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Skills three.

Puzzle Centro colombo americano. August 2012

Skills three students

Lady Rocio Canro Jhon alvarez garcia Jose ceballos Javier cruz Luis diaz Katherine espejo Marino francisco casas Viviana quintero Andrea romero Juan Sanabria soto Sergio Trujillo

Teacher: Gissell Andrea espitia

The decade of the eighties is one of the most memorable. Volume, colors and the lush things were a division in the culture. It was a decade when the women used natural and permanent makeup. Antiaging products were a sensation and permanent makeup was a practical solution. Wide and colorful shirts, thigh jeans, waistcoat, skirts and miniskirts, bracelets and high heels were predominant style in the clothes. The use of colors was varied, although white and black had his big moment. Haute couture was in charge of Calvin Klein and Giorgio Armani. Punk style influences in men with the use of rings and new wave genre glorified the leather bracelets and studs. Hairstyles were with curls and bangs.

In the first half of the 1980s, long hair, leather rocker jackets or cut-off denim jackets, tight worn-out jeans, and white, high trainers and badges with logos of favorite metal bands were popular among metal heads, and musicians of heavy metal and speed metal bands. In second half of the 1980s, this clothing style was popular among musicians and fans.

Severely bleached and ripped jeans, either manufactured purposely or done by hand, become a popular fashion trend, being a main component of glam music. Tattoo and piercing began to enter the mainstream.

of Leather jackets popularized by Michael Jackson and films like The Lost Boys were often studded and left undone to create a messier look. red/black leather pants and jackets, one glove and sunglasses.

Leggings were popular under short skirts and Madonna made popular wearing bustier for shirts instead of hiding them as a piece of underwear. If Madonna wasn't wearing a lace bustier she wore a tight black tank top or a similar type shirt. Leather ankle boots and lace fingerless gloves should be put on next for the full Madonna of the 80s look.

Late in the decade plain brown aviator jackets were fashionable and the other form of sunglasses.


Chocolate is an ingredient that almost always is in our sweets and desserts, and few people can resist its awesome taste; for these reasons I want to show you why we can’t resist its taste and new information about it. Chocolate is food made by mixing sugar and products arising from cocoa (Theobroma cocoa). From this basic combination and their mixture with other products like milk and nuts, are made the different types of chocolate such as white chocolate, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, sweet dark chocolate, bittersweet chocolate and others… The cocoa tree (Theobroma cocoa) is native of South America, it was extending gradually to reach the southeast of Mexico, Chocolate evolved until that in the seventeenth century acquired the taste and texture that is so familiar today. But what is Theobroma? Theobroma cocoa is the cocoa tree however, the theobroma word is divided in two words the first Theo means God and the second broma means food, for this theobroma means “Food of the Gods”; now we can understand why

the chocolate has been considered one of the best food since many centuries ago. The theobromine is derived from theobroma and it’s one of the main components of the chocolate besides, it’s the cause of the pleasure that produce eat this food. Chocolate has many effects in our body. First, remember that the pleasure received of eating something like chocolate or received during an activity like sex, help us with our problems and stress. Second, the chocolate has several health benefits in your body for example if you practice some sports the chocolate helps you with your performance. Though chocolate has many different benefits, it has had some myths for instance: chocolate might produce headache, causes acne, serves as an aphrodisiac, it causes cavities, problems with the obesity or more specific chocolate causes that people gain weight; most of these myths are false, because, chocolate can be a part of a healthy lifestyle when consumed in moderation. Come with us and discover how many of these myths are true and if you learn something maybe you will be able to enjoy of a delicious piece of chocolate.

Have you ever been in an earthly paradise?

Macarena”, this trip takes more than an hour.

If you want to discover the most beautiful and great place, definitely “Caño Cristales” is the place. They describe it like a small river with clear water and some waterfalls, that description is very simple and boring, I prefer to describe it with this words “Is the place where God made a man, in this place the word beautiful has its own meaning, there are magic colors, it is the gate to connect with your senses and there is the place closer to the perfection” that is the description of “Caño Cristales” for me.

