (Mae La Noi segment). Our seismic hazard analysis shows that the Mae Hong Son province can be posed by the MHSF with the ground shaking level of 0.22+0.02g based mainly on the deterministic scenario. Meanwhile the probabilistic scenario, the province has 10% of probability that the ground shaking level equals to or slightly exceeds 0.32g in the 50 years. The province has 40-49% and 13% of probability that the upcoming earthquake may generate the ground shaking level equivalent to IV and V on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale, respectively. Key words: Mae Hong Son, Active fault, northwest Thailand, Morphotectonic, Probabilistic, Hazard analysis.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Geopark Development Strategy in Thailand

Yudh Saradatta Bureau of Geological Survey, Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand


The commence of geoconservation activity of The Department of Mineral Resources was the compilation of the previous geological data accumulated over a century in 2001 and 2004, and produced 2 publications regarding geoheritages and geotourism sites respectively in order to disseminate to public. The actual geoconservation projects have been initiated since 2010 and running in Satun, Loei, Ubon Ratchathani and Khonkaen Province. All projects have the objectives to conserve geoheritages and conservatively developed them as sustainable and proper highest exploitation especially in academic, tourism and socio-economic purposes which is the key concept of geopark. The projects are implemented under 4 processes, defining the criteria for geopark establishment and cooperating to establish the Geopark Establishment Committees (GEC) and Provincial Geopark Working Group (PGW), Cooperating to disseminate geological knowledge and geopark to public, Evaluating and selecting the areas to be established as geopark and Promoting the development of geopark. These processes will primarily be implemented to seek for the first global geopark in Thailand, hopefully in 2016. Up until now DMR has developed geoconservation site evaluation criteria, guidelines to establish geopark and 66 geoconservation sites in south and northeast Thailand has been defined including 4 potential areas for geopark development in Satun, Loei, Ubon Ratchathani and Khonkaen Province with their own management and development policy, plan and measures.



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

An Alternative Website of Geoinformation in Thailand

Chatchawal Panyavateenun, Kosol Thianthongnukul, Noppadol Poomvises and Somyos Kaewmora

Royal Irrigation Department

E-mail: npoomvises@gmail.com


Office of Topographical and Geotechnical survey works for Royal Irrigation Department as a center of technical supporting for a long time. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s duty concentrates surveying, processing and interpretation at near the earth surface throughout Thailand. This yields a numerous output of map, technical report, hard copy and digital data. It is regrettable if the information explored is used only few times and later stored in library. The office aims to serve scientists and interested peoples to increase more uses with the database in various propose. A website www.ridth.com is therefore exhibited in this account. Several kinds of information are shown in webpage and comfortably transfer to data user via window explorer. In addition, necessary site concerned are linked together as well as interactive information such as water level at water gates, status of earthquake, and water-watched camera. In highlight, a little while after approaching to cyberspace, many people visited and paid attention as an alternative of observation channel during the flood crisis in 2011. Key words : ridth.com, geoinformation, alternative site, flood crisis



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Potential of Ex-Mining Areas to become Sustainable

Economic Resources through Geoheritage Conservation:

Some Examples from Malaysia

Che Aziz Ali and Tanot Unjah*

Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600, Bangi Selangor Malaysia * E-mail: tanotunjah@yahoo.com


Geological resources have played a major role in generating the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s income in the past. Mineral resources such tin, gold, iron and copper were the main revenue generator of the country especially before independence and a few decades after independence. At present the mining activities are still active but at smaller scales and the focus has shifted from ore mineral to aggregate, sand and clay. It is a fact that, mining activities bring about many environmental problems as well as waste land areas. Some of the ex-mine areas are still left abandoned while some have been converted into farms, housing estates or theme parks. These types of development have wiped out or buried all the socio-culture and scientific value that are associated with the ex-mine or ex-mining activities. It is suggested that only development through conservation can ensure that the socio-culture and scientific significant of those exmines can be maintained and at the same time they can generate economic income to the country through geotourism. In this case sustainable remediation and transformation approach through conservation of geological heritage within the exmining is urgently needed. The process of transforming these mining areas needs a systematic conservation mechanisms and involvement policy makers to ensure that the sustainable utilization of geological resources can benefit all the stake holders and local communities. Keywords : mining, geoheritage, sustainability, Malaysia



