FALL 2016 VOLUME 20 / NUMBER 2
Cooperative, Inc. A Subsidiary of Cooperative Resources International
the pros and cons “ Ifofwetwoareor weighing more service sires, the bull
with the higher PregCheck value wins! “Variation in service sire fertility is huge. At Heartland Cattle Company we see most A.I. service sires range anywhere from 50 to 90% for first service conception rate; with outlier bulls ranging all the way from 0 to 100%. Anything we can do to identify service sires that will consistently provide a 70% and higher first service conception rate is a big plus for our customers and our business. That’s why we pay close attention to the PregCheck ranking Genex calculates and provides. If we are weighing the pros and cons of two or more service sires, the bull with the higher PregCheck value wins! We believe this information will only get better over time with an expanded database. All of us at Heartland Cattle Company want to thank Genex for their proactive approach to solving what has become one of the industry’s biggest challenges!”
– Dr. Patsy Houghton, Owner and General Manager, Heartland Cattle Company
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The Genex Fe
Contact your local Genex representative or purchase online at profitshop.crinet.com
BEEF HORIZONS FALL 2016 VOL. 20/NO. 2
Published bi-annually for beef producers in the United States.
Address correspondence to: Genex Cooperative, Inc. 100 MBC Drive, P.O. Box 469 Shawano, WI 54166 TEL: 888.333.1783 FAX: 715.526.3219 EMAIL: email@example.com WEBSITE: www.crinet.com
BEEF HORIZONS STAFF Lindsay Johnson, Editor Brooke Handy, Assistant Editor Andy Graf, Graphic Designer
As beef producers we know you wear many hats – accountants, veterinarians, market analysts, nutritionists, range scientists, and more! Tip your hat to Genex ... delegate a responsibility. With our chute-side service, Genex will take
Photo courtesy of Kim Cullen Goertz, Wheatland, Wyoming
care of the details so you don’t have to. We start
GENEX BOARD OF DIRECTORS
to maximize the profitability of your herd. At
Paul Greene, President Berlin, N.Y., 518.658.2419
John Ruedinger, 1st Vice President Van Dyne, Wis., 920.922.9899
with your goals and design a breeding program Genex, we are experts in creating pregnancies and providing genetic herd improvement.
Bobby Robertson, 2nd Vice President Tahlequah, Okla., 918.822.0020
GIVE US A CALL; WE’D LIKE TO DISCUSS HOW
Ronald Totten, Secretary Stafford, N.Y., 585.344.0758
WE CAN HELP YOU REACH YOUR GOALS.
Jon Wayne Danielson Cadott, Wis., 715.289.3860 Patrick Dugan Casa Grande, Ariz., 520.251.6455
Terry Frost Roundup, Mont., 406.323.3415
CRI is the global leader delivering excellence, innovation and value to members and customers as a strong cooperative.
Lamar Gockley Mohnton, Penn., 717.283.5586
GENEX STATEMENT OF PURPOSE
Harold House Nokesville, Va., 571.722.3356
Genex is the trusted provider of world-class animal genetics, progressive reproductive solutions, value-added products and innovative services to members and customers.
Kay Olson-Martz Friendship, Wis., 608.564.7359
Daniel Tetreault Champlain, N.Y., 518.298.8690 Bill Zimmerman Foley, Minn., 320.355.2191 Cooperative Resources International, their member cooperatives, agents or employees, cannot and do not guarantee the conception rate, quality or productivity to be obtained in connection with the use of their products or recommended techniques. THEY MAKE NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WHICH EXTENDS BEYOND THE DESCRIPTION OF THE PRODUCTS AND HEREBY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. In the unlikely event that any of the products shall be proven to be defective, damages resulting from their use shall be limited to their purchase price. Material may not be reproduced in any fashion without Cooperative Resources International’s permission.
Jody Schaap Woodstock, Minn., 507.215.2257
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Manufacturing at Its Finest Co-op Awards Scholarships to Ag Students It Pays to Be a Member: Earning Cooperative Equity Fall Beef Special Do More Than Pregnancy Check Feature Sires Split-Time A.I. to Optimize Timed Artificial Insemination H20 + K + Na = Positive Results New Acquisition Sires
AT ITS FINEST By: Glen Gilbert, Vice President of Production, Genex
The difference between something good and something great is attention to detail.
– Charles Swindoll
Semen production in the bull is a dynamic process. The bull basically has a sperm factory that never takes a break. It constantly produces sperm 24 hours a day, seven days a week, throughout the year. It does not take time off for holidays or bad weather, although weather can impact how the factory performs. So can a bull’s health, his body condition, nutritional status, age and his environment. The “assembly line” production process takes about 10 weeks to produce a sperm capable of fertilizing an egg. It’s a complex process in which cells divide to reduce their chromosomes (amount of DNA) by half, dramatically change their shape and grow a tail capable of motion. Any imperfection in the process, such as breaks in the strands of DNA, results in a defective sperm that won’t be fertile.