When you are in the starting point is too easy to go to the paradise, you have to go the Macarena spring, in that place you need to take a boat that navigates across the Guayabero River, after twenty minutes, you have to take a 4X4 car for other twenty minutes and finally you are going to walk for fifteen minutes, Caño Cristales will be in front of you, the magical place where the colors are dancing on water, the sound will relax you and you will be in touch with wonderful experience the water is clear like crystal, the air is so clean, you can feel the grandeur of nature, the waterfalls, the birds, the plants and the animals that you can see. It’s simply the most beautiful river of the world.

How to visit this place?

There are two ways to visit “Caño Cristales” and general all “Sierra la Macarena” Territories. You can go for land, if you are in Bogota its necessary to take a bus to Villavicencio, this trip takes approximatly three hours. In this point of Colombian the real trip starts, if you like adventure, emotion, and you are looking for a great experience this is the perfect trip for you. The trip takes eight hours, you need a very good car, also a lot of supplies, the route is not very comfortable, there are some difficulties but the view makes everything worthy. First you arrive to “La Macarena” a small town near “Caño Cristales”. It’s better to rest in this town and reloads the batteries after that long trip. That is the first form to arrive to “La Macarena” starting point to kwon the paradise called “The God River”, the second way is easier than the first, you can take an airplane in the “Vanguardia” airport in Villavicencio to airport of “La

in Colombia there are a lot of places with magic views and mix of color, smelling, flavors, that you need to know, but its frustrate people have to know our history, our landscapes, our customs. I invite you to explore our customs, try our dishes and obviously travel around the most great and beautiful country of the world it’s so simply “Colombia is passion live it”.

Eco- revolution, tips for your things

vase or the peach bottle can be used like a receptacle for yours pencils or markets.

We are just in a world, why don’t we take care of ourselves? Why don’t we create new ideas to reuse things that we had used? This article wants to give and help with some ideas for our imagination, and especially to create an eco-support word and change our consumer habits for healthy and ecologic habits.

 Sometime do you think in reuse your cloth?

In first place, we are in a beautiful planet, all things that you need are here. Now the industry has created new necessities for us, but we should be aware of our real necessities and think in help our world and ourselves with creative ideas. Here I offer some ideas:  Don’t buy more receptacles

What happen if you use your waistcoat as a handbag? Probably this idea can generate more ideas to reuse your cloth. For example if you put an extra zipper inside of your waistcoat, you can have a handbag, only connecting both sides of your cloth and you have other article helping the world and spending less money.

Only with some bottles of soda you will be able to have new receptacles. You need two bases of bottles, only cut them in the size that you need. You can find or invent others receptacles reusing others bottles, for example the  New eco furniture

tuna receptacle can be used like a little

“Only sit and take a book” Don´t spend space with more furniture, do you know how many trees are necessary to make a piece of furniture? Spend less money and use better your space with a “book chair” this chair is specially for people that enjoy reading, it’s

perfect for them, only sit and take a book

 Decoration This is the biggest aspect to reuse your things. For example, you can make a lamb with many taps or use the CDs that are very useless and create a party ball.

Why spend money in new sofa in place of making it? Why do you spend money if you can enjoy doing your own articles for your home? You only need your imagination and then do it.

The support is very economic; it’s used to put boxes, so it has a lot of resistance. The process is very simple, just fit the support and use cushions. It’s just adding some stile and no more, you can have new sofa. This is the purpose for Eco-revolution, it’s just use your mind and create your own objects helping the world and ourselves

URBAN TRIBES, THE WAY WE SPEAK, THE WAY WE DO, THE WAY WE DRESS... "Urban tribes have a behavior according to their ideologies of one subculture; it has its origin principally in the environment of the city"

Urban tribes are characterized by maintaining in a similar aesthetic from several individuals of the same trend. It´s often accompanied by socio-political conviction, religious or mystical character, depending on the movement or urban tribe belonging. It is important to know that urban tribes are not new, but they are really fashionable tendency, in fact, many years ago: concretely to the 18th century in European countries. After that, urban tribes have been taking force in Latin countries and in the American continent too. So, actually urban tribes are very important in our cities, and you can see them together in the streets or different places of the city. Each urban tribe has different customs, dress styles, tastes, accessories and stuff like that. I’m going to talk and compare some examples about urban tribes. So, keep in mind that urban tribe can be seem from different points of view, sometimes society feel rejection or admiration. These feelings have relationship with the knowledge about urban tribes.

