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Engineering SUPPLEMENT SUPPLEMENT TO THE BOTSWANA GAZETTE Wednesday 30 October - 05 november 2013

We built this city! The role of the civil engineers

MODIRI MOGENDE

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he construction, design and maintenance of major projects is centric to the development of any economy. Dams, schools, rails, roads and other purpose buildings are the conceptual works of civil engineering. The civil engineering discipline has provided for centuries the construction sector with expertise on how to go about building these projects; some have become marvels of construction ingenuity. Civil engineers oversee the total completion of major construction projects. The discipline is instrumental

in developing a country’s infrastructure as it deals with design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment that improves and increases mobility and convenience for its society. Civil engineering is premised in three concepts of construction, planning and designing, according to the United Kingdom Institution of Engineers. Civil Engineers work together with Architects and other construction engineers in order to fulfill their mandate. For a country like Botswana, civil engineering is a pivotal skill. The developmental nature of the Botswana state means

that there are constantly large infrastructural developments taking place, largely driven by the government. Botswana’s Civil Engineering profession operates under the Botswana Institute of Engineers (BIE). It is through it that civil engineers are accredited to operate. Civil Engineering has faced a lot of challenges in Botswana of late. While the country was a desolate desert in 1966, a developmental ‘speed train’ took place in the last forty seven years as roads, dams and buildings have all taken foot in the country. With that said, there has been a great deal of concerns over project delivery. While the BIE constitution

states that it aims “To ensure high standards of qualification, training, professional conduct and ethics,” large developmental projects have faced great delivery challenges that have hurt government budgeting. Leading up to 2010, several projects including the Sir Seretse Khama Airport, National Stadium, Shakawe School and Dikgathong Dam amongst others, all faced massive set backs caused by defects and other non compliance issues. Some of these projects are still yet to be completed, according to media reports. The government of Botswana has come out to complain that it

is losing millions of pula due to the lack of proper oversight on projects. While the problems in the construction sector of Botswana are wide spread as government states, civil engineers are challenged with the full delivery of the projects within reasonable expectation. It is however becoming a common occurrence for failure to deliver well complete projects. The construction sector in partnership with the government have agreed to clamp down on project failures of all kinds and this move will give civil engineering better leeway to fully deliver on their mandate.


Engineering SUPPLEMENT

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ALFA DIESEL SERVICES (PTY) LTD DISTRIBUTORS OF FIELDMARSHALL DIESEL ENGINE AND SPARES

Wednesday 30 October - 05 November 2013 The Botswana Gazette

The discipline of Electrical engineering

FOR AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL USE

For Enquiries call Tel: 267 3181652 Fax: 267 3181653

KAGO KOMANE

E

Services: • • • • • •

Borehole Drilling Borehole Cleaning Mud Pumping Quarry Drilling Sample Drilling Core Drilling

Contact us:

Lot 247, Rasesa Along Old A1 Road Tel/Fax: +267 572 84 83 Cell: +267 74 797 025 +267 76 555 075 email: kotek@hhhdrilling.com

We drill .....you pump it!

lectrical engineering is arguably the most rapidly expanding discipline globally, with hardly any aspect of life that has not been affected by it. Since its introduction, it has simplified and in some cases eliminated a lot of time consuming and harsh manual work that was initially done by man or otherwise thought impractical. The expansive field of Electrical Engineering which among others include; Electrical Power, Electronics, Telecommunications, Electrical Machines, Computer Engineering has undoubtedly transformed the way human beings work and live today and has made the world a global village in the process. Though it is not without some negative effects, today’s great reliance on electrical energy has pushed for a rapid development of industry in Botswana and around the world, and continues to offer great possibilities in advancing future developments. Many sectors in Botswana owe their success to electrical engineering. For example, commercial and dairy farming has become more feasible with the use of electrical engineering as it has contributed tremendously to its development as opposed to the traditional way of doing things. Electrical water drillers used in rural areas where there is no adequate water for consumption and commercial use have created

