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ISSUE 32 June 2017

A bi-lingual and bi-monthly independent magazine aimed at bringing works of the young and talented to the world.



The 32nd issue of Garde Magazine brings you a colourful range of talents and artwork from around the world. We are excited to share some new content this issue featuring a graduation show from Hong Kong’s new-generation artistic talents. Shaleihin from Singapore is also joining us with his poetic contribution. Our creators with their diverse styles present us with their creativity in illustration and photography. They also convey their appreciation for the contrast of nature and colour in digital art. Echoing our theme of “colour,” movie classic ‘Bleu’ is under our radar this issue. The eyeopening analysis provided by our contributor will show you another approach to understanding this movie. And as usual, have a happy reading!

第32期的雜誌為您帶來 來自世界各地各式創作 者的精彩作品。 我們很榮幸可以報導香 港新一代藝術系畢業生 的作品,同時亦有來自 新加坡的Shaleihin帶來 充滿視覺和情感享受的 詩。 本期的創作者風格各 異,他們的創意透過插 畫和攝影表達出大自然 的美麗和數碼藝術的色 彩燦爛。 響應我們本期主題「顏 色」,影評深度分析了 經典電影《藍》。詳盡 的描述將帶領 您以嶄新 視覺欣賞該部電影。 一如以往,祝各位閱讀 愉快。

An independent magazine aimed at bringing the works of the young and talented to the whole world. Believing in ideas, thoughts and concepts, Garde Magazine follows the principle of simplicity and honesty.


Natasha Chan

CREATORS Jhonny Núñez Raf Olaerts


Kalle Östgård Shaleihin Pi’ee

Jhonny Núñez Illustration Seize the time and illustrate away Raf Olaerts Photography Nature is infinitely beautiful

CONTENT Shaleihin Pi’ee Visualogue I Cyan You HKBU Academy of Visual Arts Graduation show Graduation projects highlight David Madsen Movie Review: Three Colour Trilogy - Bleu ‘Bleu’ and its use of the color blue


插畫 Seize the time and illustrate away 創作在分秒之間

Although he might have left the pleasant temperatures of Spain and his native Columbia behind, Russia-based illustrator Jhonny Núñez still fills his artwork with warmth and life. With strong contrasts and colours, his works rest in a comfortable spot between collage and vector graphics and between Disney and Jamie Hewlett. He himself says, “99.9% of illustrators on the planet have no idea what their work should be called. That is exactly why I classify my style as ‘illustration cartoon-naïf-retro-geometric.’” A fitting description! Jhonny developed his style by observing artists he admired, investigating, testing his comfort zone, and last but not least, spending a great number of hours practicing intensively. Illustration gripped Jhonny early. “I remember my childhood, spending hours sitting on the floor of my room looking at the images of magazines, advertisements, front pages and comics. When I saw the genius of these images, my head became filled with questions, my eyes widened as I saw the attractiveness of the colours, and my heart felt the seduction calling me to sink into this world of colours, forms and images. I think that was the time I discovered I liked graphic design,” he said.

即使離開了西班牙和家鄉哥倫比亞的宜人氣候,在俄羅斯定居 的Jhonny Núñez的作品依然充滿溫暖和生命。特徵為強烈色彩對 比,他的作品在「拼貼與向量圖形」和「迪士尼和插畫家Jamie Hewlett」的雙極之間遊走。他形容自己的作品道:「世界上 99.9%的插畫家都不知道應該怎樣為自己的作品命名,也之所以 我定型自己的風格為『插畫、卡通、幼稚、復古、幾何』。」多 貼切的形容! 通過觀察自己喜歡的插畫家和不斷測試自己的安舒區,Jhonny 不斷進化自己的創作風格;更重要的是他花了很多時間去練習。 插畫從他小時候已經擄獲了他的心神。 「我記得在我小時候我花很多時間坐在房間裡面看著無數雜誌、 剪報、廣告和漫畫。當我看見那些圖像的時候,我腦袋裡充滿了 問題;我的眼睛會因為看見色彩而張大;我的心總是躍躍欲試去 投進顏色,形狀和圖形的世界裡面。我想我是從那時候開始發現 自己喜歡平面設計的。」

Jhonny Núñez - Códice Azteca Illustration for my first illustrated album “Códice Azteca” edited by Chucherías de Arte (Spain). This book is a minimalist trip through the fantastic and colorful art of the aztecs before the spanish invasion.