The thermostat in the factory is set to maintain the temperature at 4 degrees below body temperature. If the factory runs hotter than this, defective sperm is the result. To help ensure quality sperm, males are equipped with a sophisticated “air conditioner” that works to maintain the proper temperature. Features of that air conditioner include a large number of sweat glands along the surface of the bull’s scrotum, the ability to raise or lower the factory depending on the outside temperature and a system where warm arteriole blood coming from the body is cooled at the top of the scrotum by cooler blood returning from the testis. In over-conditioned bulls, fat deposits in the top of the scrotum interfere with this cooling mechanism and result in a factory that is too warm. Bulls that are overconditioned, as is the case with some beef bulls when they first arrive at Genex, will tend to produce semen with a high number of defective sperm. For many of those beef bulls, it is a balancing act between the animal “looking good” and producing good quality semen. Of course, things such as hot summer temperatures or illness with fever can overwhelm the factory’s cooling capacity and result in defective sperm too. Even brief thermal insults lasting only a few days can impair normal semen production for several months. A bull with “good quality” semen one day can have a change in quality the following day. That is why the Genex laboratory staff examines each and every collection that arrives in the laboratory in numerous ways.
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Screening for Fatal Flaws
Quality Control Commitment
Sperm need to be able to swim, have an adequate energy supply, As for production protocols, from the time a bull leaves his stall to go to the collection arena until his semen comes out of the be able to move up through the uterus into the oviduct, attach freezer, no less than 56 distinct steps are carefully carried out to the lining of the oviduct and wait for a signal from the female and monitored. Throughout the process, staff work by the motto, that her ova will be passing by soon. Then, the sperm needs to “If there’s any doubt, throw it out.” have enough energy to pull away from the lining of the oviduct by becoming hyper-motile, possess the necessary membrane That motto and the laboratory staff’s work doesn’t end when the structure that can attach to the ova and have the enzymes semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen. Instead, straws from each necessary to digest its way through the covering of the egg. batch are then thawed and again inspected in the laboratory Finally, the sperm needs to have the right complement of DNA to ensure an adequate number of quality sperm survived the that will combine with the ova’s DNA to create an embryo. Once freezing process. Demonstrating the cooperative’s commitment inside, its DNA must be fully functional and not have any lethal to quality, in the past year 1.5 million straws went into the genetic defects. dumpster after failing this inspection. Every bull will produce some sperm that have flaws. Some sperm can’t swim. Some don’t have adequate energy stored. Some have faulty membranes, and some don’t have properly packaged DNA. Any one of these flaws causes that individual sperm to be useless. However, as long as enough of the entire population has the necessary traits, a bull’s semen will be fertile when deposited at the right time and the right place in a female’s reproductive tract.
Dedication to quality control meansः
Collectively these necessary physical characteristics of a population of sperm are referred to as “semen quality.” Each collection arriving in a Genex laboratory is screened to ensure it has sufficient numbers of sperm with those quality characteristics. If an ejaculate does not have adequate quality, it ends up in the dumpster. This past year Genex laboratory staff evaluated the physical characteristics of over 51,000 ejaculates collected from 615 Genex bulls. Of these, approximately 6,500 ejaculates ended up in the trash after the initial screening because the population of cells in the ejaculate had too many defects.
Those collections that pass the initial screening tests are allowed to proceed to the next steps in the Genex production process: adding preservation media and freezing. Following the protocols precisely for preservation and freezing is important in order to yield an adequate number of normal sperm per straw after freezing.
IF THERE’S ANY DOUBT, THROW IT OUT.
Meeting Members’ Expectations
In total, in the last 12 months staff have collected enough sperm from Genex bulls to make approximately 18 million straws of semen. Of that, enough semen to make 7.5 million straws ended up in the dumpster because the sperm did not have the right physical traits to live up to the cooperative’s values of quality and integrity. The Genex production and laboratory staff’s commitment is an important reason the cooperative is the trusted provider of world-class animal genetics.
Protocols are also important because each part of the process can influence others, even the preservation media and the method by which it is added to the semen, the precise ratio of semen to extension media, the rate of temperature change of the extended semen to 40 degrees (F), the period of time the semen spends at 40 degrees, and the rate of temperature change between 40 degrees and liquid nitrogen temperature.
F A L L 2016
IN THE NEWS
CRI Researchers Gather in Shawano Earlier this summer, CRI scientists and other staff members associated with research and development gathered to discuss the status and plans for major areas of CRI research programming. With 29 people in attendance, the collective group represents the significant increase in CRI’s commitment to research and development.
Co-op Awards Scholarships to Ag Students Four students were awarded the Cooperative Resources International (CRI) Collegiate Scholarship. Laura Jensen of Comstock, Wisconsin; Jordan Siemers of Newton, Wisconsin; Lars Schilderink of Hart, Texas; and Stetson Ellingson of St. Anthony, North Dakota, earned $750 scholarships to be applied to their college education. “Students applying for the CRI Collegiate scholarship exemplified the importance of agriculture and the role it plays in their lives, specifically their involvement on a dairy or ranch of an AgSource or Genex member,” states Terri Dallas, CRI Vice President of Information & Public Relations. “The pool of strong applicants was impressive, and their dedication to agriculture is humbling.” Laura Jensen is the daughter of Neil and Janice Jensen, members of Genex. She has an active role on her family’s dairy, Idle Gold Farm, and is currently attending the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities where she studies animal science with an emphasis in dairy production. Jordan Siemers is the son of Dan and Janina Siemers, members of AgSource Cooperative Services. He applies his agricultural experiences at Siemers Holsteins while pursuing a degree in animal science with a dairy management concentration from Cornell University. Lars Schilderink is the son of Laurens and Ilona Schilderink. He gained agriculture experience in cattle production while working for Genex members Spandet Dairy LLC and Spandet Heifer Yard. This fall, he will attend California Polytechnic State University where he will study agribusiness. Stetson Ellingson, the son of Genex members Chad and Julie Ellingson, is attending Bismarck State College while serving as a State FFA Officer. He plays an active role in cattle health and production on his family’s ranch, Ellingson Angus.