many agricultural opportunities while improving access to clean water. One other sector that continues to benefit from this kind of engineering in Botswana is mining because no mine in this era can operate without it. In these sectors and many other industries around the country, electrical engineering mostly covers areas such as production, manufacturing, installation and management of a range of systems and machineries that use electricity, or in some instances, generates it. With the growing demand of electric engineers in the country, there are a few institutions that offer such courses, which have emerged in Botswana over the years to meet the demand of specialist skills in the area. Botswana Training Authority accredited Vocational training institutions, such as the Faculty of Engineering and Technology at the University of Botswana (UB) and the Botswana International University of Science and Technology (BIUST) among others, offer opportunities to young people interested in the industry. However, the electrical engineering industry has not been without consequence to the environment. Today the world suffers from increased pollution and other environmental challenges caused by excessive electricity generation.


Engineering SUPPLEMENT SUPPLEMENT ENGINEERING

TThe HEBBotswana OTSWANAG Gazette AZETTE W Wednesday EDNESDAY 30 30 O October CTOBER - 05 November OVEMBER 2013

Aandee Engineering (Pty) Ltd T/A K L Cranes & Lifting Equipment We, ĂŶĚĞĞ ŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐ ;WƚLJͿ >ƚĚ dͬ < > ƌĂŶĞƐ Θ >ŝŌŝŶŐ ƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ ĂƌĞ ƉůĞĂƐĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞ ŽƵƌƐĞůǀĞƐ ĂƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ ƌĂŶĞ DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕^ƚĞĞůtŝƌĞZŽƉĞĂŶĚ>ŝŌŝŶŐƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ^ƵƉƉůŝĞƌƐŝŶƚŚĞ^ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ <͘>͘ƌĂŶĞƐΘ>ŝŌŝŶŐƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚŝƐĂ>ŽĐĂůďĂƐĞĚŽŵƉĂŶLJƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚŝŶdůŽŬǁĞŶŐĂŶĚŝƐŝŶŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐŝŶĐĞϮϬϬϲ͘dŽƵƉůŝŌĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚŝŶŽƚƐǁĂŶĂ <͘>͘ƌĂŶĞƐĞŵƉůŽLJĞĚŽƚƐǁĂŶĂĐŝƟnjĞŶƐďLJŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐƐŬŝůůƐĂŶĚĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞŝƌĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐǁŚŝĐŚŝƐĚŽŶĞƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚƌĂŝŶŝŶŐĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚǁŚŝĐŚ enable us to deliver our products and services to the following industries: Mining Industries; Engineering Industries; Transport Industries; Construction Industries; Automotive Industries; Smelting , Foundry Industries and Crane Industries. The Managing Director of K L Cranes & Lifting Equipment is registered as a LMI (Lifting Machinery Inspector) with ECSA (Engineering Council of South Africa) ref # 1200172. The employees of K.L Cranes have over 30 years’ experience in the Electrical, Mechanical, Crane and Lifting nHOGRIIHULQJWKHIROORZLQJ

PRODUCTS: Electric Chain Hoist, Chain and Lever Blocks, Tirfors, Winches, (Wire Rope Pulling Machines), Slings: GR8 Chain, Polyester Flat and Round, Steel Wire Rope; Steel Wire Rope – Cranes, general Engineering; Fibre Ropes: Manila, Polypropylene, Sisal and Nylon rope Accessories: Bow and Dee Shackles Fed Spec and Crosby, Rope Clamps, Turnbuckles, Eye Bolts and Nuts; Cargo Secure systems: Tie down straps, Lever Binders (Satan), Ratchet Load binders, CTC Chain or Gr8 Chain; Full Body Harness with double Shock Absorbing Lanyards; ^ŶĂƚĐŚďůŽĐŬƐ͕ZŽƉĞůŽĐŬƐ͕ďĞĂŵĐůĂŵƉƐ͕ĚƌƵŵůŝŌĞƌƐ͕ƉůĂƚĞ Grabs, Plain and Geared Crawls; CRANE SPARES: Rope Hoist Foot Mounted and Trolley mounted; C-Track systems and parts; Diamond track systems and parts; DSL conductor systems and parts; Pendant and pendant cables; Remote control systems; ELECTRICAL: DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞ͕ZĞƉĂŝƌĂŶĚ/ŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶŽĨƌĂŶĞŽŶƚƌŽů Panels;

