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EDUCATION The Case for Systemic Change

Emily Mochizuki Lutyens


124 Adderley Street, 5th Floor, Constitution House, Cape Town 8001 PO Box 1265, Cape Town, 8000 Tel: 021 424 6360 Fax: 021 424 7096 Email: info@impumelelo.org.za ISBN: 978-0-620-50454-6 Published by: Impumelelo Social Innovations Centre First Published 2011

Series Editor: Rhoda Kadalie Writer: Emily Mochizuki Lutyens Student Intern Researcher: Robert McDonald Cover Design: Abdul Amien Design: Faye Frizlar Printed by: Dourando Printing Principal Photographer: Candice Jansen Photographs by: Ellen Elmendorp and others supplied by projects – Go for Gold, Centre for Early Childhood Development, SciMathsUS, Run Home to Read, Small Projects Foundation and Ntataise Network

For more information about award-winning social innovation in South Africa visit www.impumelelo.org.za

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Table of Contents Foreword

..........................................................................................................................................

Introduction

.................................................................................................................................

Infrastructure, Access and Government Provision .......................................................................... Teacher Quality ....................................................................................................................................... Getting the right people to become teachers ....................................................................... Developing teachers into effective instructors ...................................................................... Ensuring the system is available to deliver the best possible instruction for every child .......................................................................................................... Early Childhood Development (ECD) ................................................................................................ Higher Education .................................................................................................................................... Skills Development ................................................................................................................................. Biggest Lessons Learned ....................................................................................................................... Measuring impact ....................................................................................................................... Empowerment and setting of high standards ....................................................................... Using resources that are already there .................................................................................. Building sustainability into the model ..................................................................................... Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................................

5 7 10 13 15 16 18 21 24 26 28 28 30 32 33 33

Early Childhood Development Centre for Early Childhood Development: Upgrading of Early Childhood Development Centres Project ............................. Infrastructure: Accessing the Government Subsidy .......................................................................... Training: A Long Term Solution ............................................................................................................ Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

The Ntataise Network

.................................................................................................................

Community Buy-In: Leveraging the Community to Provide a Service ........................................... Training: Providing Professional Accreditation and Resource Materials through a Powerful Network ................................................................................................................. Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

Run Home to Read

35 37 38 40 42 43 44 45

.........................................................................................................................

47

Early Childhood Development: A Community Integrated and Inter-generational Approach ................................................................................................................ Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

48 52

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Primary and High Schools Hantam Community Education Trust

..................................................................................

Community Buy-In: Growth, Based on Community Needs ............................................................. Teacher Training: Laying a Strong Foundation ................................................................................. Skills Development: A Practical Path toward Employment .............................................................. Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

SEED: Growing Outdoor Classrooms

...................................................................................

Teacher Training and Resources: Promoting Practical Learning and Sustainable Living .............. Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

Khanya Project

.................................................................................................................................

Technology Infrastructure and Skills Development: E-learning for the 21st Century .................. Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

Protecting Futures Programme

.............................................................................................

Student Support: Keeping Girls in School .......................................................................................... Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

MaAfrika Tikkun

.............................................................................................................................

Student Support: Fostering Youth Empowerment .............................................................................. Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

55 56 58 61 61 63 64 67 70 72 74 77 78 81 86 86 89

Higher Education Rhodes University Mathematics Education Project

..................................................

Teacher Quality: Leveraging a Supportive Network to Increase Impact ...................................... Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

Go for Gold

..........................................................................................................................................

Skills Development: Fully Integrated and Demand-Driven .............................................................. Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

99 100 103

Teacher Quality: Setting the Bar High ................................................................................................. Student Support: Creating Belief .......................................................................................................... Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

109 110 111 114

Rural Education Access Programme

....................................................................................

117

Student Support: Helping to Bridge the Financial and Social Gap for Disadvantaged Rural Youth ........................................................................................................... Sustainability, Replication and Lessons Learned ...............................................................................

118 121

SciMathUS

.............................................................................................................................................