Collegiate Scholarship 2016 Recipients
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities
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Jordan Siemers Cornell University
California Polytechnic State University
Morley Named MOFA Global COO MOFA Global announces Dave Morley as Chief Operating Officer, with the retirement of company founder Ludwig Simmet. MOFA Global, a sister subsidiary to Genex, is a leading provider of assisted reproduction technologies for porcine, bovine, equine and canine. “Dave’s training, manufacturing experience and involvement in employee programs make him an excellent COO choice,” states Doug Wilson, CEO of Cooperative Resources International (parent company of Genex and MOFA Global). “His experience and dedication, coupled with mentoring by Simmet, will enable MOFA Global to continue leading the industry in providing quality products and customer service throughout North America and around the globe.” Since December 2001, Dave has served as MOFA Global’s Vice President of Operations, overseeing operational aspects from purchasing and manufacturing to assembly and shipping. During his tenure, he also contributed to international marketing organization and growth, assisting with the acquisition of MOFA Global Mexico and operations at MOFA Global Canada. In addition, he helped lead building projects for both MOFA Global and the CRI International Center for Biotechnology.
Bismarck State College
IN THE NEWS
It Pays to Be a Member: Earning Cooperative Equity
Become A Delegate
Purchase Genex products and services and reap the benefits of cooperative membership and earn equity! The Genex board of directors, elected by producer members, set co-op profit goals to allow for equity retirement to the membership and investment in product development and equipment.
What’s the Time Commitment?
How do I earn equity?
Genex is a cooperative, a business owned and controlled by the dairy and beef producers who use its services. Producers who complete a membership form, submit their social security number or tax identification number, and make an annual purchase of $500 in semen, products and/or service, automatically earn equity. Equity is allocated back to each member based on the amount of business done with the co-op.
How often is equity returned?
Each year the board reviews the co-op’s tax position and cash standing to determine if equity will be revolved. The board determines the portion of the net profit to be allocated equity and the portion to be paid in cash. The board also determines the portion of annual allocated earnings to be retained by the cooperative for a period of time. This retained equity is used to finance Genex operations including product development.
In what form is equity returned?
Delegates are asked to attend two meetings per year: • Annual meeting held January 24-25, 2017, in Minneapolis, Minnesota • Fall input meetings held in October and November at locations around the U.S.
2016 Fall Delegate Meetings
October 18 – Albany, New York October 19 – Syracuse, New York October 20 – Harrisburg, Pennsylvania November 1 – Alexandria, Minnesota November 2 – Rochester, Minnesota November 8 – Atlanta, Georgia November 9 – Kansas City, Missouri November 17 – Appleton, Wisconsin November 18 – Las Vegas, Nevada
At times, equity is returned in the form of cash. At other times, equity is returned in the form of credit to the member’s account.
What happens to “my equity” if I am not a Genex member?
The net earnings from non-members is owned by Genex.
When can a member request all of their equity?
The Genex equity plan allows for immediate retirement of equity investments held by members upon notification from those who qualify: retired members age 65 or older who no longer farm, disabled members or estates of deceased members.
WHEN YOU BECOME A MEMBER OF A COOPERATIVE …
You join a group of producers who utilize Genex goods and services, democratically influence operations and mutually benefit from progress, innovations, education and equity!
F A L L 2016
IN THE NEWS
Sankey Joins Genex Beef Team
Cody Sankey of Economy, Indiana, has joined Genex as the cooperative’s new Beef Sire Procurement Manager. “We are pleased to welcome Cody to the Genex beef team,” states Brad Johnson, Genex Director of Beef Genetics, “We believe his past experiences will serve him well in this role, as he’s gained a great combination of cow sense and science-based knowledge.”
Watch for Genex Influence Bred Heifers to sell on these Superior Select Auctions. Contact your local Genex or Superior representative to consign cattle to any of these sales.
Sankey is a graduate of Oklahoma State University where he earned a bachelor’s degree in animal science and a master’s in ruminant nutrition. During his time at Oklahoma State, he also competed on a national champion livestock judging team. After college, Sankey managed the Michigan State University Beef Cattle Center for eight years and coached the university’s livestock judging team. Most recently, he worked for a livestock nutrition and animal microbiology company based in Indiana. He also serves on the Indiana Beef Cattle Association board of directors and is the second vice president of the Indiana Angus Association. Sankey is a fifth generation cattleman. He hails from Sankey’s 6N Ranch in Council Grove, Kansas, the second longest running registered Angus herd in the U.S. Today, he and his wife raise Angus and Hereford cattle and remain active in both their families’ cattle operations.
• OCTOBER 20 • NOVEMBER 17 • DECEMBER 15 Superior Livestock Auction blazes the airwave of Rural‑TV which was founded on serving rural American and providing farmers and ranchers across the country a channel solely dedicated to their way of life. Today, Rural-TV broadcast can be found on Dish Network Channel 232 and various other cable providers. For more information on Superior Livestock Auction visit www. SuperiorLivestock.com.
The Right Team, The Right Choice
Find Out First on Facebook!
