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AT3: Building Study Gaven Webb 33038155


Broadcasting Place

As evidenced by the wind rose diagrams, Leeds is subject to regular, and strong winds from the South West. The tower of Broadcasting Place acts like a sail, driving the wind, down its west facade and in to the courtyard area. This creates adverse wind conditions in and around the building. Had this issue been addressed earlier, it is possible that some of this wind could have been absorbed or diverted around the building.

Due to the North / South orientation of the building, it benefits from large amounts of natural light. This is exceptionally useful from an environmental perspective, as it reduces the overall carbon foot print of the building. However, for the programming of the east low rise structure the sheer volume of natural light has resulted in the occupants installing vertical blinds to block this natural light. Had some horizontal louvres been installed to begin with, this could have eliminated the need to block the light internally, which leads to the use of electrical lighting to compensate.

Precedents Investigation Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


The buildings narrow footprint allows for the successful implementation of natural, cross ventilation. This has a marked impact upon its carbon foot-print. Along with this, the building operates automatic lighting systems that react to the users needs; turning on when a person enters a room. There is also the option to manually control these.

The facade structure employed, Cor-ten panelling over SIPs provides a tactile, and bold statement. The SIPs system provides a higher grade of insulation when compared to other methods, which in turn leads to reduced operating costs. The panelled nature of the Cor-ten allows for the replacement of the facade should any panel become damage, or when the life span of the of the panel has expired, which elongates the overall building life span.

Precedents Investigation Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


UWIC Cardiff School of Management

The UWIC Cardiff School of Management provides an interesting example in to the structural build up of a cantilevered auditorium. The steel frame provides a rigid structural framework that allows for the maximum use of internal space.

The external angled columns allows the user to see the mechanisms behind the building, and also highlights the weight of the auditorium above. The monolithic form adds to the definition of the building, clearly highlighting the various elements with in the over all structure.

Precedents Investigation Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Detailed section through structural framework of the cantilever.

Precedents Investigation Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Site Response


Summer

An existing solar study of the site reveals large amounts of solar gains though out the summer, suffering no overshadowing from surrounding buildings. This continues in the winter, although, along with the rest of Scarborough and much of the UK, the low angle of the sun causes long shadows to from even low level buildings; from this it would be reasonable to conclude that a building no taller than the existing Ferris Wheel could be built, so as to minimise overshadowing on surrounding buildings. 10:00

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Winter

Composite The buildings with rights to light are highlighted on the diagrams although this shouldn’t cause too much concern due to the distance. Taking all these in to account, the intervention would need to be aligned along the East / West axis to maximise it’s solar gains, and to limit any overshadowing during the winter months.

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Site Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Summer

During the summer, the building will have no impact upon it’s surrounding neighbours, yet this will not be the case during winter, where the building will cause a significant amount of overshadowing.

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Winter

Composite The facade of the building will need to be able to cope with the large variation of the site’s solar pattern. Due to the site’s open nature, there would need to be a substantial amount of solar shading on any glazed elements in order to prevent too much direct light from entering the building. Along with this those areas where natural lighting is less of a priority, such as toilets and fire cores, these could be placed to the north side of the building, so as to maximise use of natural lighting solutions.

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Site Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Due to Scarborough’s coastal location, it benefits from an above average minimum temperature during the winter months. This slightly higher temperature will allow for greater flexibility with in the design; effectively reducing the load on the heating systems.

The opposite side of Scarborough’s coastal nature is that during the summer, it also benefits from the ocean, which acts as a large heat sink moderating the temperatures of coastal areas from the extremes that can be found in inland areas. The ocean changes temperatures much more slowly than landmasses, and as such, influences the overall temperatures, slowing the rate of change. As a result of this, there would be no need to artificially ventilate the majority of the building as it could be done naturally.

Site Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


In comparison to the rest of the UK, Scarborough receives on average a higher number of sunlight hours per month. This would allow for a prolific use of natural lighting strategies.

With the higher level of sunlight hours in Scarborough, it follows that it would have a drier climate; in fact Scarborough has around 50% less rain than the UK average, mainly due to its east coast location. In this situation, any rain water harvesting system would not necessarily operate at 100% efficiency, and therefor might not be appropriate to implement.

Site Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Denotes Flood Warning Area

The costal location of the site does open it up to the possibility of flooding, as indicated by the diagram opposite. The proposition is situated with in the boundaries of Scarborough’s coastal defences, yet the risk of flooding is still great. The harbour is tidal, which can allow for some prediction and warning of any potential floods. Area at risk of Flooding

Site Location

Surface Run Off

As the building is situated with in the town, and close to public facilities, the drinking water will be provided by the Yorkshire Water network, which has pipes in close proximity.

Existing Water Network

Surface drainage will be achieved in much the same way as currently, with the majority of the water draining in to the harbour. Foul drainage will by connected in to the near by sewage network.