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Myanmar and Her Thirsty Neighbours U Soe Myint Vice President, Myanmar Geosciences Society

Energy Security is a vital part of the foundation on which a country’s economy rest. Energy Security is less vulnerable if the supply is from domestic market or nearer market or friendly market. Accomplishment of Energy Security is now becoming very much a part of national policy and foreign policy of a country. Myanmar shares common boundaries with China, Lao P.D.R, Thailand, India and Bangladesh. Most of Myanmar‘s neighbouring countries are fast developing countries, their economies growing and their demand for energy getting higher and higher. China, already the second largest economy next to USA is projected to be the largest economy by mid 21st century is recording an annual growth rate of 8% in oil consumption and is planning to increase the contribution of natural gas to her energy mix from 3% to 10 % by 2020. China’s production, consumption and her petroleum reserves are not compatible and China is going all out to acquire additional petroleum reserves from overseas. India, also a fast growing country and predicted to become a third largest economy by mid 21st century (already a fourth largest after USA, China and Japan in 2010) lacks sufficient domestic energy resources and has to import much of its growing energy requirement. Thailand, already an Asian Tiger has to import both crude oil and natural gas to support her growing economy. Thailand imports about 70% of her oil consumption and more than 30% of her natural gas consumption. Thailand‘s energy demand is steadily growing at 5% to 7% per year. Bangladesh consumes all of her natural gas production of 650 billion cubic feet a year for electricity generation and for fertilizer production. It is importing most of 95,000 barrels of oil (Domestic production is only 6,000 barrels a day). With this scenario of energy production/consumption, Bangladesh is projected to have a growth of 3.1% a year of energy demand until 2030. Lao P.D.R has rich coal resources and abundant hydropower resources. It is exporting 36% of coal production and 80% of electricity generation to Thailand. It imports all of its oil consumption. Myanmar’s petroleum prospectively is very high, endowed with a number of sedimentary provinces, underexplored and underexploited. Myanmar still offers lots of



potential for discoveries of new “Giants” similar in size to Yenangyaung, Chauk, Mann and Yadana fields. Myanmar is also rich in hydropower resources. Ambitious implementation plans are on board to construct a number of hydropower plants. Most of Myanmar’s neighboring countries are in desperate need for additional energy because of growing energy demand to support their growing economy. Myanmar’s petroleum resources and hydropower resources need to be cautiously explored and exploited, bearing in mind of geopolitical advantage over her neighbours.

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12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

NEHRP Soil Type Classification and Ground Shaking Amplification of Northern Thailand

Passakorn Pananont 1, Thanawat Yodden 1, Mingkwan Mingmuang 1, Preecha Saithong 2 and Pakawat Sriwangpol 2 1

Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand 2 Department of Mineral Resources, Bangkok, Thailand E-mail: fscipkp@ku.ac.th


Sixty-three combined active and passive Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) measurement were conducted in Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Tak, Nakorn Sawan, Petchabun, Lamphun, Kampaengpet, Nan, Phichit, Pitsanulok, Lampang, Sukhothai, Uttaradit, Phitsanulok, Phrae, Phayao and Mae Hongson Provinces, northern Thailand in order to study the shear wave velocity and to classify the soil type based on the NEHRP standard (Vs30). In addition, the amplification ground shaking (site effect) off the study area are also determined. The shear wave analysis of the collected data suggests that the Vs30 of the soil vary from 217-647 m/s which corresponds to the NEHRP soil type classification classes D and C. The site amplifications of the study area of the periods between 0.1-3 second vary from 0.9-2. The PGA amplifications vary from 1.2-1.8 and the PGV amplifications vary from 1.1-1.9. The result could indicate that there is a possibility of a moderate ground motionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s amplification in these provinces from both high frequency seismic wave of local earthquake and low frequency seismic wave of the large, long distance earthquake which can affect the infrastructures and building in these provinces. Keywords: MASW, NEHRP soil type classification, earthquake, soft sediment, northern Thailand