AANDEE ENGINEERING (PTY) LTD T/A K L CRANES & LIFTING Equipment is the Distributor for the following Companies from South Africa

MANUFACTURES CUSTOMIZED: Design, Manufacture, Supply, Install and Maintain of the following: Overhead Cranes: EOT (Electrical Over Travel), MOT (Mechanical Over Travel) for Single and Double Girder Cranes; Gantries; Free Standing and Wall mounted Radial Jib arm Cranes; Monorail Beams; A-Frames; >ŝŌŝŶŐĂŶĚ^ƉƌĞĂĚĞƌĞĂŵƐ͖ Open and Close Man Cages; ^ƉĞĐŝĂůŝnjĞĚůŝŌŝŶŐƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ͖

AJM Engineering Services CC Demag Cranes and Components (Pty) Ltd ůĞƉŚĂŶƚ>ŝŌŝŶŐƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ;WƚLJͿ>ƚĚ Scaw Metal Group (Haggie Rand) Umholi Steel Wire Rope & Accessories (zĂůĞͬhƐŚĂDĂƌƟŶ ͬ>>ŝŌŝŶŐͿ

SERVICES, REPAIRS, PROOF LOAD TESTING AND RECERTIFICATION: Manual Chain and Lever Blocks; Electric Hoist (Rope and Chain hoist); Gr80 Chain slings; >ŝŌŝŶŐƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ^ƵƌǀĞLJƐ͖ Overhead Cranes;

Private Bag B034 Bontleng

TEL; 267 3974853 Kobus 71322445

ƵŝůĚŽŶƚƌŽůWĂŶĞůƐƚŽƵƐƚŽŵĞƌƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶƐ͖ Control Panel accessories: Travel limits, Audio alarms, Beacon lights;

Laken;71432824

FAX; 267 3974851 EMAIL; kobust@mega.bw

Gaborone, Botswana Plot 78,Tlokweng Gaborone,Botswana

tĞĐĂƌƌLJĂůĂƌŐĞƌĂŶŐĞŽĨƚŚĞĂďŽǀĞĞƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞĞdž stock. Our aim is not to be just a Manufacturer, Supplier who sells ƌĂŶĞƐĂŶĚ>ŝŌŝŶŐƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚĂŐĂŝŶƐƚƚŚĞůŽǁĞƐƚƉƌŝĐĞƐ͘ Our goal is to be a partner to the companies we work with; ǁŚŝĐŚŵĞĂŶƐĂůƐŽĂŚŝŐŚƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚĐŽŵŵŝƚŵĞŶƚŝŶĂŌĞƌͲ market sales and services. DELIVERIES: All available spares from South Africa to be delivered in 2-3 working days tĞĂƐƐƵƌĞLJŽƵŽĨŽƵƌďĞƐƚĂƩĞŶƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƐĞƌǀŝĐĞĂƚĂůůƟŵĞƐ Yours Sincerely <ŽďƵƐdŚĞƐŶĞƌĂŶĚ^ƚĂī

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Engineering SUPPLEMENT

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Wednesday 30 October - 05 November 2013 The Botswana Gazette

Telecommunications engineering in Botswana LAME MALEFHO

A

s the world moves further into a knowledge based economy, the demand and need for Telecommunications engineering is fast increasing. According to Wikipedia, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Telecommunications engineering, or telecoms engineering, is an engineering discipline that brings together electrical engineering with computer science to enhance telecommunication systems. The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities, such as complex electronic switching systems, copper wire telephone facilities, and fiber optics. Telecommunication engineering also overlaps heavily with broadcast engineering.â&#x20AC;? This discipline is fast developing in the dynamic field of technology due to the phenomenal growth in the telecommunications sector, evidenced by the penetration of internet and mobile phones in Botswana .