“What pushed me to study illustration was also history; usually people do not really realise, but illustration is an extremely important discipline for humanity,” he added. “The history of humanity was told through illustration, using it as a codified system of language. We can find proof in the cave drawings of Lascaux, in the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt, in the Mayan ideograms, in the Turkish nautical maps and in the great number of ancient alphabets that were composed not of letters, but of illustrations. It is possible that I see illustration the way it really is: a narrative science that uses aesthetics as a creative resource.” After studying at a number of prestigious schools in Colombia and Spain, Jhonny was ready to apply the most important lesson he says he was never taught at art school - “seize the time.” He plunged into the freelance world. A struggle at first, he eventually started to be able to support himself through his work. Today, he has a range of well-known brands on his client list, and moving to Russia to be with his wife hasn’t cooled down his productivity. “While illustrating, I don´t think about the financial part of it and I feel good during this process. I am relaxed and I feel happy. Illustration is my key to escape and run from boring reality.”

「讓我下定決心修讀插畫的是歷史,很多人其實都 不了解插畫其實在人文發展中有著極其重要的地 位。」Jhonny補充道:「人文歷史是透過一系列有 系統的插畫來表達的:諸如拉斯科的山洞壁畫、古 埃及的象形文字、瑪雅文化的表意文字、土耳其航 海地圖和無數古代字母其實都主要是插畫,而不是 個別文字。我看見了插畫的真正意義:以美學為創 意源泉的敘述性科學。」 當他在哥倫比亞和西班牙註明的學校修讀完畢後, 他準備了將學校沒有教他的一課投入社會中實用 – 「善用時間」,他投身進自由職業當中。一開始事 情並不順利,但他漸漸的能夠讓不同的項目支持生 活。今天的他已經與不同知名品牌合作,而移居到 俄羅斯並沒有讓他的生產力下降。 「當我畫畫的時候,我並不會想太多關於賺多少, 我只享受創作的過程並感到放鬆和快樂。插畫是我 逃離沉悶現實的最佳方法。」 Jhonny Núñez Sticker set illustrated for Parazita, a book full of stickers, edited by Parazita editions (Russia) it will be released in this year 2017.

Although globalisation undoubtedly affects the field, Johnny says he has picked up differences between Spain, Russia and his home country. “Colombians focus on a strong presence of the human figure and surrealism, Spain is known for its more narrative style and Russia for the use of landscapes.” As his favourite artist, he nominates Drake Brodahl (a Californian), but emphasises that there are a lot of fantastic illustrators that he follows. His future dreams include illustrating for a world-famous clothes brand, making an illustration fest and possibly transforming his studio into an illustration agency so that he can “stop working till late at night.” His tips for young illustrators is to get adept at using the internet, which he likens to a superpower: “You can study for free, find answers to your questions, distribute your work, receive feedback, and what is more important, you can work in any part of the world for any brand or person. You just need to learn how to use it wisely.”

即使大環境全球化確實有影響到創意行業,Jhonny 說他發現了不同地方的創作區別。「哥倫比亞看重 人物和超現實的風格;西班牙比較喜歡敘述式創作 而俄羅斯則偏好風景。」說到最喜歡的插畫家,他 提到Drake Brodahl(美國加州人),但同樣強調 他還喜歡很多插畫家。 他最想做的項目是跟一個世界知名的服裝品牌合 作、創辦插畫節和將自己的工作室進化成一個具規 模的插畫機構,如此一來他便不需要工作至深夜。 他給年輕插畫家的意見是盡量使用互聯網,更將之 比喻為一種超能力。「您可以免費的學習、為自己 的問題尋找答案、公開自己的作品、接收不同的反 饋,更重要的是你可以與世界上任何品牌和團體合 作 – 只要您學會善用它。」

Jhonny Núñez This is the poscard I illustrated for the “Postales Cosmicas” project, this posdcard where released in the most important culutral centers and museums in Mexico City. On the next page Double cover illustration for Ex-Libirs magazine, a printed edition pubilshed by the National University of Colombia. The topic was the Good and Evil.