THE SKINHEAD The Skinhead movement began in Great Britain during the late sixties and has spread to the United States as a well as Germany and other western countries. This urban tribe has got a big force in Latin America too. It´s important to know that the skinhead men wear rolled up pants, boots, belts and the skinhead girls wear with short skirt, t-shirt, jeans jacket and boots too.

THE EMO Emo is a subculture with its origin in the 80th in the United States; it is an urban tribe that focuses on a need of expressions, feelings and recognition in society. "Emo", personality has to do with the outside, because being extremely thin is synonymous with the life you want to be. The "emo" live in constant depression because according to them, the world is miserable and degrading. They do not believe in religions or gods, also, the hair covers their face as they prefer to be isolated, they also believe gloomy and sad. In the other hand, it is important to understand that urban tribes are totality different. As we have seen, the skinhead and Emo, are really opposed and perhaps these tribes cannot cross, because of their different ideologies, customs and tastes in general.

Online Games

Since Internet started, games' field has evolved from family consoles to the Personal Computer and certainly online games. They have come part of the life of a lot people and groups are dedicated to produce, sell and play this wonder of engineering. Video games are now one of the largest entertainment industries surpassing the cinema and also competing with television and music industry. Game producers generate and update games day by day according to the requests of their users. We can realize that in the last two decades with the inclusion of international credit system (credit CARDS) has generated a business that today benefits too many people. Some of them have found in games a business. They sell everything in the game for real money. Big companies like Microsoft have made incursions with their most important franchises Age of Empires online and Halo, the last one with his own series which will be released in October 2012, counter Strike and Team Fortress 2 by valve, the last

one is the most rated by the online players currently. Obviously as gamers know Warcraft 3 and its variant dota (defense of the ancients ), Diablo 3, starcraft 2 (the most important strategy game of all time) and its monster World of Warcraft by Blizzard which is the largest video games company now with more than 11 million monthly subscribers. Those fictional worlds have come to be real life for some people. Around of video games there have been created a lot of competitions, but since the online games some professional leagues as MLG have emerged. The video games have come today in a respected sport as whichever. The competencies range from groups that even if they don't know personally they play some games together and players "Hardcore" who training every day to attend of World Cup tournaments. Finally I would like to say the games are a good way to pass the time and win money but my recommendation ´´don´t spent all your time in this kind of activities´´. It is possible to become an addictive.


It is, in short, a simulator can consume drugs without doing so and, according to its creator, is effective and safe. A risky and controversial project has already raised debate and opinion for all tastes.

The new digital drugs began since 1939, are like sounds that you put close on your ears and you listen. When you spend some minutes doing that, you feel a lot of things that leave you as in another world. But this happens only if the person has the mind suggestible. These drugs are designed to recreate three-dimensional images in the brain, however experts dispute this affirmation.

Nick Ashton is an specialist in physiologic, he created a software named “I-doser” it is a program where you can search a lot of earning dose you can register for just over $12 dollars, the user can get package of several doses lake tripi, absinthe, nitro rave, first love, orgasm, ecstasy, endless possibilities that you could never imagine.

Through social networks began to hear this new concept. ¿Digital Drugs? Many people wonder about them, if they work, if they are dangerous if they are addictive. Social networks (twitter, forums, blogs ...).

This new auditory stimulation already has won more than two million downloads of these doses are meant to evoke the effects of strong coffee, the peyote, heroin. The hand of God or the gates of hell.

REAL LIFE OR ONLINE LIFE The ways of communication in the world are now very different. The technology is fast and you can talk and see with your friends through Internet. The distance is short but it is really important that teenagers learn how to use of the Internet. However most of the teenagers pass a lot of time in their laptop. You can find in the Internet a lot of information. The Internet is a useful and entertainment way for people.

