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GLASGOW AND THE CLYDE VALLEY STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AUTHORITY

WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK PROPOSED METHODOLOGY March 2010


Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010

Contents The Glasgow and Clyde Valley area ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ii Introduction������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1 Background 1 Context 2 Landscape Studies 3 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) 3 Current Situation 3 Methodology������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������4 Introduction ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������4 Stage 1 Areas of Significant Protection����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5 International and National Designations ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5 Green Belt������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5 Cumulative Impacts and Landscape Capacity������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������6 North Lanarkshire / South Lanarkshire������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7 Stage 2 Other Relevant Constraints ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������8 Regional and Local Heritage Designations������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������8 Historic Environment �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������8 Tourism and Recreation Interests�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������8 Communities �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������8 Aviation and Defence�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������9 Broadcasting Installations��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 Stage 3 Broad Areas of No Significant Constraint ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 Other Natural Heritage Interests������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 Project Viability ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Grid������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 Soil������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 Stage 4 Identifying Broad Areas of Search ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Criteria-based Policies��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 Conclusion������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Timescale ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13 Consultation Period ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 14 Figure / Maps

Figure 1 Methodology

Map 1 Map 2 Map 3 Map 4a Map 4b Map 5 Map 6

Existing and Consented Wind Farms in GCV Areas of Significant Protection (Stage 1) Existing, Consented and Planning Applications for 20+ MW Wind Farms Other Relevant Constraints (Stage 2) Aviation Constraints (Stage 2) Remaining Areas of No Significant Constraints (Stage 3) Broad Areas of Search (Stage 4)

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010

The Glasgow and the Clyde Valley area

West Dunbartonshire East Dunbartonshire Inverclyde Glasgow City Renfrewshire

North Lanarkshire

East Renfrewshire

Constituent local authorities of the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan Authority

South Lanarkshire

Area covered by the Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Plan

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Introduction

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Background 1

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A review of the Technical Report (TR) 8/06: Renewable Wind Energy in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley has been carried out as part of the preparation for the Main Issues Report (MIR) for the Strategic Development Plan (SDP). The review will help inform judgements on future wind farm development proposals and aims to provide strategic background information for decisionmaking. This report has several functions, namely to;

 review the previous Technical Report (TR 8/06) Renewable Wind Energy in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley;  describe the methodology used; and  provide guidance on how renewable wind energy issues could be dealt with throughout the Strategic Development Plan area. 3

This report is aimed at:

 the eight constituent local authorities of the GCV SDP area;  developers and professionals;  communities and interest groups.

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As well as TR 8/06 identifying potential areas for wind farm development over 20MW in size, there are also separate key studies that have been taken into account in this study:

 a wind farm location study completed for SNH covering GCV and Ayrshire areas by Land Use Consultants (March 2004);  Landscape Sensitivity and Capacity for Wind Farm Development in South Lanarkshire (2005) by consultants ASH;  The Capacity of the North Lanarkshire Landscape to Accommodate Wind Turbine Development by consultants Ash, October 2008;  South Lanarkshire Spatial Framework and Landscape Capacity Study for Wind Farms (Draft) by consultants Ironside Farrar, April 2009;  Inverclyde Interim Supplementary Planning Guidance for Wind Farms March 2010  South Lanarkshire Local Plan Supplementary Planning Guidance: Renewable Energy Jan 2010; and  North Lanarkshire Supplementary Planning Guidance Note Assessing Wind Farm Applications Public Consultation, Winter 2009. 5

The primary aim of the methodology and technical review is to identify broad areas of search for strategically significant wind energy development and this is defined as an output capacity of over 20MW. The siting of smaller wind developments is a matter for the individual local authorities. However, it is recognised that there is a large number of wind farms that fall under the 20MW threshold. Together, these may cause a cumulative impact that is strategically significant. This will be discussed later in this report.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Context 6

The Scottish Government has set a target of meeting 50% of electricity demand to be supplied from renewable resources by 2020, with an interim milestone of 31% by 2011.

