Ye a r 8 Vo l . 8 Free Copy 2009
G E O D I S
• Mobile Mapping – PanoramaGIS • Airborne Data for Bulgarian Part of NABUCCO • GPR in Oman • Mapping in Antarctica • The 2009 LUCAS Project
Explore the place from office PixoView helps answer emergency questions
PixoView Of fers detailed sur vey Locates water sources Determinates accessibilit y Plans emergenc y measures Suppor ts investigation Captures realistic daylight images Compares before and af ter Saves costs Saves time Saves lives We hereby invite you to our stand nÂ° 1.517 in hall 1 on INTERGEO in Karlsruhe, Germany, 22 th â€“ 24th September 2009
In the nex t few months, we will be commemorating the 20 th anniversar y of the fall of the iron cur tain and gradual reunification of Europe. A s with other businesses in the former Eastern bloc, 1989 was a breakthrough year for GEO DIS – mainly because the company could be incorporated and privatized. Prior to the Velvet Revolution, there was only one geodetic organization operating in the former Czechoslovakia and this company was controlled by the state. In November, 1989, photogrammetr y was a top secret militar y domain. Now, at GEODIS BRNO, it ’s no secret that we will celebrate the 20 th anniversar y of our existence in 2010. We are justifiably proud to have built one of the largest international companies in the area of geoinformatics during this time, implementing hundreds of projec ts worldwide. The year 20 09 will be remembered as a year of economic and financial crisis. In relation to this we should note the 80 th anniversar y (24 Oc tober) of the 1929 Black Friday New York Stock Exchange Crash, which star ted the first modernday global economic depression. The Great Depression went on for 3 years; let ’s hope the current situation won’t last much longer. Despite negative news, we at GEODIS are ver y optimistic. In the first half of 20 09, we have recorded an increase in the volume of contrac t work, especially with foreign markets. The GEODIS GROUP has been most successful in the field of agriculture. We are par ticipating this year in various ac tivities relating to LPIS ( L and Parcel Identification System) in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Poland, Macedonia, and Slovenia. Initial orders from Poland, Macedonia and Slovenia comprised our biggest contrac ts to date with these countries and contributed significantly to an increase in our aerial imaging volume. With our new Beechcraft King Air 20 0 plane and the new UltraCamXp digital camera GEODIS has managed to handle this increase quite well. This issue of GEODIS NEWS highlights information about our projec ts and new technologies we have developed for our clients. In the forefront of these technologies is Mobile Mapping, which features unique options for fast collec tion of super- detailed data, especially in urban areas. Along with the maximum ef for t we exer t to keep on top in terms of technology, we remain aware that it is you – our clients and business par tners – who are key to our company’s success. We look for ward to continuing our work with you on interesting dynamic projec ts in the future. In conclusion, I would like to invite you to our traditional autumn exposition of produc ts and ser vices at the INTERGEO fair, which takes place this year from 22 – 24 September in Karlsruhe, Germany. GEODIS GROUP will be located in Hall 1 at Stand 1,517. We look for ward to the oppor tunit y of meeting with both
Content: 4 I GEODIS GROUP IN 2008 Ivo Hanzl GEODIS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM Petr Michovský I 5 GEODIS HAS A NEW AERIAL LASER Petr Navrátil 6 I WINTER NIGHTS IN MONTBÉLIARD Marcel Janoš 8 I MAPPING IN ANTARCTICA Patrik Meixner 10 I GEODIS GROUP IN THE MIDDLE EAST (edition) I 11 AIRBORNE DATA FOR BULGARIAN PART OF NABUCCO Michal Babáček, Dimitar Jechev 12 I MOBILE MAPPING – PANORAMAGIS Jan Sukup 14 I LPIS IN POLAND Petr Navrátil, Vašek Šafář I 15 GEOCACHING IN GEODIS Vladimír Plšek 16 I THE 2009 LUCAS PROJECT – AN EXTENSIVE EUROPEAN FIELD SURVEY Miloš Sedláček I 17 GEODIS TAKES SECOND PLACE IN THE 2008 CZECH TECHNICAL WORK CONTEST (edition) 18 I UNDERGROUND LIKE AN AERIAL SURVEY, GPR IN OMAN David Hughes 22 I PROJECT THÜRINGEN – LAND REGISTRY BUILDINGS UPDATE USING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Patrik Meixner, Klaus Legat I 25 NEW MEMBER OF GEODIS BRNO’S AIRCRAFT FLEET Karel Holouš 26 I SLOVAK REPUBLIC CONTINUOUS COLOUR ORTHOPHOTOMAP AND DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL Renáta Šrámková 28 I GREEN CADASTRE BECOMES PART OF ROMANIAN CITIES’ URBAN DEVELOPMENT Ciprian Pricop I 29 3D MODEL OF THE HLINKY TUNNEL Martin Plánka
existing and potential clients to discuss possibilities for future projec ts.
30 I FRANCE... FRANCE, VIVA LA FRANCE?! Václav Šafář
32 I LPIS IN MACEDONIA Petr Michovský
I 33 ORTHOPHOTO PROJECT IN SLOVENIA Patrik Meixner 34 I OPTIONS FOR ACQUIRING AND PRESENTING SPATIAL DATA FOR INTEGRATED RESCUE SYSTEMS Jan Sukup, David Káňa, Karel Sukup 36 I WHO‘S WHO? MARTIN TEŠNAR – SPECIALIST FOR GEODETIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL WORKS Eva Paseková I 37 SOMMAIRE 38 I ZUSAMMENFASUNG
FRONT PAGE • Mobile Mapping – Panorama GIS (page 12-13)
GEODIS GROUP in 2008 The year 2008 is now history, and the time for its evaluation has come. For GEODIS BRNO, spol. s r.o., this was another highly successful year, both for overall business and in the area of providing geodetic, photogrammetric services, and geoinformation. The company’s sales division, operating in four countries including the Czech and Slovak Republic, Austria, and Romania, repeated its 2007 year’s results – the company signiﬁcantly exceeded a turnover of 200 million CZK for the second time in its history. The company’s division providing geodetic, photogrammetric services, and geoinformation did equally well. GEODIS conﬁrmed its position as industry leader by further extending activities – this time in the Northern Moravia. Since March 2008, GEOMETRA Opava has been a member of the GEODIS GROUP, becoming the youngest subsidiary. Overall volume increase was also evident in the foreign market, despite the Czech currency gaining strength. In 2008, GEODIS opened an ofﬁce in Belfort, France, following up on long-term cooperation in this region. Excellent results of parent company GEODIS BRNO were complemented by record turnovers of the two largest subsidiaries – GEODIS Slovakia and GB – geodezie. Detailed 2008 results will be known after company audits are performed; even now, it is clear that the last year belongs among the most successful ones. Behind these results, there is a quality workforce of over 450 employees, active in six countries. Despite the ﬁnancial and economic crisis, which now makes worldwide headlines, I believe that 2009 should continue to show the gains made of the year before. Ivo Hanzl
GEODIS in the United Kingdom In April 2009, we took advantage of an invitation to participate in the prestigious UK surveying exhibition XCES – the Exhibition for Construction and Engineering Surveying. The exhibition took place in York, UK, organized by ICES, the Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors. Leading British geoinformation acquisition companies, specialized software developers, surveying equipment dealers and new technology providers, such as mobile street mapping or mobile railway mapping systems employing laser scanners, presented their services, technologies, and innovations. We met our business partners from overseas projects and negotiated possibilities of mutual cooperation both in and out of the UK. For a central European-based company, it is logistically difﬁcult to provide standard aerial photogrammetry services in the British islands, mainly because of unfavorable weather conditions. However, the British market offers opportunities for other specialized GEODIS services. It has been several months since GEODIS BRNO executed its last large project in Great Britain. During recent years, we completed here services including land surveying, photogrammetry, and cadastral mapping for the Ordnance Survey. The GEODIS potential is well established and recognized from “hands on” experience from large projects, including LPIS projects in Eastern Europe, highway mapping in Austria, ﬂood management in Romania, and Ordnance Survey cadastral mapping in Northern Ireland. The company portfolio details specialized technologies such as thermal mapping and terrestrial laser scanning applications. GEODIS is presently launching the in-house developed oblique imagery system PixoView including software solution, and a Mobile Mapping System accompanied with GEODIS-produced “PanoramaGIS” software. Also, the recent purchase of a Beech B200 King Air plane together with an airborne Laser Scanner Leica ALS 50-II, and a brand new UltraCamXp digital camera, facilitates execution of complex operations in remote countries. Thanks to the visit of the exhibition we managed to re-establish relationship with a mapping and remote sensing company InfoTerra, who we used to meet as a competitor in various tenders before. The nice thing about international competition is that your former competitors can easily become reliable team players and you can have a cup of tea with them. Petr Michovský 1 3
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York City Centre Letter Box The York Minster XCES Entrance Gate
Leica ALS 50 – II Aerial Laser Scanner
GEODIS Has a New Aerial Laser YAW PITCH
SCAN ANGLE RANGE AND INTENSITY
In the second half of 2008, GEODIS decided to purchase an aerial laser. After detailed scrutiny the newest Leica ALS 50 – II laser was selected and paid. The device was delivered in the ﬁrst week of January 2009. When mounted in an aircraft, the laser, referred to also as LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), emits light rays towards the ground and measures the time the rays require to travel from LIDAR to the ground and back to the aircraft. Based on the known light speed, the distance between the laser and the ray reﬂection spot on the ground is calculated. The aerial laser is equipped with the GNSS/INS system, which makes it possible to pinpoint accurate LIDAR spatial locations -including rotation angles for all three axes at the moment the laser pulse is emitted (and received). Laser ray pulses are generated with a frequency of up to 150 KHz and transmitted to the ground via an oscillating mirror. The mirror oscillation speed reaches up to 90Hz, with an angle range of 10-75 degrees. This angle range determines the ﬁeld of view (FOV), i.e. bandwidth of the scanned territory. Because the exact angle position of the oscillating mirror at the moment of the ray emission is also known, it is possible to determine x, y a z coordinates of the ground spot hit by the given ray.
There is currently LIDAR testing and calibration in progress. During this period, aircraft crews and workers are prepared to further process recorded data. Flying with the most recent ALS 50 will be a new task for GEODIS pilots. They will need to ﬂy more accurately than they were used to with cameras for standard aerial imaging works. The maximum permitted ﬂight path deviation (when ﬂying with a laser) is about half of the deviation allowed when performing imaging tasks, and this amounts to 50 m at most in terms of elevation as well as position. Considering that this kind of ﬂight usually takes four to ﬁve hours and requires full concentration during the entire period, our pilots will truly face a challenging task. Since it is imperative that data acquired is sufﬁcient to produce a quality resulting product, new employees are speciﬁcally trained for extensive data processing including ﬂight path primary data calculation and generation of so-called 3D point clouds. The subsequent ﬁltering, classiﬁcation, and data processing is an area of GEODIS professional expertise. Our laser data processing department has satisﬁed scores of clients over the past six years. This project experience has prepared us for work with all laser systems throughout Europe.
The laser radar high pulse and scanning speed allows measuring a highly detailed digital model of the Earth surface and identifying and classifying various terrain objects. The altitude range for scanning is 200 to 6 000 m above the terrain. This makes it possible to use a single device for various tasks with different densities of measured terrain points and therefore variable measured terrain details. There is currently no other device in the world that would achieve these parameters. The newest ALS50 emits a ray towards the ground, awaiting its return. Since the ray (pulse) has a conical shape, it leaves a trace on the ground with the diameter of up to several tens of centimetres. It is therefore possible that one ray emitted can generate multiple reﬂections, e.g. from tree leaves. ALS 50 – II can detect up to four reﬂections of a single emitted ray while each reﬂection can have up to three intensity values. This enables thorough analysis of vegetation height levels, for example. To facilitate interpretation of LIDAR data, the system will be completed with a medium-format digital Hasselblad camera with a resolution of 39 Mpix. LIDAR will also work with a large-format aerial imaging camera. As a result, it will be possible to efﬁciently produce a scanned territory ortophotomap, which will be based on the terrain model measured directly by the airborne laser LIDAR.
Petr Navrátil 1
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Vector Model based on LIDAR Data 2 Classiﬁcation of Point Clouds 3 – 4 Longitudinal Section based on LIDAR Data
Thermal Camera Installed in the Aircraft Piper Aztec Aircraft FLIR ThermaCam SC 660 Thermal Camera
Winter Nights in Montbéliard Introduction Thermal imaging results are necessary for monitoring thermal leakages in order to uncover construction problems, such as escaping warmth from thermal energy distribution grids or heated objects. Preventing energy loss caused by improper insulation or insulation breakdown should be the priority of property owners and the entire society and one of the key objectives of the European Union. Since 1994, ARGUS GEO SYSTÉM s.r.o., has been offering thermal imaging services. We have implemented projects utilizing various types of thermal cameras, from nitrogen-cooled devices to electronic cameras with a resolution of 320 x 240 pixels and to cameras ﬁtted with uncooled microbolometric mosaic detectors with a resolution of 640 x 480 pixels.
Meeting at the Airport
Thermal imaging is one of the important products among GEODIS GROUP services. GEODIS has completed several thermovision projects in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The following article is dedicated to one such extensive project in France. Its objective was to acquire images -- using a thermal camera -- of Montbéliard buildings in order to identify thermal leakages through roofs. Given the high requirements for the geometric and thermal resolution and the extensive subject area, we used the thermal camera FLIR ThermaCam SC660 with the resolution of 640 x 480 pixels. This thermal camera with a gyro stabilized mount and necessary additional equipment had to be installed in a double-engine Piper Aztec aircraft to comply with aerial regulations applicable in France above cities the size of Montbéliard.
Image acquisition of the entire Montbéliard area took place over four nights with varying climatic conditions, as the weather was quite changeable. The ﬁrst ﬂight night was from 12 January 2009 to 13 January 2009, the second from 16 January 2009 to 17 January 2009, the third from 20 January 2009 to 21 January 2009, and the last ﬂight night from 21 January 2009 to 22 January 2009. Because the airport was a part of the subject area, no time was lost with commuting. Gaps between the ﬂight days (or nights) were caused by the following two factors. The ﬁrst was the condition speciﬁed by the client – to ﬂy only in workdays, i.e. from Monday to Friday and if possible to avoid localities on Wednesday where schools are located. Pupils and students have a free day on Wednesday, and the heating of these objects is therefore turned down. The second important factor was the weather. The weather signiﬁcantly inﬂuences results of the measurement and requires therefore getting as close to the “ideal” imaging conditions as possible. The ﬁrst two ﬂight sessions were done with bright weather. However, near the end of the ﬂight (long after midnight), fog started to form, making further work impossible and complicating the landing procedure for the aircraft crew. It is worth noting that all ﬂights were “self-attended”, because airport ﬂight control closed at 6:00 p.m. and our crew had to remotely light up the runway for takeoff and landing, paying special attention to the movement of other aircraft in the area. The remaining two ﬂight sessions were performed under warm front clouds sliding in from the west. The relatively long pauses between ﬂight sessions, caused by unsettled wintertime climatic conditions, hindered project homogeneity, since measuring such an extensive surface was difﬁcult (11.100 ha) and increased the overall demands for our data processing work.
Thermal Imaging Plan The entire Montbéliard area was divided into 4 sections: 76 + 94 + 84 + 32, i.e. 286 ﬂight lines in total. For the thermal camera in use, lenses had a focal distance of 37 mm, and the resolution of source thermal images of 40 cm. The aircraft ﬂew at an altitude of 600 m above the ground, with 150 m gaps between lines. The aerial imaging in the infrared range of 7,5µm – 13,5µm was done with the aim of detecting building surface thermal anomalies. To eliminate impacts of building surface heating by incoming solar radiation, it was necessary to perform the imaging long after sunset, and French winter sunset (evening) began around 3:30 p.m. CET. Conditions needed for thermal imaging and technical equipment descriptions were provided in previous issues of the GEODIS NEWS.