A telecommunications engineer often will focus on a specific area of telecommunications, such as fiber optics, networking, or circuit design. Work can range from designing microscopic processors and circuits, to designing large infrastructure projects to establishing wireless technologies or networks for an organization. As telecommunication design projects can encompass many technical disciplines, a telecommunications engineer will often work as part of a team where each engineer focuses on a specific area of a project. Typically, the telecommunications engineer who designs the infrastructure will oversee and manage the project. In Botswana, institutions such as Botswana International University of Science and Technology (BUIST) which recently opened in Palapye is one way of ensuring that, young Batswana who are interested in the areas of telecommunications engineering and other forms of technology have a place where they can learn and grow in the industry. The university offers a Bachelor of Engineering in Telecommunications

Engineering programme which has objectives of growing the Botswana technology industry as well as meets similar needs in Southern Africa as well as recognized needs around the world. In all industries there are systems and structures and for those to work

effectively there needs to be an efficient communication channel and infrastructure to insure that the systems are interlinked. For instance in the mining industry where a lot of machinery and labor is used, telecommunications management is fundamental.

All-in-one solar system pumping solution The SubDrive Solar pumping system uses existing Franklin Electric components to produce a rugged, high-output system for use in remote and harsh environments. Applications include livestock watering, game farms, rural water supply, irrigation systems and water from boreholes, rivers and dams. Features include: - High flow system - Remote telemetry capability - Built-in diagnostics and protection. Contact us for trusted brands, excellent service and world-class pumping system solutions.

Franklin Electric Botswana (Pty) Ltd Private Bag BR225, Broadhurst, Gaborone Plot 42, Gaborone International Commerce Park Tel: +267 397 4926 Fax: +267 397 4927 E-mail: infobw@fele.com Website: www.franklin-electric.com

Subdrive Solar.indd 1

2013/04/29 4:09 PM


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WE ME DN NT ESD TO AY 30 THE OC TO BOT BER S - 0 WA 5 N NA OV EM GA BER ZE 20 TTE 13

PROPERTY NT E M E L P P SU

Property Matters Investing in property is often considered the most prudent and secure investment for an individual or business, because unlike most other tangible assets, property is considered a secure high yielding investment in the long run.

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roperty is an inescapable part of life. From time immemorial human beings have always sort shelter and throughout millennia. The quest for shelter has transformed into ownership of a place and structure. The need for shelter was replaced by the concept of property, a physical structure whose intrinsic value is tied to geographic location. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no secret that property in Botswana has experienced a boom in recent years. As a finite resource, the reality is that demand was eventually going to eventually overtake supply. The concept of property ownership and investment has taken a strong foothold in Botswana and Batswana have a great appetite for

it. But how much does the average Motswana know about property ownership, and who to approach about acquiring property finance? Investing in property is often considered the most prudent and secure investment for an individual or business, because unlike most other tangible assets, property is considered a secure high yielding investment in the long run. In short, in order to make money, property is still one of the best investment opportunities that are still out there because it appreciates with time. Gaboroneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s whirlwind landscape transformation has seen the city rated as one of the fastest growing cities of

the world, so how can one get a piece of the pie? Property investment is no longer as scary a concept as it once was; technical words and graphs are now being toned down to communicate to the investor who has the money but doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know what to spend it on. Banks have departments that can help an individual, spouses or corporations understand what property finance is and how to go about acquiring it. As a buyer, one should know how much they can afford and what loan amount they qualify

for. The recent Property Expo held in Gaborone which is an annual event, highlighted the need for information dissemination between property experts and potential buyers and sellers. It brought together Architects and design services, property and housing developers, Financers, Banking and Insurance

services to start a conversation and encourage learning and investing in property. The large number of attendees highlight the importance of the industry and that indeed Batswana are interested in making smart investments. *Sourced from FNB Property Newsletter, Issue 4,2013


