Page 1

Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021


The resource for health, fitness, coaching, physical education, & recreation professionals.

Mature Fitness by Tammy Petersen


by Nancy Clark

Training Guidelines by Justin Price

Training Guidelines by Wayne Westcott

Create a niche. KNOW. TRAIN. RETAIN.


If you find an article in Health and Wellness Across the Gamut of Life! that you feel would be beneficial to a friend, family member or co-worker, all you have to do is forward this link:

“No one can avoid aging, but aging produc-

We welcome your feedback about the contents of this journal and encourage you to submit topics that are of interest to:

who think they have no time for bodily exercise will sooner or later have to find time for illness.” Edward Stanley July 21, 1826 - April 21, 1893 15th Earl of Derby, A British statesman tively is something else.” Katharine Meyer Graham June 16, 1917 - July 17, 2001 American publisher

Ever thought about what age is “old”? Opinions will vary, most definitely depending upon one’s age. In our 30’s, I imagine most of us believe that 60 is pretty old. As one increases in age, however, so does what is considered old. At 50, 70+ becomes old. But the reality for each of us is that age is not as much a number as it is an attitude. (Picture the 14-year-old golden retriever who still wants to jump into its owner’s lap.) The key then is how we feel and deal with the aging process. Each decade after 30, physically inactive people can lose as much as 3% to 5% of their muscle mass. Even with being active, there will be some muscle loss. Also, metabolic rate decreases about 1% per year beginning around age 30. As we age, we tend to gain 1 to 2 pounds per year. By the age of 30, there begins a change in body composition, with the loss of lean body muscle accompanied by an increase in fat mass. More food energy gets stored as body fat and fat stores are redistributed to the belly. Midlife weight gain continues in men until about age 55 and in women until about 65. Then, the accumulation of body fat is overtaken by an accelerated loss of lean body mass. Kind of depressing, huh? The challenge to aging well thus becomes a crucial lifestyle decision and a full-time commitment. There are no shortcuts. Going back to the basics, as touched upon in this issue’s articles, is a necessity to addressing inevitable life changes... possibly a bad back, inactivity, maybe poor diet (always on a diet of some kind), hormone changes, weight gain, and/or loss of flexibility, strength and endurance.

We are committed to our mission of providing education and training for health, fitness, physical education and recreation professionals across the GAMUT of life! Have a question? Want more information on a specific topic? Ask the Experts

Subscribe to the FREE eJournal

Be knowledgeable! Be successful!

Wishing you Happy Holidays and all the best in 2021!


Pete Bazzel, Editor-in-Chief 800.957.7348

GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Back to Table of Contents

INSIDE THIS ISSUE Aging and the Endocrine System


Midlife Weight Gain


Mature Health and Fitness article by Tammy Petersen, MSE Nutrition article by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD

When Lower Back Pain Is Not A Lower Back Problem


Back to Basics: Process and Product Benefits from a Standard Exercise Program


Ask the Experts 59




Training Guidelines and Programs article by Justin Price, MA, CPT

Mature Health and Fitness article by Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS

Health and Wellness Across the Gamut of LIFE! is published by the American Academy of Health and Fitness, LLC located in Springfield, Virginia 22153. Copyright 2018-20.

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Aging and the Endocrine System by Tammy Petersen, MSE, the Founder and Managing Partner for the American Academy of Health and Fitness (AAHF). She has written two books on adult fitness, SrFit™ and Functionally Fit™, and designed corresponding training programs. Contact info

The Endocrine System's major function is to direct long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems through the production of hormones.

Long-term adverse effects of estrogen replacement therapy exist as well. These include an increased risk of breast cancer and endometrial cancer. The increased risk of endometrial cancer can be offset by progesterone administration, but the addition of progesterone might increase the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and breast cancer.

Overall, the endocrine system shows relatively few functional changes with age. The most dramatic exception, however, is the decline in the concentration of reproductive hormones. In addition, age-related changes in other tissues affect their abilities to respond to hormonal stimulation. As a result, most tissues become less responsive to circulating hormones, even though many hormone concentrations remain normal.

In an effort to solve this problem, a drug called a “selective estrogen receptor modulator” (e.g., raloxifene) was developed to avoid the adverse effects of estrogen on the uterus and breast. However, these agents seem to be less effective than estrogen at delaying bone loss and appear to have only minimal protective effects on the cardiovascular system.