Part of Thermal Orthophotomap
Planar Thermal Orthophotomap Thermal Orthophotomap of Buildings Reduced Thermal Orthophotomap of Buildings
Thermal Images Processing Five parameters are speciﬁed for processing thermal images: emissivity, reﬂected temperature, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and distance between the subject and the scanner. The reﬂected temperature (depending on the clouds) and emissivity (depending on the subject material) play a substantial role. With Image Builder software, mosaics were created from isolated images with orientation temperature range assigned. These mosaics were then georeferenced using available materials: Orthophotomap (GEODIS BRNO), topography with photogrammetric evaluation based on aerial images (GEODIS BRNO), and vector cadastral map of the given locality. The TopoL software was employed to perform geo-referencing of the masking and mosaics. Results were checked with Adobe Photoshop. The output represents a thermal map in the TIFF (TFW) format with a pixel size of 50 cm. The scope of delivery includes three separate pieces of output, created from the input thermal photomap. The output is divided into map sheets with the size of 2100 x 1500 m: Planar Thermal Orthophotomap – The thermal data covers the entire area, i.e. buildings including their surroundings. Thermal Orthophotomap of Buildings – The thermal data covers the area of roofs only. Reduced Thermal Orthophotomap of Buildings – Obtained by re-classifying the thermal orthophotomap of buildings from 256 colours to 8 colours. Conclusions Thermal imaging expands the portfolio of GEODIS GROUP services. In connection with increasing energy costs related to energy transport and users of long heat pipelines, the effort to map these grids and ensure their proper maintenance intensiﬁes. In addition, contemporary development of thermal imaging is driven by the fact that even EU programs now focus on energy savings and environmental protection in the context of global warming issues. Although thermal images contain useful and practical information, this data needs to be properly processed, clearly understood, and well interpreted. Marcel Janoš
M a p p in g in A n t a rc ti c a One of the points stabilized by earlier British expeditions with Johan Gregor Mendel station in far background
The difference of quality and resolution between Leica (left) and Vinten
Quite soon it was revealed that camera calibration for the Vinten was rather dubious, and the quality and resolution of the Vinten images was far from ideal. Therefore, we decided – taking into account the client’s wish to have at least part of the map ready for the 2007/2008 winter season – to ﬁrst work up only the 130 sqkm covered by the high quality Leica data and to leave the torment with the reconnaissance camera for 2008. The project area showing the aerial photos supplied in 2007 (Leica, Vinten) and 2008 (Zeiss), the photoﬂight implementation years are shown for clarity
The regular GEODIS NEWS English edition readers were unfortunately denied the pleasure of reading my article about the GEODIS 2003 ﬁrst humble attempt to conquer the coldest continent. This article – that was only printed in the Czech edition – vividly described the troubles we had while producing the DTM used for selecting the right site, planning, and construction of the Czech Antarctic station on James Ross Island. The article concluded with my sad comment, noting that we received zero feedback regarding the rather unorthodox methods used during the DTM collection and whether they provided acceptable results when compared with on – the – spot reality. Nevertheless, the construction of the station (christened Johan Gregor Mendel) was completed in the spring of 2006, and the station was inhabited by the ﬁrst expedition during winter 2006/2007. Apparently, our data was satisfactory, because in the summer of 2007 we were approached by the Czech Geological Survey to follow up with a much more complex project. This time we were asked to make the photogrammetric mapping of planimetry and altimetry of the entire ice-free part of the Ulu Peninsula, which is hosting the Johan Gregor Mendel station on its northernmost tip. The mapping area was 225 sqkm, and the mapping was to be done in scale 1:25.000. First Year – 2007 As usual, we ﬁrst had to ﬁnd suitable aerial imagery, and we were – as we will later show – relatively lucky this time. The client was able to provide us with archive image data that should have covered the required area, via British Antarctic Survey (BAS). The major part of the images was acquired by BAS in 2006 in scale 1:25.000 using Leica RC20 camera – in fact, very actual and relatively high quality data. A minor part, unfortunately exactly the one around the Czech station, was also acquired by BAS but rather earlier in history (19791980). These photos were made using Vinten 70 reconnaissance camera with a scale of 1:95.000. All the aforementioned images were delivered in (scanned) digital format together with their appropriate calibration protocols, so we were able to start immediately.
The Ground Control Points (GCPs) were selected out of the client’s database of measurements made for geological survey purposes. The database contained mainly interesting geological spots, only some of them usable in photogrammetry – regrettably often without sufﬁcient photographic documentation and sometimes just with brief verbal description. Fortunately, part of the measurements also described several easily identiﬁable linear terrain features like brooks, ridges, or mesetas. The majority of the data was acquired using hand-held GPS positioning devices, and the database contained 2004-2007 measurements. Therefore, the accuracy of the points was rather low, and the entire data set was inhomogeneous. The aerotriangulation (AT) process demanded very careful selection and combination of suitable GCPs, and in the end we were able to conclude the AT with RMS 4.5 m in plane and 2.8 m in height. We were, of course, not too satisﬁed with the results under the given circumstances, however, they were the best we could achieve for the moment. The rest of the workﬂow was just standard routine, and after stereoplotting all required features (mainly glaciers, water, and important terrain breaklines) and generating contours, the ﬁnal product was delivered to the client on time before the start of the 2007/2008 expedition. As previously noted, we were not very satisﬁ ed with the quality and distribution of the GCPs in the project, because they apparently degraded the good Leica photo ﬂight parameters and subsequently the ﬁnal product as well. After discussing this issue with the client, we came to swift agreement on further necessary project steps, and the expedition left for Antarctica equipped not only with a brand new topographic map (and for sure a lot of warm underwear), but also with the Topcon HiPer Plus dual frequency GPS instrument loaned by the courtesy of GEODIS top management. The device was then successfully used to measure a new set of high quality GCPs for the next stages of the project. Earlier, we also came to another slightly unpleasant conclusion. The photos that had been delivered so far did not cover the speciﬁc project area as required by the client. The missing data around St. Martha Cove was especially notable. We decided to postpone action on this issue, however, until the spring 2008 return of the expedition to the Czech Republic.
Terrain features from DTM and from the photos for comparison
Second Year – 2008 In the early summer of 2008, the client brought back excellent GPS data for the newly surveyed control points. A small problem remained. The high quality of the measurements had no real value without at least one permanent GPS station in closer proximity to the project area. The earlier attempts to receive such support from BAS were not successful, and neither was the pursuit for accurate UTM coordinates of two trigonometric points stabilized by the once-omnipresent Britons near the Czech station (and re-surveyed with GPS during our recent campaign). The problem was ﬁnally solved by specialists from our surveying department. They were able to locate two permanent GPS stations OHI2 and OHI3 supervised by German Bundesamt für Kartographie and Geodäsie on the O’Higgins base, a mere 65 km away from the project area. New GCPs were introduced into the original 2007 AT block. The adjustment results were really outstanding – RMS 0.70 m in plane and 0.80 m in height. Regrettably, none of the original GCPs from former geological surveys survived the tough competition. Their residuals were unacceptable. Therefore, we decided – in order to maintain the best possible mapping homogeneity – to use exclusively new GCPs for the whole project and completely re-calculate the AT from the previous year. As we did not want to lose the results of the 2007 stereoplotting at the same time, we had to use our own quite unique technology to re-calculate the last year’s vector data in order to harmonize them with the newly adjusted AT and, of course, with the 2008 newly stereoplotted data .
by BAS, duly accepting all the negative consequences of such a step. The copies were scanned on a high quality DTP scanner, but even so their radiometric and especially geometric quality suffered badly – at least from the photogrammetric point of view. No wonder that the RMS of the AT was 0.70 m in plane (the same as Leica) and 2.2 m in height (worse than Vinten). The subsequent mapping was once again quite a routine matter, and we were able to deliver the ﬁnished digital map to the client by the end of October 2008. All three primary data sources (aerial images) were of diverse scales, quality, and especially age, so it is obvious that there are in fact three parts in the ﬁnal map where the data have different accuracy. Some parts are not exactly up-to-date either, however I am sure that we were able to produce quite a homogeneous product. Conclusion We had to overcome many signiﬁcant technical problems during the project elaboration, but we were able to learn a lot, and we have acquired invaluable experience with mapping in very attractive, albeit quite remote areas. As far as we know, the Czech Geological Survey uses our map at the moment as a base for their detailed geological surveys on James Ross Island. New plans propose upgrading the map with terrain measurements and call for subsequent cartographic production including printing the map in English/Spanish language versions. The production of orthophotomaps seems to ﬁt into these plans too. And I am really proud to say that GEODIS will be there to assist again. Patrik Meixner
The feared Vinten images were added to the AT block at this stage. Here the new GCPs, though very well documented, were really hard to identify as they were often simply too small for the scale. But eventually we succeeded here too – the RMS was 2.0 m both in plane and in height, so signiﬁcantly lower than with Leica. The client also managed to ﬁnd the images for the missing data along the western coast close to St. Martha Cove, where they even partly replaced the low quality Vinten images. The photos were taken by the Royal Navy in 1989 with a Zeiss RMK A in scale 1:16.000. We were excited with the anticipated high quality of this data. Unfortunately, we soon learned that the appropriate negatives – although made public by the seamen and formally handed over to the United Kingdom Hydrographic Ofﬁce (UKHO) – still linger in deep dungeons of the Royal Air Force photographic archives, and their actual delivery to UKHO is not in the foreseeable future. We had to put up with their scanned paper copies made kindly available
The accompanying photographs were selected from the photographic documentation made by the members of the winter 2007/2008 expedition during the GCP measurement.
G EO D I S G RO U P i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t
In 2009, the GEODIS GROUP has continued to strengthen its position in Middle East markets. In March, we participated in the GIS-WORX conference held in Dubai. This conference is an annual meeting of ESRI GIS users, sponsored by local distributor GISTEC. GEODIS presented its products and services for municipalities, utilities, and mobile operators. Jan Sirotek led a workshop showcasing modern methods of GIS data acquisition -- namely oblique images and Mobile Mapping. This popular workshop had a wide attendance. In April, GEODIS traditionally took part in the Map Middle East Exhibition and Conferences, which were moved to Abu Dhabi this year. We were exhibiting jointly with our partners Universal Geomatics and YMS.
In the spring of 2009, GEODIS ﬁnished its ﬁrst Gulf region project – an Oman underground utility detection facility using Ground Penetrating Radar for PDO. Although initial 2008 results were disappointing, GEODIS invested time and money into a new campaign for higher accuracy and resolution data to satisfy client needs. As GEODIS becomes a recognized brand in the Middle East, the company name is often on tender short lists, and the GEODIS GROUP is getting several requests for work in neighbouring countries. We believe that purchase of our new Beechcraft King Air 200 will also help us cover demanding aerial photography tasks in this part of the world. During periodic business missions, GEODIS regularly meets with potential customers who could be well served by our local partners. After 3 years presence in the Middle East market, GEODIS is being ranked among the most serious mapping companies in the region. (edition)
A ir b o r n e Da t a fo r B u l g a ria n Pa r t o f N A B U C C O
Geospatial Data for NABUCCO Project There has been only one executed project in Bulgaria using LIDAR data for pipeline design needs. One of the reasons for this is that the acquisition of aerial data in Bulgaria is a very complicated task and restricted by the government. Data is considered conﬁ dential, and special procedures involving many authorities must be followed.
The NABUCCO Project The Nabucco natural gas pipeline constitutes a dedicated gas transit and transportation pipeline from Turkey to Austria via Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary. The aim is to create a pipeline system for natural gas transmission from different sources in the Caspian Sea Region and the Middle East to Central Europe. The overall time schedule of the Nabucco natural gas pipeline foresees the ﬁrst gas to be delivered in 2012. The project includes designing and constructing a new gas pipe line in 5 countries with a total length of 3,300 kilometers. The Bulgarian part is about 400 km long. For great distances, the use of airborne data is effective with Nabucco. History of NABUCCO Project The preparations for this project started in February 2002 when initial talks took place between Austrian OMV and Turkish BOTAȘ. In June 2002, ﬁve companies (OMV of Austria, MOL of Hungary, Bulgargaz of Bulgaria, Transgaz of Romania and BOTAȘ of Turkey) signed a protocol of intention to construct the Nabucco pipeline, which was followed with a Cooperation Agreement in October 2002. The name Nabucco comes from the famous Giuseppe Verdi opera of the same name, which was attended after this meeting by the ﬁve partners at the Vienna State Opera. In December 2003, the European Commission awarded a grant in the amount of 50% of the estimated total eligible costs of the feasibility study, which included market analysis, technical, economic and ﬁnancial studies. On 28 June 2005, the Joint Venture Agreement was signed by the ﬁve Nabucco Partners. A Ministerial statement on the Nabucco pipeline was signed on 26 June 2006 in Vienna.
The main Bulgarian company that is designing gas pipelines is CHIMCOMPLECT ENGINEERING. Working closely with CHIMCOMPLECT, GEODIS has offered its expertise in the ﬁeld based on work experience in several European countries. An effective means for Nabucco project realization was agreed upon– a combination between aerial laser scanning and aerial digital photogrammetry with the use of middle format camera. GEODIS recently has signed an agreement with CHIMCOMPLECT ENGINEERING for pipeline route LIDAR scanning, which is a part of the Bulgarian NABUCCO project. GEODIS will use its own LIDAR scanner Leica ALS50-II, together with a digital camera, in order to supply both high-quality orthophotos and a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). This geospatial data covering 400 km of the long pipeline route will be used for designing a gas pipeline for NABUCCO. NABUCCO Project in Austria The pipeline route in Austria has a total length of about 45 km. GEODIS executed a photoﬂight over this area using its large format digital camera UltraCamX. Aerial images were used in further processing. The whole area was stereoscopically measured, and a digital map and precise DTM were created. In the end, an orthophotomap was generated. All these products were delivered to the company ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH, which will use this geodata for creating project documentation. Michal Babáček, Dimitar Jechev
Mobile Mapping – PanoramaGIS
The demand for 3D geographic information systems (GIS) usable in many branches of human activities has been on the rise in recent years. However, one of the problems is ﬁlling these databases with data that has sufﬁcient detail,
Fig. 2 Sample of Six Partial Images Acquired Using a Spherical Camera
accuracy, and mainly up-to-date. It is very demanding in terms of costs and time to acquire this data using conventional techniques, such as classic aerial photogrammetry or a ground survey. The most effective method seems to be deployment of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) that are mainly installed in automobiles but can also be equipped to ATVs, boats, helicopters, and even pilotless vehicles. “Mobile Mapping” refers to a new technology allowing fast collection of geoinformation, mainly in urban areas where changes in the infrastructure of buildings, roads, etc., are frequent, rapid, and cannot be sufﬁciently captured using traditional mapping methods. Mobile Mapping System A Mobile Mapping System usually consists of multiple devices installed on a vehicle – see Fig 1.
Geoinformation Data The output data form depends on the type of acquisition devices used for mobile mapping. Considering various technological needs, it is possible to combine classic digital cameras capable of acquiring several images per second with panoramic and/or spherical cameras that provide a complex view of the document space. Their resolution can vary; in practice cameras with lower resolutions (1 megapixel) can be used for mapping communications and adjacent surroundings, and cameras with high resolutions of up to 5 Mpx are needed to detailed capture the documented area. If objectives with a suitable focal length are used, through these cameras trafﬁc marking can be evaluated, street names recognized, and building numbers depending on the distance from projection centre can be red. Spherical cameras usually produce a speciﬁc number of partial images ﬁrst, see Fig 2. These images can be technologically processed and combined as a panoramic image (see Fig. 3) or even an entire spheric image (see Fig. 4).
Fig. 4 Spheric View
Fig. 1 Mobile Mapping System
One of the most important MMS components is the so-called control unit, with which navigation data from a GPS receiver, inertial measurement unit, or odometer is collected and sent to the computer. This data can be referenced at any time during the mobile mapping procedure to determine the location and orientation of sensors, both in the real-time mode and with a higher degree of accuracy in the post-processing. Devices used for mapping include various types of digital cameras, while laser scanners are applied in certain cases as well. The number and placement of cameras differs depending on what needs to be captured and which method will be used to extract the required information from the image. For some applications, it is useful to place the cameras so that acquired images form stereoscopic pairs and enable stereoscopic measurements. In other situations the cameras are pointed in opposite directions, and the photogrammetric interpretation of image subjects is based on spatial intersections.
It is then possible to look in all directions of this sphere while maintaining the central position, resulting in the effect of the user being surrounded by the captured area as in the real world. The classic or panoramic images can be utilized for simple situation documentation, i.e. visual information, for measuring necessary information, or for mapping. Since the images are acquired with a high frequency -- 30 images per second for example -- a video can be produced, either from individual images or entire panoramic images. The image data collection system can be further extended or combined with laser scanners that provide direct spatial information without having to manually measure objects (see Fig. 5). In this case, digital cameras are used only to colorize laser point clouds.
Fig. 3 Panoramic View
Fig. 5 Visualization of a Selected Street Using a Laser Point Clouds
Data Processing Procedure Once data is acquired in the ﬁeld, it needs to be processed. First step is to compute the trajectory where the MMS has moved. The GPS positioning solution may not be 100% reliable in all cases, especially in cities where signal from satellites is blocked by high buildings, trees, and other construction. It is therefore useful to combine two navigation technologies that complement each other. GPS positioning with inertial navigation thus forms a compact system that can be further extended with odometers. The absolute position calculated using GPS technology serves for compensating errors in measurements obtained from the inertial measurement unit (IMU). On the other hand, the relatively stable position determined by the inertial navigation system can be used to overcome areas where GPS fails. The calculation quality than depends directly on the GPS outage length and IMU accuracy. The calculated trajectory is transformed to the selected coordinate system in order to be integrated in existing geographic information systems and displayed along with raster data, such as orthophotomaps.
