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Science and the Environment Data Search, Collection, Processing and Analysis By: Aaron Fingar


Data  Data is defined as numbers or characters that represent measurements from the real world.  A datum is a single measurement from the real world.


Data Collection  Data Collection is the act or process of capturing raw or primary data from a single source or from multiple sources.


Data Processing  Data processing is any

computer process that converts data into information.  The process of converting information into data and also the converting of data back into information  Data processing systems manipulate raw data into information.  Can also be referred to as Information systems.


Data Analysis  Data processing when

related to science and engineering is called Data Analysis.  Focused on the highlyspecialized and highlyaccurate algorithmic derivations and statistical calculations that are less often observed in the typical general business environment.


Information Systems  An Information System is a technology implemented medium for recording and storing information or data.  Also used in analyzing this data and drawing conclusions from it.  Can be as complex as a computer or as simple as a notebook.


Raw Data  Raw data are numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices to convert physical quantities into symbols  Such data are typically further processed by a human or input into a computer, stored and processed there, or transmitted (output) to another human or computer.  Raw data is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next


Mechanical Computing Devices  Classified according to the means by which they represent data.  An analog computer represents a datum as a voltage, distance, position, or other physical quantity.  A digital computer represents a datum as a sequence of symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet.  The most common digital computers use a binary alphabet  More familiar representations, such as numbers and letters, are then constructed from the binary alphabet.


Meaning of Data  Data on their own may have no meaning, and only when contextualized (through interpretation by some kind of data processing system) may it take on meaning and become information.  For example: 5551973, a string of digits or a number, is data. When we think of this in the context of a phone number, we then have information: 555-1973 is a phone number.  In this form, the phone number is not actionable it is a phone number, but it is of no use. This information becomes knowledge when you can act on this information, either to solve a problem (for example, to call someone, whose phone number it is), or to gain insight into an issue (e.g. by noting that other phone numbers have the same exchange).


Data Processors  In data processing, a Data Processor or Data Processing System is a system which processes data which has been captured and encoded in a format recognizable by the Data Processing System or has been created and stored by another aspect of the Data Processing System


Data Processors cont.  A data processor is a specialized form of an information processing system. Its chief difference is that the inputs to a data processing system are converted from data into information by a process called encoding prior to being processed and as a result, must run the processed data through a decoding process before the information can be output from the system.


Bibliography

 http://hospitalguide.mhcc.state.md.us/Misc/glo  www.wikipedia.com  www.google.com


Science and the Environment