Genex has long been known for the industry’s best chute-side service, most knowledgeable people and world-class beef genetics. Those are just some of the reasons Scott Schiff of Schiff Farms chose Genex to be part of his team.
Be the first to know about Genex sires, products and more. Join us on Facebook at http://bit.ly/GenexBeefFacebook for up-to-date information and sneak peaks into the cooperative. Also, follow us on Twitter and YouTube!
SIGN UP FOR THE GENEX BEEF E-NEWSLETTER
This is a great source for information on what is happening at Genex that pertains to beef. Information ranges anywhere from new bull photos to new sire acquisitions to anything happening at Genex. We invite you to learn more and stay connected with us! To sign up, scan the QR code or visit http://bit.ly/cow-sense
The Genex F
. n e p o e b o t r e h r o f d You can’t affor females pregnant. e or m t ge to s re si en Use PregCheck prov riven fertility ranking. -d ta da ly on ’s ry st du in The A .I.
FALL BEEF SPECIAL
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1AN01345 NOW LOOK
Fall Beef Special prices can be combined with the Volume Special. Utilize with the John Deere Financial beef deferral program offering 180 days with no interest and no payments. Contact your Genex representative or visit profitshop.crinet.com for current availability.
SPECIAL ENDS DECEMBER 31, 2O16
1AR00959 DEEP END
CERTIFICATES $50 NOW $40ः Certificates must be purchased by 12/31/16 for this special pricing.
F A L L 2016
DO MORE THAN
PREGNANCY CHECK By Sarah Thorson, Beef Marketing and Education Manager, Genex
For most producers, high on the fall to-do list is pregnancy checking the herd. It’s an important herd management step because, as we all know, culling the open females can lead to significant savings at the feed pile. Along with pregnancy detection, there is another important observation you should make while the pregnant female is in the chute – body condition score (BCS).
At pregnancy check you want the majority of cows in a BCS 5 or 6 for optimal reproductive performance. Visual appearance of female in BCS 5 or 6: • Outline of spine is not visible • At most, the outline of one to two ribs is visible • The outline of hip and pin bones will be visible • Little to no fat in brisket and flanks
Feeding a female into a higher BCS at calving is a losing proposition, limited by the cow’s ability to consume enough to overcome her energy deficit and the size of your feed bill. That is why body condition scoring at pregnancy check is such an important tool. At pregnancy check cows are in mid-gestation, which is one of their lowest maintenance energy requirement times, therefore it is the most economical time to add body condition.
Visual appearance of female in BCS 3 or 4: • Spine is highly visible • The outline of several ribs is visible • Hip and pin bones can be viewed • No fat in brisket and flanks
The quandary of waiting until calving to observe body condition is that a female in her early post-partum period is experiencing some of the highest maintenance energy requirements of her life. This is especially true for 2-yearolds who not only work hard to produce milk to raise their calf but are still growing themselves.
Once you have BCS score information, it is important to use it. If pasture or pen space is available, it is a good idea to group cattle by body condition. You can then manage thin females to gain condition and manage other females to maintain body condition in the most efficient manner possible.
Research tells us body condition score at calving has one of the greatest impacts on rebreeding performance. For a cow to maintain a 365-day calving interval, she must be rebred by 82 days post-calving. Cows that calve at a BCS 3 or 4, on average, exhibit first estrus at approximately 80 days post-calving, making it very difficult to maintain a one-year calving interval. On the other hand, females that calve at a BCS 5 or 6 average 55 days to first heat post-calving.1
The importance of body condition score and its role in the rebreeding efficiency of your herd should not be overlooked. After all, the success of your next breeding season is largely determined before this year’s calf crop hits the ground! References: Rasby, Rick. Body Condition Scoring Your Beef Cow Herd. University of NebraskaLincoln. Learning Modules.
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INNOVATION AND COW SENSE These sires exemplify the Genex philosophy of combining “Cow Sense and Science” and will be the next influential sires in the industry. Don’t miss out on an opportunity to use these genetics in your herd; contact your local Genex representative today.
CED BW WW YW DOC MILK MARB 13 -2.6 45 .74 .85 .80
20 0.80 0.57 50.89 94.51 .42 .47 .45
Reg. No. 17065105 CAR Efficient 534 x S A V Final Answer 0035
Effective is a customer satisfaction bull! Progeny are born easy, vigorous at birth and “made right.” Whether on commercial heifers or seedstock cows, Effective is a versatile sire and a profitable choice for any breeding program.
CED BW WW YW DOC MILK MARB 2 .59
72 119 38 .79 .70 .70
29 0.14 0.92 79.15 149.53 .28 .37 .41
Reg. No. 17633839 | Rito 707 of Ideal 3407 7075 x S A V 8180 Traveler 004
Renown is the result of the same proven and predictable mating that created Resource; he is backed by the Blackcap May cow family that leads the breed in producing A.I. sires. His progeny combine modest birth weights with phenomenal phenotypic quality, breed‑leading performance, superior structure and great disposition – truly in a league of their own.
Angus EPDs as of 8/26/16.
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PregCheck rankings as of 8/1/16.
GENEX FEATURE SIRES
CED BW WW YW DOC MILK MARB 8 .61
73 115 20 .78 .58 .39
17 0.64 0.91 65.36 106.57 .41 .60 .58
Reg. No. 16983331 Connealy Impression x S A V Final Answer 0035
One of the best all-around performance and maternal sires. Innovation offers incredible body capacity and width of base with huge testicles and a perfect disposition, while exhibiting some of the best feet in the Angus lineup. His dam and grandam are productive females that can survive harsh environments and raise big, heavy calves.