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Planning authorities are responsible for determining applications for wind-farm developments which are below a generating capacity of 50MW. Where there is an output of 50MW or more, applications are determined by the Scottish Government under Section 36 of the Electricity Act 1989.

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Having identified areas requiring significant protection and areas that have other potential constraints on wind farm development, planning authorities are required to identify areas of search where there are no significant constraints on development. It is, however, recognised that these areas of search may have further constraints, including:

 other natural heritage interests;  project viability, including wind speed, site access, ground suitability and other environmental factors; and,  grid capacity.

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The Scottish Planning Policy (SPP) states that planning authorities should support development of wind farms in locations where the technology can operate efficiently and environmental and cumulative impacts can be satisfactorily addressed. Development plans are required to provide a clear indication of the potential for development of wind farms of over 20MW and set out criteria that will be considered in deciding wind farm applications. This Technical Report sets out recommended criteria for consideration by the constituent authorities in assessing wind farm applications.

10 The Third Alteration to the 2000 Glasgow and Clyde Valley Structure Plan became operational in April 2008 and Strategic Policy 8b) support developments within the potential areas of search identified on Diagram 22 Renewable Energy. These areas are located on the southern and eastern edges of the structure plan area. The supporting text for Strategic Policy 8b) clarifies the potential areas of search should be subject to further evaluation of the strategic sensitivities and detailing through the local planning process eg in terms of their scale and cumulative impact, including on adjoining council areas.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Landscape Studies

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

11 The ability of any area to accommodate development is affected by the capacity of its landscape. The first study to tackle this issue in the GCV area and the study which underpins most, if not all, of the subsequent landscape capacity studies is the SNH commissioned Ayrshire and Clyde Valley Windfarm Landscape Capacity (March 2004). It sets out the results of a study carried out by Land Use Consultants and explores the implications of wind farm development in Inverclyde, Renfrewshire, East Renfrewshire and North and South Lanarkshire, as well as North, South and East Ayrshire. The subsequent consultants studies outlined in paragraph 4 above were used to inform current draft Supplementary Guidance by Inverclyde, North Lanarkshire and South Lanarkshire councils.

14 This consultation report merely seeks comment on the appropriateness of a proposed methodology for the SDP and provides an indication of the likely spatial outcomes of applying this approach. This process will be further refined as the preparation of the SDP progresses and the proposals emerging from this and other relevant consultation documents and issues reports will be subject to the full SEA process along with the other elements of the SDP. Current Situation 15 The existing and emerging pattern of wind energy development within GCV, shown on Map 1, is dominated by several large schemes, namely:  Clyde, South Lanarkshire;

12 The SNH study sought to identify landscape areas that it considered most sensitive to wind farm developments and which should be conserved as well as landscape areas that are less sensitive to wind farm development and might therefore be considered as potential areas for development. The study is based on analysis of regional landscape character areas previously identified through the SNH national programme of landscape character assessment. It is important to note these character areas can cover extensive areas, particularly in upland landscapes. Each regional character area has been assigned a ‘sensitivity score’.

 Muirhall, South Lanarkshire;  Hagshawhill, South Lanarkshire;  Dungavel, South Lanarkshire;  Black Law, South Lanarkshire, North Lanarkshire and West Lothian;  Whitelee, South Lanarkshire, East Renfrewshire and East Ayrshire.

13 Subsequent landscape capacity studies have tended to refine the regional landscape character categories using a more localised, less broad brush approach.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Proposed Methodology

Figure 1 Methodology

Introduction 16 This Technical Report partially follows the methodology proposed in PAN 45 Annex A and sets out a process for a spatial strategy based on constraints mapping and the identification of broad areas of search (summarised in Figure 1). This report will establish broad areas of search that will be subject to more detailed local site analysis, including assessment of cumulative impact and landscape capacity.