The following presents hormones whose production and concentration will most likely decrease with age.

Testosterone: Testosterone levels decrease with age. About 5% of men aged 50 and 70% of men aged 70 have reduced testosterone levels resulting in reduced muscle mass, strength, and cognitive function. Another consequence is that low testosterone levels are associated with an increased incidence of coronary artery disease in elderly men. In male seniors, testosterone replacement therapy increases libido, muscle strength and mass, bone mineral density, and visuospatial cognitive performance. It also increases coronary artery vasodilation which might improve cardiac function in elderly men with coronary artery disease. Testosterone

Estrogen: At menopause, estrogen levels decrease which can cause a woman to experience several uncomfortable symptoms to include hot flashes. To relieve some of these symptoms, doctors often recommend estrogen replacement therapy. Estrogen replacement therapy, however, does not only have short term benefits; it can also provide a variety of long term benefits as well. The major long term benefits include a potentially reduced cardiovascular risk and a reduced rate of postmenopausal bone loss with a subsequent decline in risk of spine and hip fractures.

Back to Table of Contents – News You Can Use


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

MATURE HEALTH & FITNESS There is insufficient evidence at this time to support the use of DHEA as an anti-aging agent, and the DHEA available in health food stores has variable bioavailability.

replacement therapy appears to have no deleterious effects on lipid levels; however, the effects of this therapy on longevity are unknown.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS) are abundant in the body, but their physiological role is not yet understood. Circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels decrease with age. Low DHEA levels are associated with osteoporosis and possibly with coronary artery disease, but whether these associations are causal or incidental is unknown. In animal studies, DHEA supplements have been shown to slow the rate of growth of pancreatic and colorectal cancer. In addition, DHEA is a potent memory-enhancing drug in mice and seems to stimulate the immune system in rodents. In humans, the effects of DHEA supplements are conflicting. At relatively high doses (100mg/day), DHEA increases insulin-like growth factor I, lean body mass, and muscle strength in men but not in women. The effects on the immune system and on mood, however, have been minor and inconsistent. In a study of nursing home residents, existing DHEA levels were directly related to function, but DHEA supplementation had minimal or no effect on memory.

Vitamin D: Vitamin D is a prohormone that is absorbed from milk products in the diet and is also synthesized in the skin by exposure to sunlight. With age, vitamin D levels decrease, but the effects are typically minimal in most people. Exceptions include elderly persons living in northern latitudes who have limited exposure to sunlight, institutionalized or homebound elderly persons who most often remain indoors, and those who do not ingest enough milk products. Vitamin D deficiency tends to cause osteomalacia, a condition of soft or rubbery bones that results when bones fail to calcify. Osteomalacia seems to accelerate the development of osteoporosis in the older adults, while severe vitamin D deficiency can result in painful myopathy, a condition affecting the eyes. Vitamin D supplementation appears to decrease the rate of osteoporosis and the risk of hip fracture while increasing overall survival rate. Whether or not it enhances immune function in healthy elderly persons is unknown. In epidemiological studies, vitamin D supplementation was associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Given current research, though, adults should have vitamin D intakes of 600 IU (International Units) daily

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

MATURE HEALTH & FITNESS many of the symptoms and signs of GH deficiency which include decreased muscle mass, weakness, and fatigue.

up to age 70. Men and women over age 70 should increase their uptake to 800 IU daily.

Melatonin: Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland when light levels are low. Levels can be measured in serum, saliva, or urine. Melatonin production peaks during early childhood and then decreases throughout life until it becomes negligible in the elderly. The major effect of melatonin is to promote sleep, but it might also protect against free radical damage, a function not performed by most other hormones. Melatonin supplements have been shown to increase cortisol levels in older but not in younger women. This is not ideal because cortisol has been shown to have many detrimental effects on the body. At this time, insufficient evidence exists to support routine use of melatonin supplements in the older adults. Growth Hormone: The effects of growth hormone (GH) on the aging body diminish for a variety of reasons. Just like the hormones already presented, production and concentration of growth hormone decrease with age. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a necessary mediator for GH function in adults, is also produced in lesser amounts. Furthermore, age related declines in estrogen and testosterone can impair GH secretion thus impacting the amount available for body tissues. These combined changes lead to

The effects of GH supplementation vary. Unlike in younger adults, GH supplementation in the older adults produces only a slight increase in muscle mass with no increase in muscle strength. It decreases adipose tissue stores and increases skin thickness but does not increase bone mineral density. GH supplementation has minor effects on the immune system (e.g., increased natural killer T-cell activity). Its effects on cognitive function are not yet known. The adverse effects of GH supplementation include carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, lethargy, and fluid retention. Long-term effects are unclear, but middle-aged persons with high levels of GH and IGF-I have higher mortality rates than do those with lower levels of GH and IGF-I.