CED BW WW YW DOC MILK MARB 10 -0.3 71 122 14 .39 .44 .33 .36 .31
31 0.90 0.30 79.96 134.39 .20 .32 .28
Reg. No. 17938417 | Plattemere Weigh Up K360 x Schiefelbein Objective 980
Allied is a double-digit calving ease bull with breed-leading growth, moderate milk and top 1% $W. Powerfully designed, big-hipped and masculine with added body length and backed by a productive, young cow, he will work well on Final Answer and Bismarck influenced females.
CED BW WW YW DOC MILK MARB 18 -2.6 66 114 7 .60 .74 .63 .61 .29
24 0.23 0.58 69.91 128.78 .17 .34 .36
Reg. No. 17383988 Poss Easy Impact 0119 x ALC Big Eye D09N
Element boasts sleep-all-night calving ease, big time performance, tons of mating flexibility, mid‑range MILK EPD and high quality daughters. He sires sound, big‑ribbed progeny with tremendous style and base width. He is extremely unique in the exceptional performance and powerful phenotype he transmits for a +18 CED sire.
F A L L 2016
FEATURE SIRES These sires exemplify the Genex philosophy of combining “Cow Sense and Science” and will be the next influential sires in the industry. Don’t miss out on an opportunity to use these genetics in your herd; contact your local Genex representative today.
GM CED BW WW YW MILK MARB
88 151 .34 .37
1.17 0.60 .31 .24
Reg. No. 3494198 | Leachman Pledge A282Z x Beckton Nebula P P707
A highlight of the 2016 Hueftle Cattle Company sale, Declaration was the phenotypic standout of the leading sire group by Leachman Pledge. Declaration comes in a 6+ frame, packed with muscle and power, yet is attractive and correct. Top performance breeders will utilize his unique pedigree.
GM CED BW WW YW MILK MARB
10 -1.6 57 .30 .33 .28
0.92 0.16 .24 .24
Reg. No. 1689751 | Andras Fusion R236 x Basin Trend Setter 6074
Federalist is a dark red, outcross sire that offers calving ease, solid phenotype and balanced EPDs. He is an ideal prospect to add maternal strength, depth of rib and foot quality.
1SM00150 True Justice
CED BW WW YW
MM DOC MB
14.4 0.1 83.6 131.0 23.8 10.4 -0.01 -0.053 1.11 130.8 81.5 .47 .64 .41 .44 .26 .15 .40 .21 .30
Reg. No. 2878160 | BDV True Grit 11X x MLC Mr Justice W744
True Justice has low birth weight and calving ease potential, with a set of EPDs that read extremely well all the way across the data line. True Justice should sire a bit more frame and volume, on a good foot. Homozygous Black, Homozygous Polled.
CED BW WW YW MILK REA MARB $BMI $CHB 3.3 1.5 .36 .36
27 0.66 0.45 .61 .46 .46
Reg. No. 43214415 | NJW 73S M326 Trust 100W ET x Feltons Legend 242
A low birth weight Trust son that sires heavily pigmented, soft-made and square‑hipped daughters. Maternally, he is backed by a cow with a superb production record and breed-leading EPDs for udder quality. Homozygous Polled.
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SPLIT-TIME A.I. to Optimize Timed Artificial Insemination
Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) programs call for A.I. to be performed at a specific time following prostaglandin (PG) administration. For instance, research has shown that following the 14-day CIDR‑PG protocol for heifers, the pregnancy rate is highest when A.I. is performed 66 hours after PG administration. However, I also know that not all heifers express estrus prior to FTAI. For that reason, all heifers enrolled in the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol are given gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) at the time of A.I. Still, research has shown that pregnancy rates are 27% lower among females that do not express estrus prior to FTAI.1 That’s a significant number. This all makes me wonder, is that so-called “fixed-time” right for all females? Could timed A.I. pregnancy rates be improved for females not expressing estrus prior to the appointed time for FTAI? These were questions University of Missouri researchers aimed to answer.
University of Missouri researchers have developed an alternative approach to manage timed insemination of cows and heifers that have not expressed estrus prior to FTAI. This approach, known as split-time A.I., delays insemination of non-estrous females until 20 to 24 hours after the scheduled time. Split-time A.I. improved timed A.I. pregnancy rates among beef replacement heifers following the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol2 and among mature beef cows following the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol.3,4 Use of split-time A.I. following these protocols is diagrammed in Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1: 14-d CIDR-PG protocol for heifers with split-time A.I. Figure 1. 14-day CIDR-PG protocol for heifers with split-time A.I.
GnRH Non-estrous Heifers
A.I. Estrous Heifers
A.I. Remaining Heifers
…66 hr… …20–24 hr…
Figure 2. 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol for cows with split-time A.I. Figure 2. 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol for cows with split‑time A.I.
GnRH Non-estrous Cows GnRH
A.I. Estrous Cows
A.I. Remaining Cows
…66 hr… …20–24 hr…
10 Treatment Day
See pages 84 and 85 of the 2016 Beef Genetic Management Guide for heifer and cow synchronization protocols.