RAF OLAERTS photography

攝影 Nature is infinitely beautiful 自然的無盡美

Raf Olaerts’ path towards becoming a professional photographer did not come by nature but instead through a long process of realisation through his neighbours. It was at the ripe age of 37 that Raf ’s passion towards photography developed. “There wasn’t any specific trigger,” he said. “I was doing a lot of photography projects on my own and posting them online. People from my neighbourhood started to notice and asked me to shoot at their weddings, kids communions and engagements, to name a few. At a certain point it was just logical to start a real business.” With nature as his biggest desire to capture in photography, Raf leaves little else as his source of inspiration. He said surrounding himself with the calm magnificence of rough nature is what is most attractive to him. “Although nature can be wild and fearful, it’s always beautiful,” he said. “Even on a bad day when I do not get my camera out, I never feel time is wasted.”

Raf Olaerts 成為攝影師的路並不是從一開始就清晰可見的 – 他透過他的鄰居發覺 了並花費了不少時間終於發現了自己對攝影的熱情。當時的他,年37歲。 「其實也沒有什麼特別的觸發點。當時的我就是喜歡拍照也喜歡放到網上共享,然 後鄰居們開始知道了我的愛好,並讓我幫他們攝影婚禮,孩子的聚會和訂婚宴等 等。然後過了不久我就覺得『是時候可以把這作為一門專業了』。」 大自然是Raf拍攝的最佳對象,其他的事物沒有引起他很大的興趣。他說他發現大 自然周遭寧靜的環境和不加修飾的景象最能吸引他。「即使大自然有時候還蠻嚇人 的,但它總是美麗的;即使是沒有拍攝日程和天氣不好的一天,我也並不曾覺得在 自然裡虛度光陰。」

Back in the days, Raf graduated as an electrician with a specialty in industrial automation. Since he realised his passion for photography, he went back to school and studied it for three years. He says he loves going to mountains most when it comes to capturing his images. He recalled an experience at Grindelwald, Switzerland where he planned to camp out on a mountain at about 8,200 feet for two days. However, as the weather unexpectedly took a turn for the worse, he ended up staying at a cabin instead. “From the cabin it was a 2-hour hike up to the lake where I wanted to take photos. We hiked two mornings and every time the beautiful sky went grey on us just before the sun came out. We almost gave up on the morning we were leaving. We were tired and didn’t feel like getting up at 3:30am,” said Raf. Yet finally his efforts paid off and rewarded him with the beauty he sought after. “When we got up to the mountain anyway, the sky had cleared and the most beautiful light on the mountain had appeared,” he reminisced. Raf has never experienced partnering up with someone in photography yet he is very much open to the idea. “I would love to, just never happened. I just assumed nobody was insane enough to get up in the middle of the night to ‘shoot photo pictures.’”

以前的Raf以電工專業畢業並擅於工業自動化。當他深切地了解到自己對攝影的興趣後,他 重新回到學校並唸了三年書。 說到大自然裡最熱愛的「對象」,Raf最喜歡的就是山。提起了在瑞士格林德瓦的爬山經 驗,他回想他當時在兩天內打算攀登八千兩百尺的高山。可惜的是天氣狀況並不理想,他最 後被逼留在山中小屋當中。 「從小屋到我想拍照的湖泊需要兩個小時的路程。我連續爬了兩個清早,但是天氣總是在太 陽出來之前就變壞了。在要離開的那天早上我幾乎就要放棄了,感覺到非常的灰心而且在早 上三點半起床也不是鬧著玩的。」 只要努力總是有回報的 – Raf的經驗驗證了這個道理。「無論如何,當我爬山到了目的地的 時候,天空突然明朗了起來,然後我看見了我從來沒有看過的美麗光芒。」 Raf說他從來沒有嘗試過與其他攝影師合作,但是他對於這個想法很感興趣。「我也很想跟 別人合作,就是從來沒有機會。我猜想大概沒有人跟我一樣神經會大半夜起床就是為了『拍 照』。」