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PROPERTY SUPPLEMENT

PROPERTY TIPS 1. What should be considered when buying a home: Location and Finance? LOCATION: It is advisable to purchase the worst home in the best area, before you buy the best home in the worst area. Your neighborhood is always the deciding factor with regard to the value increase or decrease of your property. You can always improve a house that is structurally sound, so purchase a home in a favorable area, work on and improve the property. A buyer is often restricted by what they can afford; luckily a qualified and experienced estate agent will be able to properly guide you to make the best purchase. Fortunately for buyers, there are many excellent areas in Gaborone that will hold an increase in value with time. This value is obviously dependent on how the property looks after additions and improvements. FINANCE:  This is critical, taking a mortgage loan for 20 years ± is a big commitment and if you over extend yourself; you may have problems later. Often people purchase a home with the intention to rent it out,

thereby having a tenant pay the mortgage for you. In principal it seems like a good idea, but you have to allow for the gap between what a realistic rental return is and what your repayments are. You also have to consider the ongoing maintenance costs, tenants who default on payment, abandonment of utility bills and periods you have to make the mortgage re-payments when the house is empty.

2. Building your own home Unless you are financially sound, building is a dangerous option. There are too many incomplete ownerbuilt-houses  out there and you actually reduce the value of the property considerably as there is always the temptation to take shortcuts, and ‘save’ money by using substandard workers and/or materials because they are cheap.  People also tend to put very personal touches to an owner built home such as lime-green and pink kitchen cupboards, different colored sanitary ware in every bathroom, etc. If you plan to keep it forever then those finishes are ideal, but it will be a disaster if you decide to sell it one day. Obviously this does not rule out building your home with a professional building construction company. From an estate agent’s

Wednesday 30 October - 05 November 2013 The Botswana Gazette

perspective; “less is more”; the more simple quality finishes the house has, the more it will appeal to a buyer in the years to come, should you ever decide to sell the property. For example, very ornate ceilings and colored bathroom suites may be out of fashion by the time one wishes to sell.

3. Buying your home. The pros and cons PROS - If you can  afford to live in a home you own there are so many advantages. Every-time you want to make improvements or spend money on, for example;  planting and maintaining a garden, it all adds to your investment. By buying a home you now have something to trade and sell when you are in a position to afford something bigger and better.

CONS - You may over extend yourself then you can’t afford to live in it therefore the need to rent it out. Remember, if you own a home and rent it out, keep the house maintained and painted, planting trees in the garden, fixing sagging gutters,

painting the gate, making sure that the outside of the property is clean and neat. This type of care and maintenance goes a long way in improving the “appeal” value of your home. This will make it easier to find a tenant. A home that is visually attractive is a home that someone will WANT to live in.  Try to avoid putting a house on the market for rent with promises of all the things that you will be doing such as, as soon as we find a tenant we will pave the driveway, clean the pool and the house, tidy the garden, fix the silicone around the bath, etc.” It really is not appealing to go into a house even if you want to just rent it when these things are not in order. The type of person you would desire to be a tenant does not want to see a house where the carpets are stained, kitchen cupboards are dirty and the shower has a build-up of soap and grime. You reduce the chances of quickly obtaining a tenant rather than pay a professional company to give your house a good thorough clean.