F A L L 2016
Estrus Detection Aids
To identify animals that have not expressed estrus, ESTROTECT ™ estrus detection aids can be applied at the time of the final PG administration. ESTROTECT patches are designed with a scratch-off coating that is removed progressively as an animal in heat stands to be mounted. Because of this design, producers can have a high degree of confidence about the estrous status of females. In split-time A.I., an animal is considered as having expressed estrus when more than 50% of the scratch-off coating has been removed from the ESTROTECT patch (Figure 3). Figure 3. Determining estrus expression using ESTROTECT patches.
In field trials conducted by the University of Missouri, pregnancy rates of non-estrous females were improved 16% by delaying insemination 20 to 24 hours. Tables 1 and 2 compare data from field trials using split-time A.I. and FTAI in heifers and cows.2,4 Table 1. Pregnancy rates of heifers following the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol
Pregnancy Rate Estrous Response Estrous by 66 hours Non-estrous by 66 hours
Estrous by 90 hours
Non-estrous by 90 hours
Split-Time A.I. 56%
Percentages within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05)
Table 2. Pregnancy rates of mature cows following the 7-day CO‑Synch + CIDR protocol
Split-time A.I. and GnRH
In addition to offering improved pregnancy rates compared to FTAI, split-time A.I. allows for a reduction in GnRH use. Administration of GnRH was not found to be required for cows or heifers with activated ESTROTECT patches at A.I.5 Therefore, insemination can be performed without GnRH administration for cows and heifers that have expressed estrus prior to the standard breeding time, as well as for cows and heifers that expressed estrus prior to the delayed time point. Questions still remain as to the effectiveness of GnRH administration in non-estrous heifers6; however, it is currently recommended that GnRH be administered to both cows and heifers that have not expressed estrus by the delayed time point.
The 14-day CIDR-PG and 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocols have been extensively evaluated in heifers and cows, respectively, and timing of estrus expression following these protocols is very consistent. However, the proportion of heifers and cows expressing estrus prior to the standard breeding time is somewhat variable, as estrus expression is influenced by the cyclicity rate of the herd and other factors, such as weather. The extent to which pregnancy rates are improved using split-time A.I. compared to FTAI likely varies based on the proportion of cows and heifers expressing estrus prior to 66 hours. Typically, 30-50% of mature cows and 20-40% of heifers fail to express estrus prior to 66 hours after PG following the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR and 14-day CIDR-PG protocols, respectively.
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Estrous by 66 hours
Non-estrous by 66 hours
Estrous by 90 hours
Non-estrous by 90 hours
Split-Time A.I. 58%
Percentages within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05)
Potential improvements in pregnancy rates appear to be dependent on estrus expression occurring during the 20- to 24-hour delay period. Large data sets for timing of estrus expression in heifers following the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol suggest a sizable proportion of the synchronized group of heifers express estrus during this delay period (Figure 4). Interestingly, further consideration of these results suggested that pregnancy rates achieved using split-time A.I. were similar to those achieved when A.I. was performed based on detected estrus over a six-day period. In results from the University of Missouri, 55% of both heifers and cows that had failed to express estrus by 66 hours after PG went on to express estrus by the time delayed A.I. was performed. Split-time A.I. has not been evaluated extensively with protocols other than those described here. Because the timing of estrus expression varies from protocol to protocol, it is unknown whether pregnancy rates to split-time A.I. are improved over FTAI following the administration of other protocols.
Figure 4: Timing of estrus expression for beef heifers following the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (Leitman et al., 2009a; Leitman et al., 2009b; Mallory et al., 2010)
Figure 4. Timing of estrus for beef heifers following the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol. 5
Estrus Expression (by 6 hour intervals) 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15
74% exhibited estrus 0-66 hours
14% exhibited estrus 66-90 hours
5% exhibited estrus >90 hours
18 -2 4 24 -3 0 30 -3 6 36 -4 2 42 -4 8 48 -5 4 54 -6 0 60 -6 6 66 -7 2 72 -7 8 78 -8 4 84 -9 0 90 -9 6 96 -1 02 10 210 8 10 811 4 11 412 0 12 012 6 12 613 2 13 213 8
Interval after PG administration (hours)
When using split-time A.I. rather than FTAI, two additional costs are incurred: the cost of the ESTROTECT estrus detection aids and the cost of the additional labor for animal handling at the delayed time. However, cost savings are realized for the GnRH product because animals with activated estrus detection aids do not require GnRH administration. Total estrous response when using split-time A.I. is frequently 85% or higher (see cumulative response by 90 hours after PG in Figure 4). Therefore, the cost associated with GnRH administration is likewise reduced by 85% or more. This GnRH cost savings alone typically offsets the ESTROTECT and additional labor costs. Most importantly, the increase in pregnancy rates (generally an increase of 5% or more for the synchronized group overall) using split-time A.I. offers additional value to producers, as markets have shown heifers carrying an A.I. pregnancy command higher prices than those carrying a natural service pregnancy Table 3 presents a cost scenario in which split-time A.I. rather than FTAI is used for 100 heifers. For the additional animal handling, labor costs are estimated based on four people working two hours at $10 per hour, for a total of eight man-hours. Estrus detection aids can range in price based on the quantity purchased but are estimated at $1.30 per patch in this analysis. Cost of GnRH product likewise varies based on manufacturer and quantity purchased, but is estimated at $3 per dose in this analysis. Conservatively, use of split-time A.I. can be expected to achieve five or more additional A.I. pregnancies per 100 head. In this analysis, the value of an A.I. pregnancy is assumed to be $211, based on the average premium associated with heifers carrying an A.I. versus natural service pregnancy among heifers selling in the Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program from 2010 to 2015.