As an alternative to GH supplementation, IGFI administration decreases adipose tissue stores and increases lean body mass in the elderly. However, its use is limited because the incidence of adverse effects (e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome) is high. Overall, little evidence supports the routine use of GH supplementation in the elderly. Because levels of some important hormones decrease with age, restoring low hormone levels might seem like a safe and logical way to help reverse some of the effects of aging.

Back to Table of Contents – News You Can Use


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

MATURE HEALTH & FITNESS correcting documented low hormone levels or relieving symptoms caused by low levels.

However, any resulting improvement in functional status might be gained at the expense of reduced longevity. For example, increased metabolism, which often results from hormone administration, can lead to tissue damage because of free radical generation. Therefore, hormonal supplementation is usually limited but might be a viable method of

References Contact Tammy at

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Midlife Weight Gain by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), who has a private practice in the Boston area (Newton) where she counsels both casual exercisers and competitive athletes and is author of Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook. Contact info

“I used to be skinny when I was a runner in college. Look at me now. My BMI says I am obese.” “Despite exercising regularly, I've gained weight with menopause … frustrating!!!”

closed gyms and an inactivity can take a bigger toll. Genetics also plays a role. Weight gain commonly is associated with sleep deprivation. An estimated 90% of perimenopausal women report having hot flashes and night sweats that disrupt sleep and contribute to chronic fatigue. In a study with sleep deprived subjects who slept an extra 1.5 hours a night, their cravings for sweet and salty snacks dropped by 66% and appetite by 14%. Maybe the sleep more, lose weight diet is key to weight management success? If you are sleep deprived due to night sweats, seek professional advice from your MD or gynecologist on how to control them based on your personal medical history. In The Menopause Diet Plan, authors Wright and Ward report that researchers have yet to identify any dietary supplements proven to alleviate hot flashes. Black cohosh and dong quai might help some women, but well controlled studies deem them and other touted hot flash cures to be a waste of money for most women.

“I've always been able to manage my weight by eating a little less and exercising a little more. Since I turned 50, that's not working for me anymore.” If any of the above comments sound familiar to you or your parents or friends, keep reading. I counsel too many mid-life athletes who express frustration about undesired weight gain. Women blame increased belly fat on menopause. Men blame only themselves for letting the pounds creep on. So, what's the story with midlife weight gain? And how can younger athletes avoid it?

Women, weight and menopause

Menopause, defined as 12 consecutive months without a menstrual period, happens around age 51. Perimenopause, defined as the run-up to menopause, is vague. No single event signals the start of perimenopause other than, in their late 40’s, women start experiencing irregular periods, mood swings, hot flashes, and poor sleep. Fat often appears around the mid-section, and previously lean female athletes start complaining about their muffin tops. Despite popular belief, women are not doomed to gain weight due to hormonal shifts related to menopause. In their book The Menopause Diet Plan registered dietitians Hilary Wright and Elizabeth Ward explain weight changes are related more to midlife than to menopause. That is, during the years spanning ages 45 to 55, many women experience major life changes: an empty nest, concern about aging parents, and illnesses that may reduce physical activity and encourage weight gain. Add the COVID lifestyle with a home office and

Men and mid-life weight gain

While men do not experience the hormonal changes that confront women, they do deal with similar midlife changes and career demands that can lead to eating more and exercising less. Hence, men also gain weight with aging. I've seen many male athletes grab their love handles and say, “This is what I want to get rid of.” Belly fat can get the better of males and females alike! Despite their fat gains, men tend to escape the social pressure that drives women to obsess about expanded waistlines and perceived loss of beauty. Society seems more forgiving of men. Regardless, the translation of “I feel fat” is “I feel imperfect.” Given many athletes tend to be perfectionists, midlife might be a good time to practice being just

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

NUTRITION “human” and grateful for our excellent bodies and all the wonderful things they allow us to do.