Stages in the preparation of wind farm guidance Stage 1 Identify areas of significant protection  international and national designations  Green Belt nb Cumulative impact is not assessed at the regional level

Stage 2 Identify other constraints and policy criteria suggestions  historic environment  tourism and recreational interests  communities  aviation, defence and broadcasting interests Stage 3 Remaining Areas of No Significant Constraint Stage 4 Broadly identify areas of search

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Stage 1 Areas of Significant Protection 17 This first part of the sieving process involves identifying areas that may be unacceptably compromised by the location of a wind farm and includes the two factors outlined in Figure 1 above. International and National Designations 18 Internationally and nationally recognised environmental resources are protected from inappropriate development, including large scale wind farms, and such development should be directed away from these designations and any adjoining sites which might impact upon them. Development proposals which are likely to have a significant effect on Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs) (collectively known as Natura 2000 sites) are required to undertake an ‘Appropriate Assessment’ of the conservation interests for which the area is designated.* 19 The areas identified under Stage 1 are listed below and shown on Map 2. International Designations Special Protection Areas (SPAs) Special Conservation Areas (SACs) Ramsar Sites National Designations National Scenic Areas (NSAs) Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) National Nature Reserves (NNRs) National Parks

Green Belt 21 Green Belts are designated for the purpose of managing the growth of a town or city in the long term. The GCV Green Belt is a valuable resource which plays a crucial role in the delivery of the Green Network by protecting and giving access to open space within and around towns. It also protects and enhances the character, landscape setting and identity of settlements. However, it is recognised that the objective of Green Belt designation is not to prevent development from happening, only to manage its location and avoid certain negative consequences. The SDP is expected to establish the need for a Green Belt, identify its broad area and set the policy for future development within it. 22 The SPP states that appropriate development within the Green Belt includes:  development associated with agriculture, forestry and horticulture, including the re-use of historic agricultural buildings;  recreational uses that are compatible with an agricultural or natural setting; and  other uses appropriate to the character of the area.

It can therefore be assumed that under certain circumstances, wind energy development may be appropriately located in the Green Belt. The current GCV Green Belt is defined by each local authority and each has the responsibility to identify what development is appropriate to a Green Belt location. The current GCV Green Belt is indicated on Map 2.

20 The policy criteria for assessing proposals is concerned with the potential effects on the interests which the designation is intended to protect. Development should only be permitted where the objectives of the designation and the overall integrity of the area will not be compromised or have any significant adverse effects on the qualities for which the area has been designated.

* Further information: www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/06/02093425/0

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Cumulative Impacts and Landscape Capacity 23 Scottish Government advice (the SPP and Planning Advice Note (PAN) 45 Annex A) identifies cumulative impact and landscape capacity as being critical to the process of assessing the suitability of the location of wind energy development proposals. When considering cumulative impact, planning authorities are required to take account of existing wind farms, those which have permission and valid applications for wind farms which have not been determined. 24 Assessing cumulative landscape and visual impacts is not straightforward and is a specialist field. Cumulative effects may be perceived when more than one wind farm is visible from one viewpoint, when several are seen during a journey and when there is a gradual increase in the number or size of wind farms over time although it cannot be assumed that a cumulative impact will necessarily be negative. 25 The Scottish Government wishes development plans to identify those areas where there are existing wind farm developments and set out, in relation to scale and proximity of further development, the critical factors which are likely to present an eventual limit to development. Determining landscape capacity and cumulative impact therefore requires detailed site analysis across the whole SDP area.

27 In the spirit of the SPP and the agreement between the GCVSDPA Joint Committee and its constituent local authorities, this report identifies those areas where there are existing wind farms. It stops short of setting out, the critical factors which are likely to present an eventual limit to development as this is considered more appropriately dealt with at an individual authority level based on local circumstances. Notwithstanding this agreement, monitoring returns show a situation whereby there are an increasing number of wind farms of less that 20MW. There is clearly a role for the eight authorities to continue working together to monitor this situation and combine local authority findings on cumulative impact at a later date. 28 Two of the GCV constituent local authorities under particular pressure from medium to large scale wind farm development. North and South Lanarkshire councils have undertaken detailed site work on cumulative impact and landscape capacity and produced supplementary planning guidance. North and South Lanarkshire have prepared supplementary guidance for their area and this guidance will form the basis for determination of proposals in these areas. For information, a brief summary of the key findings of North and South Lanarkshire’s studies is provided below.