Acknowledgements Endnotes

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93 94 97

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Foreword The Claude Leon Foundation is honoured to be associated with the pioneering work of the Impumelelo Social Innovations Centre. This book highlights twelve exemplary case studies of education initiatives that have succeeded despite the many obstacles faced along the way. Most of these twelve initiatives have received an Impumelelo award for innovation, effectiveness, poverty alleviation, sustainability and the potential for replication. They have succeeded in many instances despite the lack of government support. In other cases, the projects represent best practice in the formation of public-private partnerships – between government and civil society non-governmental organizations. These partnerships are able to accomplish collectively what government is unable to achieve on its own. All of the projects are deeply rooted in disadvantaged communities. They empower participants to break out of the lack of self-belief that often characterizes poor communities. Pupils are encouraged to envisage their long-term educational development, and are then equipped to achieve that dream. These are all sustainable projects – all of them tried and tested. Most hold the possibility of replication in other parts of the country. It is for all of these reasons that the Claude Leon Foundation has agreed to fund the production of this publication. Best practice such as is described in this book must be disseminated widely across the educational landscape, to teachers, policy makers, parents and pupils. The Claude Leon Foundation (CLF) is a charitable organization founded in 1963 and is committed to the advancement of Education and Human Rights in South Africa. One of the most successful projects established by the Foundation is the Post-Doctoral Fellowships scheme, which has benefited more than 500 young scientists based in South Africa’s university system over the past decade. It is the largest of such schemes in the country outside of the government’s own post-doctoral programme led by the National Research Foundation. Today, the CLF spends about R20 million per annum on worthy projects, and this is to grow in the next few years to about R40 million annually. It is committed to the strengthening of civil society, through supporting

both the high-level campaigns of progressive NGOs as well as the small under-supported NGOs who operate ‘on the ground’ at the micro level. The CLF believes that government must be ‘accountable’ to its citizens. The development of our society can only occur through the active participation of citizens. Their ‘voices’ need to be heard in attempts to solve complex problems. These two principles – ‘building civil society’ and ‘citizen participation’ – are prominent in the twelve education projects highlighted in this book. The CLF currently focuses on supporting projects in five programmatic areas: 1. Building a knowledge economy: This theme comprises the support given to postdoctoral fellowships across the country. 2. Best practice in School Maths, Science and Literacy: The CLF seeks to support best practice in this critical area of school education. 3. Early Childhood Development (ECD): ECD is without any doubt the most neglected sector in the entire education system. The CLF intends channeling significant support to this sector in the future. 4. In defence of democracy: The CLF supports projects in the following areas: the fight against corruption, threats to the constitution, restrictions placed on press freedom, and a growing political intolerance of open debate on contentious issues. 5. Building opportunities for unemployed youth: Recent research has indicated that over 3 million young people between the age of 18 and 24 years are neither in post-school education nor in employment. This leg of CLF’s work aims to support training and employment opportunities for young people. We wish the Impumelelo Social Innovations Centre well in their future endeavours to identify, support and nurture innovations in civil society. William Frankel, OBE Chairman, CLF

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Introduction South Africa’s 2010/2011 budget allocated R191 billion to education. At 21% of total state expenditure, education takes the biggest slice of the government’s budget. South Africa has one of the highest rates of public investment in schooling in the world.1 The following graph shows the proportion of government spend on education compared to other key allocations over the past four years. Education spend is essentially double that of Health and Housing.

Allocation of Education, Health & Housing as a Proportion of the Budget 2007/8 – 2010/112

So where does all this money go? Critics argue that the government gives the most money to education but are the least concerned about what happens to that money. Daily newspaper articles focus society’s attention on the dire state of the education sector. From 1,130 schools in the Eastern Cape not receiving text books, to displaced teachers being paid to sit in schools and do nothing, the government does not seem to be managing its money well.3,4

What is most telling is that while less than 1% of African children perform at or above the Singaporean average, Singapore still spends less on primary education.5 Main criticisms of South Africa’s education system focus on its persistent inequality and lack of quality teaching. Indeed, the inequality in education standards is eye-opening. While on average, 1 out of every 10 white children will achieve an A aggregate, only 1 out of every 1,000 black children does. In 2009, just over half of black matriculant candidates passed the National Senior Certificate (NSC), compared with 99% of whites, 92% of Indians and 76% of coloureds. Despite public school desegregation in 1994, the vast majority of poor black children continue to go to under-resourced, overwhelmingly black schools. Education experts estimate that only 10% of South African schools are functioning at internationally competitive standards. 30% of schools are functional, where bright students can perform well with motivated students. The last 60% of schools just do not function at all.6 The government argues standards are improving by celebrating matric pass rates which increased by 7% in 2010.7 Yet matric pass rates are deceiving. Education specialist Dr. Louis Benjamin estimates that 80% of the Department of Education’s resources are spent on the matric year. A district he worked with in the Northern Cape spent R23 million just on catch up programmes in 2010. In reality,

