Garret M Sletten A PORTFOLIO OF WORK University of Minnesota - Twin Cities 2009 - 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Northern Minnesota Camping Hut
Northern Minnesota Camping Hut Chair
Itâ€™s Knot Architecture
Hot Springs Handrail
STUDIO I :: MATERIAL This studio dealt with creating spaces and architecture out of the use of material. Using inspiration of real spaces, we modeled how simple these spaces are. Each space seemed to have a unique element that, when put together in various combinations, created a new and interesting space. Taking these combined MDF spaces, I merged the designs into one that was more narrow, as we fit the architecture into the site. The site itself is a small strip of empty lot space between two buildings close to downtown Minneapolis. The area is in a Samolian neighborhood and the purpose of the site and for the architecture design was to create a space for local people to gather, hang out, and possibly conduct neighborhood meetings. This cultural neighborhood became the backdrop for the design. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities FALL 2011 Martha McQuade
STUDIO II :: PROGRAMMING This studio was a development in design by using program as a major influnce. Using program can inluence design in a way that you are constantly thinking about how a space will be used and interacted in. The basis of our programming for this studio was studying a Montessori and Waldorf school system. Both systems pose interesting design ideas and decisions that together create a unique learning environmemnt. Using the montessori teachings of connection of the kids to nature, the final design brought the nature to the students. Instead of having one large school, the design is multiple small buildings of individual classrooms. This gives each building lots of natural light and students are always engaged in experiencing the outdoors. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities SPRING 2012 Julia Richardson
Warehouse District Site Wa Onion (circle)
Sceme 1 -With a centrally located building with the classroom and other needed rooms located in buildings surounding it, it has a protected courtyard feel. This allows for lots of green space around the edges and corners that could be used by children and the public, depending on proogram.
STUDIO III :: SITE This studio was broken up into 3 stages of design. Stage 1 began with an anlysis of our site. Since the studio is centered on incorporating site as a major key of any architectural design, our project was developed from a large site. The site was the Midtown Greenway in the Heart of Minneapolis, MN. It is a 5 mile long bike and transit path that is below the grade of the normal city, and served as our unique location for designing. After initial anlysis we looked at the context of the site and what city elements defined the site. We looked at transportation, surrounding cultural areas, commercial and residential context, and other related ideas. We then took those context ideas and designed spaces in the greenway. The context was either based on the design principle of a linear park, introducing a street car, or combining the two into one large programatic design. My partner and I worked with both ideas. We had both done research on each one and we decided to design areas where a street car would have a required stop, and incorporate a park and green space idea into the design. Collaborative Partners: These people collaborated on this project with the site analysis and the Site research. Those individuals were Joseph Cacek and Victoria Weigand. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities FALL 2012 John Comazzi
TORI WIEGAND + GARRET SLETTEN UGS3 I Fall 2012
INEAR PARK + STREET CAR 36 WEST 28TH STREET
11TH AVE SOUTH
10TH AVE SOUTH
CHICAGO AVE SOUTH
COLUMBUS AVE SOUTH
PARK AVE SOUTH
OAKLAND AVE SOUTH
PORTLAND AVE SOUTH
5TH AVE SOUTH
4TH AVE SOUTH
STEVENSZ AVE. SOUTH
1ST AVE. SOUTH
NICOLLET AVE. SOUTH
PILSBURY AVE. SOUTH
PLEASANT AVE. SOUTH
GRAND AVE. SOUTH
HARRIET AVE. SOUTH
GARFIELD AVE. SOUTH
LYNDALE AVE. SOUTH
ALDRICH AVE. SOUTH
BRYANT AVE. SOUTH
COLFAX AVE. SOUTH
EMERSON AVE. SOUTH
DUPONT AVE. SOUTH
FREMONT AVE. SOUTH
GIRARD AVE. SOUTH
HENNEPIN AVE. SOUTH
HUMBOLDT AVE. SOUTH
IRVING AVE. SOUTH
169 WEST LAKE STREET
St. Paul BIKE TRANSIT PEDESTRIAN TRANSIT
62 62 100
Rail and Bus KNOT :
Design Strategy 1/4 MILE
1/8 MILE 1/16 MILE
35-W/ 5TH AVE
RESIDENTIAL, SINGLE FAMILY
RETAIL & OFFICE
RESTAURANT & ENTERTAINMENT
North Side Top Street
South Side Top Street North Side Program
South Side Program
Paths of Biking, walking, and street car
Merging Programs In Greenway