Fig. 7 Backward Projection of Evaluated Objects to an Image
bilized roads, surrounding construction objects, technical facilities, and vegetation. There is also a possibility to add information on underground and overhead engineering networks. The created database contains all information about subjects of interest (coordinates, description, administrator, etc.). Selected elements can be subsequently exported from the database and projected back to the panoramic images. Conclusions Our Mobile Mapping System is capable of rapidly acquiring large amounts of geoinformation data, which helps us keep geographic information system databases up-to-date. An MMS essentially captures a virtual reality image – a task that would be difﬁcult for a single person in the ﬁeld to accomplish, especially during rush hours on congested streets. This acquired data is rich with information that can be extracted in the comfort of an ofﬁce, either visually or using photogrammetric interpretation. This saves time while increasing human activity efﬁciency. Mobile Mapping can be used to identify road signs, trafﬁc lights, facilities, utility networks, vegetation, urban development potential, and 3D city modelling with subsequent visualization. Collected data is beneﬁcial for integrated rescue systems, providing valuable information on the actual spatial situation -- for use with ﬁreﬁghting squads, rescue service, police, units dealing with dangerous gas leakages etc.
Fig. 6 Trajectory Display with GEODIS Orthophotomap
The MMS movement trajectory is complemented with a recording of generally oriented images and/or panoramic images at selected intervals. Due to the accurate synchronization of sensors used for mobile mapping and the GPS receiver, it is possible to calculate the position and orientation of these devices that acquired images and laser points. From now, the geoinformation data is fully georeferenced and can be integrated into existing geographic information systems. PanoramaGIS The PanoramaGIS system is software currently developed by GEODIS BRNO, Ltd., for the purposes of various applications relating to the maintenance and operation of stabilized and non-sta-
A technology that can compete with Mobile Mapping in terms of data gathering speed is PixoView. Competition here is irrelevant, though, in terms of overall end-product quality. For optimum results, we believe it is best to combine PixoView with Mobile Mapping System, since this dynamic relationship results in fast, accurate, and complete subject area image documenting and mapping. Jan Sukup
LPIS in Poland
In 2008, the agency for agriculture restructuring and modernization, headquartered in Warsaw, announced a tender for modernization and update of the Land Parcel Identiﬁ cation System (LPIS) databases. LPIS is used in the European Union to identify land referred to as production blocks. It is a component of the Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS) that was deployed in all EU member countries and is prepared in candidate countries in accordance with basic EU legal regulations.
LPIS is used to manage and control subsidies related to farmland utilization (direct payments, production in less favourable areas, forestation). LPIS users are mainly farmers and public administrators. For farmers, data contained in LPIS constitutes reference information which can be used when submitting subsidy applications, for example. GEODIS, within the consortium of GEODIS Brno, Warszawskie Przedsiębiorstwo Geodezyjne S.A. and Okręgowe Przedsiębiorstwo Geodezyjno-Kartograﬁczne Sp.z.o.o., was selected to create a database for block OB7 with an area of 7 813 km2, belonging to the Lublin and Subcarpathian Voivodeship. It is an area in the south-eastern tip of Poland near the border with Ukraine and Slovakia. In the northern part of our block OB7, the terrain is mostly plain or slightly undulating. In the southern part, the terrain rises to the Beskydy mountain range, with relatively hilly and wooded areas where the highest peaks tower over 1300 m above sea level. Digital orthophotomaps are used as the basis for creating LPIS databases. Maps are produced mainly from aerial images, although satellite imagery was used in some EU member countries. Initial vectorization of LPIS database individual production blocks was done in Poland four to six years ago. The current project is a review and update of primary data. The technology prescribed with a high level of detail by the client (Agencja Restrukturyzacji i Modernizacji Rolnictwa) is based on acquiring aerial images with the terrain resolution of 0.2 m. Within the consortium, GEODIS Brno is responsible for pre-ﬂight signalling of the entire location, territory imaging using the UltraCamX digital camera, measuring and calculating the analytic aerotriangulation, reviewing the existing digital terrain model, and creating orthophotomaps. These standard, clear, compact and precisely described stages of the technological procedure used for orthophotomap creation and production turn, however, into a time consuming paperwork struggle under conditions set by the Polish ofﬁce. This project, therefore, became one of GEODIS’ most challenging LPIS orders, compared to those completed earlier in the Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Romania, Slovenia, and other countries. Our ﬁrst negative experience related to the need to pay for the delivery of images and their derivatives to the Polish state. To be more speciﬁc, one image acquired was to cost 2 PLN, and one aerial image used when creating an orthophotomap was to cost 7 PLN. We learned that even Polish companies had no prior knowledge regarding arbitery fees, and our short-term experience had previously indicated that Polish state authority most likely sets these project fees as it sees ﬁt.
GEOC AC HING IN GEODIS Geocaching is an international outdoor activity in which the participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers (called „geocaches“ or „caches“) anywhere in the world. A typical cache is a small waterproof container containing a logbook. Geocaching is most often described as a „game of high-tech hide and seek“, sharing many aspects with orienteering, treasure-hunting, and way marking. Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geo_caching Geocaching is a drug This game can thrill equally a two-year kid or a senior, a workman, or a lawyer. And what is the drug? The lust for adventure and the joy in solving riddles, revealing interesting places, and staying outdoors? Different people are attracted by different things. Although the game has deﬁned rules, the meaning of the word “victory” is associated by players individually. “Winners” are actually all those who can switch off the TVs and go out. Alone, with family, friends, walking, on a bike, but – mainly with a destination.
Unfortunately, these inﬂuences were not the only remarkable situations for us in the stage of business negotiation and production preparation.During our ﬁrst meetings, we learned that the digital terrain model had already been completed for most of the area during the previous LPIS campaign and would be provided by the client. However, what was not said but became obvious much later was that the previous digital model had map sheets and all of its partial database components that needed to be checked and corrected. This was an important and unpleasant fact mainly inﬂuencing the production capacities necessary to meet the required deadlines and, therefore, the project costs as well. Moreover, changes in form and content were required by the Polish government after our production had already began. 600 pages described required production procedures, including all three coordinate systems in which the product and its components were to be delivered. Speciﬁcally, we were required to deliver an extraordinary number of additional papers, reports, accompanying documents, and folders. We hope we will be able to deliver a quality revised updated LPIS database to our Polish partners which will enable them to review their existing ﬁgures and deliver the required ﬁnal product to the Polish authorities. Petr Navrátil, Vašek Šafář
Destination It is the kind of a destination that makes the difference between a hike and geocaching. The hike is not limited to a visit of a castle, church, another interesting place in the country, or a technical monument, but the piece de resistance is locating the cache and leaving a message to the entire world: “I was here!” There is no need to carve one’s initials to the wall of a castle or the trunk of a tree; the trace is virtual, stored on a server where everyone can read where my way went through, to reach the cache. Everyone becomes a member of a huge virtual community of players from the entire world and it is therefore even greater joy to meet other players near the cache. The geocachers comments witness the interesting encounters. And why do people start with geocaching? For many reasons. Some are motivated by their friends, some use geocaching to motivate their kids to switch off their computers and go out, some simply want to liven up their outdoor trips. There are many reasons. And why have some of us began? PePa from Bílovice about geocaching: Pe enjoys her walk and Pa is hunting – everyone is satisﬁed (assuming that the cache is found, of course :-). Erdasman: I liked to make long trips but the trails started to be monotone after a while. And then I got a phone with a GPS receiver and I have no time to go back since. I always need to venture to new, unexplored areas. sykorky: There were passionate debates in our ofﬁ ce and I had to be a part of them. I joined the group in the summer and now Erdasman and HotaCehy even let me have a word sometimes. POnDaMar: We discovered geocaching only by a coincidence in the time when it was relatively unknown here. We were soon to ﬁnd out that it was a way of spending free time that has a kind of magic for all of us. Staying outdoors, boyish desire to ﬁnd a treasure, joy when a riddle is solved, or just the good feeling given by the fact we managed to get our children from their computers. And I also had a chance to buy a new toy – GPS :-). HotaCehy: It is in fact a kind of rejuvenation cure when you experience adventure again while overcoming all types of obstacles. Braber_cze: We made ourselves move in the fresh air without having to take it as inevitable evil. We even found out that we were willing to ignore discomfort, difﬁcult terrain, miserable weather and many other things that would normally put us off just to “hunt caches”. I will not make a list of all those honourable beneﬁ ts of geocaching such as training your brain cells and visiting many interesting places. For us it is mainly a great way of spending our free time, clean our heads of everyday troubles and give a meaning to an ordinary walk. Vladimír Plšek
The 2009 LUCAS Project – An Extensive European Field Survey
In 2009, the biggest survey campaign in the history of LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area statistical Survey) was launched within European Union member states. With the aim to set up an extensive European Commission database on landscape area actual usage, EUROSTAT collects EU agricultural and environmental data. This surveyed data collected on the ground represents two main categories: Land Cover describes physical material at the surface of the earth (e.g.: woody areas, crop, water, buildings…) and Land Use relates to how people utilize the land (e.g.: forestry, commercial, recreation…). For the purpose of the project, it is crucial to distinguish these two terms and not interchange them.
Technical Realization Using the data collection method, the terrain is measured at a subset of points on a regular computer-generated network (around 4 million points for the entire European Union) placed over a map of the appropriate area, in our case the Czech Republic. Unlike mapping methods (such as the Land Cover CORINE mapping project), this one is principally staFigure 1: Base sample of points to be surveyed in Czech Republic tistical. The most ideal prerequisite for the operative collection of actual data is a seamless high-quality orthophotomap. The visual interpretation and classiﬁcation of 2007-2008 photographs at individual points in the network result in an extenWith focus on agro-environmental aspects such as landscape sive database containing representative ﬁgures regarding how the features and soil type LUCAS followed up in 2006 with work comlandscape is used. This interpretation and classiﬁcation, however, pleted in 13 EU Member states (BE, CZ, DE, ES, FR, HU, IT, LT, LU, also requires thorough checks on reliability. From the complete set LV, NL, PL, SK). In 2008, under management of EUROSAT as part of of data on landscape usage “under” each individual point, statistithe „PHARE - Multi-Beneﬁciary Statistical Cooperation Program“, cal methods are then used to select a subset of points which must surveying was carried out in Bulgaria and Romania. be visited at ground level to assess the type of Land Cover and how it is used. LUCAS Objectives History 2000-2003 In 2000, the LUCAS pilot project was initiated at the European level with close collaboration of the Directorate General for Agriculture and with the technical support of the Joint Research Centre ISPRA for the purpose of integrating Land Cover and Land Use data. The main task was nomenclature harmonization and to validate methods to determine ground collection data. The very ﬁrst campaign of the LUCAS project was carried out in 2001 in 13 EU countries. Unfortunately, due to Mad Cow Disease, this survey was temporarily halted in Great Britain and Ireland until 2002. In 2002, LUCAS was completed in Estonia, Hungary, Slovenia, Great Britain and Ireland. In 2003 new and continuing LUCAS work took place in all 15 EU Member states as well as Hungary. 2005-2006 Based on 2000 - 2003 experiences, new methodology was created and retested (2005) in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland. In 2006, LUCAS work was initiated in the Czech Republic together with FR, SK, HU, PL, ES, IT, BE, LU, DE, NL - a total quantity of 170 000 points.
• Creation of a landscape usage data set resulting in an extensive representative agro-environmental overview. • Implementation of new collected data with existing surveys. • Perfection of standardized terrain survey methodology, conceptual terminology and data collection procedures, the ﬁnal aim of which is to acquire comparable and unbiased data territory and how it is used (Land Cover, Land Use) throughout the entire Czech Republic as well as across all EU member states. • Deﬁnition of joint positional and methodical bases for obtaining representative data at a national or regional level for the needs of EU member states, institutions, and the EU as a whole. • The smooth expansion of present research from the agricultural sector to areas related to the environment, monitoring changes in the landscape and sustainable development. Positional methodical standards guarantee that the study can be repeated under analogous conditions at any time, which is a prerequisite for creating reliable and representative statistical ﬁles depicting the current state of the landscape and the environment. The data and the results derived from this data then become an important argument in the hands of the CZ and the EU for decision-making at many different levels.
Figure 2: Set of photos collected during observation of point.
GEODIS TAKES SECOND PLACE IN THE 2008 CZECH TECHNICAL WORK CONTEST Since 2005, Chamber of surveyors and cartographers has sponsored the annual “Technical Work in Cartography and Geodesy” competition. In 2008, GEODIS participated in the competition as a subcontractor with Prague Subterra. To compete in the contest, GEODIS submitted a Klimkovice Tunnel Highway Basic 3D Map, meeting parameters to be ranked among the top works. The ﬁnal result was an impressive pleasant surprise. The geodetic public ranked our 3D Map second place, and we ended up tied for second place when judged by a professional jury. Figure 3: Ground Document
Survey Execution This year GEODIS BRNO is participating in the third stage of the LUCAS project and is collecting data from the territory of the Czech Republic. Besides the organization and administration of the data found, the main task is to carry out a terrain survey of 4700 individual points. Together with determining Land Use and Land Cover, the survey gathers information of agro-environmental aspects such as water management methods, soil sampling, and landscape structural elements. The database with the collected data is then transferred to EUROSTAT for statistical assessment and becomes the property of EUROSTAT. This data should be available to the public upon request. Other details of the project, such as the monitoring of the terrain survey, can be found at the website: http://www.lucas-europa.info Additional information is available directly from the submitter: http://forum.europa.eu.int/irc/dsis/landstat/info/data/index.htm From all perspectives, this is an unusual statistical study providing a novel view of our landscape. Miloš Sedláček
GEODIS BRNO Project Participation History In 2008, the Klimkovice tunnel was opened as part of the D47 motorway project. Project investor was the Czech authority of roads and highways, Brno Division. GEODIS BRNO‘s subcontracting 3D work involved processing detailed laser documentation and processing of as built drawings. The Klimkovice tunnel consists of two tunnel tubes with a length of almost 900 m. Given that our aim was to create a 3D wire model of visible parts and equipment, GEODIS used method of terrestrial laser scanning to receive laser point clouds. Then laser point clouds were transformed to a local positional system via ground point control processing. This ﬁeld work took place during the second week of January 2008, when almost 150 positions in the scanned tunnel corridors and tunnel couplings acquired more than 30 GB of raw data. After raw data processing, we joined laser point clouds taken at different scanning positions and then completed vectorization, with an aim to create the 3D wire model previously noted. For this work, we used Bentley - Microstation V8 software. The big advantage of laser scanning technology is the possibility of future acquired data evaluation without a necessary ﬁ eld re-orientation. The client receives individual laser point clouds, since clouds can be advantageously used again in a simple environment for future projects. The Klimkovice Tunnel Highway Basic 3D Map is a work in progress that meets requirements for 21st century modern geoinformation technology. Our award – winning 3D map, offers information and application of geodetic data to a wide range of users. It is the ﬁrst and so far only implementation of real form 3D highway tunnel construction documentation in the Czech Republic. We are, therefore, extremely pleased that our project has received such well deserved national recognition. (edition)
U n d e r g r o u n d li ke a n Ae ri a l S u r vey, GPR in Oman
I wrote in the GEODIS NEWS 2008, of our efforts within GEODIS BRNO to establish a presence, a reputation, in the Middle East with the aim of winning geomatic projects from local clients. We wanted to show that our planned and modest approach to the region, a continuous presence and an understanding of the culture as well as the technical abilities and experience of GEODIS and the right tendered price, would provide the conﬁdence for local project owners to choose GEODIS as their contractor of choice for their project. Our visits have taken us regularly to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman and we have got to know, and be known and we have focused on a select group of potential clients. Each country has its speciﬁc business etiquette, conditions of work, but there are common aspects of Middle East hospitality, climate, hard negotiations and sometimes unusual requests and interpretations which provide reality to this endeavour and keep one on his toes. GEODIS is also building up a legion of contacts and sub-contractors, knowing full well the beneﬁts of involving local companies for their expertise as well as to fulﬁll local government aspirations of achieving knowledge transfer and employment of local specialists. “What projects have you done in this region?” is always going to produce anxiety for a ﬁrst-time company in the region. The aura of the completion of the ﬁrst elusive project elevates the contractor to new heights in the eyes of the potential project owners, someone who has been there and done that and is better off and more trustworthy for the experience.
The components of terra’s system are: • The antenna and control and recording system. The antenna was attached to a frame mounted on the back of a pick-up vehicle which was hired locally in Oman and the dedicated navigation and control, recording system was installed in the pick-up cab. • Planning software. Once the extreme perimeter of the area and any obstructions were ﬁ xed by total station, the operator together with the planning software were able to calculate a pre-determined route and show the most efﬁcient path of the vehicle for it to carefully and thoroughly cover all parts of the area of interest. This is not unlike ﬂight planning software for an aerial survey, even catering for an overlap, but it was a survey of the underground assets! • Tracking system. Tracking could be done either by GPS or by self-tracking total station. Because of restricted reception of the GPS signal caused by the canopy, a total station was used and positioned to cover the area with a minimum of set-ups. Several known coordinated points were also ﬁxed by vector measurements to bring the coordinate system of the underground survey into approximate alignment with other plan data of the area. • Restitution and processing software. Terra software is proprietary and has been developed over 15 years by a staff archeologist/ geophysicist and enables: the integration of the navigation/positioning data with the GPR data; customized depth-slice calculations; antenna spectrum adjustment; 3D topographic correction and automated feature extraction.