Cancer Society recommendations for less than 12 ounces (two servings) per week. 3. Eat fewer processed and refined grains. As bodies get older and become less fit, they can have trouble metabolizing sweets and refined carbohydrates (crackers, cookies). You want your carbohydrate-based sports diet to focus on nutrient-dense carbs: whole grains (brown rice, quinoa), beans, lentils, veggies and fruits. 4. Pay attention to calories from alcohol. Alcohol calories can quickly add up-as can the calories from nibbles that accompany the beverages. If over-imbibing interferes with exercise, the skipped workouts can also take a toll. 5. Maintain regular physical activity. Cardio, plus lifting weights to maintain muscles, helps curb weight gain so it doesn't happen in the first place. And more important than vanity, exercise helps keep you out of the nursing home, adds years to your life, and life to your years.

Managing midlife weight gain

The best way to manage midlife weight gain is (obviously) to prevent it from happening in the first place. Young athletes take note: The “average person” gains one to two pounds a year during early-to-middle adulthood. This leads to creeping obesity over time, accompanied by increased risk of diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and several types of cancer. Athletic people who exercise regularly gain less weight, so keep active! The following five core principles from The Menopause Diet Plan offer a framework for both men and women to invest in your future wellbeing: 1. Eat according to your body clock. Pay attention to not just the number of calories you eat, but when you eat them. Every cell in your body, including the microbes in your gut, work differently according to the time of the day. For example, cells respond better to insulin earlier in the day. By front-loading your calories into breakfast and lunch, you'll not only refuel better from morning workouts or have better afternoon workouts, you'll be nourishing your body when it is expecting to be fed. 2. Choose a plant-based diet. You need not become a vegan or vegetarian, but you do want to lean in that direction. Two-thirds of your plate should be covered with grains, beans, vegetables, and fruits. These quality carbs fuel your muscles and brain. Fill the remaining third with some protein (tofu, yogurt, nuts, fish, chicken, eggs, etc.) to repair and build your muscles. Lean red meat can be included, if desired, but follow the American

Sports Nutritionist Nancy Clark, MS, RD counsels both casual and competitive athletes in the Bostonarea (Newton; 617-795-1875). Her Sports Nutrition Guidebook can help you optimize your for eating. Visit information about consults, books, and teaching materials.


Contact Nancy at

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

When Lower Back Pain Is Not A Lower Back Problem by Justin Price, MA, CPT, the creator of The BioMechanics MethodŽ - the world’s fastest growing corrective exercise education program for health and fitness professionals. Contact info

At some point in their lives, 80% of people will experience lower back pain. In fact, back pain is the leading cause of disability in the world (Lees, 2014). Individuals try all sorts of exercises to strengthen, stretch and release tension from their lower backs in an attempt to get rid of the pain. However, the majority of these techniques either do not work or only help for brief periods. Why don't these exercises provide the expected relief, and what can you do as a fitness professional to help clients suffering from lower back pain?

entire kinetic chain rather than simply settling in the lower back region.

Corrective Exercise Strategies for Lower Back Pain Before attempting to gain mobility in the feet, ankles, hips, thoracic spine and shoulders with the following exercises, you should perform self-myofascial release techniques on the muscles that cross those joints (i.e., the calves, quadriceps, hamstrings, hip flexors, glutes, obliques and shoulder musculature) (Rolf, 1989). Once the tissues in these areas have been warmed up with SMR exercises, you can progress your client to the gentle stretching/mobilization exercises outlined below (Price, 2018; Myers, 2001).

Potential Causes of Lower Back Pain Compared to other parts of the body, the spine is fairly inflexible. While it can move forward, backward, side to side and in rotation, there are other areas of the body such as the ankles, hips and shoulders that are designed to perform these types of movements more easily (McGill, 2002, Cook, 2010). However, issues such as lifestyle and posture habits, injuries, surgeries, musculoskeletal imbalances, stress and/or joint changes (e.g., arthritis) cause many people to have restrictions in these other areas of the body, and consequently those parts do not work as they should. Restrictions in the more mobile structures of the body typically results in the spine (especially the lower back) having to take up the slack for the lack of movement elsewhere. This can ultimately lead to overuse, pain and injury to the lower back (Price and Bratcher, 2019).