important for all people to access the greenway
Local Shops and Restaraunts Family Housing and Neighborhoods Midtown Global Market - Local Shops and Food Abbott NW Hospital Anderson Elementary School
28 th ST
Midtown Greenway 29th St
E Lake St
Site Plan Greenway Level
PLANTER WITH SEATING
PLANTER WITH SEATING
STREET CAR STOP
OUTSIDE PLAZA SPACE
Section Cut North - South
N. MINNESOTA CAMPING HUT Desiging a hut for the forest area in Northerm Minnesota proves to be difficult without the proper tools. This project was centered around the learning and familiarizing of the Rhino Design program. The context was to use Rhino to develop a small camping hut that uses a structural system of formers and stringers. The hut was site specific in a State Park in Northern Minnesota. We had to consider transportation of the hut to the site, construction on site, and making it small enough to accomodate the program of a hiking, skiing, or camping hut. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities SPRING 2012 Molly Reichert
N. MINNESOTA CAMPING HUT : CHAIR After we designed the hut with stringer former construction, we did material development where we looked into how we would construct something of this size and what materials we would use. The formers were cut from CNC and then strung with red cedar strips. The result was a piece of furniture that would fit in the hut and could be a smaller scale of the hutâ€™s construction. Collaborative work with Steve Lees University of Minnesota - Twin Cities SPRING 2012 Molly Reichert
ITâ€™S KNOT ARCHITECTURE This project was meant to engage in the analysis, abstraction, construction and reinterpretation of knots as a means to understanding the complex relationships between space, time, material assemblies and representation. Start with a knot. Any knot. I chose a noose. This was then translated into a wireframe model in which we interpreted what the knot meant as a function of space. This was then translated into a volumetric study of what the wireframe model represented as a function of spaces surrounding it. Then we took the volumetric design and did a 3D model of spaces and then did a 3D model of the negative space and incorporated the human element. I studied how a human would inhabit and use the space at different scales to tie the project into its final design. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities SPRING 2011 John Comazzi
HAND DRAWINGS A collection of hand drawings done by myself to illustrate how to represent architecture. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities FALL 2010 John Tapp
WATERCOLOR PAINTINGS A collection of watercolor paintings done by myself to illustrate architecture in the most beautiful way. University of Minnesota - Twin Cities FALL 2012 Monica Fogg
HOT SPRINGS, SD GYMNASIUM HANDRAIL A Gymnasium for the Hot Springs High School and Grade school was done by Schlimgen Design Consultants. I interned at this company the summer of 2011. This handrail was for a disability elevator. The railing was designed in accordance with ADA code. Hot Spring, SD Schlimmgen Design Consultants Summer 2011
1 7/8” O.D. PIPE RAIL (TYP.)
5 7/8 ”
1” O.D. PIPE RAIL 4.5” O.C. TYP. 42”
31” 4” max
RAILING 1 ELEVATION SCALE
FLOOR LINE RAILING 2 ELEVATION
OTHER WORKS This is a collection of other works that I have done.
GARRET SLETTEN PROJECT 1C - INSTRUCTIONAL DIAGRAM STEP 5 JOHN ROZENBERGS
Ebbets Field :: 1915 The icon se are bre ic in the akth the stad rou hist ium gh ory s tha for of the stad t defi field ium ned s bec wha . aus t the Yankee e the stad y had ium imp is. It orta may not nt inn ova be the tion bes s in t mo of the der mo n stad st fam ium ous des , but ign tha the are t was a
Union Grounds :: 1862
Stadium :: 1923
Myron W. Serby, “Stadium Planning and Design,” Architectural Record, 69 (1931): 152-176. Myron W. Serby, The Stadium: A Treatise on the Design of Stadiums and their Equipment, (New York City: American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., 1930), 15.
Location, Location, Location Evolution and introduction of the grid street system into the urban setting created simple design parameters that extended the buildings to the edge of streets because land was valuable. The stadiums closely resembled the neighboring buildings at the time because materials used were the same, and the same firms and architects of buildings were used to make stadiums. Since the street grid has been around since the Romans, and it has been emerging in the 1900’s as a standard for urban design, we see that the stadium must use it to it’s advantage and design its footprint so that it uses every advantage of the grid.