A client in Oman invited GEODIS to this opportunity! The requirement was for a pilot project to be performed to locate underground utility services at a site in Muscat. The client wanted to test modern technology and asked two companies to perform a survey over part of the same area, a car park with a shade canopy partly covering the area of ca. 6,000 m2 (150 m x 40 m) and locate the underground utilities of the site. All underground features were to be located in position and depth and classiﬁed where possible. The results of the survey would provide justiﬁcation to the client to budget for larger projects of a similar nature in future. GEODIS were confronted with this very interesting task but soon realized that their technology in underground utility detection was not sufﬁcient for this project. They called on the services of a well-know engineering survey company specializing in the technology of GPR (ground penetrating radar) terra international surveys ltd. Zürich.
Despite having specialized equipment, the ﬁeld team also had to cope with every-day factors some of which are often more challenging than operating sophisticated systems. How many readers who have performed extensive ﬁeld survey work in testing conditions have expended more time and effort with matters of the environment while being largely spared of technical problems? In Oman in September, the weather is pleasantly warm. 1st – 30 th September 2008 coincided exactly with 1st – 30 th Ramadan 1429H. The GPR systems was air freighted to Muscat in due time but was ﬁnally released from customs on a later date than expected. A pick-up vehicle was hired locally, ﬁtted with a wooden frame to which the antenna was attached and the system was tested. The car park could only be surveyed when it was free of vehicles and so the survey was done on the weekend Thursday 18 th and Friday 19 th September. The work was a 1 surveyor operation with local help and was helped greatly by the excellent communication with a knowledgeable, interested and helpful client. Accessories for the survey, such as car batteries to power the GPR system and total station, marking tape, safety equipment etc. was all available in Muscat.
GPR is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface in 3 dimensions. The transmitting antenna radiates short pulses of high frequency radio waves into the ground. When the waves hit a buried object or boundary with a different dielectric constant, the receiving antenna records reﬂ ected signals which appear at boundaries with different dielectric constants. The principles involved are similar to reﬂection seismology except that electromagnetic energy is used instead of acoustic energy. The depth range of penetration of GPR is limited by the electrical conductivity of the ground and the transmitting energy. Terra is unique in combining antennas into a vehicle mounted, highly automated system utilizing scan pattern planning and execution, simultaneous data collection and recording from the GPR antenna with an accurate XYZ positioning method and a sophisticated software analysis of the results.
Stepped-frequency GPR antenna mounted on a vehicle, note vertical reﬂ ector for positioning by self-tracking total station.
Twin antennas of pulsed GPR and data transfer cables for data recorder in vehicle.
GEODIS and terra were wary of adverse conditions which may have affected the survey. GPR is one solution of several used for the detection of underground services which are mastered by terra, albeit the most sophisticated and automated. The parameters inﬂuencing the type of solution to be applied will depend on the soil, type and depth of underground services to be located and the accessibility on the ground. And the choice of GPR system! Despite favorable testing in Europe before purchase, the stepped-frequency GPR signals once processed in Switzerland were found not to have penetrated the soil sufﬁciently to detect utilities 0.3 m under the ground. This lack of recorded information was not detected on site owing to the complex nature of the new system but preliminary control showed satisfactory results. The failure to detect the underground utilities was ﬁnally found to be a problem of the new air-coupled antenna design. The saline and damp conditions of the ground at this site prevented electromagnetic waves from the air coupled antennas of the stepped-frequency GPR system to penetrate the soil sufﬁciently. This fact has led terra to have discussions with the GPR manufacturer to ﬁnd a solution and improve their system. The survey was repeated in March 2009 using hand-propelled, twin parallel mounted, conventional pulsed GPR system antennas. A reason for using a simpler technology was to reduce problems with customs which the more advanced system caused; a lesson from the ﬁrst survey. As time was not critical for this re-survey, the site was marked out in a 1 m grid beforehand and observations made in relation to this grid. Quality control was exercised on site and the data processing was done in Oman on the night of the observations. The ﬁnal results were speciﬁc for this site and showed pipes down to a depth of ca. 1.2 m. According to the control plans of the client, the method was not able to detect all utilities at this site. The soil conditions would have played a role here. The results were deemed to be satisfactory for this site and accepted by the client. A good project, an interesting project, a ﬁrst project and a project to learn from! David W. Hughes David W. Hughes David W. Hughes (*1941) is a highly experienced Project Manager, Consultant, Sales and Business Development professional with practical experience and formal education in land, cadastral and geodetic survey, photogrammetry and export business management. He has managed mapping and survey projects in Europe, Africa, Middle East and Asia Paciﬁc regions and among different cultures. He is familiar with different ﬁelds such as classical surveying, GIS/LIS, imaging, hardware and software sales and has excellent product knowledge of photogrammetry, remote sensing SW and airborne/spaceborne sensors. David is currently working as an external consultant for GEODIS GROUP in the Middle East and North Africa territories.
Recording hardware for pulsed GPR system.
Acknowledgement and thanks to terra for use of photo material.
GEODIS GROUP OFFERS…
Data for your GIS PHOTOGRAMMETRY Aerial imaging • Colour RGB, IR, black and white, multiband • 6 aircrafts – Beech 200, Piper PA-23, CESSNA 402B, 2 × CESSNA 206G, and Zlín Z-37A • Digital large format aerial cameras VEXCEL UltraCamX (2×), UltraCamXp, RMK TOP 30, RMK TOP 15, navigation system Mason, GPS-INS Applanix POS-AV • Infrared camera – CIR band • Oblique aerial images • Videometry Photogrammetric Mapping and Digital Stereo Processing • Trained and experienced operators • Efﬁcient digital photogrammetric stations for planimetry and altimetry measurement • Up-to-date digital technology enabling accurate photogrammetric mapping of large areas Digital Terrain and Surface Model • Modern technology for digital terrain model (DTM) production • High accuracy and reliability • DTM in various formats • High accuracy DTM for ﬂood modelling Digital Video – Videometry • Recording with a high resolution digital video camera • Digital processing • Display of any part of the record by area selection in a map and vice versa Laser scanning • Aerial laser (LIDAR) scanning of surface – very of accurate DTM • Terrestrial laser scanning – façades, industrial plants, piping, bridges, tunnels, etc. • Archaeological applications Orthophotomaps • High resolution orthophotomaps - up to 5 cm/pixel • Infrared mapping • Oblique images – PixoView • Special aerial imaging Remote Sensing • Satellite imagery distribution and processing (LandSat, Aster, Ikonos, Quickbird…) • Satellite orthophotomap of the Czech Republic • Analyses – vegetation, soil, forestry, agriculture, environment • Land-use maps • Automatic classiﬁcation of multispectral images 3D Modelling and Visualisation • Three-dimensional modelling of buildings and built-up areas • 3D City models • Visualization featuring digital terrain models, 3D models of objects, orthophotomaps etc. • 3D views, virtual ﬂights over terrain, etc. • Exclusive distribution of RIEGL 3D scanners and PolyWorks software for the Czech Republic and Slovakia • GeoShow 3D, Skyline, EyeTour
SURVEYING Land Registration • Digital cadastral maps • Setting out of land plots • Geometrical plans • Mapping • Land plots identiﬁcation, ownership maps • Land buy-out plans Mapping • Thematic digital maps for various purposes • Height models • Ownership maps • Maps for design works, construction and reconstruction • Buy-out plans • Maps of industrial properties, airports, asset mapping • Cross sections Engineering Surveying • Mapping for design works • As-built mapping • Control point network establishment • Displacement and deformation detection • Volume calculations • High precision levelling • Specialized engineering surveying • Authorized engineering surveyors GIS Applications • GIS solutions including database layouts • GIS project management • Web mapping services (WMS) • Scanning • Data digitizing, including textual parts • Data conversion • Software applications and system integrations • Digital prints • Cadastral maps and databases
DATA • Constantly updated high resolution orthophotomaps and DTM of the Czech Republic and Slovakia • Orthophotomaps • Historical aerial orthophotomaps • Digital terrain models • Maps • Data for time analyses • Satellite imagery • Vector geodatabase of the Czech Republic: Land use, Roads, Railways, Hydrology, 3D building models
…f o c u s e d o n f u t u r e
Project Thüringen – Land Registry Buildings Update Using Aerial Photography
Territorial History of Thuringia The long history of the Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is quite interesting. The region was ﬁrst mentioned in a 120 A.D. Roman text describing the ﬁghting between the Roman army and rebellious German tribes which at that time had not thought highly of civilization and advanced governmental systems – especially when brought to them on the speartips of Roman legions. Hands up all of you thinking something has really changed after 2000 years. The name of the country -- almost identical to the recent one -- had already been ﬁrst documented at the end of the 4th century. The independent Thuringian Kingdom was founded sometime in the 5th century, only to be incorporated into the growing Franconian Empire in 531 A.D. The region became united and important once again in the late Middle Ages during the time of Thuringian Langraviate. But later this region was gradually divided into several “micro-states” – quite typical in German history. It is also important to note that in 1521-22 Martin Luther translated the Holy Writ to German in Wartburg castle near Eisenach and so laid the foundations of German literary language. In 1920, the country was eventually re-united -- as Land Thuringia -- with Weimar as its capital. In 1919, the city of Weimar, well known as the whereabouts of several important historical personalities (e.g. Goethe and Schiller), witnessed the founding assembly of the very ﬁrst democratically elected parliament in German history. Thenceforth, the origin of the Weimar Republic name – the semi-ofﬁcial title for the German state between the end of WW1 and the advent of Nazi rule. The region became part of the Soviet occupation zone after WW2, and as such was ﬁrstly appended to and later amalgamated into the German Democratic Republic.
Fig. 1 – Both Wartburg the castle and Wartburg, the car (manufactured in Eisenach), have their respective places in German history
In 1990, after the fall of the Iron Curtain, Land Thuringia was again restored, with a 1993 name change to Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen), recognized today as one of Germany’s 16 states. The Cadastral Systems Development A diverse state of affairs in the small historical Thuringian states resulted in different land registry developments. The quality and form of the land registers -- so essential for correct property assessment -- was completely in the hands of local rulers, therefore highly dependent on their technical merit and, especially, on their wealth. This is the reason why, between 1826–1918, there were a total of ten different land registry systems used in Thuringia: • Duchy of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach • Duchy of Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha • Duchy of Sachsen-Altenburg • Duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen • Principality of Reuss – elder lineage • Principality of Reuss – younger lineage • Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt • Principality of Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen • Prussian Kingdom • Kingdom of Sachsen (To all having deeper interest in this rather confusing matter, I highly recommend the Historische Katastersysteme detailed map - published in 1998 by Thüringer Landesvermessungsamt)
There various systems have formed the legal base for today’s Freistaat Thüringen land registry, resulting in considerable land register and cadastral map heterogeneity (see examples in Figure 2), probably the most diverse among all lands of the re-united Germany. The Status of Land Registry in Thuringia Today
Fig. 2 – Original cadastral map variations – from a standard technical job, through rather simple drawings, evolving to real art (from the top)
Surveying authority is not centralized in the Federal Republic of Germany – it is in the power of regional governments. The formal responsibility for all Thuringian surveying activities lies with Ministerium für Bau, Landesentwicklung und Medien (Department of Construction, Land Development and Media), the executive body being TLVermGeo - Thüringer Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation (Land Authority for Surveing and Geoinformation) based in Erfurt. This authority has the legal duty to maintain the land registry in such form that it is “in full compliance with the needs of judicial and executive powers and serves well for development of economy and environment”.
Land registry digitizing was already accomplished some time ago. The digitizing of all existing cadastral maps (Liegenschaftskarte – LK) and their conversion into the ALK format (Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte – computerized cadastral map) by the end of 2009 has therefore become the next logical goal for TLVermGeo. This step does not cover just the conversion of all “paper” maps to the digital form, but involves their completion and update as well. This update is especially necessary because of the frequent poor condition of LK building representation – caused partly by aforementioned historical reasons and by speciﬁc (but not uncommon in Eastern Bloc countries) attitude regarding private property in former East Germany. Furthermore although certiﬁed surveying of newly constructed buildings was formally obligatory for Thuringian land registry inclusion, the law was in fact never put into force. Building Update Public Tender In autumn 2007, TLVermGeo published an international tender focused on cadastral map photogrammetric updating of all missing or changed buildings. The basic tender speciﬁcations were as follows: • color aerial photography (either analog or digital) of the entire Thuringian territory (16.500 sqkm) between 01/03 and 15/04/2008 • mean photo scale of 1:8000, ground sampling distance better than 12 cm • obligatory DGPS and optional INS support • ground control points (GCP) in sufﬁcient density • aerotriangulation (AT) adjustment allowing subsequent stereoplotting with 15 cm accuracy in plane and 20 cm in height • comparing building status in existing cadastral maps with newly acquired aerial images; classifying new, changed, shifted or demolished buildings • stereoplotting new and changed buildings • the production of a seamless orthophotomap with 20 cm resolution of the entire territory of Thuringia ... and all this before 01/09/2009
Fig. 4 – The terrain heights in Thuringia, red means heights above 1000 m
in the tender. An international consortium ARGE Lufbildvermessung Thüringen 2008/09 has been founded under the leadership of Vermessung AVT – the partners being AVT, GEODIS BRNO, and another Austrian geomatic company – DI Wenger-Oehn from Salzburg. Our common offer was eventually evaluated as the best one, and we won the project. This time it is important to note that the sophistication of our technical offer and our quality assurance -- not the lowest price -- were the decisive factors contributing to our win. The project has the following key parameters: • app. 21.000 aerial photographs, split into 18 ﬂight blocks (see Figure 3) • the height differences up to 900 m within one block (Thuringian Forest – see Figure 4) • parallel photoﬂight with up to 5 airplanes at a time • parallel ﬁlm development in two laboratories and parallel ﬁlm scanning on 8 photogrammetric scanners • the survey of app. 1.800 ground control points (GCP) • 4.388 orthophotomap sheets with 20 cm GSD (2 x 2 km) • more than 2.700 cadastral units • more than 10.000 EDBS (ALK) ﬁles • app. 6.000 scanned cadastral maps for visual review and around 1.000 of them for georeferencing • orthophoto comparison of more than 2 million buildings • stereoplotting of more than 1 million new or changed buildings Different Tasks, Different Roles
Fig. 3 – Flight block division, GEODIS in red, Terra in blue, two German subcontractors in green and yellow
ARGE Lufbildvermessung Thüringen 2008/09 GEODIS was approached by our established Austrian partner, Vermessung AVT from Tyrolean Imst, immediately after the tender publication, and very soon we agreed on corporate participation
Since the spring 2008 speciﬁed photoﬂight period was very brief, we decided to split the aerial photography acquisition between more companies in order to decrease the risks. GEODIS BRNO (in cooperation with ARGUS GEO SYSTEM) was responsible for 35 % of the area, Terra Bildmessﬂug for another 35 %, and two more German companies for the remaining 30 %. All images should have been captured by the same type of analog camera - Zeiss RMK TOP 15. GEODIS also performed the scanning for “its” 35 %, and the remaining 65 % was scanned by Terra, Wenger-Oehn, and two more companies – one German, the other Swiss.
Fig. 5 – The city centres can be difﬁ cult to survey (here Gotha)...
Fig. 6 – ... but the rural areas are in fact not much easier.
AVT was responsible for all tasks related to its leading role in the consortium, made all GCP measurements, 50 % of the AT, ortho production and building comparison input data compilation, and bore 50 % responsibility for the QC tasks. Similarly, Wenger-Oehn had a 50 % AT, ortho production and building comparison input data compilation share, and performed the remaining 50 % of the QC tasks. GEODIS BRNO -- except the aforementioned photoﬂ ight and scanning -- was responsible for the comparison of the existing buildings’ state with new orthos and made subsequent stereoplotting of the approx. 1 million buildings not included or wrongly displayed in the land registery so far.
Such a task was at times extremely complicated as can be seen in Figures 5 and 6.
The results of both production steps will be inserted in ALK in different ways. Whereas all non-existent buildings will be deleted, all new and changed buildings will be inserted to special layer “Folie 91”. This layer is usually reserved for the buildings shapes acquired with “other-than-admissible cadastral methods” and will be available for reference with upcoming TLVermGeo project phases.
Several tasks were started simultaneously in the spring of 2008. GCP measurement was commenced ﬁrst, followed closely by the compilation of building comparison input data, and then -- the most important task -- the photoﬂight. Unfortunately, March 2008 Thuringia weather was catastrophic! There was only one suitable ﬂying day and then only in some parts of the project area. No wonder that the speciﬁed ﬂight deadline had to be postponed twice and the photoﬂights were not completed before mid-May. The ﬂight period extension and late spring full foliage of large deciduous (mainly beech) forests caused some problems in consecutive production steps – especially with the AT. Building Comparison Austrian partners prepared all necessary input data. Existing ALK maps provided by the client had to be converted to SHP format. Almost 6.000 scanned LK maps were checked, and about 1.000 selected (selection based on the amount of buildings in appropriate LK) were georeferenced using control points picked from orthophotos.
The second step comprised the stereoplotting of all new and changed buildings. This task, which began in winter 2008/2009, is naturally the most important phase of the project. Buildings are classiﬁed based mainly on their status (new - changed) and the attainable stereoplotting quality (all shape corners visible – shape partly constructed – some shape corners uncertain). 3D restitution is provided to the client in a format that allows data to be used for simple 3D modeling of the topologically consistent constructions. The same 3D data is used for the land registry update.