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

Analysis and Modeling of Airborne

Geophysical Data in the Phetchabun Volcanic

Terrane, Northern Part of Central Thailand

Arak Sangsomphong*, Thanop Thitimakorn and Punya Charusiri Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 Thailand *rak_geo46@hotmail.com


Re-processed airborne geophysical data have been used to interpret the complex subsurface structures of the Phetchabun volcanic terrane covered by thick Cenozoic deposits at the western edge of the Khorat Plateau. Reduction to the pole (RTP), high pass (HP), shade relief (SR) and directional cosine filtering (DIR) constitute the main processing approaches applied to the original data using the Oasis Montaj速 v6.1 program. New RTP map displays four distinct magnetic domains including northern, eastern, central and western domains. Within these domains, four magnetic units of high magnetic anomalies are recognized, namely elongate unit, circular unit, flat unit, and spot units. The HP map also illustrates the ring units with the distinct northwest-southeast regional trend. In addition, the RTP modelings show the elongate unit with a northeast dipping. In the central domain, the elongate units display deformation along a northwest-southeast trending fault with sinistral shear slip of about 33 kilometers, an east-west trending fault with dextral slip of about 3-9 kilometers and a northeastsouthwest trending fault with sinistral slip of about 1-2.7 kilometers. The ring units and the circular units are crosscut by east-west trending sinistral faults and northeastsouthwest trending dextral faults. Based on SR and DIR maps, northeast-southwest trending sinistral faults about 47 kilometers long, north-south trending dextral faults about 1-5 kilometers long, and northwest-southeast trending faults about 2-10 kilometers long have been encountered. The younger spot units occur along the latest fault segments. These new results together with relevant current field verification as well as previous geochronological, geochemical and geological investigations lead to the clarification of tectonic setting and evolution of the Phetchabun volcanic terrane. These distinct geophysical features correspond well with the well-established Loei suture between the Nakhonthai and Indochina tectonic plates. During the PermoCarboniferous, the elongate units corresponding to intrusive igneous bodies may have



occurred in association with eastward subduction of the Nakhonthai oceanic plate beneath the Indochina continental plate. Subsequently, during the Permo-Triassic, the elongate units (or deformed intrusive bodies) were deformed and sheared with a northsouth fold axial plane besides generate the mesothermal gold deposit in the accreted zone. The structural configuration of this stage is characterized by ring units of paleovolcanic arc centres with the epithermal gold deposit and the presence of circular units representing equigranular intrusive bodies. The offsets along northwest-southeast sinistral, east-west dextral, and northeast-southwest dextral faults are also consistent with east-west compression. On the contrary, the northeast-southwest sinistral faults, north-south dextral faults, and northwest-southeast dextral faults with the east-west fold axial planes postdated the compression and resulted from east-west extension during the Triassic time. The spot units representing shallow porphyritic intrusive bodies and dike rocks occurred along the youngest fault segments during this stage. This extension episode is inferred to be diachronous with the uplift of the flat units in study area (or the preliminary Khorat Plateau) and contemporaneous with the subsidence of other units. Keywords: PHETCHABUN VOLCANIC TERRANE / RE-PROCESSING OF AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICAL DATA / TECTONIC SETTING AND EVOLUTION



Poster No. 1 Poster No. 2 Poster No. 3 Poster No. 4 Poster No. 5 Poster No. 6 Poster No. 7 Poster No. 8 Poster No. 9

LIST OF POSTER PRESENTATIONS Wednesday 7 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Thursday 8, March 2012

Fossilized marine crabs at Kra Jae Subdistrict, Na Yai Am District,

Chanthaburi Province By Thanit Intarat and Rungathit Buchaindra NEHRP soil type classification and ground shaking amplification of

northern Thailand By Passakorn Pananont, Thanawat Yodden,

Mingkwan Mingmuang, Preecha Saithong and Pakawat Sriwangpol Current understanding of pre-historic tsunamis in the northern Sunda