Any images in the Map that are not cited were obtained from Google Images
During the 1862 season, William Cammeyer enclosed the Union Grounds in Brooklyn, New York and began charging admission becoming the first "official" stadium in baseball history. The fee was 10¢ and the first game featured with a cover charge was played on April 18, 1869 between local players.
Transportation Helped Evolve Baseball and the Stadums Railroad transportation increased knowledge of sporting activities because it tied the northern industrial cities of America together by means of over 90,000 miles of railroads by 1880.25 The Massachusetts version of baseball likely blossomed in Detroit for this reason.
For Example: Past first and third, professional baseball facilities generally supported unroofed singledecked section which extended to the left and right field foul poles. No early permanent baseball facilities positioned seats in the fair territory of the outfield and most tried to put their seats close to the field of play. Thus, little foul territory existed within the facility because the city street grid limited the size of the grounds. Professional football facilities like Harvard Stadium and Philadelphia’s Frankford Stadium typically positioned most seats along the sidelines. End zone seats appeared as the least desirable location for football because they are the farthest from the action.
Press Boxe s
Shibe park :: 1909
Forbes Field :: 1909
Voigt, “American Baseball, Vol. 1” See also E. C. Murdock, Ban Johnson, Czar of Baseball, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)
Kostof, Spiro. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings through History. Boston: Little, Brown, 1991. Print.
“The Steel-concrete Work of the Harvard Stadium,” 51-54
John A. Lucas and Ron A. Smith, Saga of American Sport, (Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1978).
How professional football and baseball stadiums provide framework from which we can assess the impact of modernizationModernization is characterized and defined in this work using several perspectives. First, we embrace the ideas of Melvin Adelman who offered modernization is characterized by technology and the desire for change toward some achievement. Next, Adelman proposed the formalization of behavior is also a symbol or characteristic of modernization. As an example, John Bale and human territoriality scholar Robert Sack suggested the rise of rule standardization coincided with the evolving of the sport facility into a specialized site where people are restricted, removed, and fill space in a growing time-conscious society. Essentially, modernization evoked the full segregation of spectators from the competition grounds because sport materialized as something you can pay to see.
Stimuli at a Stadium -
Reaction to gameplay
Melvin L. Adelman, A Sporting Time: New York City and the Rise of Modern Athletics, 1820-70. (Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1986), 5-10.
Reaction to Vendors
pre nB S ox ts ea
http://tapiaphoto.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/269091002002_rockies_at_dodg ers_blog.jpg http://static.flickr.com/52/151986175_189e95a6e3.jpg
These facilities also offered little amenities much like their temporary predecessors. For example, the start of the first permanent concession stand locations really does not surface until Chicago opened Weeghman Park (Wrigley Field) in 1914. Restrooms also appeared left out of the new facilities. For example, the American Architect praised the designers of Franlin Field in 1923 because of the high number of restrooms within the facility and criticized most sport facility designers as they often fail to acknowledge the importance of including a high number of restrooms. Franklin Field was one of the first to have public restrooms in their buildings, a large innovation for many buildings. “The Franklin Field Stadium, University of Pennsylvania,” 366-373.
Atmosphere of Sports One of the main reasons people go to these events is for purely social reasons. The atmosphere of being at the stadium is one that many can say is euphoric. The comradery between fans of the same team, the rivalry between opposing teams’ fans, the food, light, and sounds, and the pure feeling of escapism you feel when you are in these amazing venues. Unlike retail stores and the majority of service settings, the atmosphere prevailing in a sport stadium not only provides additional value to the core product, but also creates a unique entertainment value. In an article written by Sebastian Uhrich and Martin Benkenstein, they talk about how there are a few different reactions to stadiums that make a reaction by people so unique. Here they are: stimuli emanating from the spectators and their behavior, stimuli relating to the architecture of the stadium, stimuli elicited by the organizers, and stimuli caused by the action of the game. All of these stimuli help in creating a unique and engaging atmosphere for the spectator.
Riess, S. A. Touching Base: Professional Baseball and American Culture in the Progressive Era, (Westport , CT: Greenwood Press, 1980).
“The Franklin Field Stadium, University of Pennsylvania,” The American Architect, 124, (1923): 366-73.
Use this map as a guidline throughout the beginning stages of the development of the stadium in America. Each Seating section relates to each time period in history. If any confusion please refer to key.