Conclusions The Thuringian project -- using aerial photography to update building status for a land registry -- is one of the biggest projects of its kind among German speaking countries. All parties concerned are well aware that successful completion of this task is our common goal. I take pleasure in conﬁrming that above standard working relationships -- both between the ARGE partners and between the ARGE and the client -- have so far been contributing signiﬁcantly to overall progress and smooth operations. Except for preliminary photoﬂight delays caused by spring 2008 adverse weather, the project is currently on schedule, and we are now conﬁdent that we will responsibly meet the ﬁnal project deadline.
Patrik Meixner, Klaus Legat The update of buildings was then divided in two relatively independent steps. The ﬁrst step covered the comparison of the buildings in existing ALK and LK with spring 2008 orthorectiﬁed images. The comparison was made easier by quite a unique application (exclusively developed for this project by GEODIS) that allows viewing each building from up to six different directions and enables much better evaluation of its intersection with terrain and comparison of its shape with the 2D cadastral map. The buildings were separated into ﬁve classes: 1. Buildings that are identical both in (A)LK and in the images 2. Buildings that are evidently changed in the images compared to (A)LK 3. Buildings that are identical both in (A)LK and in the images but are systematically shifted (the approximate shift vector had to be recorded) 4. Buildings missing in (A)LK (new constructions) 5. Buildings that are in (A)LK, but do not exist in the images any more (demolished buildings)
References: Klaus LEGAT, Frank FUCHS, Roland WÜRLÄNDER, Patrik MEIXNER: Freistaat Thüringen – Vermessung von Gebäuden aus Luftbildern - Tagungsband zur 15. Internationale Geodätische Woche 2009, Obergurgl - Ötztal / Tirol, 08. bis 14. Februar 2009 Thüringer Landesvermessungsamt: Historische Katastersysteme 1:250.000, 1st edition 1998 Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia
New Member of GEODIS BRNO’s Aircraft Fleet With an increasing amount of foreign work GEODIS photogrammetry has had to deal with the issue of avgas shortages, especially in regions east of the Czech Republic. Our new projects have expanded in scope, and the imaging altitude was often near the limit of our existing aircraft. These factors led to consideration of the advantages a new, more powerful machine would offer in meeting the above requirements. A practical solution was to purchase an aircraft powered with turbo-propeller engines. Turbo-prop engines are based on the jet engine principle, although the pressure of output gas drives the turbine rotor, which is connected to a propeller with a reducer. The engines have an excellent weight/ power/consumption ratio, and they are the single most powerful propelling unit for this type of aircraft, enabling them to achieve speeds exceeding 500 kmph. The aerial petroleum JET A1, known as “kerosin”, is used as the fuel -- a standard for all jet engines and therefore available almost anywhere in the world. In early 2008, a company decision was made to look for a plane with above noted parameters. Several types were considered, and the ﬁnal choice was a Beechcraft Super King Air 200. It is one of the most successful 12 passenger / 2 cabin crew turbo-prop aircrafts. Since 1970, many versions of this plane have been manufactured in Wichita, Kansas (USA). It is popular among its users mainly for its reliability, with several thousand planes ﬂying worldwide today. Unfortunately, there were only a limited number of versions modiﬁed for imaging purposes and ﬂ ying in Europe, and none were available on the market at that time. 1
As a result, we chose a complicated path -- to buy a plane and convert for orthophotomap image-capturing purposes. We took advantage of an offer from Maglione Logistica, to purchase their aircraft which had previously been in service around Bari (s/e Italy). The next step was the modiﬁcation that could only be done by two European companies. We chose the French ﬁrm Protoplane, which in September 2008 commenced conversion work in cooperation with CAE, a Luxembourg avionic service centre. By February 2009, holes and extensive modiﬁcations had been made in the overpressure hull for two sensors with a diameter of 500 mm covered with a 25 mm-thick glass board. A set of tests and test ﬂights followed before we received ﬁnal conﬁrmation of ﬂight suitability after Civil Aviation Authority inspection. After that, we moved on to system installation: The aircraft was ﬁt with the latest UltraCamXp digital camera from Austrian Vexcel, Applanix POS-AV 510 inertial navigation for recording the position and orientation of images, and our own Mason Mission Management System for imaging control. In the ﬁrst two months of operation, we performed over 60 ﬂights, acquiring images for projects in the Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Slovenia. A future challenge will be the aerial imaging of Kosovo, where we will get a chance to test aircraft characteristics and performance within ﬂights exceeding an altitude of 7,000 m above sea level. In review, we can state that our recently acquired Beechcraft has been and will continue to be a strong reinforcement for the GEODIS BRNO ﬂeet.
2 3 4 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
High Tatras from 6000 m Rzeszow Airport During the Flight During the Modiﬁcation Air Operator Mr. Moučka Aircraft Interior During the Modiﬁ cation Current Aircraft Interior
Raytheon Beechcraft Super King Air 200 parameters: Height Length Span Minimum Speed Travel Speed Maximum Speed Maximum Takeoff Weight Initial Climbing Ability Flight Range Maximum Altitude
4.57 m 13.34 m 16.6 m 180 kmph 470 kmph 536 kmph 5,600 kg 2,500 ftpm 5 hrs 9,000 m
Slovak Republic Continuous Colour Orthophotomap and Digital Terrain Model
In 2002 and 2003, a Slovak Republic colour orthophotomap was created and GEODIS SLOVAKIA, s.r.o. was involved, mapping half of Slovakia. The second half was processed by the project partner, Eurosense, s.r.o. In 2003, we published project details. Along with the orthophotomap, creation of Slovak Republic digital terrain model. Today this work is continuing for both these components. Let’s take a look at 2009 status.
Digital Orthophotomap of the Slovak Republic (2005 – 2007)
Digital Orthophotomap of the Slovak Republic – Detail of Brezno Surroundings
Slovak Republic Digital Orthophotomap In 2003, a Slovak Republic colour orthophotomap was completed for the ﬁrst time. 1st update of this material was done between 2005 to 2007. The map’s technical parameters were identical to those of the original. The success of our work is evidenced by the substantial interest it caused as well as the frequency of usage. Considering the requirements of our major accounts, both project partners agreed to continue updating this material in 2008 and 2010. Digital orthophotomap parameters are now considerably better. The basis for the new map product represent aerial images (AI) with the scale of 1:34 725 when produced by a digital camera or 1:16 500 when acquired by an analog camera. Since 2002 technology has signiﬁcantly improved, and both project partners have access to several cutting-edge digital cameras (UltraCamX or Xp), the most recent images will mainly be captured with modern digital equipment. Quality analogue cameras will be seldom used for aerial imaging.
Bratislava Section of the Detailed Orthophotomap of the Slovak Republic with the Scale of 1 px = 0.25 m
Basic information follows, as the entire production process is done in a standard way. If possible, the actual image acquisition is done with pre-ﬂight signalling and ground control points (GCP) stabilization. The entire area of the Slovak Republic is processed in blocks, depending on the extent of the area photographed and the required processing stages. Approximately 23,100 digital AIs and 14,500 analog AIs (2.5 times more than previous versions) are planned to cover the entire processed area of the Slovak Republic. The aerial imaging is done in the direction of ﬂight axes leading from the east to west, parallel with axes of the national coordinate system S-JTSK in particular with respect to subsequent processing and delivery of the Slovak Republic orthophotomap, which will have the format of 1:2 000 map sheets (MS). Projection centres
and orientation parameters of individual AIs are recorded during the ﬂight. Immediately after acquiring images, before launching the orthophotomap production process, the acquired material needs to be submitted to the Slovak Republic Ministry of Defence, where an authorized ofﬁcer of the topographic services of the Army of the Slovak Republic assesses and declassiﬁes the photographic material, making it available for further processing. The last existing digital terrain model will be used for orthogonalization, where updates will be made and accuracy increased using the new images. The resulting digital orthophotomaps will be processed for 1:2 000 map sheets. The basic raster format of digital orthophotomaps is TIF, while we are, of course, able to deliver orthophotomaps in all required raster formats as per customer’s instructions.
A brief summary of basic information on components for comparison purposes: 1. Basic information for the orthophotomap of the Slovak Republic (2002-2003): • Images were acquired in 2002-2003 • The colour orthophotomap of the Slovak Republic was completed in December 2003 • The source material for orthophotomaps are colour AIs with the scale of 1:26 000 • Coordinate system: S-JTSK • The processing results in digital orthophotomaps with the 1:5 000 map sheet layout • Orthophotomap position accuracy: M xy = 1,5 m • Orthophotomap resolution: 1 px = 1 m and 1 px = 0.5 m 2. Update of the digital orthophotomap of the Slovak Republic (2008-2010): • Images are acquired in 2008-2010 • The second update of the colour orthophotomap of the Slovak Republic will be completed by December 2010 • The source material for the orthophotomaps is colour digital AIs with the scale of 1:34 725 (pixel size of approx 0.25 m) from the UltraCamX (Xp) camera and 1:16 500 from an analog camera • The processing results in digital orthophotomaps with the 1:2 000 map sheet layout • Coordinate system: S-JTSK (03), ETRS89, and others as per speciﬁcation • Orthophotomap position accuracy: M xy = 0.50 m • Basic orthophotomap resolution: 1 px = 0.25 m • Derived resolution: 1 px = 0.5 m, 1 px = 1 m, and others as per speciﬁcation.
Digital Terrain Model of the Slovak Republic (2004 – 2007) Digital Terrain Model of the Slovak Republic – Detail of Brezno Surroundings
was then available for delivery as the currently best full-scale DTM of the Slovak Republic with the mean coordinate and altitude error Mxyz = 1,5-3 m for open terrain. In connection with creation of the 2nd Slovak Republic colour orthophotomap update and given the considerably better parameters of input images, existing DTM is being reﬁned and updated again (to a large degree by collecting new data). The technology process for collection and processing was set to ensure the accuracy of the resulting work of Mxyz = 1 m, with emphasis on the urban areas and cities, lowlands and valleys which form natural corridors and open spaces with infrastructure.
Digital Terrain Model of the Slovak Republic Conclusion Prior to 2002, the Slovak Republic digital terrain model (DTM) was created by gradual processing of AIs acquired for individual projects in the ﬁeld of orthophotomap creation and photogrammetric planimetric/altimetric mapping. In 2002-2003, a more systematic approach was ﬁnally applied with production of the Slovak Republic colour orthophotomap, the basis being vectorized 3D contours. Contours were checked by photogrammetric methods, reﬁned and updated, which led to creation of materials for AI orthogonalization within this project. However, it is worth noting that this product was custom-built speciﬁcally for orthogonalization needs during the process of creating the Slovak Republic colour orthophotomap and did not fully satisfy client requirements for DTM quality in terms of DTM homogeneity. Based on potential DTM user needs, GEODIS Slovakia determined basic parameters and designated collection technology, so that resulting work matched client expectations, i.e. in particular full-scale data homogeneity, time currency, and minimal required accuracy. In 2004-2007, all major errors of archived DTM were eliminated using photogrammetric methods (new data collection). This updating corrected problems resulting from obsolete data character, vectorized 3D contour errors, and out dated original data collection technology. All terrain edges above 3 m were additionally mapped in the newly created DTM. With newly mapped surfaces, an irregular grid of benchmarks was added, depending on terrain density. The resulting continuous and homogeneous DTM
Continuous SK digital orthophotomap processing during 2002 - 2003 was an important milestone in the history of Slovak mapping. Similar importance was attached to the 2004 - 2007 existing Slovak Republic DTM. It is not just the actual production of this material that is important but also its maintenance and timely relevance, ensured through regular updates -- currently with an interval of 3 - 4 years. Both aforementioned works were produced and updated in cooperation with Eurosense, s.r.o. Based on mutual agreement, GEODIS SLOVAKIA, s.r.o. is entitled to fully distribute both continuous color orthophotomaps and DTM throughout the entire area of the Slovak Republic. We can now satisfy client requests and take their orders for small detailed area maps as well as materials covering expansive terrain both within and beyond the Slovak borders. Renáta Šrámková
Green Cadastre Becomes Part of Romanian Cities’ Urban Development Orthophotomap (Source GEODIS)
As cities grow and the number of citizens increases, living condi-
Main Stages: Orthophotomap production from new ﬂight with digital camera will assure photogrammetric generation of up-to-date basic city map.
tions should improve or at least remain at the same level. One indicator of a city’s health level is the average amount of green surface per citizen. The European Union has set a value of 26 sqm/per person as the minimum average green space inside cities, although the World Health Organization recommends an optimum value of 52 sqm/per person. Romanian municipalities are bound by the European Union to provide a minimum average green surface of 20 sqm/per person by 2011 and 26 sqm/per person by 2020. Experience shows, at least in Romania, that it is easy to ﬁnd cities with unbalanced green indicators and a large compact surface of concrete and asphalt. Comparing EU/WHO targets with the general current state of affairs of many Romanian cities -- where average green space is under 3 sqm/per person -- we could say that municipalities have a lot of work in a relatively short period to comply with specify targets and Romanian Government rules which put pressure on the Ministry of Environment. So, the activities of urban development should emphasize Green Cadastre projects now more than ever. GEODIS, through its well prepared team and collaborators (of which I would make special mention of PZK a GIS company), can support municipalities through the entire Green Cadastre process. Our standard approach is the result of many years’ experiences outside Romanian borders, combined with knowledge of local laws and extensive experience of employees and collaborators in the country. In general, green cadastre projects consist of making a green register by collecting information about current green spaces. A basis for the project is the city general map made for this purpose. Based on measurements and detailed observation of the green objects (trees, bushes, functional equipment….), reports on the quality and quantity of green spaces shall be generated. On these and other general urban, climatic, demographic, and other local conditions, feasibility studies are drawn up for landscape architecture works. Because everything is based on combined photogrammetric and topographic measurements, the project can rely on a geospatial database and descriptive information on which a GIS system can be easily created to support municipalities in green cadastre analyses and reports. Description of the Ongoing Green Cadastre Project for the Oradea Municipality: • Project Duration: January 2009 – December 2010 • Inside Urban Area Surface: Approx. 8000 ha • Surface of Current Green Areas: Min. 219 H
General Green Cadastre activities will generate preliminary database with descriptive information and basic green cadastre thematic map bases in different city area type.
General Green Cadastre Map (Source PZK a GIS)
Green Cadastre activities consist of topographic surveys as a basis for 1:500 scale detailed maps of the green areas. Further data collection activities at site level will be carried out. Outputs of this stage are a detailed spatial database and reports on the status of each green area. Green Inventory activities aim at collecting detailed information regarding all green objects – basically trees. There are at least 28 indicators collected varying from age, vitality, dimensions, estimated value, and much more. Each green cadastre object can be spatially identiﬁed on the map and its descriptive date consulted.
Green Inventory Map (Source PZK a GIS)
Feasibility Studies will be carried out based on all information collected in the previous stages. The results of this stage will be detailed documentations on how to improve existing green areas and more important, where and how to develop new ones (suggested site, layout, vegetation type and species, maintenance requirements, expenses…..) At the end of project, along with all the feasibility studies, Oradea Municipality will own a GIS system which comes with all the beneﬁts of such datasets implemented inside GIS. All the future green cadastre activities will be supported by GIS. We can conclude that through their nature, these types of projects really help municipalities to efﬁciently manage the green development of their cities. If the green richness of cities was not subject of council table discussion of few years ago, I am sure in the near future they will be considered important issues, to say the least. Ciprian Pricop
3D MODEL OF THE HLINKY TUNNEL Today the priority of all larger cities of the Czech Republic continues to be the effort to remedy trafﬁc congestion in their areas. In addition to ongoing road reconstruction, there are new and often complicated grade-separated junctions being built, most within the so-called extensive city circuits. An inseparable part of this construction are tunnels, the shells of which are represented by the adjacent junction construction objects and which form the main trafﬁc lines in the given sections. Building this type of construction, especially in a dense urban environment, increases demands both for actual construction implementation and for resulting accompanying documentation. Complex project realization of construction objects, technologies, and mainly utility grids therefore requires, besides computing and measurement technology development, evolution from the 2D to the 3D environment. In connection with the construction of Brno’s Hlinky grade-separated junction, GEODIS BRNO was invited to produce a 3D model of the tunnel part within the geodetic documentation of the real building form. The objective was to provide accurate information on the building implementation as well as documentation necessary for future tunnel management and maintenance. The documentation of the real tunnel form in 3D required surveying the construction component of the object as well as all technological elements (ventilation, lighting, CCTV, communication, atmospheric condition measurement, trafﬁc marking, etc.). An important task was documenting all utility grids including sewers, drainage, and cabling that either pass directly through the tunnel or are a part of the tunnel operation system. The Hlinky tunnel is a 303 m (1000 ft) long and 13-19.9 m (42-65 ft) wide road tunnel, oriented from the south to the north. There is a parallel road of the upper junction level leading above the tunnel, the entrance ramps of which form both portals. The eastern side of the tunnel is represented by a concrete wall, connected to a noise barrier at the north side; the western side comprises mostly concrete columns. The actual survey was implemented using geodetic methods utilizing the electronic total station TOPCON GPT-8201A that allowed for measurements in the prism-free mode. Terrain works
included measurement of signiﬁcant points of the construction objects necessary for the later production of a high-ﬁdelity 3D model and measurement of all technological elements using the selected reference points. The measurement was performed from 25 standpoints and was connected to the plotting grid of Hlinky road. A demanding portion of work proved to be the necessary localization and registration of cabling ensuring tunnel operation, which had very limited accessibility in the construction completion stage. In relation to the tunnel, 621 technological elements interconnected by the total of 267 cables had to be documented. The entire model was elaborated in the 3D environment of Microstation V8 software. A tunnel construction component model was ﬁrst created using the surveyed points of the skeleton. Individual technological elements 3D models were processed based on their project documentation and placed in a resulting drawing using their surveyed reference points afterwards. The wireframe model produced was than used to visualize visible components of the tunnel. To create the 3D model we have designed a structure of ordering the graphic, text, and raster data, and a raster data identiﬁcation and placement system. We have created basic DGN schemes with accurate layer and attribute structure. We have set rules for constructing the 3D model and approaching its visualization. We have also described requirements for the resulting form of digital and printed outputs. The knowledge and experience gained will help us specify guidelines for producing the 3D actual tunnel construction geodetic documents, that we now at GEODIS are presently creating. Martin Plánka
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Southern Portal of the Tunnel Middle Part of the Tunnel Visualization of Southern Portal Visualization of Middle Part
FRANCE... FRANCE, VIVA LA FRANCE?!