Existing Sewage Network

Site Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Spring Wind Conditions Minimum - 13km/h Beaufort Scale 2/3 (Light / Gentle Breeze) Maximum - 53km/h Beaufort Scale 6/7 (Strong Breeze Near Gale)

The site is exceptionally open, and vulnerable to the wind due to it’s location in the harbour. It is exposed to all the winds that affect Scarborough, with the exception of those from the North West, due to Scarborough Head.

Summer Wind Conditions Minimum - 12km/h Beaufort Scale 2/3 (Light / Gentle Breeze) Maximum - 43km/h Beaufort Scale 6 (Strong Breeze)

Autumn Wind Conditions Minimum - 13km/h Beaufort Scale 2/3 (Light / Gentle Breeze) Maximum - 49km/h Beaufort Scale 6 (Strong Breeze)

The proposed building would have little in the way of effect upon the surrounding buildings, as the buildings is angled towards the South West, where the wind predominantly comes from. Special attention would need to be paid towards the faced fixings as gusts of winds can be quite strong. This lends itself strongly towards Natural Ventilation.

Winter Wind Conditions Minimum - 17km/h Beaufort Scale 3 (Gentle Breeze) Maximum - 54km/h Beaufort Scale 7 (Near Gale)

Site Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Structural Response


0 - 4.5 Meters Oxford Clay

The site is situated with in the confines of Scarborough Harbour, and as such the ground has a relatively high water content, with the first 4.5 meters being made up of Oxford Clay. Given this, the use of pile foundations would be necessary to ensure a stable footing for the structure, despite its lack of height. The basement of the structure will need to be “tanked� to ensure that this water does not penetrate in to the building.

4.5 - 5 Meters Sandstone

5 - 7.5 Meters Sandstone; Pale Grey

The foundations of the building begin with the use of Replacement Piles (opposed to Displacement Piles) to the required depth, in this case a minimum of 5 meters until firmer footing is located in the sandstone layers. The tanked basement consists of an in situ concrete shell which sits within a water proof membrane. The basement walls will also have to function as retaining walls.

Structure Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


The primary structural system for the building will be steel framework, atop concrete piles. The main purpose of this is to provide the maximum amount of space with minimal support. Along with this, it provides a flexible frame work for expansion through the central atrium as the building scheme developed.

Column

Primary Beam

Secondary Beam

Another option that could have been utilised for the construction would have been to use a reinforced concrete frame work. The main drawback in using this style of system would be that it makes use of “Monstrous Hybrids” that can’t be recycled easily, which causes large environmental issues when the building reaches the end of its life span.

Slab span between secondary beam Foundation

Structure Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Dead Load Path Structural Bracing Live Load Distribution

Structure Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Precast Concrete Roof

Principle Primary Structure Span - 12 Meters

Second Floor Internal Walls

Second Floor Stell Framework

Second Floor Precast Concrete Slab

First Floor Internal Walls

First Floor Steel Framework

First Floor Precast Concrete Slab

Ground Floor Fire Cores

Ground Floor Steel Framework

Highlighting the Primary Structural System

Pile Foundations are driven in to the ground.

Basement Excavations begin.

Steel Columns are embedded in to basement reinforced concrete floors and walls.

Steel Frame work is assembled on top of the existing Steel Columns.

Fire cores and In-situ stairs are cast.

Precast Concrete Floors are placed to provide lateral bracing for the Steel Frame.

SIPs panels are attached to the Precast Concrete Floor

Cor-ten Panels and glazing systems are attached to the SIPs.

The structrure is dissassembled in the reverse order. The basement and foundations are the only elements that can not be dissassembled due to their material make up. These would need to be destroyed to be removed.

Ground Floor Precast Concrete Slab

Insitu - Concrete (Tanked Basement)

Replacement Pile Foundations

Structure Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Environmental Response


In order for the building to be as environmentally efficient as possible it will utilise a number of different strategies: The use of a Water Source Heat Pump; access to the North Sea is approximately 15 meters from the site. The use of Natural Cross Ventilation: The narrow footprint of the building (13 Meters), combined with its east / west orientation enables the utilisation of Scarborough’s windy weather. The use of Natural Lighting: Combined with the narrow, the floor to ceiling windows in much of the building, and the central atrium, permits vast amounts of natural light to enter the building. The use of Heat Recovery Systems: Along with the natural light, the atrium also acts a central chimney, drawing the warmer air up. A heat recovery system will use the heat in the outgoing stale air to heat the incoming fresh air. The use of approprate Heating, Cooling and Ventilation systems should maintain user comfort at all times, with little to no need for an user intervention. Through the use of the natural lighting systems, there will be less need for artificial lighting solutions, however the user would be able to control this manually if required. The life span of the building will mainly be dertermined by the external panel facade; approximately 35 years. However these are easily replaceable. The steel framework would have an expected life span of 80 years, and has the potential to be reused / recycled.