From his experiences, Raf says he always lets the environment inspire him rather than planning every detail beforehand. “I don’t really think about the shot I’m taking. When I arrive at a location I’ll let it sink in. I am aware of the beauty of it and what attracts my eye. I find it very intoxicating when you see a picture popping up on the back of your camera and it looks nearly like what you’ve imagined.” As a creator, it is not a surprise that Raf wants to make something that he himself considers ‘great.’ He exclaimed that he does not know if he ever will be able to but he surely loves trying. “I love the feeling when everything under my lens comes together just like how I imagine it… THAT feeling, that’s why I make pictures,” he said. “I wish to be given a grant by a huge travel agency and be sent around the world to shoot new adventure vacations!”

根據經驗,Raf總是讓環境來啟發他的靈感多於安排所有細節。「我對 於拍照不會想太多。當我到達目的地的時候我會盡量去感受,我知道我 看見的時候就會感受到它的魅力並受到吸引。當在相機上看見照片預覽 和想象很相近的時候,那感覺實在是太棒了。」 作為一個創作者,Raf想創作一些讓自己滿意的作品的想法並不讓人意 外 – 雖然他說他並不知道可不可能做到,但他會繼續嘗試。 「我很喜歡那種所有想象與拍出來照片一樣的感覺……就是因為那種感 覺,讓我不斷拍照片。我最希望的就是可以找到贊助並可以到訪全世界 拍攝不同的特色景點!」

HKBU ACADEMY OF VISUAL ARTS graduation shows students’ work selection 香港浸會大學 視覺藝術學院畢業展 學生作品介紹

Photo credit: The Committee of the BA (VA) Graduation Exhibition 2017, Academy of Visual Arts, HKBU


Who/what inspired you the most for your project? Know thyself has been the centrality of my project. My self identity and sexuality changes with the infinitesimal minutiae aspect of life. I’m trying to liberate myself from my own presupposition on men. I experienced sexual assault when I was very young at the ages of 13 and 16 by a woman and a man. I barely knew my own sexuality at that age. I was repressed and depressed. This project is a reconciliation of my entrenched self. It allows me to reach self-acceptance. I’m 22. I could see my body as a natural part of myself without promiscuity or as a site of increasing vulnerability. I have seen women who use their pelvis muscle to entertain the mass as their best chance of living in Thailand, which is the Ping Pong Show. I allow myself to expose my body in public spaces without censorship (topless) by the Donau river in Vienna and muslim public beach of Maldives where women have to swim with their whole body covered. I’m inspired by Berlinde De Bruyckere, Leung Mee Ping, 龍應台, a book called feminists rethink the self by Diana T. Meyers and string theory. ONE line to describe your project. Caress humanity. Whom do you want to dedicate your project to? I want to dedicate my project to all human beings, both women and men of all races.

Lam Tsz Ching - Cradle Bra underwires, channeling fabric trim 200cm x 200cm x 180cm

Project description: Underwire, made from stainless steel, is commonly encompassed in the channeling fabric of bras and other female undergarments. I first discovered the underwire in my bras in 2015 and was stunned by its tenacious materiality. Wired bras give protection and a sense of sovereignty over my body — an insecure security. I only wore wired bras. I was wired to my bodily self and my oppressed sexuality. In 2016, I removed all the underwire from my bras and the physical and mental disabilities it has created within me, which is entrenched in our collective unconscious. How is femininity and humanity engendered?
They are neither one or the other.
I’ve been collecting second-hand bras, underwire, and
bra fragments.
The collected materials are woven into the cradle of life, the womb.