Motto: ”He, who has fought with himself the most, will go the furthest and be most successful.” Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
97684 – Probably a number that no longer has signiﬁcant meaning for most of the employees of GEODIS BRNO, spol. s r.o. It has been 12 years now since the manager of GEODIS’ photogrammetry division wrote this number on his simple paper notepad which was used for keeping registration of orders back then and served as the main and only tool for organizing business cases in our photogrammetry division. No other means was necessary! Back then we didn’t have ISO certiﬁcation, our staff consisted of about 25 people, and we still had post-revolution enthusiasm to work not only for money but also for the feeling of a job well done. It used to be quite natural go for a drink after work. 97684 was probably one of the ﬁrst orders from our ﬁrst French client. It was also the seed of our successful entry to the French market. In the beginning, this entry could be compared to a walkabout around Le Golf Nation, a golf course near Paris, which gradually evolved into jogging on slopes near the mountain village Auribeau-sur-Siagne. But jogging was soon abandoned as we needed a car to accelerate and maintain necessary speed for sections of Route National 2, RN12, RN7, and then we really had to step on it to cover French highways A46, A7, A70, A75, A63, A81, A61, and A9. Indeed, we slowed our pace down slightly near the Peugeot plant to deliver product, which was the predecessor of our full 3D modelling of industrial buildings including their shells. We paused for our initial TGV training, and later increased our pace again to enjoy our super-fast mapping train ride, creating materials for new corridors as we moved and grooved. To service our new clients, we accelerated to the Picardy ﬂats and the French Riviéra, as well as to the highest ridges of the French Alps, the Geneva Lake and the Thonon-les-Bains town. In addition we visited small and charming villages in sunny Provence, such as Les Baux-de-Provence, and towns and villages in the Calvados region. Even extensive urban areas like Lille and Rheims welcomed us, and we had a bird’s eye view of historical jewels Avignon and Arles while evaluating digital terrain models to be used as a basis for anti-ﬂooding studies. Our clients also took us out of France to other European cities including Lutych, Genova, Turin, Bremen, and Budapest. Later, we journeyed to the Middle East with projects in Beirut. And then we returned to the conﬂuence of rivers near Villeneuve -- back to Avignon -- mapping the regions of Epinal, Colmar, and further to the north around the Jura cones to the centre of Franche-Comté and Alsatia. Slowly, holding back initially, we started looking at the French market though the eyes of our clients, gathering facts along a long trail which became our photogrammetric data and mapping business. We made many interesting observations along the way. Yes, French people are different from us; but this turned out to be quite nice. The French seemed to be freer, less burdened with prejudice, and open-minded. They made decisions in a slow and careful way that could be compared to the mannerisms of people from northern countries.
I would say – with the hope they will forgive me – which they work as they eat. To experience a hotel breakfast with them equals -- for us pedants disciplined by Habsburg historical inﬂuence and traditions -- a morning lesson in relaxation, with torn baguettes, tablecloths stained with coffee, and tea dripping from croissants dipped in cups and sucked in with such an unconcealed joy. Add a marvellous scent of non-perfumed original Gitanes and Gaulloisses with dark tobacco. Great experience – and then, they set off for their ofﬁce and business, relaxed, full of energy, smiles, and enthusiasm. Is there anything that could alter French countenance when things start to get complicated in the morning? No – the lunch is close… Yes, it is almost twelve. “We are sorry, but our experts will be available to you after 2 p.m.” – this is the automatic answering machine response whenever I forget and call during this “unsuitable time interval”. This ritual, which is hard for us of Austrian descent to imagine, is difﬁcult to accept and understand when compared to our tempo of life. After lunch, we should in theory be able to deal with everything quite easily. In practice, however, the “reality” is characteristically French. A client speciﬁcation error? Missing details that could fault accuracy? “To what extent?” They ask, and immediately have an answer ready: “…Just make it well, and we will check it later to see if it matches our idea.” Unfair game? Not at all! There is no bad intention behind it. Just a regular situation. No one anticipated a problem with insufﬁcient funds left in the order budget for modiﬁcation. Maybe GEODIS should have asked for more in the tender..? ”Making it well”, though, results in incurred cost increases of nearly 100 %, far in excess of the French estimate of a 10 % overrun. Should GEODIS, by requesting the French cover additional costs, be perceived as technocratic, stiff, and non creative? “Just relax, this is what we wanted,” is a typical French response. Impossible? No, the reality. Did GEODIS err with incorrect contract estimates? “No, we’re focusing on original intent.” Should we have anticipated changes after beginning production? “No, you got it right but we need it (or we would like it) greener – at least a bit greener, please”, the French explained. But the GEODIS product sample was approved! “Yes, you are right, but we did not realize then that the wall where this printed ortophotomap would be installed was yellow. It would not be nice to have the map done in yellow, as in the original sample that we approved, would it?” Yes, we admitted. “And how green could you make it, please? Approximately like this... ???” Well, all ended up well, so let us move on. We need to negotiate. Negotiate in earnest. Drop a line, ask, talk, and communicate, communicate, and communicate -- writing all down and having everything approved. And fax – go to the storeroom, pull the fax machine out, and wipe away the dust. Gone are the days when fax was not wanted and not needed. Fax is very useful for business with France, as a fax becomes the single most important piece of evidence to verify order and speciﬁcations. The French, it seems, prefer fax receipt to the speed and ease of email: “Do we have that from you by fax, please? No? Then our fax number is 0033…” The actual status of a tender can depend on understanding the role of the Fax in French communications! How are we supposed to know or sensitively guess the French boundaries or limits for the appeal and pride in use of the fax? “Man of Frenche-Comté, give up! No way!” When we receive the
GEODIS Business Development in FRANCE 60 50 40 30 Turnover Number of bids Number of clients Number of realizations
20 10 0 1997
same letter a number of times, despite being from different French cities and regions and these “same letters” have the same answer, as if photocopied: “Your company has not succeeded in the tender, gaining the second place from 6 (8, 10) participants, and the ratio of … was as follows: … ?” No! We are not to be dismayed or discouraged! Only a continuous, persistent and patient struggle can lead to a success! The number of our French clients has been slowly increasing. It had to in order to maintain French turnover value. Our ﬁrst French partner, however, went through a generation transfer, and new management chose to focus primarily on operations inside the actual company, rendering tender participation, client cooperation, and vendor servicing secondary. Despite the higher frequency of orders, size and signiﬁcance of client projects has been disappointing. GEODIS has therefore opted to establish our own company in the French territory, launching a new era of Czech presence on the French market. TopoGEODIS France (French daughter company of GEODIS BRNO) has been active for about a year and half now. It has already generated positive results and maintains a stable recognized force on the French market. Our objective is to encourage French entity market cooperation. GEODIS will actively search for potential partners and work with them in France, in developing countries, and in suitable consortiums established for the beneﬁt of our common clients.
VIVA la FRANCE after all? Yes! VIVA LA FRANCE! Václav Šafář
Picturesque Macedonian landscape
I wish the 4WD horsepower was actually “powered” by real horses here!
LPIS in Macedonia GEODIS BRNO has become recognized as a leading European company realizing LPIS (Land Parcel Identiﬁcation System) projects around the old continent. With experience from successful completion of LPIS projects throughout the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, and ongoing
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projects throughout Poland and Slovenia, GEODIS has just recently begun work in this ﬁeld in Macedonia.
In April 2009, the World Bank Committee announced the results of the Tender “Aerial Photography, Orthophoto Production and Digitalization of initial LPIS data for MAFWE, Republic of Macedonia”. GEODIS won the project, which involves a complete aerial survey and initial LPIS data digitalization of the entire Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)-an area covering 25.713 sq. km. This is one of a few tenders where both orthophoto map creation and photointerpretation are included-forming a complex project, where one company is responsible for creating of the whole land parcel database from scratch.
Cows looking forward to EU subsidies
A brand new orthophoto map of ground element 50 cm will cover the entire territory. Approximately half of the surface is rural area, which is going to be digitized, resulting in a new digital agricultural land database. Each land parcel will be assigned basic data, such as area, and land use. Later, owner data and subsidy amount will be added by the ﬁnal user, the Macedonian agricultural ministry. This database will be a reference for the LPIS, which is a basic instrument for deployment of European Union agricultural subsidies to farmers. Having an LPIS database created with updated aerial images is one of the country´s EU accession conditions. Political differences between neighbouring Balkan countries often make it difﬁcult to obtain ofﬁcial permissions for cross-border aircraft manoeuvring. That is why the tender evaluation
criteria looked at ﬂight permission acquisition experience in Balkan countries. Even though GEODIS has rich experience with such ofﬁcial authorization, we were not successful in receiving the Greek authority ﬂight approval. Greece does not presently recognize Macedonia - arguing that Greece, not FYROM has the historical right for the Macedonia name. Without this permission, we were forced to work out a special ﬂight plan, respecting the restriction not to approach the Greek airspace closer than 2 km. While the aircraft wait for the issuing of ﬂight permits and the pilots are polishing the aircraft propellers, GEODIS surveyors are measuring the ground control points all over the country. Macedonia is mostly surrounded with mountains, where pastures are primarily located, and only dusty mountain roads allow access to ground control points. Even a light rain can create big problems for the 4×4 all terrain vehicles, resulting in slowdowns of the surveying teams work. Our ﬁnal product will be a database of all the agricultural land plots in Macedonia (FYROM) with appropriate attributes including area and vegetation type. The crop category will be determined on a visual interpretation basis and classiﬁed into several categories such as arable land, pastures, vineyards, or orchards. Our visual interpreters take advantage of their experience from the former LPIS projects GEODIS completed during recent years. Though the identiﬁcation system is slightly different in each country, every experience in LPIS production is valued. “This will be a difﬁcult task to distinguish certain vegetation types, for example the olive tree orchard and nut tree orchard, or to determine whether a land parcel is used as a pasture or a meadow. The aerial images will depict the vegetation in summer. However, ancillary data, such as topographic maps and the National Vineyard Registry information will help us a lot,” says Martin Jílek, the head of the photointerpreters team. “Strict rules for the database topology and land use type identiﬁcation will apply, and quality will be strictly checked by the experts nominated by the Macedonian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Economy,” he adds. Petr Michovský (Photos by Luděk Hanzl)
Orthophoto Project in Slovenia
The Republic of Slovenia is a lovely small country bordered by Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Croatia, that lies on the southern part of Central Europe, where the Alps and the Mediterranean meet the wide Pannonian plains and the mysterious Karst. At various points in its history, the country had been part of various Empires and Kingdoms (sometimes mighty, sometimes minor), ﬁnally becoming part of Tito’s Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia after the Second World War. During the rather turbulent Balkan 90’s, the Slovenian people declared their independence on 25th June 1991 and gained it after a brief (10 days) war with their Yugoslav brethren. Slovenia was recognized as an independent state in 1992 and joined both NATO and the European Union in 2004.
Fig. 1 – Just 40 % of the country is to be elaborated in 2009.
Slovenia enjoyed relatively wide autonomy within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and always belonged to the most advanced parts of the federation in terms of economy. No wonder that it quickly became the economic front-runner of the countries that joined the European Union in 2004 and was the ﬁrst new member to adopt the Euro in 2007. Fast economic progress is always in need of accurate and up-to-date geospatial data. Therefore, in the autumn of 2008, the Slovenian national surveying and mapping authority published a tender for acquisition of colour digital aerial images, DTM, and orthophotomaps for entire territory of Slovenia -- 20300 sqkm -- in order to update their existing geospatial database. The key tender parameters were as follows: • The project duration is planned for two years, approximately 40 % of Slovenia should be covered in 2009 and the remaining 60 % in 2010 – see Figure 1. • The photoﬂights must be accomplished between 15th April and 30 th June of each year in question. • The nominal GSD value of the aerial images is 25 cm. • The entire territory should be covered with 5 m grid DTM. • 50 cm GSD orthophotomaps must be produced for the entire project territory – altogether 3263 TTN5 orthophoto sheets. • Additionally 25 cm GSD orthophotomaps must be produced for selected parts (34 TTN5 orthophoto sheets). • All deliveries must be completed no later than on 31st August of each year in question. GEODIS BRNO took part in the tender together with our Slovenian partner Flycom d.o.o. from Žirovnica in the north-western part of the country. At the end of 2008, our corporate offer was eventually evaluated as the best one, and at the beginning of spring, 2009, the contract with the client was signed.
Fig. 2 – Four production blocks for 2009.
The 2009 portion (almost 4.200 photos) has been divided into 4 ﬂight blocks (see Figure 2): • • • •
01 Koper: 1570 sqkm, approximately 920 images 02 Postojna: 1830 sqkm, app. 1040 images 03 Novo Mesto: 1560 sqkm, app. 890 images 04 Krsko: 2560 sqkm, app. 1340 images
The very same block division is then used for the aerotriangulation adjustment, DTM and orthophotomap production. Unfortunately this spring’s rather unusual adverse weather in southern Slovenia did not allow the start of photoﬂights before 10 th May, almost one month after the expected start. However at the time of this writing, all aerial missions have been successfully completed and the subsequent photogrammetric production is now in full swing.
Patrik Meixner Preliminary works were started immediately after the signing of the contract. The ﬂight and ground control points plans were duly delivered to the client for evaluation, and they were approved with minor remarks. All 336 ground control points for the 2009 campaign were measured on time before the 15th of April - the ofﬁcial start of the ﬂight season. 198 of them were -- after thorough revision -- taken over from older projects, 138 were newly measured.
References: Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia The screenshots were taken from the project reporting web, designed by Flycom.
Options for Acquiring and Presenting Spatial Data for Integrated Rescue Systems Fig. 5 Internet Version of PixoView
An integrated rescue system is necessary in order to quickly handle unexpected situations that occur in the normal life of a society or are induced randomly by various natural phenomena. To deal with emergency situations, background information is assimilated from Integrated Rescue System (IRS) structure units (ﬁre, police...). This data is used to effectively prepare the means for an efﬁcient rescue using GIS data.
New methods for fast image data acquisition, which can be used with IRS updated area information, presently include: • FastOrto – a fast means of aerial image rendering • PixoView – technology for acquisition, processing and visualization of oblique images • Mobile Mapping – image acquisition from mobile equipment (a separate article deals with this topic – see Mobile Mapping – PanoramaGIS) FastOrto – A Fast Means of Aerial Image Rendering and Georeferencing
Current State of IRS Geoinformation Materials Existing map data is one of the most important materials for crisis management. Map data is available in the standard printed (paper) form or – as increasingly preferred today – in the digital form. The digital version makes a possible to create a variety of maps by combining speciﬁc partial map layers and then ﬂexibly displaying results both on computer monitors and mobile ﬁeld devices. Existing map data includes some of the state map works, such as large-scale cadastral maps, medium-scale ZABAGED maps (1:10 000), and topographic maps with the scale of 1:25 000 and less. Recently, in addition to these “classic” map materials, a colour orthophotomap has been increasingly used with a resolution of 0.1 m in areas of large cities and 0.2 m outside these areas. While the production cycle of large-scale and medium-scale materials can take several years, orthophotomaps are produced in shorter intervals – usually months (at least in the regional scope of view).
