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Gardener News

Proudly Serving the Agricultural, Gardening, Landscaping & Nursery Communities

October 2019


TAKE ONE No. 198

Seeing 20/20, Garden Media Group 2020 Trends Report According to a recent survey, gardening is still as popular as ever. For nearly 20 years, Garden Media Group has been looking into the crystal ball for future trends. This year is no different. The 2020 Garden Trends Report, Seeing 20/20, offers a peek into what will be trending in horticulture in 2020 and beyond. Why trends? Staying on top of trends allows you to take advantage of new opportunities and stay on the cutting edge. “For years we’ve identified shifts in habits and growth that affect both consumer and professional horticulture,” said Katie Dubow, creative director at Garden Media. “From the way we design our cities to the people who work in

them, the green industry will be at the forefront of urban growth and development in 2020.” This year’s trends are reinventions from a bygone era, helping to reconnect us with nature, the soil and leading a more thoughtful approach to life. Certainly, times have changed, but if we can combine the wisdom of the past with the science and technology of today, our future could be very bright. Here is a snapshot of the eight trends in the 2020 Garden Trend Report from Garden Media Group. Cities of the Future Right now, half of the world’s population lives in cities and that number is expected to rise to 70 percent by 2050. Thriving cities of the future will combine green infrastructure and

horticulture to positively impact the well-being of their citizens and the environment. According to Jim Zwack at Davey Tree, creating a well-canopied city is a cost-effective strategy to improving communities’ health, resilience and economy. Sustainability will be the key to managing growth. Central Recreational Districts are the new Central Business Districts and include parks, historic places, and other “Instagramable” places to gather. As a result, property values will rise and so will population and jobs. These sites are especially attractive to younger, welleducated inhabitants. Circular Economy Gone are the days when clothes were mended and work boots resoled. Only

9 percent of materials consumed are reused today. A circular economy uses nature as a template. It minimizes waste, makes the most out of resources and replaces planned obsolescence with restoration. This is forecast to generate $4.5 trillion in new output by 2030. This new ethos is not just for dreamers, either. Big companies such as GM, Annie’s and Unilever are getting on the circular bandwagon. In fact, Unilever’s sustainable brands grew 46 percent faster than the rest of their business in 2018. “As leaders in our industry we have a responsibility to act sustainably and find ways to renew, repair, reuse and recycle,” says Dubow. Green Collar Jobs As we’ve seen in Cities

of the Future, urban growth will create a massive demand for green collar workers. Garden spending is expected to reach $49.3 billion dollars by 2023, yet horticulture jobs already outnumber grads by two to one. We need to be thinking about diversity in education. College tuition in the U.S. is going up and enrollment is trending downward. Students are carrying $1.5 trillion in student loan debt. Generation Z doesn’t want the burden of that kind of debt. While many important jobs in our industry require higher learning, there are many green jobs that require less college education, perhaps an associate degree or vocational training. The jobs are there; we need to get creative about how to train future generations. (Cont. on Page 11)

2 October 2019

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Those changing, cherished, end-of-summer days are descending upon our state as I write this column. The sun sets a little earlier, giving the days a sense of urgency. The wisps of cooler air provide a soundtrack, whispering as they pass and causing wind chimes to sing their sweet songs. All these sensations combine to make it clear that fall, or autumn if you prefer, is moving into place and our lives are about to undergo a change. At first, we can feel melancholy that summer is ending. After all, there is so much to do in summer, so many warm days in which to enjoy those pursuits, and we can head outside in shorts and a T-shirt, maybe even replacing our work shoes with flip-flops. But the end of summer doesn’t have to mean the end of fun. It just means you might have to put a jacket on. When it comes to fun times on the farm – what we collectively call “agri-tourism” – New Jersey has a wide array of offerings. These day trips to a farm provide the perfect same-day getaway for filling the weekends once the kids are back in school

farms offer an array of activities where you can pick your own pumpkins, squash and the rest of the produce that rounds out New Jersey’s harvest season, with the ultimate year-ender being the choose-and-cut Christmas tree farms that give you the opportunity to be an pseudolumberjack for the day. Agri-tourism has indeed become big business in New Jersey, bringing tens of millions of additional dollars to our farms, which helps keep them viable and thriving so they can continue to operate. You won’t find a more satisfying day in the crisp fall air.

NJ Dept. of Agriculture By Douglas H. Fisher Secretary of Agriculture

The arrival of autumn kicks New Jersey agri-tourism into high gear and long trips away from home just become less practical. Taking in a Saturday or Sunday at an agri-tourism destination a short distance away is a great complement to a Saturday highschool football game or Sunday dinner at the grandparents’ house. Instead of rushing around, packing the car, driving a long distance, these trips to farms require little planning, mainly because they are close to where you live. Here you will have plenty of time to linger in a field, get to know a dairy cow up close, or explore the process for making apple cider, or any one of a number of on-farm activities. Speaking of which, this time of year is well-known as the height of apple-cider donut season. If you’ve never had one of these simple yet delicious

treats, do yourself a favor and get some this autumn at a farm near you. The agri-tourism options in New Jersey range from tried-andtrue experiences like corn mazes, pumpkin patches, apple-picking, and hayrides, to something more unconventional, like in-depth introductions to livestock or Hollywood-level haunted rides, barns and fields for the more adventurous weekenders among you. Because of the public’s quest for new and more attractions, many of our farmers who have integrated agri-tourism into their operations have made significant investments in the equipment, vehicles and accommodations for visitors. They take matters like parking, restroom accommodations and seating

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for eating very seriously, for the sake of the attendees and their community at large. There are hundreds if not thousands of New Jersey farms that have incorporated any number of agri-tourism elements into their businesses. You can go to the NJDA website at https:// for a full list of places where you can learn how to do everything from making cheese and wine to growing your own herb garden or assembling floral displays. You’ll even see some unusual twists on the ways our farmers have developed their agri-tourism offerings. One Flemington farm has built a two-day hot sauce festival around its pepper harvest. A Milford apiary will teach you the basics of beekeeping. And, of course, numerous

Editor’s Note: Douglas H. Fisher is New Jersey’s Secretary of Agriculture. He is the department’s executive officer, secretary to the State Board of Agriculture and a member of the Governor’s cabinet. Secretary Fisher fulfills executive, management and administrative duties prescribed by law, executive order or gubernatorial direction. He can be reached at 609.292.3976. For more info, please visit: http://www.

October 2019 5

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6 October 2019


Corn Plant with 29 Ears in South Jersey Verified by Rutgers for Guinness World Records You never know what might “pop up” in your yard. This was the case for Matthew Jacovelli and his family in Deptford, NJ. Each year the Jacovelli’s feed the wildlife in their yard with store-bought animal feed. This year they purchased “Producer’s Pride” whole kernel corn to feed the squirrels. Like squirrels usually do, one buried a corn kernel (seed) in the Jacovelli’s front flower bed. Virginia Jacovelli watered the corn plant to see what it would grow to produce; not expecting it could turn out to be the world record ear-producing plant. When they began counting how many ears the single plant was growing, daughter Jean investigated the world record for number of ears. She found a listing in the Guinness World Records with a corn plant with 16 ears. At that point the Jacovelli’s interest heightened and they wondered if their plant could be something special. One of the criteria for being awarded the record was to have an expert verify the claim. Mr. Jacovelli called the Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Gloucester County office in Clarksboro. All in a day’s work for a county agricultural agent – while judging contests at county fairs is standard practice for agents, verification for entry into the Guinness Book of World Records is a unique occasion. On August 30th, Rutgers agricultural agent and professor Michelle Infante-Casella counted the ears multiple times while being video-recorded to prove the ear-count for Guinness. With the ears tightly packed around the main stalk, in order to confirm it was an actual ear, the structure needed to contain three components: a cob, corn silks and kernels. “I reached out to my colleague, William Bamka, agricultural agent and agronomist, and he was not surprised”, said Infante-Casella. Bamka, who works with field crops, pointed out there is a book titled, “Mutants of Maize” published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory highlighting corn plants with multiple ears and other mutations. He has also seen this phenomenon on occasion on field corn farms. However, both experts agreed, 29 ears on one plant is extremely rare. Infante-Casella explained how unusual it is, “Most varieties of corn have two ears per plant. One main ear and one weaker secondary ear.”  On September 5th, the Jacovelli’s received notification that they are now the Guinness World Records Title Holder for most corn cobs on a single plant. In addition to the Gloucester County Board of Freeholders presenting the Jacovelli’s with a proclamation to celebrate this record, the fruit of the squirrel’s labor will be further saved for posterity by Mr. Jacovelli preserving the corn plant. The plant is drying in his garage loft while he is constructing a wood frame with a wire cage. Once the plant is dry he will cover what he dubbed the “corn coffin” with a polycarbonate plastic sheet for viewing. 

National Moth Week 2019 Breaks Records With Events in 46 Countries and All 50 U.S. States The eighth annual National Moth Week, a global citizen science project that spotlights moths’ beauty, diversity and ecological importance, broke records this year with nearly 1,500 moth-watching and educational events registered in all 50 U.S. States and a record 46 countries. It was observed July 20-28.  Of 581 individuals and organizations hosting one or more events, 320 were private, while 261 registrants hosted public events at parks, museums, schools and other venues around the world. The United States led with 356 registered events, while India had 91. NMW events were held for the first time in Benin, Denmark, Guatemala and Syria.  Since it was founded in 2012, National Moth Week has been celebrated in 91 countries on every continent except Antarctica. Previous high totals were set in 2014, with 467 registrations and 43 countries participating.  Registered participants receive a certificate of participation designed by NMW artist and team member Belen Mena of Ecuador and signed by all team members.  “Moth-ers” submit their moth photos on NMW’s Flickr page or with one of its partner organizations, such as iNaturalist and Project Noah. This year, more than 64,000 photos were uploaded to iNaturalist for NMW, according to NMW team member Jacob Gorneau, who works with NMW partner organizations.  National Moth Week was founded in 2012 by the Friends of the East Brunswick (N.J.) Environmental Commission, a nonprofit organization dedicated to environmental education and conservation. It is now one of the most widespread citizen science projects in the world. It is coordinated by an all-volunteer team in New Jersey, New York, Tennessee, Washington State, Ecuador, India and Hong Kong. Registration is free on the NMW website, though some venues may charge admission to their events.  National Moth Week takes place annually during the last week and two complete weekends of July. Next year’s observance will be July 18-26, 2020. Registration will start again in January.