Actually the teenagers prefer the social

Today the social networks are very important in the society. You can communicate with old friends and keep the contact with friends and family. But others people use the social networks to meet new people. If you are teenager, you need to be careful when you surf in the Internet because some people change their identity. Aristoteles said "man is sociable for nature ". For this reason the people all the time are in communication with the others. It's important that you know which the influence of social networks is: 1. We decided, who conformed our friends in the social networks: According to people with the same likes or preferences 2. The friends affect our preferences 3. The others friends of our friends: You choose others connections 4. The social networks have own life: sometimes the real life pass to second plane.

networks. But they affect teenagers´ lifestyles, they prefer to talk in the chat than meet with their friends "face to face". The most popular social networks are: Facebook, twitter, MySpace, Sonico, and stuff like that.

These factors are fundamental; some teenagers change the attitude about one picture, state or relation. This affects deep his/her feelings. The change of the life is very evident, really the teenagers think that is more important Facebook or twitter than the real life. The teenagers should learn to difference between social networks and real life and don't worry for situations, states, or wall post. The real life is here and now!

Athens, Greece, in 1896, while the first THE OLYMPIC GAMES AND ITS MOST MEMORABLE EVENTS

edition of the Olympic Games of winter was in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The symbol of these games is one of the most recognized in the world. It consist in five connected rings with different colors. It represents the union of the







represents to America, the blue ring

occurred in the Olympic Games. Here I’m

represents to Europe, the black ring

going to tell you which of them have been

represents to Africa, the green ring

the most exciting, ridiculous and striking.

represents to Oceania and the yellow ring

To do this, I’ve done a top ten for you,

represents to Asia.




but before of this, I’m going to introduce

Now yes! We already know some things about this important event so… I

you a little in this amazing event. The Olympic Games is the most important sport event in the world. Athletes of all parts of the world compete

have here the top ten for you: #10: Abebe Bikila, with gold but without shoes (Rome 1960):

in different kinds of sports such as: Tennis,




athletic, swimming, artistic dance and many more. These games were inspired in a similar activity of the old Greece. In this time, the games were dedicated to Zeus. Now, there are two kinds of

When Abebe Bikila went to

Olympic Games: The Olympic Games of

search his shoes, the supplier didn’t have

summer and the Olympic Games of

plenty. Abebe tried with all shoes but no

winter. They are organized each four

one was good for him. That’s why he


by the International Olympic

decided to run as he had trained…

Committee. The first edition of the

Barefoot!! In the marathon, he was

Olympic Games of summer was in

searching someone with the number 26 in

his shirt. Why? Because his couch had

effort. He won 4 golden medals. But it

told him that this person was the favorite

isn’t all, 4 years after he returned and won

to win. So Abebe began to run really fast

other 5 golden medals. He won 9 in total.

because he didn’t see anyone with this

People ask, “How many golden medals

number. But one thing that he didn’t

had he won if he had participated in

know was that the favorite athlete had


other number in his shirt and he already was in first place!! Abebe ran so fast that

#7: The black power salutes on the podium (Mexico 1968):

he broke the world record and he was the first black athlete in win an Olympic gold for an African country. #9: Mark Spitz, The first great feat in the water (Munich 1972):

Tommie Smith and John Carlos finished first and third in an athletic race. They were in the USA team but they represented more than it, they were part of the Olympic Project for the human Mark was the first athlete who

rights to ask the end of the racism in their

won seven golden medals in just one

country. When they were in the podium,

competition. But he didn’t do only that,

they looked down and rose their arms up

he achieved one world record with each

to do the gesture of the black power. But

of his medals. He retired at age 22. With

in their faces didn’t have joy, in their

just 22 years old he had given all.

faces had pain. #6: The final of basketball

#8: Carl Lewis, the son of the wind (Los Angeles 1984): Carl wan not able to participate in

where the both teams won (Munich 1972):

the before Olympic Games in Moscow

In the last move of the match, the

because it was the time of the cold war.