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Mail & Guardian January 14 to 20 2011

most critics argue that exam standards have decreased and marks have inflated. Ultimately, only 23% of matrics qualified for a Bachelor’s degree, while unemployment is estimated to be as high as 51% for the 15-24 age category.8

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Mail & Guardian March 11 to 17 2011

The question then becomes, what are South African youth learning in the classroom? What does a pass at matric stand for if the majority of students end up not studying at university or getting a job? Parents send their children to school for a “qualification” without questioning their cognitive development. At a fundamental level, regurgitating a lecture and memorising facts is not as important as learning how to make in-depth analysis and think critically.

The standards set for students to pass are discouragingly low. Students need to achieve 30% in three subjects and 40% in three subjects to pass their NSC. Expectations of students shift


significantly depending on the school. At former white schools, one student failing matric is viewed as a massive failure. Yet at the majority of South Africa’s non-white schools, an 80% pass rate is considered a great success. Setting such low standards affects the entire education system. For students lucky enough to enter tertiary education, only 30% of students of all races manage to graduate after five years.9

Mix: What’s wrong with South Africa’s schools and how to fix it, “there is enormous talent, professional skill and a strong will out there to fix our schools.”14 The government is often seen as the source of all problems and potential solutions. By recognising programmes and organisations that work in education, with or without government involvement, it is possible to observe where and how improvements are being made.

Education is increasingly viewed as a key step The following case study presents 12 projects to eradicate poverty and inequality. Governselected from hundreds of worthy initiatives ment and its critics agree there is a high corretha t a r e b e gi nni ng t o lation between intellectual address “the education capital and economic 10 crisis.” These projects have performance. In a report There is enormous talent, received recognition from on education and training, The Impumelelo Innovathe Institute of Municipal professional skill and a tions Award Trust (now Engineering of Southern strong will out there to fi x The Impumelelo Social Africa states “South Africa’s Innovations Centre) during stated goal of a better our schools. the 2005-2010 period life for all and becoming based on criteria including a ‘developed’ economy innovation, effectiveness, has in its way a number poverty alleviation, sustainability and potential of hurdles, the biggest of which is ignorance. for replication. To bring their work into context, And this can only be addressed by educating 11 this introduction focuses on five important areas its people.” South Africa faces a shortage of debate: Infrastructure, Access and Governof graduates with hard skills: less than 3% of ment Provision, Teacher Quality, Early Childmatrics get a pass good enough to give them hood Development (ECD), Higher Education access to engineering or accounting degrees at 12 and Skills Development. tertiary level. Despite a renewed focus by the government on skills development, the number No one project presents a solution that of students taking Accounting, Mathematics, can revolutionise and fix the South African Physical Sciences or Life Sciences as subjects education sector. However, analysing their at matric level all decreased between 200813 effectiveness is necessary to think about what 2010. the system requires. Two projects have been so successful they are being replicated nationally. The problems faced by the South African This introduction concludes with a chapter on education system are complex and there is no over-arching lessons that can be learned from one solution. While the overall picture looks the impressive examples in this case study. bleak, small steps are being taken to improve what most agree is “a crisis.” As education Bloch writes that the South African education policy analyst Graeme Bloch writes in The Toxic

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sector needs “a long-term commitment, a series of measures at a number of different levels (management, teaching skills, extra-mural, infrastructure and resources), a commitment to align with departmental strategies, and a willingness to work in the most desperate of communities.”15 The case studies presented here are examples of what is working on the ground. Here are the resources being mobilised. Here are the organisations reaching out to their communities and their government. Here are the holistic models of education that are working. Here are the committed people who are creating change in a sector that some have given up on.