From the Director’s Desk

Rutgers Outreach Provided by Brian Schilling Director

FCHS Provides Statewide Outreach on Nutrition, Health and Wellness

The Department of Family and Community Health Sciences (FCHS) is a key component of Rutgers Cooperative Extension (RCE) and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. FCHS is one of three “arms” of Rutgers Cooperative Extension, which provides science-based solutions founded on research and knowledge from within the university as well as educational outreach to communities and residents throughout New Jersey. While RCE’s Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources provides outreach on issues related to agriculture, the environment and the management of natural resources, and Department of 4-H Youth Development offers opportunities for youth in leadership, citizenship and life skills, FCHS is focused on promoting outreach in the areas of food, nutrition and healthy lifestyles. FCHS has a unique history that spans more than a century. What is now the Department of Family and Community Health Sciences got its start at Rutgers as the Department of Home Economics. Home economists, who worked as home demonstration agents, assisted rural homemakers and farm families “to develop an awareness of the need for…improved nutrition practices and other preventive measures in promoting improved health among all rural families.” (USDA, The Home demonstration agent, 1946) As the role has evolved over the years, home economists continue to be a part of the faculty and staff of the department, as well as food, nutrition and physical activity experts. And although the educational areas of focus have been occasionally tweaked over time, the mission to provide evidence-based information on promoting healthy lifestyles to clientele has remained steadfast. Currently, 28 FCHS educators serve 15 New Jersey counties, making meaningful outreach to a diverse range of state residents through educational programs, workshops, online webinars, social media, Visions, the FCHS quarterly newsletter, and leadership with community organizations. FCHS provides educational programming to individuals in all walks of life, including children and youth, parents, teachers, health professionals and older adults. Specific FCHS outreach topics include school and early-care wellness, food safety, food security, chronic disease prevention and a vast selection of food and nutrition topics. These topics include exploring MyPlate, the current nutrition guide of the USDA, and food elements such as added sugars, fats and sodium, portion control, eating healthy on a budget, home food preservation, functional foods and many others. Groups of individuals of all ages are welcome at FCHS community programming and we encourage invitations to speak to groups on any topics within our expertise. Visit “FCHS in Your County” at to locate an educator near you. FCHS outreach recently has expanded with the addition of New Jersey SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education) in 2018 in four New Jersey counties – Burlington, Camden, Gloucester and Mercer, which comprise NJ SNAP-Ed Region 2. SNAP-Ed, funded by the USDA and provided by FCHS through a partnership with the New Jersey Department of Health, educates individuals who are eligible for SNAP benefits about nutrition, how to stretch their food dollars and how to include physical activity on a daily basis. One of three New Jersey organizations offering SNAP-Ed, FCHS currently provides educational programs in schools, grocery stores, corner stores and farmers markets to hundreds of youth, families and older adults each year. School food-waste reduction, an exciting and more recent area of focus for FCHS, is an important issue that is quickly gaining in interest. Spearheaded in Rutgers Cooperative Extension by FCHS educators, this focus has led to an increased awareness of and interest by schools to work toward a resolution of this issue. To directly address this issue, RCE hosted a “School Food Waste Reduction Summit” in July 2019 that brought school professionals and students together to learn, brainstorm and be informed about legislation that encourages and protects school food recovery and donations. Providing direct education is only one facet of FCHS outreach. With a world that is busier and faster paced than ever, FCHS is available to provide educational materials for self-viewing through the FCHS website, Here, one can link to a multitude of fact sheets on a variety of topics including Family Meals, Eating Seasonally, Added Sugars and how to manage Picky Eaters. The website is also home to the FCHS quarterly wellness newsletter, Visions, which provides short informative articles on current interests in food and nutrition and can be found at the link Access to many healthy recipes with accompanying preparation videos, as well as webinars for staff of early-care sites, are also available online. FCHS faculty and staff, through its leadership, collaborative efforts, and evidence-based education, are committed to fostering a culture of health and wellness for New Jersey residents of all ages. For more information about the Department of Family and Community Health Sciences, contact Sherri Cirignano at Editor’s Note: This month’s contribution was written by Sherri M. Cirignano, Chair, Department of Family and Community Health Sciences, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.


October 2019 7

Mexican Bush Sage – One Spectacular Salvia October is the month that truly evokes autumn. The temperatures are starting to cool, the foliage has started its autumn symphony of colors and most summer annuals are now looking tired. This is the time when gardeners need a plant palette for late-season color. Although Salvia, commonly called Sage, is typified in New Jersey gardens by summer blooming annuals, some species and cultivars really begin to shine in autumn and Salvia leucantha or Mexican Bush Sage is among the best. Salvia is the largest member of the mint family, or Lamiaceae, containing nearly 1,000 species of shrubs, herbaceous perennials, biennials and annuals found throughout Central and South America, Eastern and Central Asia and the Mediterranean. The genus name was first used in writings of Pliny the Elder. Born as Gaius Plinius Secundus (23-79AD), he was a Roman

general who studied plants and natural environments throughout his military expeditions. The genus stems from the Latin Salvere, meaning to feel healthy, as he was most likely discussing culinary Sage or Salvia officinalis, that was long renowned for its healing and health virtues. The common name of Sage also originated from the word Salvere, which transitioned to the Old French Sauge, and later to the Middle English Sawge, before finally becoming the word we know today. The Swedish botanist, Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) officially named it Salvia officinalis in 1753. It is also the “type” species for the genus, to which any new or existing species are compared. The species epithet officinalis stems from the Latin officina, which initially meant workshop before it evolved to a storage room where medicines and medicinal plants were stored. Officinalis means “belonging to an Officina” and Linnaeus affixed this epithet repeatedly to plants that were known to have medicinal benefits.

Salvia is cherished for its flowers that are attractive and much beloved by pollinators. However, they have also developed a most unique mechanism for ensuring pollination that remains unknown by most gardeners. The stigma and anthers are located within and protected by the upper corolla lip, while the lower lip acts as a pollinator landing pad. What makes the mechanism unique is how the anthers became modified into a wishbone-like structure that pivots on the filaments. At the very base of the flower are the nectaries that are laden with a sugary liquid that acts as an attractive lure for the visiting pollinators. When the pollinator enters the flower to reach the nectaries, it hits the bottom end of the wishbone, allowing the two pollen releasing anthers to pivot down upon the back or head of the pollinator. After several days, the anthers finish releasing pollen and the stigma becomes receptive to pollen and lowers. This allows it to brush the backs of visiting pollinators and receive the pollen deposited

while it was visiting a previous flower. Ingenious! For autumn, one of the best species is Salvia leucantha, commonly called Mexican Bush Sage. It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of central and eastern Mexico. It was named by the Spanish botanist Antonio José Cavanilles (1745-1804) in February 1791. Cavanilles was one of the first botanists in Spain to appreciate and accept Linnaeus’ concept of genus and species. Leucos is Greek for clear, white or pale, and Anthos is Greek for flower, describing the white flower that is subtended by a velvety purple calyx. The plants grow two to three feet tall and wide, with the arching, fourto eight-inch-long flowering racemes begin to appear in earlyAugust and continue until heavy frost. The two- to three-inch-long leaves are oppositely arranged and much like the calyx, they are also slightly pubescent. Like all the species of Salvia, Mexican Bush Sage prefers full sun and well-drained soils and thanks to

the scented foliage, it is also deer resistant. It also makes a superb container plant and is an excellent substitute for chrysanthemums. When considering the autumn garden, look to adding this spectacular annual. Spectacular for adding mid-summer through November color, for its interesting pollination strategy and for its ease of culture. Doesn’t this Salvia belong in your garden?

Editor’s Note: Bruce Crawford is a lover of plants since birth; is the managing director of the Rutgers Gardens, a 180-acre outdoor teaching classroom, horticultural research facility and arboretum; an adjunct professor in Landscape Architecture at the Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences; regularly participates in the Rutgers – Continuing Education Program; and past-president of the Garden State Gardens Consortium. He can be reached at (732) 932-8451. For more information, please visit

Rutgers Cooperative Extension Phone Directory Atlantic County Phone: 609-625-0056 Bergen County Phone: 201-336-6780 Burlington County Phone: 609-265-5050 Camden County Phone: 856 216 7130 Cape May County Phone: 609-465-5115 Cumberland County Phone: 856-451-2800 Essex County Phone: 973-228-2210 Gloucester County Phone: 856-224-8040 Hudson County Phone: 201-915-1399 Hunterdon County Phone: 908-788-1339 Mercer County Phone: 609-989-6830

Middlesex County Phone: 732-398-5260 Monmouth County Phone: 732-431-7260 Morris County Phone: 973-285-8300 Ocean County Phone:732-349-1246 Passaic County Phone: 973-305-5740 Salem County Phone: 856-769-0090 Somerset County Phone: 908-526-6293 Sussex County Phone: 973-948-3040 Union County Phone: 908-654-9854 Warren County Phone: 908-475-6505

8 October 2019


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Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula)