26 There is agreement between the Joint Committee and the eight constituent authorities that the SDPA does not issue instruction on site specific issues and therefore it is not the role of this report to determine the critical factors which are likely to present an eventual limit to development. Instead, this report seeks to strike an informed balance, providing the strategic information which will underpin knowledgeable detailed analyses of cumulative impact and landscape capacity at the local authority level. The current GCV situation is illustrated on Map 3.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 North Lanarkshire

South Lanarkshire

29 A report entitled The Capacity of the North Lanarkshire Landscape to Accommodate Wind Turbine Development has been produced by consultants ASH in October 2008. The report provides a detailed understanding of landscape sensitivities within North Lanarkshire and an assessment of each landscape character area to accommodate differing magnitudes of wind turbine development. Nine levels of magnitude were considered, using a sliding scale of height and extent. By assessing likely impacts for each scenario, the assessment determined whether a particular landscape could potentially accommodate only a single turbine of a particular height, or whether there was potential for the landscape to accommodate a larger development without potentially significant adverse impact.

32 A Draft Spatial Framework and Landscape Capacity for Wind farms report has been carried out by consultants Ironside Farrar for South Lanarkshire Council in April 2009. It has determined that the upland areas have the greatest capacity for wind farm development. The assessment of cumulative effects of operational and consented development indicates that a significant part of the development capacity in the upland areas has already been occupied.

30 Of the different landscape character areas within North Lanarkshire, the report concludes that the “Plateau Moorland” landscape character area, to the south and east of North Lanarkshire, possesses the greatest potential to accommodate a range of wind turbine development. 31 North Lanarkshire Council has now produced draft supplementary guidance which is intended to provide a guide to anyone with an interest in proposals and planning applications for wind farm developments. The guidance provides a map showing the extent of the Wind Farm Areas of Search in North Lanarkshire. Four development zones are identified and each has the capacity to accommodate different ranges and scales of wind turbine developments. All proposals for wind farm development, either within or outside of the four development zones will be assessed against the criteria outline in the supplementary guidance.

33 Further capacity for development to an acceptable level has been identified in upland and lowland landscape types. Principally, this compromises the potential for discrete medium scale development in the Rolling Moorlands and Southern Uplands on the south western fringes of South Lanarkshire. 34 The Broad Areas of Search for South Lanarkshire are suitable for larger scale wind farm development without accepting fundamental change to the landscape resulting from cumulative impacts between themselves and within existing or consented windfarms. Appropriate scales of development and development criteria are specified for each area. 35 South Lanarkshire Council has produced draft Supplementary Planning Guidance which has the following objectives:  to identify potential areas of search for windfarms over 20MW generating capacity;  to develop a policy framework to guide small scale wind generation developments (under 20MW and above micro generation capacity);  to support the provision of on-site low carbon and renewable sources of micro-generation (less than 50KW capacity) 36 The guidance includes a map showing the areas of search for wind farms over 20 MW. South Lanarkshire council has undertaken detailed studies to consider landscape capacity and cumulative impact. The broad areas of search identified in South Lanarkshire in their draft Supplementary Guidance take this into account and exclude the areas judged to have reached the limits of cumulative landscape and visual impact.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Stage 2 Other Relevant Constraints 36 Having identified the areas of significant protection, the next step is to identify and describe other potential constraints. It is recognised that the identification of a constraint does not lead to a blanket restriction on development. A constraint could include any or all of the following:  historic environment;

Tourism and Recreation Interests 39 There is a danger that poorly sited and designed wind farms will affect adversely tourism and the following criteria could be useful in determining the potential impact of a wind farm proposal:  the location in relation to tourist routes, including designated cycling and walking routes;  the relative scale of recreation and tourism in the area i.e. local and national; and

 tourism and recreation interests;  communities;

 the potential positive tourism issues associated with the development.

 aviation and defense interests;  broadcasting interests; and  criteria-based policies. 37 The following constraints have been considered within the context of the GCV SDP area and where appropriate these are illustrated on Maps 4a and 4b. Regional and Local Heritage Designations 38 The GCVSDPA area contains a number of areas designated for their regional and local natural heritage value, including regional parks, Areas of Great Landscape Value, etc. Many of these are not necessarily relevant within the strategic planning context, however, those which are significant in scale are shown on Map 4a.