URSS was losing with USA for just one

So, in 1984 he had anger and did his best

point. The URSS had the ball and USA

was nervous because they had never lost a

There are a lot of things to say

match!! People in the stadium were

about her: She was born in Onesti,

intrigued. The final countdown finished


and the URSS wasn´t be able to do the

gymnast; she was just 14 years old when

point. The USA won and people become

she played in the Olympic Games of

crazy!! Everybody was celebrating. The

Montreal; and that in this competition she

awesome was that the referee was wrong

won 3 golden medals, another of silver

and had 3 seconds more to play!! The

and another of bronze. However, there is

players returned and the URSS did two

an adjective that appear in all of his

points!! No one could believe it!! USA

biographies: “Perfect”. Why? This girl

had lost in basketball!! And the worst…

was evaluated with 10.0. It was de first 10

USA lost against URSS when the world

for a gymnast in the history. She was the

was in the cold war!!

star of the games and since there she is a

#5: Michael Phelps, the best of

medals (6 of gold and 2 of bronze).




symbol of perfection and esthetics.

the all times (Beijing 2008): In Athens 2004, Phelps won 8


#3: The tragedy and the terror invade the Olympic village (Munich 1972):

Therefore, the world was waiting for him in Beijing and he didn´t fail. In an awesome way he won the eight golden medals in competition. No one in the history of the Olympic Games had done it. In addition, he broke 7 world records and 1 Olympic record. #4: The perfect routine of Nadia Comaneci (Montreal 1976):

In September 15th, eight terrorist of the Palestine group “Black September” entered to the Olympic village to kill tow athletes of Israel and take others 9 by hostage. They ask the freedom of 234 prisoners in the jails of Israel. After of

many things, the 9 athletes and the all

#1: Jesse Owens celebrates in the face

kidnappers died in the airport of Munich.

of Hitler (Berlin 1936):

#2: Usa ín Bolt in mean machine broke the world record (Beijing 2008):

Owens was born in USA. He was of black skin and won 4 golden medals in His intervention in the final of 100

Berlin 1936, the games that Hitler had

flat meters was the most impressive of

done to consolidated his Nazi ideology.

one sprinter in the history in the

Since his box, Hitler saw how Jesse won

discipline that is considered like the

the 100 flat meters, the 200 flat meters,

Olympic queen. He got the gold. He did it

the relay race and the long jump. Hitler

with world record. He did it with an

(who was congratulated to the winners in

overwhelming facility, almost comic! In

the all competences) wasn´t in any of his

the shortest distance (where each move is

awards. The movie “Olympia” reflect his

really important and make the difference)

historic moment.

he had time to open his arms, hit his chest and down the speed. All the same, he achieved the best time of the all times: 9.69 seconds. Moreover, he won in the 200 flat meters and in the relay race and broke







Brazil is an amazing country that you should definitely visit it. Brazil is the biggest country in South America and now it is one of the most important countries in the world. Additionally, Brazil is a footballer potency and it’s got some of the best players ever seen; in fact the next world cup will be celebrated in this country.

This world cup will be celebrated in some of the most important cities in this country, for example in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. The important and traditional cities will be big football centers; The Maracana stadium and the Morumbi stadium are the biggest in Brazil and have two of the best teams in this country, in the other hand the attractive of those cities are a lot.

If you want to go and enjoy the awesome world cup, it’s important to make plans as soon as possible. If you don’t want to miss out this big football party you should totally book right know to get the best rates in the best places; in the next square you can find the prices you would get for this travel if you book now. As the dates get closer the prices get higher so hurry up!!!! Take this advice and enjoy seeing the world cup.

Archaeoastronomy: between the science and mystery Astronomy is the science that studies the universe and/or the objects which exist naturally in space. Archaeology is the study of the buildings, graves, tools, and other objects that belonged to people who lived in the past, in order to learn about their culture and society.1 Many of us will ask what is the relation between these sciences that research different ‘orders’ like the space and men, and we will say that is impossible to create a ‘new’ science from both of them. Nevertheless, the XXI century has seen the emergence of Archaeoastronomy, the science that explores mysterious relations between antique societies and the universe. Some of the mysteries are; why the ‘Dead´s Avenue’ of Teotihuacán has a perfect coincidence with the direction of the ‘Milky way’ and with the Nilo River’s way? Or why the Gizeh’s pyramid in the Nilo River is an exact image of the position of the Orion in relation with the ‘Milky Way’? Archaeoastronomy,



astronomy of the antique societies through the exploration of the big megalithic monuments (big stones) that these





the position, movement, and influence and change of the planets.2 In the last decade