October 2019 9

Around The Garden By Tom Castronovo Gardener News

Fall happenings, chores and a bad bug! With farmers facing rising costs and stagnant of cold in the forecast, turn off the water supply inside commodity prices, agritourism offers an important your house, disconnect hoses and tighten all the opportunity to generate additional farm income and faucets after opening them to drain out any remaining keep farms economically viable. water. It is important to keep water out of exterior During the month of October, agritourism season pipe systems because trapped water can freeze and is in full swing. Agritourism, as some folks define it, expand, causing cracks and breaks and even bursting involves any agriculturally based operation or activity pipes. that brings visitors to a farm. I’ve also had a very difficult choice to make on This year I’m going to spend some agritourism removing my annual flowers. With the unusually time at Melick’s Town Farm on King Street in warm days and nights in September, and the forecast Oldwick, Hunterdon County. warm weather into early-October, my flowers beds Melick’s Town Farm has retail locations in still look awesome. The problem I might face is the Oldwick, Califon, and Bridgewater. The farm, which availability of mums the later I wait. All I need is for totals nearly 650 acres, is one of the largest fruit one or two really cold nights and poof, my annuals growers in New Jersey. will be finished. Oh, the choices a gardener has to The Oldwick location that I am going to visit make. features apple picking, roasted corn with an incredible Now for the big grand-daddy problem we are all chili lime topping, tasty cider donuts, awesome pies, facing in the Northeast this fall, the spotted lanternfly a cider mill, a hard cidery, hay wagon rides, and (Lycorma delicatula). Now is the time to look out for breathtaking views from a vineyard at the top of the their egg masses. mountain. The farm also offers a large selection of The non-native, invasive spotted lanternfly lays pumpkins and decorative gourds. egg masses look like grey Silly Putty or a splash The Califon location offers apple picking, pumpkin of mud on just about any hard outdoor surface. picking, and horse drawn wagon rides. In addition to these outdoor surfaces, you should Both locations offer incredible farm photo ALWAYS check your vehicle when moving from opportunities. inside a quarantined zone to outside its bounds, egg I know a lot of you participate in some form of masses can hide underneath your car or in your wheel agritourism. If you haven’t in the past, try it out this well. There can be as many as 30 to 50 eggs per fall. It will bring you closer to agriculture and, who clump and they look like side-by-side columns. knows, you might even meet your local farmer. On September 22, 2014, the Pennsylvania I can’t wait to see Pete Melick, who writes for Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with the the Gardener News. He also co-owns Melick’s Town Pennsylvania Game Commission, confirmed the Farm with his brother John and sister Rebecca. There presence of the spotted lanternfly in Berks County, are all 10th-generation farmers. Pennsylvania, the first detection in the United States. In mid-September as I type this column, I’ve Once you’ve identified a spotted lanternfly egg watched the leaves on most of my deciduous trees and mass, destroy it. Get a plastic card or putty knife shrubs, especially my Japanese barberry and Spirea to scrape them off of the surface completely. Then turn brown and prematurely drop. After a close-up place them into a bag or container filled with rubbing examination of the ground, right up against the trunks alcohol or hand sanitizer. of my plant material, I noticed cracks in the powdery Spotted lanternflies cause serious damage in plant dry soil. In case you’re wondering, I keep the mulch material including oozing sap, wilting, leaf curling, a full six to eight inches away from the plant bark to and dieback. In addition to this damage, when spotted prevent disease and damage to the phloem and xylem. lanternflies feed, they excrete a sugary substance, This has prompted me take out the hose and begin called honeydew, that encourages the growth of black hand-watering the landscape beds. I will continue to sooty mold, disrupting the photosynthesis process of water as long as I can to keep the plants well hydrated the plant. and to prevent the soil from drying out further, right Spotted lanternflies threaten billions of dollars in up until the ground freezes, or until temperatures dip economic impact and hundreds of thousands of jobs into the 30s for a few nights straight. I’ve also noticed several lawns browning out. for those in the grapes, apple, hops, and hardwood Yes, September is usually a dry month. But this past industries. The spotted lanternfly adult is approximately September was unusually dry. Some of these lawns 1one inch long and half an inch wide at rest. The look like the middle of a hot, dry August. Lawns typically need an inch of water a week to forewing is grey with black spots and the wing tips survive. The only way some of these lawns, which are reticulated black blocks outlined in grey. The by the way, do not look like they have an irrigation hind wings have contrasting patches of red and black system, stay hydrated is to supplement them with a with a white band. The legs and head are black; the abdomen is yellow with broad black bands. Immature portable sprinkler attached to a hose. Once you have finished watering for the season, stages are black with white spots, and develop red or if there is a very cold night or an extended period patches as they grow. Editor’s Note: Tom Castronovo is executive editor and publisher of Gardener News. Tom’s lifelong interest in gardening and passion for agriculture, environmental stewardship, gardening and landscaping, led to the founding of the Gardener News, which germinated in April 2003 and continues to bloom today. He is also dedicated to providing inspiration, and education to the agricultural, gardening and landscaping communities through this newspaper and


STIHL PolyCut Mowing Heads Recalled Due to Injury Hazard

Description: This recall involves mowing head cutting attachments compatible with some models of STIHL-brand trimmers, brushcutters, and clearing saws.  The mowing heads can be identified by the name “STIHL” and model number “27-3” or “47-3” located on the original packaging and molded on the top side of the mowing head.  The mowing heads have three orange plastic blades, each attached with a bolt and a nut, a black top housing, and a white bottom housing.  Remedy:  Consumers should stop using the recalled mowing heads immediately and take them to an authorized STIHL dealer for a full refund.  Incidents/Injuries: STIHL Inc. has received 28 reports of loose bolts or mowing heads coming apart, including two reports of injuries.  Sold At: Authorized full line STIHL servicing dealers nationwide from July 2018 through July 2019 for about $30 for the 27-3 model and about $40 for the 47-3 model.  Manufacturer(s): STIHL Incorporated, of Virginia Beach, Va.  Manufactured In: United States  Recall number: 19-201  

Gator Utility Vehicles Recalled by John Deere Due to Crash Hazard

Description: This recall involves John Deere Gator utility vehicles with model number “XUV835” printed on the hood. “John Deere” and “Gator” are printed on the cargo box. The serial number is located on the frame directly above right front tire and begins with 1M0835 and falls within the ranges on the chart below. The recalled utility vehicles were sold in green and yellow, olive drab and camouflage and have side-by-side seating for two or three people, depending on the seat option.  Remedy: Consumers should immediately stop using the recalled vehicles and contact an authorized John Deere dealer for a free inspection and repair of improperly routed throttle cables. John Deere is contacting all known purchasers directly.  Incidents/Injuries:  John Deere has received reports of nine incidents. No injuries have been reported. Sold At:  John Deere dealers nationwide from November 2017 through July 2019 for between $13,860 and $22,930.   Manufacturer(s): Deere & Company, of Moline, Ill.  Manufactured In: United States Recall number: 19-776 

John Deere Recalls Frontier Grooming Mowers Due to Entanglement Injury Hazard

Description: This recall involves John Deere’s Frontier-branded grooming mowers for use with compact utility tractors. “Frontier” and model FM3012, GM1060, GM1072, GM1084, GM1190, GM3060 or GM3072 are printed on the mower. A complete list of serial numbers included in this recall along with the location of the serial number is available at:  Remedy: Consumers should immediately stop using the recalled mowers and contact an authorized John Deere dealer for a free repair. John Deere is contacting all known purchasers directly.  Incidents/Injuries: None reported  Sold At:John Deere dealers nationwide from April 2018 through May 2019 for between $3,100 and $16,700.  Manufacturer(s):  Manufactured for Frontier, a brand name of Deere & Company, by Woods Equipment Company of Oregon, IL.  Manufactured In: United States  Recall number: 19-778  The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death associated with the use of thousands of types of consumer products under the agency’s jurisdiction. Deaths, injuries, and property damage from consumer product incidents cost the nation more than $1 trillion annually. Federal law bars any person from selling products subject to a publicly-announced voluntary recall by a manufacturer or a mandatory recall ordered by the Commission.  To report a dangerous product or a product-related injury go online to or call CPSC’s Hotline at 800-6382772 or teletypewriter at 301-595-7054 for the hearing impaired.

10 October 2019

USDA NEWS USDA Resources Available for Farmers Hurt by 2018, 2019 Disasters

U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue today announced that agricultural producers affected by natural disasters in 2018 and 2019, including Hurricane Dorian, can apply for assistance through the Wildfire and Hurricane Indemnity Program Plus (WHIP+). Signup for this U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) program will begin Sept. 11, 2019. “U.S. agriculture has been dealt a hefty blow by extreme weather over the last several years, and 2019 is no exception,” Perdue said. “The scope of this year’s prevented planting alone is devastating, and although these disaster program benefits will not make producers whole, we hope the assistance will ease some of the financial strain farmers, ranchers and their families are experiencing. President Trump has the backs of our farmers, and we are working to support America’s great patriot farmers.”  More than $3 billion is available through the disaster relief package passed by Congress and signed by President Trump in early June. WHIP+ builds on the successes of its predecessor program the 2017 Wildfire and Hurricane Indemnity Program (2017 WHIP) that was authorized by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. In addition, the relief package included new programs to cover losses for milk dumped or removed from the commercial market and losses of eligible farm stored commodities due to eligible disaster events in 2018 and 2019. Also, prevented planting supplemental disaster payments will provide support to producers who were prevented from planting eligible crops for the 2019 crop year.  Eligibility: WHIP+ will be available for eligible producers who have suffered eligible losses of certain crops, trees, bushes or vines in counties with a Presidential Emergency Disaster Declaration or a Secretarial Disaster Designation (primary counties only). Disaster losses must have been a result of hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, typhoons, volcanic activity, snowstorms or wildfires that occurred in 2018 or 2019. Also, producers in counties that did not received a disaster declaration or designation may still apply for WHIP+ but must provide supporting documentation to establish that the crops were directly affected by a qualifying disaster loss.  A list of counties that received qualifying disaster declarations and designations is available at Because grazing and livestock losses, other than milk losses, are covered by other disaster recovery programs offered through USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA), those losses are not eligible for WHIP+.  For more information on FSA disaster assistance programs, please contact your local USDA service center or visit  

USDA NASS Resumes Data Collection for the Colony Loss Survey

Issued Sept. 13, 2019 by the Agricultural Statistics Board of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s, National Agricultural Statistics Service. For more information, contact Travis Averill at (202) 720-3570 or After a one quarter suspension due to resource constraints, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) will resume the Colony Loss Survey with the October 1 reference date. The survey results, which include quarterly data on honey bee colony numbers and death loss, will be released in the August 2020 Honey Bee Colonies report. This report allows USDA, researchers, beekeepers, and other interested parties to compare quarterly losses, additions, and movements and to analyze the data on a state-by-state basis.  For more information about USDA NASS survey programs, including the bee and honey program, visit  

USDA’s National Organic Program is Hiring for Multiple Positions Are you or someone you know interested in joining the team of professionals responsible for maintaining the gold standard of organic regulations: the USDA Organic Seal? That team --- the National Organic Program --- is a small federal enforcement agency housed in USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service, and we are growing! This Fall 2019, we are conducting a hiring surge, seeking a pool of candidates ready to join us in oversight of the dynamic, growing organic industry and ensuring continued consumer trust under increasingly complex supply chains from farm to table worldwide. All available positions are posted on

USDA Lifts PACA Reparation Sanctions on New Jersey Produce Business

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced that Domanth Inc., doing business as Medoff Produce, satisfied a $9,990 reparation order issued under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA) involving unpaid produce transactions. The New Brunswick, N.J., company can continue operating in the produce industry upon applying for and being issued a PACA license. Dominic R. Bellifemine was listed as the officer, director and major stockholder of the business and may now be employed by or affiliated with any PACA licensee.  PACA provides an administrative forum to handle disputes involving produce transactions; this may result in USDA’s issuance of a reparation order that requires damages to be paid by those not meeting their contractual obligations in buying and selling fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables. USDA is required to suspend the license or impose sanctions on an unlicensed business that fails to pay PACA reparations awarded against it as well as impose restrictions against those principals determined to be responsibly connected to the business when the order is issued. Those individuals, including sole proprietors, partners, members, managers, officers, directors or major stockholders, may not be employed by or affiliated with any PACA licensee without USDA approval.  Once a reparation order is fully satisfied and it is confirmed that there are not any outstanding unpaid awards, USDA lifts the employment restrictions of the previously named, responsibly connected individuals. USDA also requires any unlicensed company that fully satisfies all unpaid reparation awards to obtain a license if it continues to operate in the industry.  The PACA Division, which is in the Fair Trade Practices Program in the Agricultural Marketing Service, regulates fair trading practices of produce businesses that are operating subject to PACA, including buyers, sellers, commission merchants, dealers and brokers within the fruit and vegetable industry.  In the past three years, USDA resolved approximately 3,350 PACA claims involving more than $63 million. PACA staff also assisted more than 8,000 callers with issues valued at approximately $156 million. These are just two examples of how USDA continues to support the fruit and vegetable industry.  For more information regarding this matter, contact John Koller, Chief, Dispute Resolution Branch, at (202) 720-2890, by fax at (202) 690-2815, or by email at regarding this matter.  