母本,事物的本源。母,字源女,配兩點,像徵女人成熟的兩乳。 鋼線被廣泛應用於女性內 衣。2015,我首次看到自己胸圍鋼線的原貌。 基於安全感和對自身身體的主權加控,我只穿 有鋼線的胸圍。 2016,我把所有胸圍鋼線拆除,意識到這配件成了限制身體和思想活動 的拐 杖。

Kum Ka Wai - Get closer and closer Oil on canvas Set of 2: 100cm x 180cm 150cm x 270cm

ONE line to describe your project. Walking through every infinitesimal parts of vitality, discovering the beauty of essence. Whom do you want to dedicate your project to? I want to dedicate my work to everyone. Many of us are lost and confused in life since we seldom look at the basics and the “truth” of life. I hope that my project can be a starting point or a little guide for people to discover the beauty of everyone

Project description: Walking through every infinitesimal part of vitality, discovering the beauty of essence.



Who/what inspired you the most for your project? I was inspired by this society. We are almost living under stereotypes and preset rules. I want to explore the essence and beauty of life through my project and try to redefine and re-examine life via the subject matter in this project, the organs.


Who/what inspired you the most for your project? I am interested in cells, which we observe under the microscope most of the time. Therefore, I am curious about the cells of different materials, the interior details that cannot be seen by our eyes. Particularly, I would like to create images that are similar to the microscopical observation of the “cells” of the glazes on the two materials: glass and clay. I am also interested in using different materials. The combination of glass powder and crystallized glaze gives me some interesting pictures and conveys the possibility of patterns. I want to share this interesting result with the audience, and lead them to the gorgeous world of cells. ONE line to describe your project. Unlimited chemical reactions and possibilities that exist between different materials. Whom do you want to dedicate your project to? This project is dedicated to the general public, especially to those who do not know art. I want to know what picture or things they can imagine after looking at my work. At the same time, this work carries a message that the shape of an art work is not that much important sometimes. We can always see it in a different aspect. For instance, when people look at a ceramic piece, they always focus on the shape. However, I try to give up the shape and focus on the changing of colour, viewing ceramics from another angle.

Lo Ka Hang - Depends Ceramics, glass 420cm x 40cm x 15cm

Project description: Chemical reactions are based on various relations and linkages. Crystals and cracks float between abstraction and figuration, whereas melting points and surface tension bring crystals and cracks together to create one whole entity. This project observes, from an experimental perspective, the reactions triggered in ceramics and glass under high temperatures, and records the chemical reactions and possibilities that occur between different materials.

化學作用是各種關係的轉化。結晶體和裂紋游走於抽象與具象之 間,熔點 與表面張力引導兩者共存為一體。作品以實驗的角度,觀 察陶瓷和玻璃兩 種物料在高温下的反應,紀錄物料之間的化學作 用與可能性。

Project description: When my hometown was transformed into another town, that “another town” became “the hometown.” The wall of the brick house that witnessed my growth has already been covered by white cement ash. I have no idea how many stories people there still remember. Yet, I am a witness to the absence of its residents, the growth of the crowded city, and the rapid development of society. The house I once called home could not withstand the roaring waves of time and slowly disappeared.

故鄉變他鄉,異鄉成故鄉。那曾經見證我成長的青磚屋子,已被人 抹上一 層白色的水泥灰。我不知道有多少故事依然被人記得,然 而,我卻知道住 在裡面的人走了,城市熱鬧了,社會發展了。那屋子 在時間的洪流裏不堪 一擊,有一日會消失殆盡。

ONE line to describe your project. Packing all the memories in my own way and bringing them in my heart to keep moving on. Whom do you want to dedicate your project to? This project is dedicated to myself since I use it to record my past life and the changing of a society I feel.

Tam Shuk Yu Departure: Kaiping, 29-07-2006 Arrival: Unknown Ceramics 100cm x 120cm x 30cm


Who/what inspired you the most for your project? At the beginning, this project was inspired by the death of my Grandma. However, during and after the whole process, the main inspiration is that I recognise how people and things around me live and run as usual as they did before my Grandma left but I clearly see and feel that a lot of things, objects and people are lost in the way I move forward.