“The Diamond in the Bronx: Yankee Stadium and the Politics of New York,” 27-28. In 1920
Map is Void after 1940
Bruce Kuklick, To Every Thing a Season: Shibe Park and Urban Philadelphia 1909-1976 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), 12
Financial Benefits to Baseball Stadiums brought more people. Innovations in technology made it possible to bring more people and sponsors into the stands, which in turn was good buisness for the team owners. Places such as Yankee Stadium had substantiably more seating than any other park. Thus, they had a larger fan base and more profits rolled through their doors. Other parks were forced to expand and thus Baseball became a buisness, rather than a sport.
Shibe Park, known later as Connie Mack Stadium, was a major league baseball park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. When it opened in April 12, 1909, it became baseball's first steel-andconcrete stadium. Because of innovations in steel reinforced concrete construction, Shibe stadium was designed by architects in the town who had built the first skyscraper in town. They used their experience to build this steel and concrete structure. This material use is becoming more and more used in large structures.
Benjamin G. Rader, American Sports: From the age of folk games to the age of televised sports 5th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008), 20-22. Melvin L. Adelman, A Sporting Time: New York City and the Rise of Modern Athletics, 1820-70. (Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1986), 121-142.
Another important feature of the era is the massive seating expansion of most facilities, which typically saw a second deck positioned on top of single decks along baselines or into outfield locations. This was due to buisness men pairing up with architects to cram as many people into the stadiums as possible. Prior to expansion, temporary stands consisting of a light steel frame and wooden bleacher seats surrounded the playing field to reduce its dimensions during only important events. Limited by their location and by the street grid and willing to capitalize on the growing interest in their game, sports buisness men and architects erected large permanent seating areas using steel and concrete within the cavernous dimensions of the stadiums. Then they started designing up with levels above the normal seating.
map Good from 1840-1940
Chad S. Seifried and Donna Pastore, “Analyzing the First Permanent Professional Baseball and Football Structures in the United States: How Expansion and Renovation Changed Them into Jewel Boxes,” Sport History Review, 40 (2009), 167-96
Development of seating
Communication innovations such as the telegraph, telephone, film and photography, and cheaper printable paper notably contributed to the development of the sport as well. The print media promoted sport the best, mainly through increasing knowledge about its rules and current events and through calling on people to enjoy park space. Within the New York area, Chadwick’s baseball guide, Porter’s Spirit of the Times, and the New York Clipper all acted to legitimize daily sport reporting by the 1880s.
Franklin Field was built for $100,000 and dedicated on April 20, 1895, for the first running of the Penn Relays. Deemed by the NCAA as the oldest stadium still operating for football, it was the site of the nation's first scoreboard in 1895. This was an important evolution for stadiums all around the country. Scoreboards are something that is seen at every stadium everywhere. It gives the audience and crowd a sense of removal from normal society. It aids in the excitement that people want to feel when they go to a event at a stadium. The scoreboard created the opportunity for spectacle, which inherently made spectators an integral part of the event and necessary to accommodate. This option materialized because people increasingly shared the experiences of sporting contests from a vicarious perspective rather than a physical one. The scoreboard also helped satiate the crowd’s desire for more information
The Evolution of Baseball and Football Stadiums in America
1903 was selected as the general start of my project because it is the year Harvard University completed the first stadium to fully use concrete and steel. Harvard Stadium was created primarily as a result of fire damaging the wooden bleachers at the old Harvard’s Soldiers’ Field. Since wood was becoming too dangerous, not only in buildings but also in stadiums, concrete and steel is necessary in modern innovation. The previous football venues failed to maximize the necessary financial support that the Harvard football team had. It was mostly funded by a single class donation.