USDA Announces $72.4 Million in Grant Funding Awarded to Strengthen the Specialty Crop Industry

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced $72.4 million awarded through the Specialty Crop Block Grant Program (SCBGP), authorized by the 2018 Farm Bill, to support farmers growing specialty crops, including fruits, vegetables, tree nuts and nursery crops. SCBGP non-competitively provides grant funding to the departments of agriculture in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the five U.S. territories. The 56 grant recipients fund research, agricultural extension activities and programs to increase demand for agricultural goods of value to farmers in their respective state or territory.

SCBGP recipients include the Colorado Department of Agriculture, which partnered with Colorado State University to develop sustainable orchard management strategies that improve the economic aspects of tree fruit production in western Colorado. Additionally, the Nebraska Department of Agriculture, in conjunction with the Center for Rural Affairs and the University of Nebraska—Lincoln Bee Lab, is using SCBGP funding to test the effectiveness and production of alternative hive structures, which will educate new and existing beekeepers on alternative hive structures for production and honey bee health. USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)

supports U.S. food and agricultural products market opportunities, while increasing consumer access to fresh, healthy foods through applied research, technical services and Congressionally-funded grants. In fiscal year 2019, the New Jersey Department of Agriculture received $ 839,401.90. The New York Department of Agriculture received $ 1,382,486.69. And, the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture received $ 1,141,923.03  To learn more about AMS grant funding to enhance and strengthen agricultural systems, visit www.ams.usda. gov/grants. The history of cranberry farming is very much a New Jersey story. It’s a story of experimentation, discovery, perseverance, innovation, technology, and recovery. When you think about it, perhaps we could even call cranberry farms some of New Jersey’s earliest start-ups. Just one of three fruits native to North America, cranberries were a healthy food staple of native Americans in the Garden State. These bright red berries, abundant in the Pine Barrens of southern New Jersey, found their way into colorful dyes, textiles, and even medicines. The first cranberry crops date back to 1845, when American farmers planted vines in the Garden State’s wild bogs. After several years of rough harvests, though, a revolution in planting techniques arrived when George Cook, a professor at Rutgers and New Jersey’s state geologist, proposed a new cranberry fertilizer: swamp muck, from the bogs nearby. The combination of fertile muck with a covering layer of sand to stimulate new roots proved a powerful catalyst for growth, and our cranberry industry was born.

October 2019 11 Agriculture and Natural Resources By Eric Houghtaling New Jersey Assemblyman

The Parable of the Cranberry – A New Jersey Story

Soon, though, insect damage and winter freezes took a heavy toll on Cook’s berries. Innovative farmers found a new solution: By flooding the bogs with water, growers could kill most insects and keep their crops from freezing, killing both birds with a single stone. New ideas can have payoffs in unexpected places. Each cranberry contains a tiny sack of air - and when the bogs were flooded, ripe berries floated to the top, making them (relatively) easy pickings. The farmers’ efforts were so successful that Cook noted: “already our fields supply more than half of all cranberries raised in the United States.” Here’s the thing about New Jersey, though - once we’ve got a taste of innovation, it’s hard for us to stop.

Growers created new tools resembling large wooden rakes that could pull through the vines and collect ripened berries. These rakes increased yield and reduced manpower - but at the cost of damaging the fruits and vines, not to mention the workers’ backs. By the 1950s, New Jersey inventor and cranberry farm operator Tom Darlington found a solution: the “Darlington Mechanical Dry Harvester,” the first mainstream mechanical cranberry harvester. Before, wet-harvested berries from flooded bogs were mainly used for cranberry juices and sauces. Now, the new technology of dry harvesting allowed farms to sell packaged whole berries directly to the consumer. Over the years, New Jersey farmers worked hard to educate consumers on the health benefits

of cranberry antioxidants and the rich vitamins and nutrients packed into these tiny berries. Because of them, demand has risen to ever-greater heights – and because of our farmers’ efforts and innovations, New Jersey has become a world leader in cranberry production, producing $15.8 million in crops and harvesting half a million barrels just last year. By the start of the 21st century, it had become clear that cranberry farmers’ perseverance had paid off. Cranberries had kickstarted a massive commercial enterprise that reached across the continent - and even the globe - bringing New Jersey-grown goods right to kitchen tables across America. Those little red berries had become a symbol of something much bigger: the agriculture of the Garden State.

Today, cranberry farmers face new challenges. Development and high land costs have shrunk the acreage of bogs across the state. Cranberry farmers – including some of the descendants of New Jersey’s original innovators – say it can take years to make a new operation profitable. Even so, I don’t doubt that, with support and ingenuity, our local farms can overcome any barrier that stands in their way. So, as we go through fall enjoying popular crops such as apples and pumpkins, let’s not forget the cranberry, New Jersey’s native fruit, and the perseverance and innovation of the Garden State farmers that bring it to our Thanksgiving tables every fall. I look forward to speaking with you soon. Editor’s Note: Assemblyman Eric Houghtaling is Chair of the Agriculture and Natural Resources Committee in the New Jersey State Assembly. He can be reached at 732-6953371 or AsmHoughtaling@, or by mail at 802 W Park Ave, Ste 221, Ocean Township 07712.

Seeing 20/20, Garden Media Group 2020 Trends Report (Continued from page 1)

Endangered Soil Erosion, deforestation and other damaging land use practices have already washed away one-third of our top soil. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization warns that if we continue on this course, we will lose it all by 2050. These concerns have sparked a new movement called regenerative gardening. It builds on organic gardening. Regenerative practices are meant to improve and regenerate the soil. Many across the globe are moving away from factory farming toward regenerative practices and turning a profit. In fact, a new certification is in the wings as a response to customer demand. One half of U.S. consumers would buy a brand if it is committed to the environment. People will spend up to $150 billion on sustainable products by 2021. Regenerative Organic

Certified adds soil health, fair trade and animal welfare to organic practices. Regenerative Gardening Changes in farming, forestry and gardening could not only mitigate carbon, but actually reverse it. Regenerative practices aim to rebuild soil organic matter, restore degraded soil, sequester carbon and runoff. A shift from extractive to restorative could remove one ton of CO2 from the atmosphere for every acre, according to The Rodale Institute. Think Outside the House The houseplant trend is still growing, with no end in sight. Younger generations finding themselves with less space, time and money, are turning to indoor plants for their benefits. They clean the air, reduce stress, enhance creativity and connect people with nature. Thanks to “Plant Parents” the houseplant obsession is

seeing greater percentage growth than perennials, shrubs or trees. It’s clear that green industry players who offer education and cultivate community win big. Meet-and-greets with plant influencers allow people to interact with their favorite Instagram celebrities and make new plant buddies. More and more, affinity groups of plant lovers are spinning off to create their own groups. This is key to forwarding a company’s diversity agenda. Frog-Friendly Spaces Just like the plight of the pollinators, amphibians like frogs and toads are going extinct at an alarming rate. Habitat destruction, pesticides, pollution, increased UV radiation, climate change, all play a part in population decline. We will see increased awareness and interest in ponds and other water garden features. Water brings

so much life to the garden, and homeowners want their children to be familiar with these remarkable creatures and do the right thing for the environment. The Future of Fungi Mushrooms are a super food, super fun to grow and just might turn out to be super for the planet. Fungi could potentially solve some of the world’s most pressing problems, like plastic use in our industry. In 2012, Yale students came across Pestalotiopsis microspora, a mushroom from the Amazon that loves to eat plastic and can live without oxygen. It could clean up landfills from the bottom up. Katharina Unger at Utrecht University in the Netherlands found other mushrooms ate plastic and reportedly tasted good afterward. “It’s time for the green industry to tackle this plastic problem before we go the

way of the plastic straw or plastic bag,” said Dubow. Indigo – The Sweetest Shade of Blue We’re predicting that indigo will be the color of the year in 2020. Plants with blue flowers are always the best sellers. Think of blue hydrangeas, salvia, and lavender. Bushel and Berry combines the container plant trend and blueberries’ popularity as a super food. Can’t you just taste a blueberry event? Remember, 74 percent of people value experiences over things. The lost art of indigo dying is making a comeback. Shibori – the Japanese technique of creating patterns on fabric – is a trendy workshop for all ages. Editor’s Note: The annual Garden Trends Report, published by Garden Media Group, is one of the most published garden studies in trade and consumer news.

12 October 2019

Landscape Contractor Meeting Features

Tom Castronovo/Photo

Brad Park, an agronomist from the Rutgers Center for Turfgrass Science.

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The New Jersey Landscape Contractors Association (NJLCA) that represents the entire Green Industry in New Jersey – including landscape contractors, landscape architects, sod growers, nurseries, greenhouse growers, garden centers, horticulturists, and the floriculture industries – hosted an early fall membership meeting at Synatek in Mountainside, Union County, on Thursday, September 12. This educational community meeting focused on the essential elements for proper and safe grounds maintenance, growth of turf, and healthy soil.   Turfgrass expert Brad Park, an agronomist from the Rutgers Center for Turfgrass Science, discussed the different ways to aerate soil and the proper execution of aeration. He also discussed the various types of turfgrass seed and their uses/applications.  Rick Fletcher of NuFarm discussed the Glyphosate State of the Union.  Michael Lindenbaum of SiteFotos spoke about the importance of taking site photos.  Each month the association holds meeting in different locations throughout New Jersey.  The NJLCA prides itself on five pillars: Safety, Community, Advocacy, Professionalism, and Education.  The NJLCA is a New Jersey 501(c)(6) non-profit organization.  

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October 2019 13

Glyphosate, Healthy Soil, and Site Photos

Tom Castronovo/Photo

Phil Giardina, left, and Mike Reed from Synatek at the NJLCA membership meeting.Â

Tom Castronovo/Photo

Gail Woolcott, left, Director of Operations, NJLCA; Nelson Lee, President, NJLCA; and Maria Albuquerque, an NJLCA Administrative Assistant.

NJLCA members in the Synatek conference room listening to the industry experts.