Who/what inspired you the most for your project? I think everything started from the day when tear gas was used against civil citizens. That view was something that can never be erased from your memory. Ever since then, the powerlessness has been rooted in my heart. ONE line to describe your project. A self-reflection portrait of how I view the relationship between me and this city. Whom do you want to dedicate your project to? I would like to dedicate this project to my sister. This project more or less originates from her. And also to those who once had hope like me.

Chan Ming Sum - Withering Screen print in paper Set of 9: 40cm x 50cm each

Project description: I used to be very optimistic about the future, however, my remaining hope and faith gradually died with inevitable changes in times and society. I no longer have the ability to control my future. Due to this situation, my body is filled with a sense of powerlessness and my limbs feel numb and withered. Unfamiliar numbness, therefore, takes over and I feel stuck with no way out.

在時代的洪流中,我對未來碩果僅存的憧憬已隨著時 間流逝漸漸 死去,取而代之的是一種陌生的麻木感。 我的身體充斥著無力感,肢體感官像是被麻痺了,然後 漸漸枯萎。 這樣的感覺似是沒有盡頭。

Who/ what inspired you the most for your project? For me, “Life” inspired me most for the project. It includes the meaning of daily experiences, the way of living. My way of “life” is quite different to most people I live around. I see the world without any sounds as I can’t hear. The limitation gives me a totally different vision and comprehension. I found the difference and I take it as my characteristic. The ‘life” by the limitation inspirited me and expressed in this project. One line to describe your project: I weave the form of ink and lines to unfold the world of soundlessness. Whom do you want to dedicate your project to? The texts on the surface of my works express the record of conversation, they are the people who are willing and are patient to write with me – the only way to be well-communicated with others. They are my teachers, my friends, AVA classmates and also my family. Especially my family, they give my infinite support and have always been my source of inspiration. I would dedicate my project to all of them.

Chan Yuet Cheong - Surrounded Ink on wood Size variable

自身的聽力缺陷把我和外界隔開來。 對外,我只能透過片斷的文字交談,試著理解人和事;在內,我則讓筆 墨及 線條延伸我的心思,呈現另一個不同的內心世界,描繪著我在 「困」中的想 像、掙扎。我藉著內外的不同,表現內心的迷失和 獨白。


Project description: Due to my hearing impairment, I am separated from the world. Externally, I can only communicate through groups of discontinuous texts, and through them try to understand things and people in life. Internally, I let ink and lines extend my mind, unfolding a different inner world, as well as depicting my inner reveries and struggles in the surrounding situation. I confront the difference between inside and outside, expressing my internal loss and monologue.

Shaleihin pi’ee @ visualogue


13th June 2017 11.08 PM I Cyan You. It was instant. I saw you by the corner of my eyes amongst the cold grey concrete and the off-white PVC pipelines that run along the walls like veins into what was behind you. At that moment I didn’t see just a door, it didn’t bother me what lies beyond that wooden plank. I saw you, I recognized you. You’re not just any blue; you were a few tints closer to the sky – and a few gradients darker than a summer daydream. I knew your name, you’re Cyan, the distant cousin of Fuchsia and often mistaken as baby blue – but baby let me tell you, Cyan is no longer a child anymore, Cyan is grown enough, just like all us – living amongst us. I Cyan you, do you see Cyan too?

‘BlEu’ and its use of the color blue 「藍」與藍之用 by david madsen

Putting specific meaning on use of colour in movies or in any visual media for that matter is often an exercise in futility since it is easy to overanalyse use of colourcoding. However, that doesn’t mean that colour cannot be used with intent by artists and that is most definitely the case with this one. This is very much the case with the French film ‘Bleu’ (1993) from the critically acclaime, Polish director Krzystof Kieslowski and the first in a trilogy of films ‘The Three Color’-trilogy, with the final two films being ‘Blanc’ (1994) and ‘Rouge’ (1994). Now ‘The Three Color’-trilogy isn’t really a trilogy in the way that for instance ‘The Lord of the Rings’ (2001-2003) or ‘Back to the Future’ (1985-1990) are considered trilogies since there is no overarching narrative to coble the three films together. Instead, the link is thematic as the three titles refer to the implied meaning of the French Flag’s three colours: blue for liberty, white for equality and red for brotherhood, with each film using these symbolic virtues as a thematic backdrop.