Corrective Exercises for the Feet and Ankles

Calf Stretch (with straight leg) This stretch will help promote flexibility in the ankle when the knee is straight and the hip is extended, such as what happens when walking. Flexibility in this area will ensure the leg can travel behind the hip correctly without the lower back having to overarch excessively to keep the torso upright.

How Can Fitness Professionals Help? One of the key factors in helping clients overcome lower back pain is to implement corrective exercise programming that facilitates movement and mobility in other areas of the body such as the feet, ankles, hips, thoracic spine and shoulder girdle. If clients are able to move up and down, forward and backward, side to side and in rotation by using all of the parts of their body that were designed to achieve these movements, stress will be dissipated throughout the

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Corrective Exercises for the Hips

Stand with one leg back and feet pointed straight ahead. Ensure that the back leg is straight and the heel remains in contact with the floor. Tuck the hips under until a stretch is felt in the calf of the straight leg. Perform for 20-30 seconds each side at least once a day.

Butt Stretch This stretch will help promote flexibility in the hip so the leg can rotate effectively in the hip socket (such as what happens when walking and running). This will help prevent excessive rotational stress to the lumbar spine.

Calf Stretch (with bent leg) This stretch will help promote flexibility in the ankle when the knee is bent, such as what happens when squatting or bending down to pick up something off the ground. This will ensure the ankles, knees and hips can bend effectively so the lower back does not have to over-round when lowering the torso. Stand in a split stance on a BOSU Balance Trainer with hands on a wall or desk to assist with balance. Push the heel of the back foot down and bend the knee of that leg to feel a stretch in calf muscles. Do not overpronate the foot as the knee bends. Perform on each leg for 20-30 seconds once a day.

Sit on the ground with the left leg straight and the right knee bent. Place the right foot on the outside side of the left leg while keeping the right knee bent and sit up tall. Hug the right knee toward the left shoulder to feel the stretch in the glutes. Perform for 20-30 seconds each side at least once a day.

Hip and Butt Stretch This stretch will help promote flexibility in the hips so the leg can rotate out, such as what happens when changing directions in sports, getting out of the car, and during the backswing and follow through in sports that require the body to rotate. Sit on the ground with both knees bent. Lift the right ankle and place it on left knee. Sit upright and do not round spine to feel the stretch in the hip and glutes. Perform for 20-30 seconds each side at least once a day.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Hamstring Stretch This stretch will help promote flexibility in the back of the leg so the torso can bend forward at the hips without placing excessive stress on the back.

Hip Flexor Stretch This stretch will help promote flexibility in the hips so that the leg can extend behind the body without overarching the lower back and placing excessive stress on this area. Kneel on one knee with the other foot forward. Place a mat or towel under the knee for comfort. Tuck the hips under as you lift the torso upright to feel the stretch in the hip flexor. Perform for 20-30 seconds each side at least once a day.

Stand with the hips square and lift the right heel up onto a low chair or bench. Use a balance aid if necessary to help keep the spine straight and hips level. Gently pull the right hip back so that it comes back in line with left hip to feel the stretch in the hamstring. Perform for 20-30 seconds each side at least once a day.

Corrective Exercises for the Upper Back and Shoulders

Doorframe Stretch This stretch promotes flexibility in the torso so the thoracic spine can extend and the shoulder can flex correctly, such as what should happen when walking and/or reaching over the head.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021


Stand about 18 inches away from a wall on your lefthand side. Place the left foot forward, ensure both feet are straight and rotate the torso toward the wall. Make sure the hips remain square and shoulders level. Switch sides and perform this stretch for 20-30 seconds on each side at least once a day.

Stand in a doorway. Place the right arm on the doorframe at hip level, reach the left arm overhead and grab the doorframe. Place the left foot behind the right foot, tuck the pelvis under and gently lift the torso upright to feel the stretch along the side of the body. Switch sides and arms to perform this stretch on the other side and do it at least once a day for 20-30 seconds each side.

Conclusion Lower back pain can be debilitating, depressing and extremely uncomfortable. Use your knowledge of how the entire body needs to work as an integrated system to help you design corrective exercises that reduce stress to the lower back, and the likelihood that this area of the body will get injured, or become problematic, in the future.