Infrastructure, Access and Government Provision

Since 1994, access to primary and secondary schooling has improved dramatically. Officially, the pupil to teacher ratio has improved from 43:1 in 1996 to 29:1 in 2010.17 The average

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As a result of the racial and socio-economic segregation of South Africa’s urban areas, the location of schools reinforces polarisation and aggravates inequality between rich and poor communities.19 Suggestions to improve access to equal education include building schools at key transport arteries in cities and building resource hubs that can be shared by clusters Mail & Guardian February 4 to 10 2011

The legacy of apartheid left a mark on the equality and quality of education provided in South Africa today. Education policy was central to apartheid, delivering an education to black children designed to prepare them for a role as inferior citizens and workers. Education was compulsory for white children, but not for black children, few of whom made it past primary school. The government spent ten times more per capita on white children’s education than on black children’s. Vocational programmes were particularly feeble, seen as a last choice even for weak students.16 Post-1994, what was needed in South Africa was an educational policy that could reduce social inequalities and overhaul the economy. It was believed that the transition to a democratic society would usher in a legitimate political centre which would transform education to meet the needs of all.

ratio in public schools is actually 36:1, but the 22:1 ratio of independent schools favourably reduces this balance.18 The public school ratio is also decreased by including small classes (such as Xhosa or Senior Maths) to balance out the large ones, as well as by including predominantly non-teaching staff to the teacher total (such as Principals and Vice-Principals). In reality, classrooms regularly have 50-60 students managed by one teacher. Conversely, the 12 projects in this case study have small ratios, with a maximum of 25 students per class.


of schools. This allows students from different schools and socio-economic backgrounds to integrate.20 In particular, there is excess demand in informal settlements of black communities and rural areas where there are too few public schools.21 Competition over access to “good” public schools can be high, while “poor” schools, especially in townships, are often undersubscribed.22 While education policy development is managed by the national government, implementation is managed by the provincial government. The national government cannot insist that money allocated for a specific purpose be spent in a particular way. This decentralisation means there is no direct accountability. Hence, the Eastern Cape Department of Education continues to trundle along, despite its last audit which revealed R40 million was paid to companies owned by officials or their spouses, R325 million worth of goods and services was unaccounted for and R27 million was written up as “fruitless and wasteful expenditure.”23 The

department has received adverse audit reports every year since 1996 and was finally taken over by the national government in 2011.24 This example plainly shows the national government needs to manage its spend better.

Mail & Guardian January 28 to February 3 2011

The government provides basic infrastructure, pays teacher salaries and provides a subsidy per pupil based on financial considerations. Teacher pay is calculated according to a model based on considerations such as the number of pupils and the state budget. Per pupil subsidies are managed through a quintile system that divides schools into five categories according to the poverty levels in the areas they serve. The quintile system was designed to fix inequality by providing poorer schools with larger state subsidies and wealthier schools with smaller subsidies. Yet principals and teachers often complain that their schools are put in the incorrect quintile. In April 2011, it was announced that the school quintile system would be scrapped in favour of a simpler version based on two categories – fee paying and non-fee paying schools.25 The new system is to provide ‘no-fee’ schools with the current Quintile 1 amount of R960 a pupil, while fee-paying schools will be subsidised based on fees they are able to collect. Critics have cautiously endorsed the plan while stating that much more reform is needed. In reality, this subsidy per pupil that seeks to provide greater resources to poorer schools accounts for only 9% of government funding to schools. The vast majority of funding including teacher salaries is not allocated on a pro-poor basis. More often than not, the experienced and more qualified teachers are found in former white schools where salaries are better. According to the Western Cape government’s own assessment, when funding to schools is aggregated, government spends the same on its poorest students as it does on its richest.26

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Currently about 60% of the schools across the country are classified as ‘no-fee’ schools. The Department of Education plans to increase this to 80% with the new system.27 Yet the Education Law Project at the Centre for Applied Legal Studies has consistently shown that the current cost per pupil is underestimated. Costs like transport and uniforms are not included in the “no fees” schools. No fee schools therefore cannot raise any money through school fees and yet cannot provide adequate services and resources. In addition, no fee schools have no accountability, since parents cannot demand anything when they are not paying anything.

grade are taught in the same classroom at the same time.28 The Ministry of Education says it still needs about R140 billion to refurbish and equip existing schools and build new ones, a backlog that it says will take 20 years to address given current budget constraints.29 To cope with inadequate access, NGOs are building and reinforcing independent schools. The vast majority of private schools are non-profit as they then qualify for the government subsidy. Yet even when an independent school’s fees are half or less than what the province spends on a child in a public school, it can only ever obtain a 60% subsidy.30