been called Cultural Astronomy that asks





understood the sky and it’s phenomena, and





understanding to their world visions. This article tries to explore about this new discipline showing an ‘emblematic’ case studied for this science: the Dead’s Avenue of Teotihuacán and his relation with the cosmos.3 The map of the sky: the Dead’s Avenue of Teotihuacán In the famous city of Teotihuacán (Mexico), there are the sun and moon pyramids and the Quetzalcoatl temple, all of them in the same place: the Dead’s Avenue (it was built in the exactly same position than the Egypt pyramids




orientation). The sun pyramid and the Quetzalcoatl





beginning of the way and in a parallel line to the Avenue, but the moon pyramid is at the end of the way and outside of the parallel line, just like

cultures built impressive structures with ritual and astronomic ends, and the position and orientation of these constructions are based in objects of the space or in astronomic events like 1

Cambridge dictionary.


The Journal of Astronomy in Culture (ISSN 0190-9940) publicado por University of Texas Press para The Center for Archaeoastronomy (boletín trimestral y suplementos); y The Journal for History of Astronomy (suplemento anual). En: 3 Ibid.

the Orion constellation design (and like 4

the Gizeh Pyramids in Egypt).








researchers working in the relations between Teotihuacán with the sun system. One of the most ‘unbelievable’ hypotheses of the archaeoastronomy is that the Dead’s Avenue was built in the forth millennium before Christ 5 and not in 200 b.C., like the historical evidences affirmed.





archaeoastronomer, concluded that the pyramidal center in Mexico is a map of the sky where the Dead’s Avenue is the Milky Way (this way had been the Nilo River for antique Egyptians). However, Gerald





Cambridge University has established an











different constellations. He discovered that the streets of the city are oriented to the



northeast-, that is: to the Pléyades Constellation.




discovered that some of the principal monuments in the Avenue are oriented to the biggest star of Can Mayor constellation





antique Egyptians identified with the god Isis, wife of Osiris, related to Orion).

To conclude, each day the science gives more methods to research the antique cultures and civilizations and their relation with the universe. Thanks to these methods and tools nowadays people have a lot of new evidences and reflections about the antique cultures and the universe. Paradoxically, this ‘super’ methods, that help us to know the space and mankind, teach us also how the antique man could understand and measure the universe perfectly with such as contemplation and with mathematical knowledge even unknown for us. 5

Similar to the tradition that say that Quetzalcoatl, the azteca divinity built – personally- the city in 3113 b.C. 4


Mexican culture The Mexican culture has a lot of things, like Mariachis, tequila and tacos, which are recognized internationally. The Mexican people are happy and love the party, the dance, the food and the cocktails. They are very interesting and nice. This culture is rich in traditions which are a mixture of history and modernization.

Some of the most important celebrations are Mexican wine festival (March 03), Day of the dead (November 02), Day of the Mexican revolution (November 20), National day of the Virgin of Guadalupe (December 12), Christmas festival (December 02). But I want to tell more specifically about one, the day of the dead, for me it is the more wonderful and captivating. The history about the celebration of this day began around 3000 years ago in the Prehispanic time before the arrival of the Spanish people in America. These rituals celebrate the life of the ancestors and in the past, the celebration took place during one month in the ninth month of the solar calendar. The celebration was directed by the lady of death known LA CATRINA. She was the wife of the lord of the land of the dead.

Along the history some countries have changed something about the original tradition, for example the North American people celebrate a very popular day called Halloween with the children. They use costumes and ask for candies in different houses, but now the Mexican people waited for the second of November, they prepared and altar with many things: First they put the picture of his dead family to remember. Then put twelve candles around the grave, preferably purple. This color represents the duel, they put water and salt too. Also decorate the road with marigold flowers. Their color is light as the sun’s rays and represents the way home. Equally make a cross of ash, which represents the phrase (you are dust and you will become dust). Finally prepare a dessert with pumpkin and sugar.

In the celebration they have some symbols like skulls made with sweet; in the skulls they write the name of the dead relative. The bread of the dead, is a bread with different forms like circles, bones or skulls. Flowers are very important for the decoration, because they represent the joy of remembering their dead. On November 02 part of the celebration in many cities around Mexico is made processions where a lot of people paint their faces like a skulls and use costumes to represent La catrina and her husband.

skills three  

it is a magazine called puzzle

skills three  

it is a magazine called puzzle