FastOrto technology makes a possible to signiﬁcantly decrease the time needed for processing orthophotomaps, when the emphasis is on speed rather than optimum quality. Orthophotomaps will be produced and ready for subsequent use just several hours from the actual aerial image acquisition. Considering that the quickly created orthophotomaps can be immediately use with existing IRS geoinformation materials, experts working with information systems can easily compare the existing status with a previous situation, making key decision based on fresh information obtained from FastOrto. This technology can be life-saving, especially when handling consequences of extensive ﬁres, ﬂoods, windstorms, and snow calamities. FastOrto is a complex SW system that enables orthophotomap production with multiple processing quality levels and varying positional accuracy based on client speciﬁcation. There are three qualitative levels: • FastOrto LQ – mean positional error mxy = 7 – 10 of pixel size • FastOrto HQ – mean positional error mxy = 5 – 7 of pixel size • FastOrto VHQ – mean positional error mxy = 2 – 3 of pixel size The classic mosaic processing procedure is not used with these qualitative levels, so artefacts, resulting from connecting images, may occur between images. Nevertheless, our FastOrto outputs are fully compatible with the current IRS, because results are fully georeferenced in the S-JTSK and WGS84 coordinates system. In addition to crisis management GIS deployment, our new technology is also applicable for environmental monitoring and extensive linear constructions documentation.
Fig. 1 Combined Sheet of a Digital Cadastral Map and an Orthophotomap
The necessity of updating these materials is time-demanding and leads in practice to geoinformation disagreement regarding the actual state of the terrain. This uncertainty in some cases will inﬂuence planning and management of crisis operations. Emergences require fast action based on up-to-date accurate geoinformation, and a successful rescue operation is often the result of having access to a virtual reality digital picture.
Fig. 2 Combination of Two Images Processed with the FastOrto LQ and FastOrto VHQ Technology
Fig. 3 PixoView Measurement Possibilities
Fig. 4 Oblique Image of Railway Accident near Studénka
PixoView – Technology for Acquisition, Processing and Visualization of Oblique Images
PixoView technology makes it possible to obtain accurate, up-to-date, and detailed subject area information which can be used in the following situations: • Search studies during IRS team preparation • Operational and strategic planning for IRS • Photographic documentation of an area before and after an emergency situation • Analyses of transportation equipment and loads • Coordination of IRS unit activities • Logistic analyses and statistic mapping • Post emergency analysis of environmental safety and security • Preparation of regional-planning documentation in conjunction with IRS unit procedures • Territory spatial visualization including 3D building models with real textures
Data sets used by IRS geographic systems are primarily based on map materials displayed in orthogonally map projections. Both digital maps and orthophotomaps represent terrain from a view that is basically perpendicular to the Earth’s surface. Using these images we can ascertain only information on an objects position within a coordinate system or mutual spatial (positional) layout of multiple objects in the terrain. However, the existing GIS applications can store information about an object’s full 3D position, providing additional information on the structure, materials, and coordinates of points within 3D object faces. To produce orthophotomaps as an IRS basis, vertical aerial images have previously been used. Today, with the progress of digital photographic technology, an option is available enabling oblique image acquisition using digital camera clusters. These images, unlike the vertical ones, could then be used in a wide range of analysis applications and would be suitable for both stereo and mono measurements. The integrated camera system GbCAM, developed by GEODIS BRNO, Ltd., is a multi-focal system currently consisting of 5 cameras. Our camera system is installed in a special holder, with one camera pointed down and the remaining 4 cameras pointed in 4 different directions. Depending on the system focal length and the selected ﬂight altitude, vertical and oblique images with various resolutions are acquired. The typical nadir resolution at a ﬂight altitude of 400 to 700 m above the terrain is 5 to 10 cm. This resolution can be utilized to document of urban and suburban development. Since PixoView captures oblique images, scale and resolution is variable -- the highest being vertical underneath the airplane in the so-called image nadir and the lowest at the image section closest to the horizon. Depending on computing equipment power, aerial images are quickly processed a few hours after the ﬂight, and transferred to the special PixoView application. PixoView permits users to perform basic observation and measurement of acquired images and is compatible with other GIS used in IRS (ArcView, Bentley etc.). Processed images are stored in a database that allows fast access to image data. If we select a speciﬁc 3D object from a map or vertical image displayed on a computer screen, oblique images containing the same objects are retrieved from the database. User can then take advantage of the following PixoView features: • Measurement of horizontal and vertical distances in vertical and oblique images • Measurement of lengths and surface areas of terrain and objects • Measurement of individual and adjacent object heights • Determination of coordinates of points on objects, including facades • Display and import 2D and 3D vector data • Option to enumerate object spatial coordinates • Option to insert text annotations and sketches Oblique images can be helpful with a wide range of tasks including IRS unit processing work, e.g. ascertainment of access routes and object heights during ﬁre department actions. This saves time and reduces expenses since workers, for example, would normally have to perform ﬁeld inspections.
As an application for displaying and processing oblique images, PixoView has two basic SW solutions. The desktop version enables processing of images stored in the database installed directly on a personal computer or within a LAN of the user. The PixoView ON_LINE Internet version, located on a server with image data limits user data receipt to only requested vertical or oblique views of selected objects over the Internet. This second version (thin client) does not allow object height analyses. Conclusions GIS for Integrated Rescue Systems requires precise up-to-date data, representing an accurate view of the situation in the territory where rescue teams will be working. Generic maps that are commonly available do not provide enough speciﬁc detailed topographical information. Another critical problem of dated maps is their quick obsolescence, meaning that impacting environmental changes (construction, deforestation, etc.), are not represented in an up-to-date manner. Referring to obsolete material results in incorrect decisions and inefﬁcient resources use. Mistakes resulting from bad judgement can be avoided by supplementing existing map data with the latest visual information. This up-to-date visual information can be acquired in an on-demand manner prior to commencing respective activities or in a programmed manner, with a set time cycle contingent to ﬁnancial resource availability. Image data acquisition has many various forms. Today, the most effective gathering means is to capture oblique aerial images and images from mobile sources and equipment (see article Mobile Mapping). PixoView and Mobile Mapping both provide image data that meets resolution requirements, and these new GEODIS products can compatibly compile relevant, often critical area detail in accordance with augmentation and implementation of an existing GIS. Jan Sukup, David Káňa, Karel Sukup
W ho‘s W ho?
M a r t i n Te š n a r – Specialist for Geodetic a n d Te c h n o l o gi c al Wo r k s
From your brief biography it appears that the scope of your employment is really wide and varied. Would you provide us with details of your company activities? One of my activities here at GEODIS is managing the TopNET network (a network of permanent GPS stations). The TopNET network is comprised of many stations which constantly collect data from satellites and provide GPS correction data to users, in order to clarify a measured position. In 2005, the network was built as support for GEODIS GROUP employee terrain work. In agreement with the Czech Academy of Sciences, GEODIS integrated Academy stations into the TopNET system and assumed responsibility for operating costs. Currently, the network has about 25 stations throughout the Czech Republic. I’m responsible for correct data transmission from all stations through our servers to ﬁnal users, network expansion, and modernization in accordance with current data standards and legislation. I also provide technical support for GEODIS in the Balkan countries that our company works in. A primary focus is Romania, where I help our subsidiary colleagues with the technology of measurement, data-processing, output collection, and GPS use. Further responsibilities include technical training and geodetic abroad project management. Back in Brno, I also participate in the development of GPS technology, data management technology and graphic design. Categorizing you is really quite difﬁcult, but visibly the important part of your work is programming. Where did you learn to program? Working with computers is essential for the company projects I participate with. Although programming has been necessary for my work, I didn’t have a formal trade school education and most programming knowledge has been self-taught. Professional courses I have completed include Windows Administration, Microstation training for administrators, the GNSS Reference Network Course, etc., but the best experience is “hands on” practice during individual projects. For work you sometimes travel abroad. Which foreign countries have you visited and what did you do there? I started my foreign travels with our Slovak neighbours, where I surveyed highways and provided photogrammetry support. Gradually, I travelled further, mainly to Romania, where I currently focus most of my work efforts. Other destinations included Kosovo and Macedonia, where, in cooperation with the local surveyors, I offered photogrammetry support, and was responsible for LPIS measurement. A few times I also worked with GEODIS Austria, where I helped with structural drawing technology and participated in GPS measurements for Austrian Alps tunnel construction.
As a GEODIS professional with valuable ﬁrst-hand experiences, it would be good to know your opinions about photogrammetry and surveying standards outside the Czech Republic. Of course, the level in each country is different, and generally, in the eastern European countries, standards are lower, due to their slowly evolving infrastructure. From a country where infrastructure is still not fully developed, we shouldn’t expect to have detailed resolution orthophotomaps (that are now common here) or optimum data cadastral administration. However, photogrammetry and geodesy are gaining popularity and their level and efﬁciency is improving quite rapidly. And by comparison, how does Czech development quality rate? From my vantage point, the Czech professional proﬁciency is quite high, as evidenced by the amount of procurement both here and abroad. Finally, I would like to ask you about your free time, how you spend it and what you like to do? Because of work related time constraints involved with frequent travelling, I do not have much free time. When I have the opportunity, I enjoy being with my family and engaging in recreational sports. Eva Paseková for GEODIS NEWS, June 2009
Martin Tešnar was born in 1968 in Pelhřimov, Czech Republic. He graduated from the Brno Civil Engineering High School, Geodesy Department. After graduation he started working as a surveyor in the former state enterprise Geodezie (now known under the name GB-geodezie, which is also one of the GEODIS BRNO subsidiaries). In 1990, while working for GEODIS BRNO as a surveyor, he surveyed street fronts and searched for utility network sites. Gradually, he evolved to other survey activities - graphics processing, land consolidation surveying, managing of major projects in engineering geodesy, building support for photogrammetry, etc. Now, he’s responsible for managing TopNET (a network of permanent GPS stations), GPS technology development, and the technological support of geodetic works in the Czech Republic and abroad. He is married and has two children.
Sommaire Les nuits d´hiver à Montbéliard (pp. 6-7) Les résultats de la thermographie deviennent une base de données recherchée pour la surveillance des pertes thermiques en soulignant la mise à jour des constructions problématiques, qu´il s´agisse de la distribution thermique elle-même ou des bâtiments chauffés. La prévention des pertes d´énergie dues à une isolation impropre où à une détérioration de l´isolation thermique est la priorité des propriétaires de bâtiments ainsi que de toute la société, c’est un des objectifs principaux de l´Union européenne. La thermographie constitue une part importante des services de GEODIS GROUP. Nous avons réalisé plusieurs projets en République tchèque et en Slovaquie. L´article suivant traite d´un vaste projet en France. L’objectif fut de radiographier les bâtiments de la ville de Montbéliard à l’aide d’une caméra thermique aﬁn de déterminer les pertes de chaleur depuis les toits. La cartographie en Antarctique (pp. 8-9) Parmi les lecteurs réguliers de GEODIS News se trouvent sans doute certains qui se rappelleront l´article « Vers une modélisation numérique en Antarctique » publié dans l’édition tchèque en 2006. L´article décrivait les difﬁcultés que nous avons du subir en 2003 lors des prises de vue pour la modélisation numérique du terrain aﬁn de choisir un emplacement puis de planiﬁer et de construire la station antarctique tchèque sur l´ile de James Ross. La pratique de nos bases de données en altitude fut ﬁnalement efﬁ cace car pendant l’été 2007, le Service géologique tchèque nous conﬁa un projet beaucoup plus vaste: le relevé planimétrique et altimétrique d’environ 225 km2 de la partie sans glace de la presqu’ile d’Ulu où, au nord, se trouve la base tchèque. La cartographie fut entreprise à l´échelle 1:25.000. Les donnés aériennes de la partie bulgare du projet NABUCCO (p. 11) NABUCCO est le nom d´un gazoduc non encore construit qui, selon le projet, a pour but de faire baisser la dépendance des pays de l´ Union européenne vis-à-vis de l´alimentation en gaz russe. Ce gazoduc devrait conduire le gaz depuis la mer Caspienne à travers la Turquie, la Bulgarie, la Roumanie et la Hongrie jusqu’en Autriche. La date prévue pour la première fourniture en gaz est 2012. GEODIS a signé un contrat avec une société d´engineering bulgare pour la réalisation du projet dont l’objectif est la réalisation d’un travail de scan aérien sur le trajet du gazoduc prévu en territoire bulgare et faisant partie du projet NABUCCO. GEODIS utilisera son propre laser scan aéroporté Leica AIS50-II avec une camera numérique. La combinaison de ces deux technologies créera une orthophotocarte ainsi qu’un modèl numérique du terrain (MNT). Les données géospatiales d´un tracé de 400 km seront utilisées pour le travail d´étude du gazoduc, pour ce projet important que représente sans aucun doute NABUCCO. Mobile Mapping – PanoramaGIS (pp. 12-13) Au cours des dernières années, la demande de systèmes d´information géographique en 3D pouvant être exploités dans les divers domaines de l´activité humaine a augmenté. Mais un des problèmes est le remplissage de ces bases de données par des données qui contiendront sufﬁsamment de détails, la précision et surtout l’actualisation. La création de ces données par des moyens ordinaires comme la photogrammétrie aérienne classique ou la mesure géodésique terrestre exige beaucoup de temps et d’argent. Les systèmes mobiles de cartographie apparaissent comme étant les plus efﬁcaces et s’installent surtout sur des voitures, mais il est aussi possible d’utiliser des quads, des bateaux, des hélicoptères ainsi que d´autres moyens de transport aériens, y compris sans pilote. Le terme « Mobile Mapping » fait référence à une nouvelle technologie permettant la collecte rapide d’informations géographiques, principalement dans les zones urbanisées dont les infrastructures se modiﬁ ent rapidement comme les bâtiments, les routes, etc.; ces changements ne peuvent être décelés par les méthodes traditionnelles de la cartographie. LUCAS 2009 – La prospection du terrain dans une dimension européenne (pp. 16-17) En 2009, dans les pays membres de l’Union européenne a débuté la plus vaste prospection de terrain de l´histoire de LUCAS (enquête statistique aréolaire sur l’utilisation/l’occupation des sols). L’objectif est de créer une vaste base de données pour la Commission européenne sur l’exploitation actuelle du paysage; EUROSTAT stocke les données dans les domaines de l´agriculture et de l´environnement. Ces données collectées sur le terrain reproduisent deux catégories principales: la Couverture du paysage décrit les éléments physiques sur la surface de la terre (par exemple: les forêts, les cultures agricoles, les plans d´eau, les bâtiments...) et l’Aménagement du paysage rend compte de l’utilisation des terrains par les populations (par exemple: la sylviculture, le commerce, les loisirs...). Ces deux catégories forment la clé de voute du projet. La cartographie souterraine et en surface à Oman, géoradar (GPR, Grand Penetrating Radar) (pp. 18-19) Dans le dernier numéro de GEODIS News 2008, j´ai fait part de notre effort commun aﬁn de conforter la bonne réputation de GEODIS BRNO au Proche-Orient dans le but d´obtenir l’exclusivité des projets géomatiques chez les clients locaux. Nous avons voulu montrer que notre approche planiﬁ ée et mesurée a, par une présence permanente et une compréhension de la culture ainsi que par les connaissances techniques et l’expérience de GEODIS en accord avec une offre tarifaire intéressante pour ces services, la possibilité d’obtenir la conﬁance de la demande locale aﬁn que celle-ci choisisse GEODIS comme partenaire dans ses projets. L´aura due à l´aboutissement d’un premier projet exceptionnel augmente le prestige de l’opérateur, elle augmente son niveau aux yeux des demandeurs potentiels. Quand quelqu´un a été présenté dans la région et a achevé un projet selon les conditions locales, il est, grâce à cette expérience, jugé favorablement et d’autant plus digne de conﬁance. Un client omanais invita GEODIS et lui offrit cette opportunité! Nous nous sommes investis dans ce projet pilote aﬁn de réaliser la localisation des réseaux souterrains dans la ville de Muscat. Le client eut l´occasion de tester la technologie moderne et demanda à deux sociétés de réaliser un sondage sur une même partie du site. Il s´agissait de cartographier les réseaux souterrains se trouvant sous un parking partiellement couvert, sur une surface d’environ 6000m2 (150 m x 40 m). Le Cadastre vert rentre en compte dans le plan de développement urbain des villes roumaines (p. 28) Avec l’agrandissement des villes et l´augmentation du nombre d´habitants, les conditions de vie des habitants devraient s´améliorer ou du moins se maintenir au même niveau. La surface moyenne d’espace vert par habitant fait partie des indicateurs du niveau de santé urbaine. L´Union européenne a déterminé qu’une surface de 26m2 par personne était une moyenne minimale pour les espaces verts dans les villes bien que l’Organisation mondiale de la santé préconise 52m2 par personne. Selon les règles de l´Union européenne, les communes roumaines ont l’obligation d’atteindre l’objectif d’une moyenne minimale de 20m2 d’espace vert par personne en 2011 et de 26m2 en 2020. GEODIS, grâce à la bonne préparation de son équipe et grâce à ses collaborateurs (parmi lesquels je voudrais surtout citer lq société PZK a GIS), sait comment soutenir les communes pendant tout le processus de création du Cadastre vert. Notre approche standard est le résultat d’une expérience de longue date hors des frontières roumaines en combinaison avec une connaissance du droit local ainsi que l’expérience de nos employés et de nos collaborateurs locaux. Le LPIS en Macédoine (p. 32) GEODIS BRNO appartient aux sociétés européennes traitant les projets LPIS (Land Parcel Identiﬁcation System – registre européen des terrains agricoles) sur tout le continent. Avec l’expérience des projets LPIS terminés avec succès en République tchèque, Slovaquie et Roumanie ainsi que des projets LPIS se déroulant en Pologne et en Slovénie, GEODIS se lance dans le traitement d’un projet semblable en Macédoine (FYROM – ancienne République yougoslave de Macédoine). En avril 2009, la Banque mondiale a publié les résultats du concours pour le projet « Photographie aérienne, création d’une carte orthophotographique et digitalisation des données de base pour le LPIS, destiné au MAFWE – Ministère de l’Agriculture de la République macédonienne ». La commande comprend non seulement la photographie aérienne et la création d’une carte orthophotographique de tout le territoire de la République macédonienne (FYROM) d´une surface de 25 713 km2 mais aussi la digitalisation de tous les terrains agricoles. Les possibilités d’acquisition et la présentation des données spatiales pour les systèmes de sauvetage intégrés (pp. 34-35) Le système de sauvetage intégré fut créé par le besoin de trouver rapidement des solutions aux situations inattendues qui se déroulent dans la vie courante d’une société ou qui sont provoquées par les aléas des phénomènes naturels. Pour trouver des solutions aux situations de crise, les unités appartenant à la structure du système de sauvetage intégré (SSI) utilisent les diverses données informatiques utiles à la préparation et à la gestion des travaux destinés à éviter ou à réduire les conséquences produites par des évènements critiques. Les données cartographiques existantes sont des données importantes pour la gestion de crise. Elles sont disponibles en format papier standard ou sous la forme numérique qui est privilégiée aujourd´hui. Le format numérique permet de créer diverses compositions cartographiques par l’assemblage de strates cartographiques partielles et spéciﬁques pour ensuite les afﬁcher avec souplesse soit sur des écrans d´ordinateurs, soit sur des dispositifs mobiles directement sur le terrain.