Table 3. Example cost scenario of the value of split-time A.I. versus fixed-time A.I. for a group of 100 heifers
Additional A.I. pregancies
Timed A.I. pregnancy rates can be optimized through use of a split-time A.I. approach following administration of the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol for heifers and the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol for mature cows. ESTROTECT estrus detection aids applied at the time PG is administered allow producers to determine the estrous status of females and inseminate at an optimal time. Moreover, split-time A.I. facilitates a reduction in GnRH use, as producers can limit GnRH administration to only those females that have not expressed estrus by the time of delayed insemination. References: Perry and Smith. ARSBC Proceedings 2015;208–32. 2. Thomas et al. J Anim Sci 2014;92:4189–97. 3. Thomas et al. J Anim Sci 2014;92:1745–50. 4. Bishop et al. Theriogenology 2016;86:1102–1110. 5. Bishop et al. J Anim Sci 2016;94, E-Suppl. 5:523. 6. Bishop et al. J Anim Sci 2016;94, E-Suppl. 5:524.
Adapted with permission from University of Missouri Extension
F A L L 2016
H20 + K + NA =
By Suzanne Lois, Resale Product Advisor, Genex
A rocket scientist I am not, but I can say without a doubt the most important nutrient to sustain the life of any animal is the most basic nutrient: water (H20). Cattle can survive a period of time without feed but need water to maintain many of their basic bodily functions such as: regulation of body temperature, rumen function, waste removal, use of nutrients (protein/energy/minerals), the nervous system, digestive system (lower gut), growth, reproduction, lactation and the list goes on and on. With that being said, feedlot managers know water intake is key to the success of getting new calf arrivals off to a positive start. If you can get a calf to drink within the first few hours of arrival, generally feed intake at the bunk will follow. But is it just water intake we need to address, or are there other nutrients that are key components to a healthy start in the feedlot?
The Effects of Transporting Cattle
The shrink on transported cattle, including calves, can be as high as 0.61 percent of body weight for every 100 miles they are transported, with 53 percent accounted for by the body and 47 percent from digestive tract water loss.1 Water isn’t the only nutrient they are losing. When cattle are hauled distances or put under stressful conditions, they lose sodium (Na) and potassium (K) – two key electrolytes required by cattle to maintain hydration in the cells of their body. Not only do calves lose potassium when hauled long distances, research indicates cattle under stress (i.e. new environment, pecking order, new diets) have an increased requirement for potassium by 20 percent.2
F A L L 2 0 16
Encouraging Water Consumption
So, how can one replace these two key electrolytes to maintain normal bodily functions, which in turn can help promote a healthy immune system? Supplementing these electrolytes in the drinking water is the most prudent method of delivery. Water consumption and the intake of electrolytes are not mutually exclusive. Water consumption is driven by the electrolytes, and electrolytes need the water to hydrate the cells in the calf’s body. It is also about location, location, location. A percentage of calves will walk the fence line when first unloaded off the truck, so water tanks set out along fence lines will attract calves faster than those placed in other locations. Like most herd animals, cattle are “monkey see, monkey do.” If a group finds the water and starts drinking, the rest of the pen will follow suit.
Key Ingredients in an Effective Electrolyte
There are many electrolyte products on the market. When choosing an electrolyte, look for these key ingredients as well as guaranteed levels on the feed tag. Potassium source: This should be at a high level. The most common source is potassium carbonate followed by potassium chloride, both which are readily available sources. Potassium carbonate works okay for use in TMR (total mixed ration) diets but is not palatable when mixed it in water. Potassium chloride is very palatable, mixes into solution easier and will not cake like cement in a bag. Potassium chloride clumps like baking soda when exposed to air moisture but still easily breaks back down when put in water.
Magnesium source: Magnesium is an important mineral required for potassium and calcium absorption across cell walls. These two minerals cannot work effectively at the cellular level without each other. Sodium source: Sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate are both good sources of sodium in a cattle electrolyte. Sodium along with potassium are the two most important electrolytes needed in the hydration of the animal. Bicarbonate also helps buffer the rumen. Glycine: This is a key amino acid required for the cells to uptake the potassium and sodium they need. Other ingredients: Vitamins are always important for animals under stress as they play a key role in how a calf’s immune system responds. Vitamins in an electrolyte are insurance for a calf not eating the required daily amount. Niacin, a B vitamin, is normally synthesized by the microbes in the rumen and doesn’t need to be fed on a routine basis. However, the normal rumen flora dies rapidly when cattle are stressed and not eating normally. Supplementing niacin in an electrolyte can help stimulate appetite, which helps the transition of microbes in the rumen.
How Long Do You Provide Electrolytes to Arrival Calves?
The best answer I can give is, “Let the calves tell you!” The amount of time can vary from operation to operation, along with weather conditions such as extreme heat or extreme cold. As feedlot managers, you can tell when calves are off to a good start or are struggling with daily dry matter intake.
The cheapest key nutrient on any feedlot is water. Why not use this resource and maximize its benefits by placing it in the right location and providing an electrolyte to encourage maximum water consumption? It’s not rocket science; it’s just H20 + K + Na = positive results. References: Brownson, R. (1986). Shrinkage in Beef Cattle. Beef Cow Management. Michigan State Univ. Coop Ext. Service Bulletin, E-1632.