Tom Castronovo/Photo

14 October 2019

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Paths to Discovery through Outdoor Learning Centers

By Jeannie Geremia Contributing Writer Let me begin by thanking the Gardener News family for their congratulatory messages and offers of support as I assumed the Presidency of The Garden Club of New Jersey, Inc. this past June. I was stunned by the numerous emails I received from so many fellow writers, and deeply moved by the cover article in the July issue by Executive Editor/ Publisher Tom Castronovo, followed by a beautifully written article entitled “Go Clubbing—Garden Clubbing” by Douglas H. Fisher, Secretary of the NJ Department of Agriculture in the September issue of Gardener News. It took my breath away as Secretary Fisher acknowledged our ongoing role “to spread the joy of gardening and plant-scaping to anyone who will listen”, and relating how our clubs and state organization “seek constantly to educate the public and promote gardening in our state.” The theme of my presidency, “Paths to Discovery through Outdoor Learning Centers,” evolved through many months of planning and I’m proud to give you, my gardening friends, an overview as we are working tirelessly to incorporate this project in Rutgers Gardens. The concept began on a smaller scale as Mary Warshauer, GCNJ President 2009-2011, had tasked Jeanette Johnson and her committee (Terry Blake and me) with bringing The Garden Club of New Jersey, Inc.’s history up to date. Our initial history “The Green Crusade” covered our first 40 years from 1925 to 1965, followed by “The Garden Club of New Jersey” history to 1985. Our goal was to bring the history from 1985 to 2010 with the third volume entitled “The Green Crusade Continues by Nurturing Our World for a Beautiful Tomorrow.” This is where

the seeds were planted as I realized during the subsequent years of putting this history together that several past GCNJ Presidents Projects sponsored by GCNJ in cooperation with Rutgers Gardens of Rutgers University and erected in Rutgers Gardens were basically forgotten. The initial goal was to refurbish and restore these fabulous projects to their former glory, including “The Native and Regional Plant Garden” under GCNJ President Ruth Paul (20012003), “Waterwise Rain Garden” and “Historic Preservation Garden at Log Cabin” under GCNJ President Wini Applegate (2003-2005), “Freedom Trail of Great Americans” and “The Field of Heroes” under GCNJ President Carole Iuso (20052007) and “The Garden Club of New Jersey’s Guide to The Helen Hull Wild Flower Collection” under GCNJ President Onnolee Allieri (2007-2009). We also determined that in restoring these GCNJ/ Rutgers Projects that our parent organization, National Garden Clubs, Inc. had awarded their top awards, that we would give our garden clubs another opportunity to put forward their Great American, and take part in restoring, refurbishing, and working with Bruce Crawford, Director of Rutgers Gardens, and his students and staff in these efforts, incorporating permanent signage and providing funding for future maintenance. This project expanded by leaps and bounds when I saw outstanding displays, while attending the Central Atlantic Region State Garden Clubs (CAR-SGC) Conference last October in Columbus, Ohio, in the newly installed Children’s Garden at the grounds of The Franklin Conservatory & Botanical Gardens. I had a EUREKA moment as I envisioned similar educational displays in Rutgers Gardens. In hindsight, I know that all the years I heard Bruce Crawford talking about his

vision of linking the evolution of flora and fauna and their interdependent relationships, especially his desire to have a huge bird with teeth bring home that fascinating history, had worked its magic on me. Naturally then, when Bruce, Teddie Falcone and I met this past January to strategize, Teddie was astounded by how Bruce and I were on the same wavelength and it all started to fall into place. Teddie Falcone was the natural chairperson to head this joint Rutgers Gardens/GCNJ Project up as she took notes and intuitively coined the terms “Paths to Discovery” and “Outdoor Learning Centers” that I had been grappling with. Yes, there’s going to be much more to come as we have our Past Presidents, our garden clubs, our dynamic committee and Bruce Crawford and his students ready to initially refurbish through signage our past projects, but we’ve also sited six different locations for the erection of our “Learning Centers,” each devoted to a wildlife species and their accompanying plants. The very first will be an eight-foot stainless steel bird with teeth sited by a huge Magnolia tree with an interactive nest and signage. New Jersey Audubon has been enlisted to help identify and provide signage of birds that make their home in Rutgers Gardens whether as part of their migratory route or as permanent residents. We will be adding a future butterfly learning center, bat, bee, frog, dragonfly, turtle plus garden libraries throughout! Editor’s Note: Jeannie Geremia is The Garden Club of New Jersey, Inc.’s President, GCNJ Milkweed for Monarchs Chair, and is a National Garden Clubs, Inc. Master Flower Show Judge for the GCNJ. Jeannie is a member of Neshanic Garden Club, the Raritan Township Historic Committee and the Raritan Township Board of Health. Jeannie’s email address is:

October 2019 17

Neshanic Garden Club Holds Flower Show in Municipal Building Neshanic Garden Club’s first official meeting took place in the summer of 1929 with a program on bulbs at a charter member’s home. Since that auspicious August meeting, they have witnessed a succession of civic-minded women and men whose goal was and remains the education, beautification, encouragement in the art of horticulture, floral design and the safekeeping of our environment so that successive generations will experience the joy derived from a keen appreciation and respect for nature. The beneficiaries of Neshanic Garden Club’s numerous projects throughout the decades have been Neshanic Station, Branchburg, Hillsborough, and Montgomery Townships in New Jersey, and their citizens of all ages. Neshanic Garden Club’s first flower show was held in September 1935 and continues to this day. They have participated in numerous state flower shows, District IV flower shows, and their members have excelled in all facets winning many awards.

They have been awarded many grants, including a $500 grant to help 4th graders at Old York School establish a Native Plant Garden as they studied Leni Lenape history. Their youth program begun in 1995 and has a dedicated core of members working with 2nd- 3rd- and 4th-graders in a variety of garden-themed projects at the Hillsborough Library on a monthly basis. On September 13, Shawn Lipani, a Hillsborough Township Committeeman, and co-owner of Central Jersey Nurseries, a family-owned business in Hillsborough, was provided a special tour of the Neshanic Garden Club’s Stand Flower Show by Garden Club of New Jersey President Jeannie Geremia. The show was held September 13 and 14 in the front multipurpose room in the Hillsborough, Somerset County, Municipal Building. The show’s theme was “90 Years of Gardening.” Throughout the two-day show, many passionate garden enthusiasts as well as professionals attended and were treated to beautiful floral marquees.

Tom Castronovo/Photo

Shawn Lipani, left, a Hillsborough Township Committeeman and co-owner of Central Jersey Nurseries, a family-owned business in Hillsborough; Janet Gibson, center, second vice president of the Neshanic Garden Club; and Garden Club of New Jersey President Jeannie Geremia, at the Neshanic Garden Club’s Stand Flower Show

Tom Castronovo/Photo

Award-winning sunflower display at the Neshanic Garden Club’s Stand Flower Show.

Tom Castronovo/Photo

Garden Club of New Jersey and Rutgers Gardens Path to Discovery Through Outdoor Learning Centers sign on display at the Neshanic Garden Club’s Stand Flower Show.

Tom Castronovo/Photo

Neshanic Garden Club history display at their Stand Flower Show.

18 October 2019 Given the gift of travel at a very young age, I was fortunate that my parents took me everywhere growing up. Now, almost at the end of my 40s, my wife and I share our love of travel with our daughter. This past summer, our family vacation took us to the Caribbean, specifically Aruba. Everyone I have ever spoken to who has visited Aruba has said to me that I will love the people, the food and the Caribbean water. However, they left out the plants. Perhaps the most famous tree in Aruba is the Divi-Divi or Watapana tree, Caesalpinia coriaria, former name Libidibia coriaria. A tree always pointing in a southwesterly direction because the trade winds blow across the island from the northeast. Comfortable in Aruba’s dry climate, the Divi-Divi tree forms fantastic shapes of divine windswept, bonsai shapes. In fact, the local adage, “Follow the bend of the DiviDivi trees and they’ll lead you to town,” I found to be true. Watapana tree has inconspicuous but fragrant blossoms and thick, curled pods rich in tannin. A leguminous tree (member of the pea family), these pods, Unique Plants By Bob LaHoff Nursery Specialist

“Aruba’s Natural Compass”

at one time, were exported to Germany and Holland for tanning leather. Additionally, goats, prevalent on Aruba and known for their marauding, avoid the tough bark of the Divi-Divi and its concentration of tannic acid. Divi-Divi’s leaves are bipinnate and deciduous and are pinnately compound. The foliage appears feathery in texture and small, pale yellow flowers are fragrant and yield nectar for honeybees. Large Mondis (forests of cacti), Bougainvillea and wild orchids also find the soil of Aruba pleasant. Contorted and battered by trade winds, Divi-Divi seldom, if ever, reach their expected height of 30 feet. The national tree of Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire (the Dutch “ABC islands”) have their “fair share” and thus it’s an endemic tree. Images of

Divi-Divi appear everywhere, most notably for this writer, on every Pilsner bottle of the flagship brand, Balashi beer. Nearly 20 percent of the island is dedicated to Arikok, Aruba’s National park. Taking a UTV tour had us appreciating dramatic coastlines, natural bridges and the Natural Pool “Conchi” (Papiamento for ‘bowl’). A secluded swimming hole protected by a wall of volcanic rock that the Caribbean Sea relentlessly washes up against, often showering those in the pool. Candelabra cactus, Coral Cactus, Prickly pear cactus and Kwihi tree are all well represented throughout the park. And while Aloe plants are not as prevalent as they once were, in the early part of the 20th century, our tour to the Aruba Aloe Museum, Factory & Store had me appreciating this plant in a whole new light.

Aloe Vera was first used to describe the plant by Carl von Linne (Linneaus) in 1720, a factoid I leaned touring the factory. One experience that had me trusting a complete stranger, who didn’t speak a word of English, involved a plant/tree called Seagrape, Coccoloba uvifera. On Baby Beach, just past the decaying artwork of denuded trees, standing strong against the Caribbean’s shoreline, was a small stand of larger Seagrape. A silhouette that reminded me of the “Scorched Tree Skeletons” inside the Namib-Naukluft Park in Namibia (Deadvlei). A woman was harvesting the small deep-purple fruits and was snacking on them. Her gracious offer found me enjoying the small fleshy fruit with a large pit, likening it to Smucker’s grape jelly. Seagrape leaves have

Robert LaHoff/Photo

Fofoti tree, Conocarpus erectus, on Eagle Beach across from the Ambassador Manor, Aruba.