:A Seating Map:
Reaction to Architecture
Uhrich, Sebastian, and Martin Benkenstein. "Sport Stadium Atmosphere: Formative and Reflective Indicators for Operationalizing the Construct." Journal of Sport Management 24 (2010): 211-37. Print. Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J.A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. http://a323.yahoofs.com/ymg/ept_sports_fantasy_experts__30/ept_sports_fanta sy_experts-299663043-1277947731.jpg?ymTNYYDD6iy7y_Dp
Reaction to crowd
The depression was the single biggest financial event in the history of the United States, and it couldn’t have come at a worse time for the development of the sports stadium. The answer? Light. Not just a light of hope or something at the end of a tunnel, but literal light. Here is what I mean: Major attendance declined all across professional sports during the 1930s because the Great Depression reduced almost all income and eliminated true leisure time for the average middle class sport fan. The sports industries searched for answers to bring people and their money back to the sport facility and gambled by introducing night games.73 The innovative night contests surfaced because Depression Era citizens worked or sought work during daytime hours. Consequently, night time sporting events evolved because it literally existed as the only time games could attract the fans it needed. The introduction of lights to professional sport facilities helped change their image by upgrading their status versus other recreational activities. Lights brought a new type of consumer to the professional sport facility because with lights, football and baseball events became a greater spectacle and no longer competed with many other entertainment or leisure options offered only during daylight hours. Lighting technology also improved and installation costs appeared low enough to provoke the investment by the 1930’s. Cincinnati’s Crosley Field became the first MLB facility to install lights. United Press, “Night Baseball Turns Eyes on Reds,” The Washington Post, 2 Apr. 1935, 17.
Location? As the stadium developed into a more irregular shaped building due to field shape and seating, you could no longer contain it in a grid system. So developers started to develop stadiums in outskirts of town, yet they still wanted them to be accesible to streetcars, subways, and other buisnesses and public venues. Comisky Park and Braves Field did this change successfully. H.D. Smith, “Report on trip to Princeton, College of City of New York, Yale and Harvard for the Purpose of Inspecting the Stadia at Those Universities, Part III,” The American Architect, 118 (1920): 160-164.
Key: Depression Box Seats Standing Room Section 1910-1915 Restrooms Depression Box Seats Walkway Iconic Stadium VIP Section 1909 Owners Box Scoreboard Row
ter :: Plan :: Passive Solar Heating Diagram
t Sletten :: Environmental Technology
Area where flooding happens
Permeable Concrete Surface Parking Areas Vendor and Festival areas
Main Hidden Falls area
Raised mounds to lift buildings out of flood area Paths (Dirt and Permeable Concrete)
Hidden Falls stream
Boardwalks (above the floodarea)
Community Gardens Hole Checkpoints for Frisbee Golf course Path of frisbee golf course
Look out from road
Old pavilion- restored Hole #1 of frisbee golf course Sandbox and Playground area for kids
Main off the road Lookout- enhances current lookout
New Pavilion- new with ice skating rink in winter Hole #9 of Frisbee golf course Hole #18 of frisbee golf course
Island Pavilions- part of Flood Festival
long walk and bike path to northwestern part of park
Clear story windows alow for lots of winter sunlight to enter the house above eye level, giving a better way of lighting and heating the space.
Reflective glass keeps some solar energy in the house and continues to help in heating.
During the winter, the sun has a larger footprint than in the summer. This helps the building heat using solar energy. The wall and floor act as solar massing that heats up during the day and releases heat durig the night.
During the winter months, the angle of the sun is low, so the sun has a lot of influence on solar heating of the building. In the winter you need it more anyway.
Solar massing heats up during the day and releases heat during the night.
Winter :: Plan :: Passive Solar Heating Diagram Garret Sletten :: Environmental Technology
Solar Massing heated during the day, released at night.
Large amount of glazing alows for reflection of sun in winter time back into the house, further increasing the solar containment of the house.
Winter :: East Section :: Passive Solar Heating Diagram Garret Sletten :: Environmental Technology
Winds are caught in â€œscoopâ€? of sloped roof. This then takes the hot air that has risen in the house and moves it out the large, back windows.
Summer winds move quickly through the building sweeping away any hot air and allowing for more hot air to rise in the house and be taken away from the wind continuously.
Side windows allow for angled winds to exit and leave easily. Large windows allow for large masses of air to leave hot building. Summer winds are warmer but still provide breeze for cooling and ventilation.
Tree line in the summer creates a slight barrier the break wind and lessen the impact of hot, moving air on the house.
Summer :: East Section :: natural Ventilation Garret Sletten :: Environmental Technology
Summer :: Plan :: Natural Ventilation Garret Sletten :: Environmental Technology
Angled wall inmiddle of house creates direction for air to travel. The smaller wall allows for air to flow over it instead of stopping it. The overall open floor plan also helps the air flow better.
Large windows counteract the funnel effect where the wind speeds up as it goes through a small opening.
to be continued...