Trench as deduced from paleotsunami and paleoseismological studies:

A review By Kruawun Jankaew Neotectonics along the Uttaradit Fault Zone, northern Thailand : A

case study of the trench excavation at Ban Phon Du By Preecha

Saithong, Suwith Kosuwan, Kitti Kaowiset, Passakorn Pananont, Krit

Won-in and Punya Charusiri Analysis of Geological Structures in the Southern Mergui Basin,

Andaman Sea By Niramol Tintakorn, Passakorn Pananont, Tananchai

Mahattanachai, Punya Charusiri Morphotectonic and geochronological analyses of the Khlong Marui

Fault, southern Thailand By Sarun Keawmuangmoon, Suwith

Kosuwan, Preecha Saithong, Kitti Kaowisate, Punya Charusiri Is Ranong fault in southern Thailand active? - Evidence from

seismological, paleoseismological, and seismic investigations By

Sumalee Thipyupas, Thanu hanpattanapanich, Santi Pailoplee and

Punya Charusiri Geology and Petrochemistry of dike rocks in Chatree gold mine, Pichit

province: Implication for Late Paleozoic tectonic setting By

Tangwattananukul, L., Takasima, I., Misuta, T., Ishiyama, D.,

Lunwongsa, W., and Charusiri P. Investigation of Site Characteristics of Subsoil in the Central Part of

Thailand By Nakhorn Poovarodom



12th GEOSEA 2012, Bangkok, Thailand

POST-CONGRESS FIELD TRIP: GEOLOGY OF WESTERN THAILAND Friday, 9 – Sunday, 11 March 2012 Bangkok - Suphanburi – Kanchanaburi - Nakorn Pathom - Bangkok

9 March 2012 07.00 hrs. Leave Centara Grand Hotel, Ladprao, Bangkok for U-Thong Oil Field,


Stop 1: Geology of U-Thong Oil Field, Uthong District, Suphanburi. Stop 2: Investigate the Ban Wung Khan Angular Unconformity,

Ordovician Limestone and deep marine Middle Triassic thin

bedded chert. Stop 3: Investigate the Neogene Sapphire bearing Basalt at Khao Lun

Thom, Bo Phloi District. Stay and Dinner at Srinagarindra Dam 10 March 2012 07.00 hrs. Check out and Breakfast at Srinagarindra Dam Restaurant Stop 4: Investigate the Upper Cambrian Chao Nen Quartzite and

deformation at the left abutment of the Srinagarindra Dam. Stop 5 : Investigate the Ordovician, thin bedded, argillaceous black

limestone at the Srinagarindra Dam’s quarry. Stop 6 : Investigate the Middle Permian Monodiexodina at Ban Tha

Ta On, Khao Muang Krut Sandstone of the Ratburi Group Stop 7: Visit the War Museum and investigate the geology of the

Middle Permian limestone of the Phap Pha Formation of the

Ratburi Group at the Hell Fire Pass of the death railway. Stop 8 : Investigate the geology of the hot spring and visit the online

monitoring station of groundwater and hot spring at Ban Hin

Dart. Stay and Dinner at Vajiralongkorn Dam 11 March 2012 07.00 hrs. Check out and Breakfast at Vajiralongkorn Dam Restaurant Stop 9: Investigate deformation and tectonic activity of the

Ordovician Limestone at the Dam. Stop 10: Visit Mahidol University Kanchanaburi Campus. Investigate

the geology of the campus. Stop 11: Visit Kasae Cave and observe Three Pagoda Fault Scarp

along the Death Railway. Stop 12: Visit the Bridge of River Kwae. 19.00 hrs. Arrive Centara Grand Hotel, Bangkok safely. BOOK OF ABSTRACTS


Profile for Geology Thailand

Proceeding of GEOSEA2012  

Appreciate to all of geologist read it,

Proceeding of GEOSEA2012  

Appreciate to all of geologist read it,