always held my attention as their large, circular, broad, leathery, evergreen leaves with distinct red veins scream “tropical.” My experience proved that smaller, wellkept hedge forms had almost no fruit compared to larger specimens. Full sun, sandy soils and virtually no care are simple requirements for this durable beauty. Finally, on Eagle Beach, are Aruba’s two most photographed trees. Pleased to see so many people go out of their way to have their photograph taken with a tree, even though most had their identity wrong. Many people I encountered, mainly tourists, erroneously thought that these trees were the famed Divi-Divi trees. However, they are in fact Fofoti trees (Mangrove), also called Buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus. Fofoti tree foliage is evergreen, not deciduous, and grows year-round near salt water. Fofoti’s existence is threatened, especially in the Caribbean, because of coastal development. Our vacation to Aruba filled our senses completely. The people are approachable and most of the population speaks English, Dutch, Spanish and Papiamento (the local Creole language). As a “foodie,” the cuisine is amazing and tantalizing. Fresh fish, the likes of Grouper, Wahoo, Mahi-Mahi, Barracuda and Unicorn fish were tender, in some instances spicy, but always fresh, particularly the ones we caught deep sea fishing and had prepared at our hotel later that evening. But for me, as is the case with most of our travel experiences, the plants seemed to speak to me most. The entire combination had me wholeheartedly believing the country’s credo, “One happy island.” Editor’s Note: Bob LaHoff is co-owner of Hall’s Garden Center and Florist in Union County, a member of the Union County Board of Agriculture, the New Jersey Nursery and Landscape Association, ReevesReed Arboretum Buildings and Grounds Committee, a lifetime member of the Conifer Society and past member of the retail council for Monrovia Growers. He can be reached at (908) 665-0331. Choosing the correct settings for your spreader can be difficult because there are so many spreader models on the market and so many granular lawn products available; it can make your head spin! Picking the best lawn-care products to apply and knowing when to apply them can be complicated enough before you even factor in the difficulty in determining the correct spreader setting. Just as important as the correct spreader setting is figuring out just how large your lawn is. How do you determine your lawn’s square footage? If you live on a square or rectangular lot, it’s fairly easy to calculate. Multiply your lot’s length times its width in feet to get your total property square footage. Then you have to calculate the square footage of your driveway, house foundation footprint, landscape beds, etc. and deduct this from your total lot square footage. If you live on an unusually shaped lot, go to https://www. for directions on how to calculate your property square footage. Example: Lot size of 100 feet

October 2019 19 Turf ‘s Up By Todd Pretz Professional Turf Consultant

How to use a spreader and how big is your lawn? (length) by 75 feet (width), 100 x 75 = 7,500 square feet. Now we have to do the same for your non-lawn areas (i.e. driveway, landscape beds and your home’s footprint). If your driveway is 65 feet (length) by 25 feet (width), 65 x 25 = 1,625 square feet. Repeat this for your other nonlawn areas. Let’s just say this property has a total of 4,725 square feet of lawn area. A 5,000 square foot bag of product would be appropriate for this area. The little extra fertilizer or control product spread on this area should not be a problem here. If your lawn area was 2,875 square feet, using all of a 5,000 square foot fertilizer or control product would be too much. It is important that you deliver to the lawn the proper amount of product for best results, not too

much or too little. Follow all label directions, more is not always better! Save the leftover product wrapped safely in your shed away from children and pets for the next proper application. What setting do you use for your spreader? There are many types of lawn spreaders on the market, including Rotary (broadcast-spinner type), Drop and Handheld. Rotaries are the most popular because they cover the lawn area quicker than drop spreaders. Handheld spreaders are more popular for smaller lawns of less than 2,000 square feet. There should be a setting on the bag or spreader brochure for the product you are applying, but not always. Spreader settings are approximations and you may need to do some trial and error to get the proper setting for the

product. Fertilizer products have a heavier bulk density and may flow quicker from the spreader than control products which typically are lighter. Spreader settings may vary based on your walking speed, terrain and condition of your spreader. It is better to have too low a setting than too high. If you have leftover product because of too low a setting, you can apply again over the area at a lower setting, remembering you are trying to apply the correct amount of product on the measured square feet. Apply a header strip around the perimeter of your lawn for a turning area, then apply product back and forth in the longest direction like you would mow your lawn. Each pass with a rotary-type spreader should just overlap the previous pass. In most

Musings Over Fall Foliage

By Hubert Ling All plants in New Jersey must make tremendous preparations for winter. Our broadleaved deciduous trees will shed their fragile leaves, which would freeze and otherwise become useless. However, before leaves are dropped, precious chlorophyll molecules must be disassembled and stored as colorless subunits in the roots, trunks, and branches. Chlorophyll is well known as the green pigment which traps light to power the production of sugar, starch, and eventually all other biological molecules. Chlorophyll is a large, complex, difficult-tomanufacture molecule, which makes it well worth saving. Leaves also contain other simpler yellow pigments called carotenoids, which help chlorophyll capture light. However, carotenoids are obviously expendable since they remain in the shed leaves.

As the chlorophyll is being broken down, leaf cells often simultaneous manufacture an additional, relatively simple red pigment named anthocyanin. The roles of anthocyanins in plants is not well understood, but they are often produced in maturing fruit and apparently signal animals that the fruits are ripe and the seeds ready to move to their new homes. In the fall, anthocyanins may act to prevent exposed leaf cells from cold and ultraviolet light damage. It is well known that leaf color is best in trees exposed to bright sun with cool and moist conditions. These are just the conditions that encourage the production of protective anthocyanins. People in the Northeastern United States are fortunate, since we have a high percentage of plants which synthesize anthocyanins in their leaves during fall and thus our native trees and shrubs provide the finest display of fall foliage color in the world. Chlorophyll, of course, provides the green color, carotenoids are yellow

and anthocyanins are red or purple. The most spectacular and reliable colors are found in our New Jersey native sugar maple, Acer saccharum. These bear beautifully patterned leaves which are red, yellow, and orange (from a combination of red and yellow). Bigtooth aspen can also be red, reddish brown, or yellow in fall. In addition, if conditions are just right, sassafras, Sassafras albidum, and poison ivy vines, Toxicodendron radicans also have lovely leaves with the same colors. Generally less spectacular and less consistent is the Virginia creeper vine, whose leaves are sometimes a brilliant green, red, orange and yellow. Almost as spectacular in fall are trees which burst out with predominately red or crimson leaves. These include red maple, sumac, sweet gum, and flowering dogwood. Sourgum Nyssa sylvatica leaves can be a special shiny, metallic scarlet-purple color. Generally less spectacular red foliage

is found in scarlet oak, blue beech, black chokecherry, and sometimes in white oak, red oak, white ash trees. On a much smaller scale, several native shrubs can produce wonderful color. Preeminent among these are blueberry and huckleberry. Also worthy of honorable mention are silky dogwood, red osier dogwood, strawberry bush, American bladdernut, and gray dogwood. Maple leaf viburnum is unique, with distinctive and unusual pink colored leaves. Little blue stem also stands out among the grasses, since it develops a pleasant reddish-brown color. If we had hillsides packed with shimmering golden aspens in the East, we might appreciate our golden fall plants more. However, we have several woody plants which individually grace our fall with vibrant yellows or golden browns and deserve more than a passing glance. These include most ashes, hickories, oaks, birches, beech, cottonwood, aspens, cherries,

cases, each pass will be eight to 10 feet in width. For drop-type spreaders, be sure to overlap the wheel marks to ensure full coverage so you do not “stripe” the lawn. Do not leave your spreader’s on-off lever “open” or on when making turns or stopping to avoid dropping too much product. For best results, do not apply products on a windy day. Remember to sweep or blow any product that lands on the driveway, sidewalk or patio areas back onto the target application area. This prevents product from getting into waterways and also helps to avoid any staining of your concrete. Wash out your spreader after each use and allow it to dry thoroughly. Treat any exposed or moving parts with lubricant to reduce corrosion before putting away your spreader. And there you have it. Good luck spreading! Editor’s Note: Todd Pretz is Vice President of Jonathan Green, a leading supplier of lawn and garden products in the northeast. For more information, please visit:

sycamore, and silver maple. Pawpaw has wonderful large, light-golden leaves which cling to their branches and only reluctantly drop in late-fall. However, many oaks and American beech may even hold on to their golden-brown leaves until spring. Several shrubs also turn golden in fall; these include witch hazel and spicebush. Although witch hazel leaves are tenaciously persistent, spicebush leaves drop quickly as if they hate to be the last one left. Unlike almost all other native conifers, Eastern larch is unusual since its needles turn golden brown, hang on for a few days and are then shed. Take a trip this fall to see our native foliage. Chester, New Jersey has spectacular sugar and red maple trees, but also look down in parks to see shrubs in autumn glory. Editor’s Note: Hubert Ling is the Horticulture Chairman for the Native Plant Society of New Jersey. He can be reached at

20 October 2019 Some people, when discussing a landscaper, often picture a guy in shredded jean shorts, a dirty T-shirt and messy hair who just scrapes by because he didn’t get a college education. Nothing could be further from the truth! I work with landscapers every day and can tell you that they are well-educated businesspeople (yes, we have many women in the industry too) who make hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars each year and provide employment to many people at a very reasonable wage (think $15$28 per hour, not $8 per hour). A career in the landscape industry can be very rewarding and offer a position for everyone, regardless of where their interests lie. The landscape industry employs nearly one million professionals who are responsible for the health, wellbeing and beauty of our landscapes. As the industry continues to grow, 300,000 job openings are made available across the U.S. each year to men and women looking to flourish in rewarding careers. The National Association of Landscape Professionals states: “People are often surprised to learn about the strong compensation offerings within the professional landscape industry. Graduates with degrees in horticulture, landscape The NJLCA Today By Gail Woolcott Director of Operations

A Career in the Green Industry

management, turf sciences and similar fields often receive job offers before graduation at pay rates similar to engineers, accountants, nurses and economists. Median salaries for managers are approximately $81,000. Sales professionals, senior managers, and executives often enjoy healthy six figure salaries. Like other businesses that want to attract the top talent, most professional landscape firms offer competitive benefit offerings.” Like science? Become a turf research specialist, a weed scientist or a plant biologist and learn how different environments, applications and conditions affect the growth of plants, turf and weeds. This research may lead to the next great growth enhancer, weed preventer or way to safely protect crops from disease and pests. Interested in architecture? estimates that Landscape Architects and Designers

can expect to earn $59,000-$136,000 per year. This while putting together dream landscape plans for clients and seeing what you imagine become reality. There are also many executive positions in the Green Industry. From owning your own business to being the CEO or CFO of a landscaping company, nursery or greenhouse, salaries for business executives can run as high as $60,000-$186,000 per year, depending on the size of the company, location and position. Someone who loves to be outdoors might choose to be an arborist ($36,000-$81,000 per year as per or a lawn-care expert. Installing hardscapes is excellent for the mathematical mind as you figure out grade changes, square footage and quantities. Interiorscapers get to work with plant material, but in the indoor arena. One of our largest

contractors focuses almost entirely on interiorscapes and does such projects as displays at the Borgata and Fortune 500 companies, green walls and more for BMW, Marriott, UPS, Valley Hospital, etc. Others may choose to work for a supplier of materials and services, such as a paver manufacturer, garden center, equipment dealer or trailer fabricator. Each of these jobs too can earn $59,000-$120,000 per year ( and provide the person in the position great satisfaction working in sales or with their hands. There are also positions in the golf and sports industries for those that are interested, as a Golf Course Superintendent ($98,575 mean salary, according to the GCSAA 2019 Compensation and Benefits Report) or a Sportsfield Manager ($56,000$83,000 per year – In the end, it is not about the

money, but the love of the outdoors, improving the environment and providing people with living, play and work spaces that create joy. However, when looking at career paths, workers and parents need to understand that working in the Green Industry is a viable and fantastic option. Next time you see your landscaper, think of him or her as a landscape professional, because they are educated and knowledgeable. Some may have Associate degrees or Graduate degrees. Some may not. But either way, they understand how your natural environment works best and are able to keep it healthy and green.