40 The views of tourist organisations such as local tourist businesses and VisitScotland are sought and this section will be revisited after the consultation process for the draft Technical Report. Communities 41 A separation distance of up to 2km between areas of search and the edge of settlements is recommended to guide developments to the most appropriate sites and to limit visual impact. This has been applied to the communities within the GCV area. 42 In making decisions on proposed developments, it is important to note the 2km community buffer does not imply a blanket restriction on development and does not impose an additional zone of protection around areas designated for their landscape or natural heritage value. Local authorities should take into account specific local circumstances and geography.

Historic Environment 39 The GCVSDPA area contains a number of notable historic environments and these are shown on Map 4a, including:  World Heritage Sites;  Scheduled Ancient Monuments; and  Conservation areas, designed gardens and landscapes.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Aviation and Defence 43 PAN 45 provides background advice on this topic but this is an evolving field. It is clear that large-scale wind farm proposals have the potential to impact significantly on primary, secondary or weather radar stations and thus affect public safety. Map 4b presents only a partial picture of potential constraints as National Air Traffic Service and the Ministry of Defence constraints are not mapped. Current advice from aviation and defence consultees is that documents such as this should make clear that all applications will be judged on a case by case basis and that applicants are encouraged to engage with the aviation and defence consultees at an early stage to ensure that issues are identified and resolved where feasible. The relevant consultees are National Air Traffic Service, Civil Aviation Authority, Ministry of Defence, British Airports Authority and other airport operators. 44 Wind turbines can interfere with radar systems and be a collision risk for low-flying aircraft.  In spatial terms, within the SDP area, and based upon BAA responses to wind turbine proposals, Renfrewshire, Inverclyde and West Dunbartonshire Councils are most affected by the aviation radar issue; however, developers should be aware that certain areas within the majority of GCV constituent authorities are likely to be affected by this matter. 45 The main effect of wind turbines on air-traffic control radar is due to the rotation of the blades. The radar may 'illuminate' one turbine on one sweep, then a different one on the next sweep, producing shifting radar returns sometimes referred to as 'twinkling' on the radar screen. This effect makes it more difficult for an air traffic controller to distinguish if an aircraft is passing through this airspace. Usually this only occurs when the wind development is within line of sight of the radar. A planning objection is likely for any wind energy project within 67km (37 nm) on such a line from air-traffic radar. Ground-based air-defence radar installations may lodge similar line of sight objections.

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46 Interference with radar and remote sensing is not the only problem for military aircraft. The military practice low flying for operational reasons (ground support and flying "under the radar"). Standard heights are 250 or 300 feet (Civil aircraft typically operate at 1000 feet around aerodromes except for approach and departure). Wind generators are now reaching 140m (500 feet) above ground level. This is not high compared to the normal flying height of most aircraft but for some it is. Developers are encouraged to submit pre-planning enquiries to Defence Estates. 47 Within the consultation zone shown on Map 4b, any wind turbine proposal has the propensity for turbines to interfere with the radar systems in operation at the airport and the airport authority should be consulted.  It does not automatically follow that every proposal sent for consultation within this zone will raise concerns.  Each case is assessed on its own merits against the specific circumstances with a number of key relevant factors:  visibility to the radar (intervening terrain may shield visibility);  the operational procedures and rules in force;  proximity to flight paths and the cumulative impact due to other wind turbine proposals in the area. 48 Turbines with a blade smaller that 1.1m with a blade tip no higher than 15m located more that 5km from the airport can be excluded as they are unlikely to raise issues for the airport.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 49 A further consideration for areas within a 15km radius of airports that broadly coincide with the extent of the airports obstacle limitation surfaces. Wind turbines within these areas can cause a physical obstruction to aircraft due to their height, but again this will depend on the detail of any proposal. Experience shows that site-specific technological or other mitigation solutions may be possible in the context of an application when radars are potentially affected. The Scottish Government encourages this technology-based approach where practically possible. This technical report uses the latest information from the aviation authorities and operators, but it cannot resolve matters in the absence of a specific proposal. This level of site specific detail is more appropriately dealt with at local authority level and therefore this report simply reflects the aviation and defence situation across the GCV area.