Malibu High School in the Western Cape is a Dinaledi school that works with Go for Gold and the Khanya Project, two award-winning projects showcased in this study. While it cannot be classified as a ‘typical’ school, the issues it faces are common problems across the public school system. Built for 800 students, the school currently has 1,500-1,600 students. It is supposed to have 50-60 teachers but only has 40, so it is hard for students to receive individual attention in the classroom. The school also has no fulltime counsellor. Instead, a psychologist that has been assigned 13-25 schools visits once a term, or whenever there is an emergency. The school has good teachers, but resources constrain the subjects the school can offer. Music class is held after-school and students must pay to attend. Students interested in computer programming and software must make do with Computer Applications Technology that only covers the basics of Word and Excel.

All 12 of the projects showcased in this case study either operate in disadvantaged areas, or focus on providing opportunities to students beyond the resources available to them back home. Hantam Community Education Trust is a multi-dimensional education and health services programme located in the Northern Cape Province. It started off providing ECD services to farm families and has grown over the years to include two ECD playrooms, a Grade 1-9 school, a teacher development centre and more. The school is registered as a non-fee paying first quintile school and receives a grant which pays for only 13% of total funding. Hantam provides education services of excellent quality in an area where the nearest town is 40km away.

The reality is that government spends a large sum of money on education, but poor schools remain poor (and cannot raise extra funds), while former white schools are well-resourced. 26% of schools report having multi-grade classes where students from more than one

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Ntataise was also founded through provision of ECD services to rural farm families. Based in the northern Free State Province, it has developed a Network through which it disseminates training and resources to over 2,200 pre-schools. Through its Network, Ntataise is able to reach inaccessible rural areas where government ECD provision is minimal. The Rhodes University Mathematics Education Programme (RUMEP) follows a similar model by creating Clusters of teachers in rural areas in the Eastern Cape who


collaborate on effective teaching strategies in maths. Through their networks, Ntataise and RUMEP innovatively create nodes of excellence in rural, disadvantaged areas where government provision is scarce.

Go for Gold was initiated by government and the private sector, PFP was initiated by two NGOs and CECD and Khanya were initiated by the government. It is clear therefore that South Africa is not short of entrepreneurial and innovative leaders prepared to pilot their solutions to the education crisis. PPP are particularly strong and resourceful because they combine expertise and funding from different sectors. Often, the private sector and NGOs reinforce what the government alone cannot accomplish. These partnerships help to develop a productive and firm relationship between civil society and the state.

The Department of Education claims that enrolment is no longer a big problem. Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga stated in 2010, “While we are doing relatively well on enrolments, our weakness is in the quality of education.”31 Yet Protecting Futures Programme (PFP) run by Small Projects Foundation in the Eastern Cape was able to increase female school attendance from 70% to 90-95% by opening Lastly, it is important to note when considering dialogue on sexual health issues amongst girls, government provision that their teachers and their where non-profit work aligns parents. In addition, girl with government interests, it drop-out rates at targeted While we are doing is possible for government schools decreased by to provide scale up funding. 50%. PFP is an excellent relatively well on An exciting example of example of a Public-Private enrolments, our weakness this is the Rural Education Partnership (PPP) bringing Access Programme (REAP), government schools, a is in the quality of which provides financial private corporation and education. assistance, mentorship and NGO expertise together support to young black to prevent avoidable students from poor, rural absenteeism and dropouts communities attending higher education. In amongst girls in school. Other examples 2011, REAP signed a partnership with the of PPPs include a project by the Centre for National Skills Fund (NSF), which has agreed to Early Childhood Development (CECD), provide full bursaries for 335 REAP students at a which upgraded 179 ECD Centres in the cost of R15.3 million, or R46,700 per student. Western Cape and was funded 100% by the Department of Social Development. The Khanya Project provides schools in the Western Cape with technology access for teachers to use in Teacher Quality curriculum delivery and is 100% funded by the Western Cape Education Department. Go for Bloch argues that improving the quality of Gold is another PPP that provides academic South Africa’s teachers is “the most urgent task” tutoring, life skills, financial support, practical towards improving the education sector.32 In work experience, tertiary studies and full2008, the Development Bank of Southern Africa time employment to students interested in the (DBSA)’s Education Roadmap brought together construction field. unions, academics, government officials and