Wall Rotation Stretch This stretch helps the torso and hips to rotate more effectively, such as what should happen when walking or playing sports. This will ensure excessive rotational stress is not placed on the lower back.


Contact Justin at Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Back to Basics: Process and Product Benefits from a Standard Exercise Program by Wayne L. Westcott, Ph.D., CSCS, who directs the Exercise Science and Fitness Research Programs at Quincy College, in Quincy, Massachusetts. He has authored 30 books on strength training and physical fitness. Contact info

In the age of functional training, newcomers to the fitness profession may question the value of a standard exercise program. Although perceptions of a standard exercise program may vary somewhat, such an approach typically includes about a dozen basic strength exercises, at least 20 minutes of aerobic activity, and several stretches.

The exercise program required approximately 50 minutes for completion in accordance with the following training protocol. Each strength exercise was performed for 1 set of 8 to 12 repetitions at about 6 seconds each (2 seconds lifting phase, 4 seconds lowering phase). Participants took about 1 minute between strength exercises, during which time they performed a 20-second stretch for the muscles that were just worked. The time for completing the 12 paired strength and flexibility exercises was typically 25 minutes.

We recently studied the process and product benefits associated with a program of this nature. Our program was designed for beginning exercisers and included the following components: *Muscle Strength:

*Joint Flexibility:

*Cardiovascular Endurance

The aerobic activity was increased gradually and progressively up to 25 minutes on the treadmill or stationary cycle. Participants trained between 70 and 80 percent of maximum heart rate, which generally corresponded to a 12 to 14 rating on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion1.

12 weightstack machines: leg extension leg curl chest cross chest press pullover lateral raise biceps curl triceps extension lower back extension abdominal curl neck flexion neck extension 12 stretches, performed in conjunction with the strength exercises (quadriceps stretch followed leg extension exercise; hamstrings stretch followed leg curl exercise, and so on). Treadmill walking/jogging or stationary cycling

The 148 people in this study (108 females, 40 males, mean age 57.6 years) trained in small classes (6 participants with 2 instructors) for a period of 10 weeks. About half of the subjects exercised twice a week (Tuesday, Thursday classes), and half exercised three times a week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday classes). Previous research with more than 1100 subjects revealed about 88 percent as much muscle gain and fat loss for the 2 days-perweek versus the 3 days-per-week exercisers2.

All of the participants were assessed before and after the training program for the following fitness parameters: (1) bodyweight; (2)

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS percent fat; (3) fat weight; (4) lean weight; (5) muscle strength (isometric); (6) joint flexibility; (7) balance (one foot, eyes closed); (8) systolic blood pressure, and (9) diastolic blood pressure. They were also assessed for at-rest blood pressure before and after their 25minute strength workout during the third, sixth and ninth weeks of the training program.

(approximately 5000 research subjects) has been nearly non-existent. In addition to the exercise product adaptations, the program participants experienced beneficial physiological changes during the exercise process. As shown in Table 3, the subjects' systolic blood pressure was lower after they performed 25 minutes of strength exercise. Notice that the before strength workout to after strength workout blood pressure reduction was 1.2 mmHg in Week Three, 2.5 mmHg in Week Six, and 4.5 mmHg in Week Nine. It would therefore appear that this beneficial exercise process effect increases with continued training. And, contrary to popular misconception, strength exercise seems to result in temporarily reduced systolic blood pressure after the workout and permanently reduced blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) after the 10-week training period.

Results The product results of the 10-week standard exercise program were impressive. Consider that the standard exercise program produced fitness benefits ranging from body composition to balance to blood pressure. On average, the participants reduced their fat weight by 4.5 pounds and increased their lean (muscle) weight by 2.6 pounds (see Table 1). They also increased their muscle strength (independent isometric measurement) by 12.0 percent, enhanced their joint flexibility by 10.8 percent, and improved their standing balance by 35.2 percent (see Table 2). Over the same training period the subjects experienced a 6.3 mmHg reduction in resting systolic blood pressure and a 2.2 mmHg reduction in resting diastolic blood pressure (see Table 2).