Broadcasting Installations 51 There may also be an issue with broadcast interference, however, it is for the applicant to show that they have consulted the network owners and that the latter are satisfied with the proposal. As with aviation and radar issues, it may not be possible to resolve matters in advance of a specific proposal coming forward and therefore this level of detail is more appropriately dealt with at local authority level. 52 The key characteristics of the constraints outlined above have helped identify criteria which could be helpful to local development plans policies. These are discussed in more detail below.

50 Another link with aviation is the need for warning lights which are required on onshore structures exceeding 150m in height (Technical Advice Note 8 2005). Offshore wind up to the seaward limits of the territorial water and which is 60m or more above the level of the sea at the highest tide  shall be fitted with at least one medium intensity steady red light as close as possible to the top of the fixed structure. Arrays of turbines require only peripheral machines to be lit (Directorate of Airspace Policy, 2003, The Lighting of Offshore Wind Turbines).**

** Further useful reports include: CAA Policy and Guidelines on Wind Turbines, CAP 764, Directorate of Airspace Policy, 2009 The Case against Wind Farms, Dr J. R. Etherington, 2006 edition Wind Energy and Aviation Interests, Interim Guidelines. DTI, edited by Jago and Taylor (2002)

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Stage 3 Broad Areas of No Significant Constraint 53 Having identified areas requiring significant protection and other potential constraints on wind farm development, the Technical Report has identified areas where there are no significant constraints on development. These are shown on Map 5. This map is essentially the broad areas of search at the regional level. It is recognised that within these areas of search, sites may be further constraints such as:  landscape capacity and cumulative impact;  other natural heritage interests;  project viability, including wind speed, site access, ground suitability and other environmental factors; and  grid capacity.

These factors area more appropriately dealt with at local authority level and applicants are encouraged to engage with the local authorities at an early stage to identify potential issues not dealt with in this report.

Other Natural Heritage Interests 54 Given that designated areas have already been addressed, constraints arising from these other natural heritage interests relevant to preparing the spatial framework may be limited in scope and not of strategic significance. They are therefore considered more appropriately dealt with at local authority level. Project Viability

56 Wind turbines can operate at wind speeds of 4 to 5 metres per second (around 10 miles an hour) and reach maximum power output at around 15 metres/ second (around 33 miles per hour). This report does not exclude land due to wind speed since developers assess their own technological proposal based on detailed, site specific data. Grid 57 Existing and approved grid capacity should be maximised wherever possible; however, it is recognised that grid constraints should not be used as a development constraint where renewable energy potential exists and grid constraints do not signify that an area cannot be a broad area of search. Grid capacity is not mapped in this study as it there are a large number of planned upgrades and new connections over the next 10-15 years. The issues and considerations surrounding grid capacity will be further refined following consultation with the industry. Soil 58 In terms of ground suitability, the disturbance of some soils, particularly peat, may lead to the release of stored carbon, contributing to carbon emissions. Development should be designed to minimise soil disturbance when building and maintaining roads and tracks, turbine bases and other infrastructure to ensure that the carbon saving provided by the scheme is maximised. Where relevant, applicants should provide geotechnical and hydrological information in support of applications, identifying the presence of peat at each site including the risk of landslide associated with any development work.