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NGOs to discuss the crisis in education. They recommended a ten point programme of which 40% is devoted to teachers and their training. Suggestions include effective evaluations, enhanced recruitment of quality teachers and pre-service and in-service training. Here is a fact that is often overlooked: teaching is a very sophisticated job. A good teacher motivates students, develops their cognitive development and analytical skills, and prepares them for the real world. Teachers must teach students how to process information, cope with complexity and pick themselves up after failure. The mere content of a curriculum cannot teach this. You need a great teacher. Students with lowperforming teachers, particularly in their early years, suffer a severe educational loss. Studies suggest that students placed with high-performing teachers progress three times faster than those placed with low-performing teachers.33 Put simply, the quality of an education system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers. Yet in many schools in South Africa, the problem is not

even the teaching quality, but simply getting a teacher to come to class. Research shows that an average black teacher spends 15 hours on teaching out of a working week of 41 hours and an average kid in a rural area will get 70 days of education out of a supposed total of 195.34,35 It is a fundamental problem in South Africa that teachers get paid and do not work. How does the government allow this? In 2007, McKinsey published a report on the world’s best-performing school systems. Through analysis of 25 of the world’s school systems, including 10 of the top performers, McKinsey reported that three things matter most: 1. Getting the right people to become teachers; 2. Developing them into effective instructors; 3. Ensuring the system is available to deliver the best possible instruction for every child. McKinsey found that these areas are the most

Summary of Public-Private Partnerships in this Case Study Project

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Government provision

Private Sector provision

NGO provision

CECD

100% funded and supported by DoSD

For later replication

Service and expertise provider

Khanya Project

100% funded and managed by WCED

Hardware and software donations

None

REAP

NSF 100% bursary provision

Monetary donations

Service and expertise provider

Go for Gold

Provision of office and school support

Provision of bursaries, work placements and employment

Manages partnership of 37 schools, 23 corporations and government

PFP

Introduction to schools

100% funded by Proctor & Gamble

Service and expertise provider

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important, irrespective of the culture in which they are applied. South Africa has issues with all three components.

1. Getting the right people to become teachers Critics argue that most teachers in South Africa become teachers through default. In researching this case study, I met some absolutely brilliant teachers who are talented, motivated and enjoy their work. Yet they readily admitted to me that there are unqualified and de-motivated teachers all around them. McKinsey found that the top-performing education systems recruit teachers from the top third of graduates. Entry into teacher training is selective, and once teachers complete their training, they are paid a good salary. Ironically, South Africa’s teacher training is “selective” in that there are not enough candidates who can afford to get the qualifications and too few who want to enter the profession. South Africa faces teacher shortages.

elevates its status even higher. Conversely, when a profession has a low status, it attracts less talented and motivated people, pushing the status of the profession down. South Africa faces the latter problem. Ask a student what they would like to do in the future and they will state they want to be a doctor, or a lawyer, or an accountant. No one wants to be a teacher, particularly when they are constantly on strike over wages. Graduates could be tempted to enter a low status profession if the salary were high enough. The Ministry of Education reimburses first year teachers relatively well. Under today’s pay offer, teachers with one year’s experience will earn about R230,000 a year, which is 50% more than four years ago.36 In 2008, the remuneration system was changed to offer salary increases for improved student performance.37

On the other hand, in terms of the average return to tertiary education, research shows little financial incentive exists for the most educated to enter the teaching profession.38 Despite the decent starting salary, The teaching profession At the ANC conference in the longer a teacher is experiencing a low Polokwane in December remains in the profesmorale crisis. Teachers sion, the worse off they are lambasted in the 2007, there was a call are relative to their nonnewspapers and receive to restore teaching to the teaching counterparts. no public appreciation The only way to earn or support. It is the “noble” profession it had more is to be recruited nature of media that once been. into management, which small successes in the most teachers want classroom will not make to do. New graduates news but a scandal who enter the profession do so because they involving a teacher dating a student will. At have no other bursaries and talk about leaving the ANC conference in Polokwane in December the profession within 5 years.39 Being assigned 2007, there was a call to restore teaching to to a school with drug use issues, gang fights the “noble” profession it had once been. When and teenage pregnancies only exacerbates the a profession has a high status, it attracts more situation. talented people and respect, which further

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Education