Dr. Shane Gadberry and Dr. Tom Troxel (n.d.). Stocker Cattle Management: Receiving Nutrition. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Univ. Arkansas Division of Agriculture, FSA3062.
Palatability: If the product you choose doesn’t attract calves to the water tank, the label ingredients mean nothing.
HEAT STRESSED CATTLE? DON’T SWEAT IT! RumiLife™ Electrolyte M™ is a complete electrolyte package. It contains: High levels of potassium and sodium for quick replacement Glycine to aid in the cellular uptake of potassium and sodium Three added energy sources: dextrose, sucrose and lactose Vitamins A, D and E Niacin: a B vitamin that promotes appetite RumiLife Electrolyte M is also highly palatable. The aroma of the milk flavoring attracts and promotes water consumption.
F A L L 2016
NEW ACQUISITIONS 1AN01381 YON
SWAMP FOX C649 Reg. No. 18176611 S A V Final Answer 0035 Yon Final Answer W494 Yon Sarah N170 Yon Saluda X419 Yon Sarah A537 Yon Sarah X623 S A V Final Answer 0035, Paternal Grandsire
A next generation calving ease prospect with so much more! Swamp Fox is ideal for producers in search of a bigger‑framed, slick-haired bull with calving ease potential. He boasts outstanding Marbling and Docility, as well as solid growth traits. CED
17 -2.8 55 110 0.28 .39 .44 .33 .36 .32
0.68 0.095 59.56 85.51 39.47 131.28 .30 .33 25%
INTRIGUE 4407 Reg. No. 18035241 Connealy Impression Connealy Imprint 8317 Ellina of Conanga 868 7127 S A V Bismarck 5682 Buford Elba 9000 S A V Elba 4436 Buford Elba 9000, Dam
Intrigue is a bull whose name fits him perfectly. He uniquely combines exceptional depth of rib and muscle with a CED that ranks him in the top 2% of the breed. This bull is backed by tremendous cow power; his dam, Buford Elba 9000, is one of the most productive daughters of Bismarck.
15 -0.2 59 101 0.23 .35 .39 .31 .34 .35
25% 15% 20%
0.76 -0.017 58.72 62.05 48.28 99.19 .30 .32
ROLLING THUNDER 5531 Reg. No. 18276104 Baldridge Kaboom K243 KCF Connealy Thunder Parka of Conanga 241 WMR Timeless 458 HCC Lucy 3531-O186 Basin Lucy 9068 Connealy Thunder, Sire
Look to this next generation Thunder son to incorporate the calving ease, fleshing ability and maternal ability his sire is so widely known for, in addition to added growth and carcass merit. A unique prospect with great potential to infuse early, rapid growth without adding mature size and weight. CED
F A L L 2 0 16
59 109 0.16 .33 .37 .40
0.3 -11.12 .24
0.77 0.077 65.59 60.06 27.90 118.58 .32 .35 15%
Angus EPDs as of 8/26/16 ©2016 CRI
Reg. No. 3494198
LSF Nextpectation 0083X Leachman Pledge A282Z LCOC Zara TG004 Beckton Nebula P P707 HXC190Y HXC Jaylo LB136
A highlight of the 2016 Hueftle Cattle Company sale, Declaration was the phenotypic standout of the leading sire group by Leachman Pledge. Declaration comes in a 6+ frame, packed with muscle and power, yet is attractive and correct. Top performance breeders will utilize his unique pedigree. HB
120 57 20%
RED ROCK 5033
Reg. No. 3471552
HPG CEM STAY
1.17 -0.10 .31 .25
0.60 -0.050 .24 .35
Beckton Nebula P P707 Brown JYJ Redemption Y1334 JYJ Ms Jolene W16 Red Crowfoot Ole’s Oscar C-T Verdi 1030 CTDB Verdi 904
Red Rock has caught the attention of cattlemen with his unique combination of genetic and phenotypic merit. Certain to follow in the footsteps of his world-renowned sire, Red Rock brings a cool maternal pedigree twist from his Ole’s Oscar x Elway dam. Look to this next-step, cow-maker prospect for explosive growth to a year of age, without increasing mature cow size. HB
12 -5.7 .31 .42
HPG CEM STAY
Reg. No. R10292605
0.14 0.010 .27 .28
Newt of Brinks 302P16 Suhn’s Advantage 331T5 Suhn’s Miss BT 331R8 Csonka of Brinks 30R4 Suhn’s Miss Csonka 919A11 Suhn’s Ms Next Step 919T2
Advantage excelled in one of the most demanding performance Brangus programs in the nation. Look to this all around prospect for calving ease, IMF and REA, as well as a deep-bodied, powerfully constructed phenotype.
Summer 2016 EPDs
1RB00109 MBJ RED
Reg. No. RR10313440
TK Kid Rock 1U2 TK Kiddo 1101Y2 Miss TK Mercury 1101N3 Sureways Legacy MR 060S MBJ Legacy Fortune 266XY Sureway’s Sureoak Ms 266F
Braxton blends the genetics of the most widely recognized sires in the breed, Rocky Street and Legacy. Use Braxton to add depth of body, muscularity and eye appeal without sacrificing real world function. Genetically and phenotypically, he offers qualities that will appeal to purebred and commercial breeders. CED
F A L L 2016
Genex Cooperative, Inc.
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