55 The key issues and considerations relating to project viability require consultation with the industry on the following issues:  the wind resource;  potential for access to the site and on-site accessibility;  constraints imposed by the slope of the ground; and  ground conditions and foundation requirements, including the implications of peat soils and the need for appropriate mitigation measures (see above).

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Stage 4 Identifying Broad Areas of Search 59 Stages 1 and 2 lead to the identification of broad areas of search. These have been mapped and are shown in Map 6. A couple of points are worth re-iterating at this point. Firstly, the broad areas of search identified in this report have been identified without any assessment of landscape capacity and cumulative landscape and visual impact. Determining the suitability of any particular location for wind energy development and the development of detailed assessment criteria is therefore a matter for local development plans and/or supplementary guidance. It should therefore be noted that the location of a proposed wind farm within a GCV-wide Broad Area of Search does not guarantee planning permission will be granted. 60 It is worth noting that that the identification of ‘broad areas of search’ should not imply that other areas may not be considered in the context of specific applications but in each instance, detailed guidance should be sought from the relevant local authorities.

Criteria-based Policies 61 Planning authorities are expected to support wind farm development in locations where the technology can operate efficiently and where environmental and cumulative impacts can be satisfactorily addressed. This Consultation Report seeks to provide a clear indication of the potential for development of wind farms in the GCV area and highlights criteria that could be considered by the constituent Local Authorities in deciding applications for all wind farm developments. It is recognised that such criteria will vary depending on the scale of development and its relationship to the characteristics of the surrounding area, but are likely to include:  landscape and visual impact. This involves detailed site work and is more appropriately dealt with a local authority level;  impact on the natural and built heritage. In certain instances, this may be strategically relevant. This will require further discussion with the Consultation Authorities and other interest groups following consultation on the draft Technical Report;  contribution to the development of renewable energy generation targets;  effect on the local and national economy and tourism and recreation interests;  benefits and dis-benefits for communities;  aviation and telecommunications; and  cumulative impact. This involves detailed site work and is more appropriately dealt with a local authority level.

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority


Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Conclusion

Timescale

62 This report is both a methodological and technical review of the previous Technical Report (TR) 8/06 Renewable Wind Energy in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley which accompanied the 2006 Third Alteration to the Structure Plan. It has partially followed the methodology outlined in PAN 45 Annex 2 as its frame but has stopped short of analysing local information as this is more appropriately dealt with at local authority level. It has taken account of and outlined the nature and location of the relevant strategic constraints and it has identified indicative broad areas of search as a basis of consultation on the approaching MIR with relevant stakeholders and local authorities in GVC and the adjoining areas.

65 The timescale for the consultation report is outlined below;

63 For the reasons outlined earlier in this report, the issues of landscape character and cumulative impact and local designations are more appropriately dealt with at the local level. In some cases this work has been undertaken already eg Inverclyde, South Lanarkshire and North Lanarkshire and, where appropriate this information has been taken into account. 64 The draft broad areas of search for wind farm developments of over 20MW have been identified and are shown on Map 6.

Joint working and targeted consultation

Proposed methodology and outline spatial strategy February 2010

Awareness raising

Agree search area methodology April 2010

Identifying Search Areas May - June 2010

Formal consultation

MIR and SEA September 2010

Proposed Plan and SEA March 2011

Submission of Strategic Development Plan

Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority

October 2011

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority WIND ENERGY SPATIAL FRAMEWORK  PROPOSED METHODOLOGY  March 2010 Consultation Period 66 Comments are sought on the proposed methodology by 23 April 2010 and sent to Dr Grahame Buchan Strategic Development Planning Manager Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority Lower Ground Floor 125 West Regent Street Glasgow G2 2SA or by email to consultation01@gcvsdpa.gov.uk

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Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority


Glasgow and the Clyde Valley Strategic Development Planning Authority Lower Ground Floor, 125 West Regent Street, Glasgow G2 2SA telephone  0141 229 7739  fax  0141 221 4518  email  info@gcvsdpa.gov.uk  web  www.gcvsdpa.gov.uk


Wind Energy Spatial Framework Proposed Methodology March 2010