Editor’s note: Gail Woolcott is the Director of Operations for the New Jersey Landscape Contractors Association. She was presented with a community service award from the Borough of Fairview for her assistance in leading the 9-11 Memorial Park project and the Legislative Champion of the Year award from the Federation of Employers and Workers of America. She is currently the State Licensee Chair on the National Association of Landscape Professionals International Certification Council.

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October 2019 21

October 10, 2019 Bobcat of North Jersey

Special Guest: Attorney Justine Baakman from Freeman Mathis & Gary, LLP to discuss snow lawsuit protection.


22 October 2019


The Delaware Forest Service (DFS) is accepting applications for its lottery to award state forest permits for the 2020 turkey hunting season, which begins April 11, 2020 and ends on May 9, 2020. A special one-day hunt for youth and non-ambulatory disabled hunters occurs on April 4, 2020. No Sunday hunting is allowed. State forest turkey permits are issued for one of four season segments: A (4/11-4/17), B (4/18-4/24), C (4/255/1), or D (5/2-5/9). The 2020 Delaware State Forest Turkey Hunting Permit Application is now online at https://agriculture. sites/108/2019/08/Del-State-ForestTurkey-Permit-Application_2020-1. pdf. Completed applications must be received by January 10, 2020 at:  Delaware Forest Service Turkey Permit Application, 2320 S. DuPont Hwy, Dover, DE 19901.  Turkey hunters can request a permit for either Blackbird State Forest, Taber State Forest, or Redden State Forest and also indicate their request for preferred weeks and locations. All hunters are required to complete a turkey hunting safety education course. Failure to check the box on the form indicating completion of an approved course will disqualify the application.  The Delaware Forest Service began issuing its own separate permits for state forests in 2019. The change now provides hunters with up to two weeks of permitted turkey hunting: either at a DNREC Wildlife Area or a Delaware State Forest. State forest hunting is

still free to the public and requires no separate usage fees. The DFS receives no funding from income generated by hunting license and registration fees. Even though the Delaware Forest Service is issuing its own permits, all current turkey hunting license and registration requirements remain in effect: harvested wild turkeys must still be registered through the state turkey hunting check stations. “The Delaware Forest Service’s goal is to continue enhancing the quality of turkey hunting opportunities on state forest lands. Hunters that turned in their turkey logs this past season provided us with valuable information that helped us monitor populations throughout the remainder of the year,” said Kyle Hoyd, assistant state forester. “We are also targeting areas to implement forest and wildlife management techniques that will provide the much needed habitat turkeys require to survive. This will help us improve the quality of turkey hunting at our state forests,” said Hoyd.  In addition, the DFS will use a system that allows hunters to call in if they no longer need their permit so it can be reassigned to another individual on the waiting list. This was developed in response to a lack of hunters during previous seasons. The DFS will also provide hunters with a survey card they will need to fill out to apply the following year that includes questions on how many turkeys they saw, days hunted, and on which tracts they hunted.

MAINE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Invasive Plants in Maine Field Guide! New resources from Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry and the Maine Natural Areas Program 

The newly published Maine Invasive Plants Field Guide has been selling like hotcakes! People want to know more about invasive plants in Maine because these plants crowd out native trees in our forests, form monocultures in wetlands, over-grow productive fields and pastures, and create dense thickets favorable for diseasecarrying ticks. This field guide is waterproof, fits in a cargo or vest pocket, and covers 46 invasive plant species. Each species account includes photos and details about identification, range, similar species, control strategies, invasiveness, and status.  Copies can be ordered by calling 207-287-2801 and paying by credit card, or by using this order form. Cost including tax and shipping is $30.  Maine Invasive Plants Field Guide also includes a comprehensive section on how to manage invasive plants, Integrated Pest Management, prioritization, assessment, manual and herbicide control, disposal, and monitoring. Each landowner or land manager can make a difference through careful invasive plant management which improves habitat for

beneficial native plants, insects, and other wildlife. The Maine Advisory List of Invasive Plants has been recently revised and officially endorsed by the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry (DACF). The Advisory List is a useful tool for landowners, land managers, foresters, and other natural resource professionals because it includes all invasive plants (not just those arriving via horticulture), and plants are ranked according to their invasive threat. The Advisory List is separate from DACF’s Do Not Sell list, which is a regulatory list of invasive plants previously in the horticulture trade.  These new resources help landowners make informed decisions about invasive plant management on their woodlots, farms, or natural areas. DACFMNAP encourages landowners and land managers to check for invasive plants, report them using the online mapping tool iMapInvasives, and take action to control them.  For more information visit the invasive species website at http://  

PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE USDA Offers Assistance to Pennsylvania Producers Affected by Spotted Lanternfly 

The USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) in Pennsylvania announced that orchardists and nursery tree growers who experienced losses from spotted lanternfly infestation are eligible for assistance through the Tree Assistance Program (TAP). The spotted lanternfly, or Lycorma delicatula, was first detected in Pennsylvania in September 2014. This species presents a significant threat to Pennsylvania agriculture, including the grape, tree-fruit,

hardwood and nursery industries, which collectively are worth nearly $18 billion to the state’s economy. TAP provides financial assistance to qualifying orchardists and nursery tree growers to replant or rehabilitate eligible trees, bushes and vines damaged by natural disasters. Producers who experienced losses have until 90 calendar days after the disaster event or when the loss becomes apparent to submit an application with supporting

documentation. Eligible tree types include trees, bushes or vines that produce an annual crop for commercial purposes. Nursery trees include ornamental, fruit, nut and Christmas trees that are produced for commercial sale. Trees used for pulp or timber are ineligible.  To qualify for TAP, the loss must be in excess of 15 percent mortality (adjusted for normal mortality). Producers must have owned the

stand for the time of the disaster until the time that the TAP application is submitted but are not required to the land on which the stand was planted. Approved replacement and rehabilitation practices must be completed within 12 months from the date the application is approved. For more information about TAP, visit or contact your local USDA service center. To find your local office, visit

October 2019 23

OF AGRICULTURE NEWS NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Department Working with Large Produce Farms to Ensure They Meet the FDA’s Food Safety Modernization Act Standards through Education and Inspections

State Agriculture Commissioner Richard A. Ball today announced that the NYS Department of Agriculture and Markets is implementing new produce safety standards as required by the United States Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA).   FSMA was signed into law on the federal level to encourage a proactive, preventative approach to food safety on farms.  The New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets has been conducting outreach and actively educating New York farms that are required to meet these new standards.  The Department is currently scheduling

visits to large farms to ensure that these food safety practices are being applied and to assist growers during the transition period. Commissioner Ball said, “The Produce Safety Rule represents the way we need to be looking at food safety, with a comprehensive, preventative approach.  Our growers take great care in producing food the right way and already implement many of these food safety practices, whether it be through the participation in the voluntary NYS Grown & Certified program or the USDA’s Good Agricultural Practices programs.   We are committed to working with our growers and our

NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF AGRCULTURE Five More Horses in New Jersey Contract Eastern Equine Encephalitis 

Five more horses in New Jersey have been diagnosed with Eastern Equine Encephalitis as of September 5 bringing the total of 10 animals in New Jersey contracting the virus in 2019. The latest cases are an 18-yearold gelding horse in Morris County, a 4-month old gelding in Salem County, a 4-year old gelding and a gelding of unknown age each in Ocean County, and a 1-year-old filly in Atlantic County. Each of these horses was not vaccinated for Eastern Equine Encephalitis and had to be euthanized. The 10 cases in New Jersey include nine horses and one alpaca.  “As more cases of Eastern Equine Encephalitis are reported, we strongly encourage horse owners to check their records to verify that their animals are protected from this disease, or to know if vaccination is needed,” New Jersey Department of Agriculture Secretary Douglas Fisher said. “Animals that have been vaccinated are much less likely to contract deadly diseases such as Eastern Equine Encephalitis. It is the most effective strategy and equine vaccines are available commercially.”  EEE has been known to affect both horses and camelids, such as alpacas. EEE causes inflammation of the brain tissue and has a significantly higher

produce stakeholders to ensure they are educated and aware of these new requirements that take us one step further in our food safety efforts.” To help increase awareness of the new produce regulations and encourage compliance from the businesses and farms impacted by FSMA, the Department hosted multiple outreach training events in partnership with Cornell Cooperative Extension, Farm Bureau, various grower associations, terminal markets representatives, and retailers.  The Department’s goal is to educate growers and those affected by this rule by ensuring that they perform the following three steps

risk of death in horses and camelids than West Nile Virus infection. West Nile Virus is a viral disease that affects horses’ and camelids’ neurological system. The disease is transmitted by a mosquito bite. The virus cycles between birds and mosquitoes with horses, camelids and humans being incidental hosts. EEE infections in horses and alpacas are not a significant risk factor for human infection because horses and camelids (like humans) are considered “deadend” hosts for the virus. Horse and alpaca owners should contact their veterinarians if their animals are not already up-to-date on their vaccinations against both EEE and WNV.  For more information about EEE, visit the New Jersey Department of Agriculture web site at: http:// diseases/diseaseworksheets.html  EEE and West Nile virus, like other viral diseases affecting horses’ neurological system, must be reported to the state veterinarian at 609-6716400 within 48 hours of diagnosis. The New Jersey Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory is available to assist with EEE and WNV testing and can be reached at 609-406-6999 or via email – jerseyvetlab@ag.state. 