Environmental Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Second Floor: Bar Area - 100 lux, 18ºC - 24ºC, 40% - 55% RH, 20-30ACH Bar Area

Toilets - 300 lux, 18ºC - 22ºC, 40% - 55% RH, 4ACH

Toilets

First Floor:

DN

Auditorium - 400 lux, 20ºC - 24ºC, 40%-70% RH, 3-4 ACH (Displacement Strategy)

Conference Rooms

Conference Rooms 4-12ACH

300lux, 20ºC - 24ºC, 40%-70% RH

Auditorium

DN

Ground Floor:

UP

Programmable Space- 400 lux, 18ºC - 22ºC, 40% -70% RH, 4ACH Tourist Information

Tourist Information - 500 lux, 18ºC - 22ºC, 50% - 55% RH, 6-10RCH

Programmable Space

UP

Basement: Plant Room - 300 lux, 15ºC - 20ºC, 30% - 50% RH, 5 ACH Toilets

Toilets - 300 lux, 18ºC - 22ºC, 40% - 55% RH, 4ACH

Plant Room

Environmental Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Plant Room

Warm, stale air rises through the central atrium, through the Heat Recovery System on the roof, where its heat energy is passed on to the cool, fresh air entering the building, maintining the internal temperature. The mechanical ventilation in the Auditorium provides cool, fresh air at a steady rate, which reduces noise created through the ventilation system.

Under floor Heating and Cooling system

Mechanical Ventilation

Environmental Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Escape Core

Escape Core

Escape Core

14 Meters

DN

17 Meters Artificial Lighting system shown through Key Section.

17 Meters 10 Meters

14 Meters

Escape Core

Escape Core

DN UP

Escape Core

UP

12 Meters

10 Meters

Natural Lighting shown through Key Section. 12 Meters

Environmental Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Construction Response


Steel Beams can be in to four classes based on the method of manufacture: rolled beams, extrruded beams, welded beams and riveted beams. This structure utilises Rolled Steel I Beams. Rolled steel beams are made by forcing pliable metal through large rollers so as to flatten and mould it into the desired shape. Beams can be either hot-rolled or cold-rolled. Hotrolled beams are made from metal that has been heated above the recrystallization point (over 537 degrees C, so the metal is very malleable) and then rolled. Cold-rolled beams are made from metal that has not been heated before rolling

Concrete is formed by mixing four componants; cement, sand, aggregate and water. When mixed with water the cement undergoes a chemical reaction becoming hydrated, and gradually hardening. Once this mixture has cured, any remaining water evaporates leaving air gaps. To ensure the strength of the concrete this water content needs to be carfully balanced. When fully cured this balance should be: 6% Water 14% Cement 80% Aggregate

Water

Cement

Sand

Aggregate

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Detail No 1

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


3

Wall / Cladding: 1) Breather Membrane

11

10

9

1 5 6

2i 2ii 2iii

2) SIPS Panel 2i)15mm OSB Outerfacing 2ii)120mm PUR Insulation 2iii)12mm OSB Innerfacing 3) 3mm Coreten Panel 4) Dead Load Fixing 5) Dead Load Fixed Connection 6) Cleat 7) Aluminium Mullion 8) Mineral Fibre Insulation

Roof: 9) 2mm DPM 4

10) 150mm Rigid Insulation 11) 210mm Precast Concrete Slab 12) 300mm I Beam 13) Ceiling Panel

8

7

13 14 Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Detail No 2

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


3

1 2i 2ii 2iii

Wall / Cladding: 1) Breather Membrane 2) SIPS Panel 2i) 15mm OSB Outerfacing 2ii) 120mm PUR Insulation 2iii) 12mm OSB Innerfacing 3) 3mm Coreten Panel

5 7

4) Aluminium Mullion 5) Flashing 6) Glazing

8

7) Aluminium Window Housing 8) Mineral Fibre Insulation

6

4

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Detail No 3

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


9 Wall / Cladding: 1) Breather Membrane

13

12ii

12i

12

5

6

11

2) SIPS Panel 2i) 15mm OSB Outerfacing 2ii) 120mm PUR Insulation 2iii) 12mm OSB Innerfacing

10

3) 3mm Coreten Panel 4) Dead Load Fixing 8

5) Dead Load Fixed Connection 6) Cleat 7) Aluminium Mullion

3

8) Aluminium Window Cill 9) Glazing

4

10) Aluminium Window Housing

1

11) Mineral Fibre Insulation

2i 2ii 2iii

7

Floor: 12) 60mm Screed 12i) inc 22mm Hose Tray 12ii) 20 mm Under Floor Heating 13) 210mm Precast Concrete Slab

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Detail No 4

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3


Glazing / Ground: 7

3

4ii

4i

4

1) Insitu-Concrete Retaining Wall 6

2) 120mm Insulation 3) 120mm Insulation

5

4) 60mm Screed 13i) inc 22mm Hose Tray 13ii) 20 mm Under Floor Heating 5) Aluminium Window Housing 6) Glazing 7) 150mm Precast Concrete Slab

1

8) DPM

2

Constructional Response Gaven Webb 33038155 Futurists BA3

AT3  

Architectural Tecnology

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