由於很容易就會過度使用,在電影中或任何視覺媒體中使用顏 色作為主題通常都是無益又無效的行為;但這並不代表藝術家 不能使用顏色,而此電影正好是箇中代表。 由波蘭導演克日什托夫·基斯洛夫斯基導演的法國電影《三色 三部曲》正好是最佳例子。以《藍》(1993)為開首並期後 創作《白》(1994)和《紅》(1994),《三色三部曲》的 形式並不像《魔戒三部曲》(2001-2003)和《回到未來》 (1985-1990)般緊密連接。《三色三部曲》的關聯僅限於 法國國旗的顏色:藍色代表自由;白色代表平等和紅色代表兄 弟情誼,每部電影均以以上價值觀念作為背景。

Three Colours: Blue (1993), Eurimages. Directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski.

However, each movie does not interpret these virtues literally and chooses instead to skew them in an ironic light. ‘Blanc’ is about a Polish immigrant who does not feel at home in France, while ‘Rouge’ is about a woman who falls for an eclectic older hermit who spies on his neighbours. ‘Bleu’, the focus of this article, follows a grieving widow named Julie played by the impeccable Julitte Binoche. The movie centres around her after being the sole survivor of a car crash which kills both her husband, a famous composer, and their 5-year-old daughter. She chooses to deal with this fatal loss by basically committing social suicide; stripping herself of her belongings, destroying her husband’s work and locking herself in a spartan apartment with no other human contact than her mother. In other words, Julie finds her liberty by stripping herself of any earthly possession, object of affection or memory that could possibly remind her of her past. However, this attempt to isolate herself and thereby lock up her grief is foiled by friends and strangers alike, constantly forcing her to engage and sympathise with the outside world. It is a bleak subject matter and the film does not exactly sugarcoat Julie’s mental fragility; about 10 minutes into the film she tries to commit suicide although she is unable to go through with it. The frame of her with a bottle of pills in her mouth, still bruised from the accident as she looks blankly at a shocked nurse behind a glass window, is haunting.

但是每部電影並沒有從字面上理解以上觀念,反而從一個頗具諷刺意味的角度 切入:《白》是關於一名波蘭移民在法國並沒有歸屬感;《紅》是關於一名女 子愛上了一個偷窺鄰居並年紀較大的隱士。 而《藍》的主題則是關於一名由女演員朱麗葉•畢諾許飾演名為朱莉的寡婦。 朱莉是在一起嚴重車禍的意外中唯一的生還者,她失去了身為著名作曲家的丈 夫和五歲的女兒。她選擇進行社交自殺作為療傷:扔掉所有物品,毀掉丈夫所 有作品和將自己所在只有她和媽媽的家中。 從另一個角度來說,朱莉為了換取自己的自由,棄掉了所有讓她想起過去的物 質。但這孤立自己的行為並沒有太大作用,外界的朋友和陌生人都剝奪她的自 由,逼得她不得不與外界接觸。 即使在形容如此淒涼的題目,電影也並沒有將朱莉心靈上的脆弱梅花一點點: 電影中有10分鐘都在圍繞朱莉想自殺卻又無能為力。當電影拍著她口中的藥丸 而嘴留有從意外而來的淤青時,她透過玻璃窗以空白的表情看著驚愕的護士, 畫面縈繞在人腦海中久久不散。

Three Colours: Blue (1993), Eurimages. Directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski.

Three Colours: Blue (1993), Eurimages. Directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski.