(1) complete the farm information form to determine if their farm is required to meet the new standards, and if so, (2) attend Produce Safety Alliance training, and (3) request an On-Farm-Readiness Review (OFRR) educational visit prior to an inspection taking place. The Produce Safety Alliance training is a collaborative effort among Cornell University, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the FDA.  Through funding provided by the FDA, the Department will supplement the cost of this required training. To register for the training, visit: https://   

VERMONT DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Funding Available for Innovative Equipment to Improve Water Quality on Vermont Farms 

The Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets (VAAFM) is pleased to announce that $1 million dollars in funding is available for farmers, custom applicators, non-profit organizations and phosphorus separation equipment providers through the Capital Equipment Assistance Program (CEAP). Financial assistance is available for new or used innovative equipment that will aid in the reduction of surface runoff of agricultural wastes to State waters, improve water quality of State waters, reduce odors from manure application, separate phosphorus from manure, decrease greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce costs to farmers. The following equipment categories are eligible for funding: Manure and Silage Management Equipment; Cover Crop and Field Improvement Equipment; Precision Agriculture Equipment; Conservation Tillage Equipment; and Phosphorus Reduction, Separation, Treatment Equipment or Technology CEAP grant applications are due by November 1, 2019 and notification of grant award will

occur by February of 2020. All categories are eligible to receive state financial assistance up to 90% of eligible costs not to exceed maximum funding rates, which vary based on the type of equipment. Applicants are limited to one application per individual farm operation, organization, or entity. “The CEAP program is important for our farmers to help make capital investments to continue improving water quality on our farms.   These investments are crucial for meeting our state clean water goals.  Manure injectors, precision agriculture or dissolved air flotation technologies require significant investment, but can save farmers money while improving farm nutrient management and environmental stewardship.  We thank our farmers for their continued efforts and investments in this important area,” said Secretary Anson Tebbetts, Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets.  To learn more about the program requirements, or to apply please visit agriculture.vermont. gov/ceap











24 October 2019

ASSOC To me, October is one of my favorite months; yet, it invariably puts me in a thoughtful and melancholy mood. Perhaps because the arrival of October heralds the looming change of the seasons. There is a favorite Norman Rockwell painting that perfectly captures for me the essence of this month. In the late 1940s Rockwell created his four-seasons portfolio to be used in a calendar. This series of paintings feature a young boy and his grandfather. The autumn painting is titled “Grandpa and Me Raking Leaves.” At the risk of being accused of knowing something about art, the painting appeals to me in a variety of ways. The image is very simple yet evokes two different perspectives. The subjects are the main focal point. There is no background to distract the viewer. The boy is kneeling over a pile of raked leaves. He has a match in hand is about to light the pile. (Boy do I miss that smell!) The boy is living in the present, serious and intent on the immediate task at hand. The family dog is also preoccupied with the leaf pile, sniffing something of interest. Meanwhile, the grandfather, rake I am sure that many of you have seen the popular new television shows “Live Rescue” and “Live PD.” For those that have not, I will describe them for you. Basically, what they do is put a person with a video camera with police officer, or in the case of “Live Rescue,” with a group of firefighters or paramedics, and then ride with them for their shift, recording video that is then shared with viewers across the country in real time. With each of these shows, they are following at least seven or eight departments at once so that there is a pretty good chance that something exciting is going on somewhere. This is all moderated by a “host” in a “control room” who, along with some expert guests, provide commentary about what we are actually seeing in real time. While this sounds pretty simple, I have found that it is actually quite riveting television. Bouncing back and forth between car chases, heroin overdoses and traffic accidents has a way of sucking you right in. There is something about the live aspect of watching police

October 2019 25 NJ Agricultural Society By Al Murray Executive Director

A Change of Seasons

in hand, is standing over them, but his eyes are cast to the sky watching a flock of geese fly south. Changes are in the air. It is late-afternoon and he looks reflective. Metaphorically, he must know the shortening days also apply to him. October typically begins with summer still trying to maintain a foothold. The warm days bring us plenty of Jersey Fresh fruits and vegetables that we’ve enjoyed all summer. As an example, peaches are still available in early-October. I personally believe some of the best tasting varieties are produced during this period. If you like peppers, there is no better time to enjoy the numerous varieties available. October also means that cooler night temperatures are transitioning toward fall crops such as greens, sweet potatoes

and apples. The longer “Jack Frost” holds off, the longer we get to enjoy this wonderful bounty. Like generations before, our hay and grain farmers keep a close watch to the sky as they race against the impending frost to squeeze in one more hay cutting and harvest their grain into silos. Deep in the Pine Barrens, our cranberry farmers have flooded their bogs. Millions of these crimson berries float around awaiting harvest as they dramatically add to nature’s autumn palette of brilliant leaves and bright blue skies. I also think October has a visceral effect on people, especially as it relates to agriculture. Our long-ago ancestors endured back-breaking work throughout the long summer days to ensure there would be enough food to sustain them through the winter months.

Their internal clocks drove them as they worked. While most of us no longer have to grow our own food, think how busy we are in the summer. How many times have you lamented, “Where did the summer go?” With the advent of autumn, our collective DNA instinctively draws us to the farm. No other season brings more people to farms than the fall, and New Jersey is perfectly situated to accommodate the public’s inherent need to harvest. Pickyour-own apple farms offer varieties of apples you would not find in a store. Some, like Northern Spy, have been around for well over 200 years – an edible connection to our ancestors. Cap off a day of picking apples with a hayride. After the ride, some farms offer a warm glass of cider and perhaps a bon-fire. Halloween has become our second largest commercial

The Town Farmer By Peter Melick Agricultural Producer

Live Agriculture

search a car for drugs or EMTs stabilizing a possible spinal injury that, at least to me, is very entertaining. And because I am a first responder myself, I do find that these shows are very interesting from the emergency-services perspective. It is always fun to be the arm chair quarterback and critique other first responders from the safety of my own living room. I was recently convinced by some friends to broaden my technological horizons somewhat and install the Snapchat app on my phone. I have known this group of seven other friends since 2007, when I met them at an agricultural conference. Our common theme is that we are all about the same age and we all have farms somewhere in

the United States. These farms are all different and include dairy, grain and beef, along with fruits and vegetables. What Snapchat allows us to do is communicate with each other, either as a group or individually, through messages, pictures or short videos, in real time. For us, it’s kind of like “Live PD” meets agriculture. Although this group does not have as much action as “Live PD,” there is always something going on somewhere. A beautiful sunset over Lake Champlain in Vermont, video footage of twin calves being born in Wisconsin, a broken combine head in Montana, or some greatly appreciated rain in Maryland. Whatever it is, we are all able to view these things as they are happening. It has turned into a great way to

stay in touch with some good friends. It is also enjoyable to see things from a different perspective. For example, someone from a much more rural state than New Jersey might post something about heavy traffic and post a picture of six cars backed up at a stoplight. Here in New Jersey however, traffic of that sort would not be considered to be even slightly newsworthy. The isolation and remoteness of some of these farms is also apparent. One of our group members posted recently that he was baling straw all day and did not see a single person, intimating that it was pretty lonely. I replied that it would be nice to have that peace and quiet, something that we never seem to get enough of here in

holiday. This year, Americans will spend approximately $9.1 billion dollars on that holiday. Need a pumpkin to decorate your house? Or maybe a scary hayride or corn maze to give you your Halloween fix? Many New Jersey farmers have opened their farms to this type of “agri-tourism.” By visiting, not only are you helping support a farmer’s operations, but you are also being exposed to agriculture in a fun manner. As for America’s numberone largest commercial holiday – I regret to tell you there are approximately 80 more shopping days ‘til Christmas. Editor’s Note: Al Murray is the Executive Director of the New Jersey Agricultural Society. Established in 1781, the Society is New Jersey's oldest organization whose purpose is to advocate, educate and promote on behalf of New Jersey's agricultural industry. Mr. Murray previously spent his entire career at the NJ Department of Agriculture, serving as the Assistant Secretary. He can be reached at njagriculturalsociety@ New Jersey. Our group is never at a loss for all types of opinions on a range of issues. And trust me, with some people having fields that are miles long and tractors and combines that steer themselves, there is never a shortage of commentary. For me, our tractors do not steer themselves and I always seem to be driving somewhere in my pickup, so it is often hard to post anything all that frequently, but I do chime in from time to time. So, whether it is police activity or farming, nothing beats real time action! Editor’s Note: Peter Melick is co-owner of Melick’s Town Farm in Oldwick and a 10th-generation New Jersey farmer. Peter is currently a Tewksbury Township Committee Member. He also served as a director for the New Jersey Farm Bureau and is a past president of the New Jersey State Board of Agriculture. Peter has also been featured on NJN, News 12 New Jersey and on the Fox Business Network.

26 October 2019

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Tom Castronovo Todd Pretz Gail Woolcott

October 2019 Columnists Brian Schilling Al Murray Peter Melick

Bob LaHoff Douglas H. Fisher Eric J. Houghtaling

October 2019 Contributing Writers

Bruce Crawford

Jeannie Geremia

Hubert Ling

Gardener News is published monthly by

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16 Mount Bethel Road #123 Warren, NJ 07059 The Gardener News invites correspondences on gardening subjects of interest. Gardener News, Inc, and its Publisher reserve the right to accept, refuse, or discontinue any editorial or copy, and shall not be liable to anyone for printing errors, misinformation or omissions in editorial or copy. The information contained in articles herein represents the opinions of the authors and, although believed to be accurate and complete, is not represented or warranted by Gardener News, Inc. to be accurate or complete. All advertising is subject to the Gardener News advertisement rates, and must be PAID IN FULL at time of submission. Publisher reserves the right at its absolute discretion, and at any time, to cancel any advertising order or reject any advertising copy whether or not the same has already been acknowledged and/or previously published. In the event of errors or omissions of any advertisement(s), the newspapers liability shall not exceed a refund of amounts paid for the advertisement. NOTE: All editorial, advertising layouts and designs and portions of the same that are produced and published by Gardener News, Inc., are the sole property of Gardener News, Inc. and may not be reproduced in any form unless written authorization is obtained from the publisher. POSTMASTER: Send all address changes to: Gardener News, 16 Mount Bethel Rd - #123, Warren, NJ 07059. (c) 2019 Gardener News, Inc.

Full Moon October 13, 2019 Eastern Daylight

TIP OF THE MONTH Know What’s Below in Fall Planting. Call Before You Dig!

Fall has some advantages as a time to plant, and some plants are biologically designed to be planted before the cold weather settles in. Fall planting takes advantage of favorable soil temperatures and moisture conditions that promote the root growth needed to sustain plants through their critical first year in the landscape.  Most container-grown and balled and burlapped deciduous trees and shrubs sold at garden centers are excellent candidates for fall planting.  Digging can be a dangerous activity. Everyone must take steps to protect underground utilities and avoid interruption of vital services, property damage and even possible injury.  Did you know that many utilities are buried just a few inches below ground? You can easily hit a line when digging for simple gardening projects, like planting flowers or small shrubs.   New Jersey Law requires anyone digging to call at least three full business days (not counting weekends or holidays), prior beginning work. Begin digging within 10 business days, ticket expires in 45 business days. This includes professional excavators as well as property and home owners contractors.   Call New Jersey One Call at 1-800-272-1000. You can also call 811 from anywhere in the country a few days prior to digging and your call will automatically be routed to your local one call center. Make the call anytime you’re putting a shovel in the ground to keep yourself and your community safe.

October 2019 27

28 October 2019

See your local Toro Dealer to take advantage of our current sale pricing!

Profile for Gardener News

Gardener News October 2019  

Serving the Agricultural, Gardening, Landscaping and Nursery Communities.

Gardener News October 2019  

Serving the Agricultural, Gardening, Landscaping and Nursery Communities.