Mont Catering and Refrigeration

M

ont Catering & Refrigeration is one of the companies that recently won Best Deco store at this year’s Property Expo which took place earlier this month. The Catering and Refrigeration Company started in 2003 selling air conditioners and catering equipment, more so over the years, the company has went on to expand their services and the products they sell. They sell best reliable products that range from the categories of refrigeration, catering, bakery, butchery as well as electrical equipment. “We sell Air conditioners such as Hi wall Splits, Cassette, Ducts, Chillers , Floor Standing, Ceiling & Floor air conditioners and Air curtains; Bakery equipment such as ovens, spiral mixers, bread molders, bread slicers, hydraulic dough divider: Catering equipment such as catering utensils, ice cream machines, deep fryers, sinks, gas stoves, wrapping machines, grillers, coffee makers, chafing dishes, pots, microwaves: Refrigeration equipments such as cold rooms, Display fridges, beverage coolers, ice cube machines, blowers, compressors, condensing units and refrigeration accessories;, and as well as Butchery equipment such as biltong & meat slicers, sausage fillers, mincers, meat band saw and Electrical equipment such as Standby generators, Flood lights, MCBs, inverters and so much more,” says Ishmael Masuku, Advertising and Marketing Executive at Mont Catering and Refrigeration. He goes on to add that, “at Mont Catering and Refrigeration, we always try and go an extra mile were our clients are concerned. We sell products and their spare parts, the reason being; we noticed that sometimes a client will buy an air conditioner and later when they want to service it, it becomes a problem so we decided to make their life easy by giving them the comfort of knowing that should they wish to service the air con, they can come back to Mont to buy the service kit & spare parts.” All the products sold at Mont are branded products of high quality. “Our products are branded so our clients can do a back ground check on them if they wish to see if they are legit or not. We sell only quality products. We offer after sales service and pride ourselves in good customer service” Mont offers great discounts to clients who buy in bulk and they have monthly promotions. They believe in giving back to the community which is why they saw it important to continuously fund an orphanage in Palapye as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility initiative and they hope to fund other organizations which are in dire need. “Batswana have supported Mont for close to 10years so whenever there is an opportunity to give back, we don’t shy away,” says Masuku. ‘’We are continuously striving to get good quality products from different parts of the World at a very affordable price, in order to serve Batswana & carry the country to a higher level by setting up high standard lifestyle,” he concluded.

“Always ahead for you” Tel: 3900 121 / 3918644 Email: mcr@mont.co.bw Facebook: Mont Catering-Refrigeration Twitter: @montcatering_R Web: www.mont.co.bw Fax: 3900 126


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The Botswana Gazette Wednesday 30 October - 05 November 2013

Consumer token

Introducing Prepaid public standpipes

A reliable and effective, water system for the community 1. The Water Utilities Corporation is phasing out all public standpipes in adequately serviced areas and introducing prepaid public stand-pipes in unserviced areas. 2. Register at a WUC office in your area to qualify to buy water tokens. 3. Buy your token from the Water Utilities Corporation office in your area.

Putting the power to conserve water in your hands find us on facebook Toll free: 0800 555 555


PROPERTY SUPPLEMENT

Importance of Interior Design I

nterior Design is commonly mistaken for Interior Decorating where the latter has no technical or design practices, minimal theoretic principles and is largely concerned with the interior aesthetics of a building. Interior design, on the other hand, plays a fundamental role in any space with regards to functionality. “Form follows

Wednesday 30 October - 05 November 2013 The Botswana Gazette

function” is the basic rule of Interior Design that exemplifies and encapsulates the core essence of what Interior Design is about. For example, the Interiors of even the largest space can fail due to the poor implementation of the Interior Design practice called space planning. On

the other hand, a tiny space like a low-cost house or standard 2bedroom flat can easily become a pleasant residence with basically enough space for all your possessions with the application of the right space planning. Examples of factors that can increase the success of space planning are the use of contemporary lighting and colour schematics such as wall and ceiling colour treatments. Hiring an interior designer is therefore more than just a good idea when building or renovating your home.

Interiors must be simultaneously aesthetically appealing and practical. However, what is aesthetically appealing depends on who you ask, because everyone has different tastes and needs. As a result, standard architectural plans seldom meet a client’s needs completely. In trying to save money by not including an interior designer in your initial phases of planning your building, many people make the crucial mistake of accepting unsuitable plans that don’t suit their needs and desires. As a result, they end up spending more money on alterations than they would if they had hired an Interior Designer from the project’s inception. It is often difficult to decide which Interior Design meets your needs and lifestyle the most. Most designs often don’t show the need for improvements or alterations until execution. However, an Interior Designer will help you avoid finding yourself with a newly built or renovated house that could have been done better. All Interior Designers are trained to help their clients choose a design according to their lifestyle with regards to layout, decor, lightning, modern furnishing, paint colour, etc. The extent of this advice and execution depends on what you want to leave over to an expert and how much you can afford to spend on the project. Interior Designers come at a cost, but it is far more expensive to tear down walls or build new ones after project completion.

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