Yet ‘Bleu’ never indulges in its protagonist’s misery. Since the whole arc of Julie’s character is that she wards of any emotional breakdown through isolation, there is no big sobbing breakdown and no screeching violins forcing the audience to get emotionally invested. Instead, the film frames her tragedy through its use of colour. As I have pointed out the title colour, blue, refers to liberty but as a narrative device the colour symbolises grief and the use of it is not exactly limited to the film’s title. Every frame is engulfed in a hue of blue and dark blue. From objects of significance such as the only object of affection Julie allows herself to keep - a decorative lamp and the casefile containing her husband’s unfinished composition - to the mostly clouded skylines of the film which reinforces its gloomy light palette. Blue is also associated with Julie herself as she is always wearing a large, dark coat and is characterised by Binoche’s short, dark brown hair. Her piercing dark eyes simply emphasise her beautiful, minimalist performance. Lastly, the colour is used as a way to show Julie’s isolation, whether that is in the many scenes of her swimming at night at a local swimming pool as she tries to block out the rest of the world, or the cold, unwelcome light of her unpainted apartment.

但《藍》亦並沒有沉溺於主角的悲劇當中。朱莉的角色 的骨幹主要透過孤立而分散情緒崩壞的傾向,電影當中 並沒有痛哭或者小提琴歇斯底里的場景讓觀眾投入太多 情感;相反的電影使用顏色框住她悲慘的遭遇。 電影的藍雖然意指自由,但作為一個敘述媒介,藍色的 意思並不僅限於此。電影中每個場景都充斥著不同程度 的藍,或深或淺。從不同物件中可見一斑:例如朱莉容 許自己留下的唯一一盞燈、她丈夫未完成作品的檔案 夾、天空的顏色等等。 藍色同時在朱莉身上出現,她總是穿著深色大衣以突顯 她矮小的身材,深棕色的髮色和眼睛都強調她美麗和簡 約的表現。最後藍色亦用來象徵朱莉的孤獨:不論是她 晚上在游泳池游泳,還是她那未經粉飾、用以隔絕世界 的並透著不歡迎任何介入的燈光的居所。

Yet despite this stylistic use of colour, the world in which ‘Bleu’ takes place never feels stylised or ‘fake.’ A lot of that seemingly has to do with Kizlowksi’s past as a social-realistic documentarian portraying the Polish people under Communist rule, and by extension, his ability to capture real human emotion and suffering through the media of film. This is further emphasised by the director of photography, Slawomir Idziak’s choice to frame most of the scenes in close-ups of faces allowing every twitch, facial feature and change in mimic to be absorbed by the viewer. Furthermore, while the film has a definite unreal use of the colour blue, it never uses it as a poignant contrast. There aren’t any sudden switches in colour coding like it is perhaps most famously seen in Steven Spielberg’s ‘Schindler’s List’ (1993) where a young girl’s brightly red dress clashes with the films otherwise black-and-white colour scheme. Like so many French art house films, ‘Bleu’ could mistakenly be described as overly pretentious and solely targeted at snooty Cannes Festival-attendees, no one else. However, I would argue that the film should resonate deeply with anyone who has ever experienced loss. Its use of blue not only enriches themes of loss and grief, it also makes the film much more accessible to the average viewer as it puts these themes to the forefront through its use of colour without ever having to spell them out.

雖然電影中藍色被重用並不少場景都充滿調整,《藍》 裡的世界卻不讓人感覺虛偽。這有可能是跟基斯洛夫斯 基以前拍攝社會寫實紀錄片有關,他拍攝在共產黨統治 下的波蘭人並透過電影這媒介述說人們真實的情感。而 和他合夥的攝影師Slawomir Idziak更進一步的將演員 的面部表情表達的極其仔細,讓觀眾深深受感動。 當電影用盡各種藍色之後,亦不會使用強烈的顏色對比 為觀眾帶來新鮮感。《藍》並沒有像史提芬•史匹堡的 電影《辛德勒的名單》(1993)中用年輕女孩的亮紅 裙子對比黑白電影的調子。 就如不少的法國藝術電影,《藍》可能會被認為是過於 矯飾並以坎城電影節的觀眾為目標的作品,但我卻認為 電影能夠與曾經經歷過失去的觀眾引起深層共鳴。電影 中的藍色不單止豐富了「失去」和「悲傷」,更能在不 突兀的情況之下讓普遍觀眾透過顏色的使用理解電影的 主題。

Three Colours: Blue (1993), Eurimages. Directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski. A Sharper

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