Zusammenfasung Winternächte in Montbéliard (S. 6-7) Die Ergebnisse der thermovisuellen Aufnahmen werden für Überwachen der Wärmeverluste mit Schwerpunkt in Aufdeckung der problematischen Bauten nötig. Wie zum Beispiel Wärmeleitungen oder beheizte Objekte. Vorbeugen den Energieverlusten wegen fehlerhaften Wärmedämmung oder wegen Störfällen von Wärmedämmung soll Priorität für Immobilienbesiter und ganze Gesellschaft und ein der Hauptziele der Europäischen Union werden. Thermovisuelle Aufnahmen gehören zu den wichtigsten Leistungen in GEODIS GROUP. Wir führten einige Projekte im Rahmen der Tschechischen Republik und Slowakei aus. Der nächste Artikel wird einem umfangreichen Projekt in Frankreich gewidmet. Sein Ziel war mit einer thermovisuellen Kamera die Stadtgebäude Montbéliard so aufzunehmen, dass es möglich wäre, die Temperaturverluste auf den Dächern festzustellen. Mappierung in Antarktis (S. 8-9) Einige von regelmäßigen Lesern von GEODIS News können sich möglicherweise an Artikel „Für Digitalmodell der Antarktis“, der in der tschechischen Ausgabe im Jahre 2006 veröffentlicht wurde, erinnern. Der Artikel beschrieb Schwierigkeiten, die wir beim Beschaffen des Digitalmodells von Terrain im Jahre 2003 erlebten. Der Terrain wurde für Lokalitätsauswahl bestimmt und danach für Planung und Bau der tschechischen antarktischen Station auf James Ross Insel. Unsere Erfahrungen mit Daten zeigten sich schließlich ganz gut, weil wir im Sommer 2007 den Auftrag von Tschechischen geologischen Dienst erhielten und zwar mit umfangreicherer Aufgabe – Lage- und Höhenmappierung von zirka 225 km2 eisfreiem Teil der Halbinsel Ulu, auf seinem nördlichen Zipfel sich die tschechische Station beﬁndet. Für Mappierung wurde der Maßstab 1:25 000 vereinbart.
GEODIS BRNO, spol. s r.o. Company Journal Specialised magazine for geomatics The magazine is distributed by mail and during professional and social events. Editor: Eva Paseková English co-editor: Richard Alan Zimmerman Editorial cooperation: Michal Babáček, Ivo Hanzl, Karel Holouš, Zdeněk Hotař, David W. Hughes, Marcel Janoš, Dimitar Jechev, David Káňa, Klaus Legat, Petr Navrátil, Patrik Meixner, Petr Michovský, Martin Plánka, Vladimír Plšek, Ciprian Pricop, Miloš Sedláček, Jan Sukup, Karel Sukup, Václav Šafář, Renáta Šrámková, Martin Tešnar GEODIS BRNO, spol. s r.o. Lazaretní 11a, 615 00 Brno Czech Republic Phone: +420 538 702 040 Fax: +420 538 702 061 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.geodis.cz
Flugdaten für bulgarischen Teil von Projekt Nabucco (S. 11) Gasleitung Nabucco ist Name den bis jetzt nicht gebauten Gasleitung, der nach Plan die Abhängigkeit der EU Staaten von russischen Gaslieferungen verringern soll. Diese Gasleitung soll das kaspische Gas über die Türkei, Bulgarien, Rumänien und Ungarn nach Österreich führen. Vorausgesetzter Termin für erste Gaslieferungen wird 2012 angeführt. GEODIS unterschrieb den Vertrag mit bulgarischer Ingenieurgesellschaft auf diese Projektdurchführung. Sein Ziel ist, die Flugscannarbeit auf geplanter Gasleitungstrasse auf dem bulgarischen Gebiet zu verwirklichen, die zum Projektbestandteil NABUCCO gehört. GEODIS wird den eigenen Flugscanner Leica AlS50-II zusammen mit Digitalkamera benutzen und dank Verbindung dieser Technologien werden sowohl hochwertige Orthophotokarte als auch Digitalmodell von Terrain (DMT) gebildet. Georaumdaten von 400 km langer Trasse werden für Projekttätigkeiten der Gasleitung für diesen bedeutenden Projekt benutzt.
GEODIS PRAHA, s.r.o. Beranových 65, 199 21 Praha 9 – Letňany Czech Republic Phone:/Fax: +420 283 923 018-19 E-mail: email@example.com
Mobil Mapping – Panorama GIS (S. 12-13) In den letzten Jahren steigt die Nachfrage nach 3D geographischen Informationssystemen, die in vielen Bereichen der menschlichen Tätigkeit verwendet werden können. Einer der Probleme ist, diesen Datebasen mit Datei zu füllen, die den geforderten Detail, Genauigkeit und vor allem Aktualität haben werden. Datenerfassung mit üblichen Konvektionsmitteln, wie zum Beispiel klassische Flugfotogrammetrie oder geodätische Bodenmessung sind an Preis und Zeit anspruchsvoll. Als meist effektivste scheinen das Einsetzen der mobilen Mappierungssysteme (MMS) zu sein, die auf Autos plaziert werden, möglicherweise auf Vierräder, Schiffe, Hubschrauber und andere, sogar führerlose Flugmittel. Unter Begriff Mobile Mapping versteht sich neue Technologie, die schnelle Sammlung der geoinformativen Daten ermöglicht, vor allem in verbauten Gebietsteilen, wo die Infrastruktur der Gebäude, Landstraßen usw. schnell wechseln und es ist unmöglich, sie genügend mit traditionellen Mappierungsmethoden zu erfassen.
GB-geodezie, spol. s r.o. Lazaretní 13, 615 00 Brno Czech Republic Phone: +420 538 702 003 Fax: +420 545 241 029 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.geodezie-brno.cz
LUCAS 2009 – Geländeerkundung des europäischen Formats (S. 16-17) Im Jahre 2009 wurde in EU Ländern die umfangreichste Geländeerkundung in der LUCAS Geschichte (statistische Rahmenuntersuchung von Landschaftsnutzung/Landschaftsabdeckung) in Angriff genommen. Zielstelllung war, die umfangreiche Datenbasis der Europäischen Kommission über gegenwärtige Landschaftsnutzung zu schaffen. EUROSTAT sammelt Daten im Bereich Landwirtschaft und Umwelt. Diese Angaben, die nach Geländemessungen gewonnen wurden vertreten zwei Hauptkategorien: Landschaftsabdeckung, die die physische Erdoberﬂäche beschreibt (z.B. Waldbestände, Feldfrüchte, Wasserﬂächen, Gebäude…) und Ausnutzen der Landschaft, die mit Landschaftsnutzen von Leuten zusammenhängt (z.B. Forstwirtschaft, Kommerz, Erholung…) Diese zwei Grundbegriffe sind für das Projektziel grundsätzlich. Unterirdische und Erdmappierung, Georadar in Oman (S. 18-19) In der letzten Ausgabe von GEODIS News 2008 schrieb ich über unsere gemeinsame Anstrengung, für GEODIS BRNO einen guten Ruf in Nahen Osten zu schaffen, mit Ziel exklusive geomatische Projekte bei örtlichen Kunden zu gewinnen. Wir wollten zeigen, dass unser geplanter und zielbewußter Einstieg in Region, Daueranwesendheit und Kulturbegreifen und auch technische Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen von GEODIS inkl. richtig angebotenem Preis für Dienstleistungen eine Chance haben, das Vertrauen der örtlichen Vertragspartner zu gewinnen und sie werden GEODIS als Lieferanten für ihr Projekt wählen. Die Aura der Fertigstellung des ersten außergewöhnlichen Projekts erhöht die Prestige des Auftragnehmers in Augen der potentiellen Vertragspartner. Auf einmal bietet sich jemand, der in der Region war und in örtlichen Bedingungen den Projekt beendete und dank dieser Erfahrung besser und vertrauensvoller ist. Der Kunde aus Oman bot GEODIS diese Gelegenheit an! Wir nahmen diesen Pilotprojekt der Ortungsdurchführung der Landnetze in Stadt Muscat in Angriff. Der Kunde hatte die Möglichkeit moderne Technologie zu prüfen und beantragte zwei Gesellschaften mit Durchführung der Untersuchung des gleichen Geländeteils. Es handelte sich um Mappierung der unterirdischen Netze, die unter teilweise überdachtem Parkplatz von Flachen zirka 6000 m2 (150 m x 40 m) verlegt wurden. Das grüne Kataster wird zum Bestandteil von Plan der Stadtentwicklung der rumänischen Städte (S. 28) Mit Wachstum der Städte und Erhöhung der Einwohnerzahl sollten sich die Lebensbedingungen verbessern oder mindestens auf gleichem Niveau zu bleiben. Einer der Anzeiger des städtischen Gesundheitsniveaus ist durchschnittliche Menge der Grünanlagen pro Einwohner. Die Europäische Union legte den Wert 26 m2 der Grünanlage pro Person fest, als Minimum der durchschnittlichen Grünﬂäche in den Städten, obwohl die gesundheitliche Weltorganisation den optimalen Wert 52 m2 pro Person empﬁehlt. Rumänische Gemeinden sind mit EU Regeln verbunden, mit Ziel durchschnittlich 20 m2 der Grünﬂäche pro Person im Jahre 2011 und 26 m2 pro Person im Jahre 2020 zu gewähren. Dank seinem gut vorbereiteten Team und seinen Mitarbeitern (von denen ich gerne Gesellschaften PZK und GIS erwähnen möchte) weiß GEODIS wie die Gemeinden im Laufe der ganzen Vorgansentstehung des grünen Katasters zu unterstützen. Unsere Standardeinstellung ist Ergebnis der langjährigen Erfahrungen außer rumänischen Grenzen, in Verbindung mit Kenntnis der örtlichen Gesetze, Erfahrungen der Arbeitnehmer und Mitarbeiter im Land. LPIS in Mazedonien (S. 32) GEODIS BRNO gehört zu den anerkannten europäischen Firnem, die auf dem ganzen Kontinent LPIS (Land Parcel Identiﬁcation System – europäischer Register der landwirtschaftlichen Grundstücke) Projekte bearbeiten. Mit Erfahrungen von erfolgreich beendeten LPIS Projekten in Tschechien, Slowakei und Rumänien und von laufenden LPIS Projekten in Polen und Slowenien, beginnt GEODIS einen ähnlichen Projekt in Mazedonien (FYROM – ehemalige Jugoslawische Republik Mazedonien). Im April 2009 erklärte die Weltbank die Ergebnisse der Ausschreibung für Projekt „Flugaufnahmen, Bildung der Orthofotomappe und Digitalisierung der Eingabedaten für LPIS, für MAFWE – Ministerium der Landwirtschaft der Republik Mazedonien.“ Der Auftrag umfaßt nicht nur Flugaufnahmen und Bildung der Orthofotomappe des ganzen mazedonischen Gebiets (FYROM) über Fläche 25 713 km2, aber auch Digitalisierung von allen landwirtschaftlichen Grundstücken. Möglichkeiten der Sammlung und Präsentation der Raumdaten für integrierte Rettungssysteme (S. 34-35) Integriertes Rettungssystem wird für Bedürfnisse der schnellen Lösungen der unerwarteten Situationen errichtet, die im alltäglichen Leben der Gesellschaft entstehen oder zufällig von verschiedenen Naturerscheinungen hervorgerufen werden. Für Lösung dieser Krisensituationen werden die Einheiten ausgenutzt, die in die Struktur des integrierten Rettungssystem gehören (IZS), verschiedene Informationsunterlagen, die zur Vorbereitung dienen und eigene Steuerung der Arbeiten, die auf Abwendung oder Verringerung der Folgen gerichtet werden, die in Krisensituationen entstehen. Einer der wichtigen Unterlagen für Krisenlösung sind bestehende Kartenunterlagen. Zur Verfügung sind sie standardsweise in gedruckter Papierform oder in Digitalform, die heutzutage mehr bevorzugt wird. Sie ermöglicht verschiedene Kartenbildung mit Erstellung der speziﬁschen Teilmappenschichten und Flexibilität in Abbildung, auf Computermonitoren oder auf mobilen Mitteln direkt im Terrain.
ARGUS GEO SYSTÉM s.r.o. Bratří Štefanů 1069, 500 03 Hradec Králové Czech Republic Phone: +420 495 800 790 Fax: +420 495 800 792 E-mail: email@example.com URL: www.argusgeo.cz
GEOMETRA OPAVA, spol. s r.o. Masařská 19, P.O.BOX 88, 746 01, Opava Czech Republic Phone: +420 553 624 003 Phone/Fax: +420 553 624 011 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.geometra-opava.com SOKKIA, spol. s r.o. Ke Stromečkům 1708, 253 Hostivice (Praha-západ) Czech Republic Phone: +420 220 612 264 Fax: +420 220 912 532 E-mail: email@example.com URL: www.sokkia.cz GEODIS SLOVAKIA, s.r.o. Division of photogrammetry Dúbravská cesta č.9, 841 04 Bratislava Slovak Republic Phone: +421 254 653 334 Fax: +421 254 653 336 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.geodis.sk PHOTOMAP, s.r.o. Poludníkova 3, 040 12, Košice Slovak Republic Phone: +421 557 279 173 Fax: +421 557 279 130 E-mail: email@example.com URL: www.photomap.sk GEODIS BULGARIA EOOD ul. Parchevich No 42, et.9, Soﬁ a Bulgaria GSM: +359 888 363033 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.geodis.bg GEODIS ROMANIA S.R.L. GEODIS RO S.R.L. Str.Tampei nr.8, 500 271, Brasov Romania Phone: 0368 429 112/113/114 Fax: 0368 429 115 E-mail: email@example.com URL: www.geodisro.ro GEODIS AUSTRIA GmbH Campus21 – BUSSINESSZENTRUM WIEN SÜD, Liebermannstr. A01 304, Büro 7, 2345 Brunn am Gebirge Austria Phone: +43 699 133 333 88 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.geodisgroup.at TopoGEODIS FRANCE 3, venelle Paul Cézanne 90 850 Essert France Phone: +330 384 211 374 Fax: +330 630 926 249 E-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Layout: TISPROMA s.r.o. Graphic design and DTP: Emil Jirman Print: LELKA Dolní Bojanovice No material may be reproduced in whole or in part without written permission of GEODIS BRNO, spol. s r.o. Copyright © 2009 GEODIS BRNO, spol. s r.o. Czech Republic All rights reserved.
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GEODIS GROUP fleet
CESSNA 206 Stationair OK-HKE
ZLÍN Z-37 A OK-NJA
CESSNA 402B Business Liner OK-GEO
• RMK TOP 15 camera
• digital videocamera SONY or GbCAM ® digital camera
• RMK TOP 30 camera • VEXCEL UltraCamX digital camera
NEW – VEXCEL UltraCamXp digital camera
NEW ... RAYTHEON Beech Super King Air 200 OK-MAG • RMK TOP 30 camera • VEXCEL UltraCamXp digital camera • Leica ALS 50 - II aerial laser scanner
PIPER PA-23 Aztec OK-EKU
CESSNA 206 Stationair OK-EKT
• LMK 2015 camera • VEXCEL UltraCamX digital camera
• LMK 15 camera
NEW – Leica ALS 50 – II aerial laser scanner