In our opinion, the standard exercise program is useful for all fitness enthusiasts and particularly valuable to beginning participants. It is safe, effective and efficient, and always well-received by new exercisers. (Our program evaluations show a 95 percent satisfaction level with the standard exercise program.) While we do not believe the basic training protocol should be continued indefinitely, we do think it should precede highly specialized or segmented exercise programs. Overall conditioning for the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems seems to be a sensible

There is a lot to be said for a basic program of strength, flexibility, and endurance exercise. It is easy for beginning exercisers to understand and implement. It is also extremely safe from an injury perspective. Over the past 10 years, the injury rate in our standard exercise program

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Wayne Westcott teaches Exercise Science at Quincy College in Quincy, MA. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed research and professional papers, and has authored 30 books on strength training.

prerequisite for more advanced training activities. Considering that exercise/fitness should be a long-term lifestyle, we recommend starting new participants with a standard exercise program and progressing to more challenging training alternatives when they are prepared to do so safely and successfully.

References Contact Wayne at

TABLE 1. Ten-week body composition changes for participants in standard strength and endurance exercise program (148 subjects, mean age 57.6 years) Variable




% Change


177.5 lbs.

175.6 lbs.

- 1.9 lbs.


Percent Fat



- 2.0%


Fat Weight

54.6 lbs.

50.1 lbs.

- 4.5 lbs.


Lean Weight

22.9 lbs.

125.5 lbs.

+ 2.6 lbs.



TABLE 2. Ten-week fitness changes for participants in standard strength and endurance exercise program (148 subjects, mean age 57.6 years). Variable




% Change


50.4 lbs.

56.4 lbs.

+ 6.1 lbs.



32.6 cm

36.1 cm

+ 3.5 cm



7.1 secs

9.6 secs

+ 2.5 secs


Systolic BP

133.4 mmHg

127.1 mmHg

- 6.3 mmHg


Diastolic BP

81.4 mmHg

79.2 mmHg

- 2.2 mmHg


*64 subjects tested for balance Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021


TABLE 3. Systolic blood pressure readings before and after strength training workout during weeks three, six and nine of standard exercise program (140 subjects, mean age 56.5 years) Variable

Before Strength Workout

After Strength Workout


Systolic BP Week Three

133.5 mmHg

132.3 mmHg

- 1.2 mmHg


Systolic BP Week Six

134.5 mmHg

132.0 mmHg

- 2.5 mmHg


Systolic BP Week Nine

134.0 mmHg

129.5 mmHg

- 4.5 mmHg


% Change

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Ask the Experts NAOMI AARONSON – MIND BODY Naomi Aaronson, MA OTR/L CHT CPI, is an occupational therapist, certified hand therapist, and mat Pilates instructor who believes in the power of exercise in recovery. Naomi’s articles have been featured in IDEA Fitness Journal, Occupational Therapy ADVANCE, and Women and Cancer magazines. She is the co-author of the continuing education courses Return to Life: Breast Cancer Recovery Using Pilates, Breast Cancer Recovery: On Land and In Water, and The Breast Cancer Recovery Exercise Program. Naomi offers live courses through Integrated Rehabilitation and Fitness.


Phil Alwitt is the founder and CEO of MyCore Health, Inc. and an expert in developing products to improve peoples' health and quality of life-from robotic exoskeletons to the CoreCoach pressure biofeedback device. As an entrepreneur and product developer Phil works with the industry's leading fitness and medical professionals to guide the success of the products he develops. Phil is the recipient of multiple patents, product design awards and, as an athlete with decades of chronic back pain, is the beneficiary of many of the products he develops.


Pete Bazzel, MS, CPT (ACE), is Partner and Editor-in-Chief for the American Academy of Health and Fitness (AAHF); served in the military, retiring as a Colonel; then led the Washington, D.C. regional growth of Town Sports International from 3 to 17 clubs. He co-created SrFit™ and JrFit™, 19-24 hour continuing education specialty certification courses focusing on mature adult and youth fitness respectively; and Move More, Eat Better - YOU Matter!™, a lifestyle change course for the general public. He is a World Tae Kwon Do Federation Black Belt.

MELISSA BAUMGARTNER – WELLNESS COUNSELING Melissa Baumgartner, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoach), is co-owner of Midwest Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company in the St. Louis area that specializes in worksite health promotion; and creator of LWC, a Lifestyle Wellness Coaching program. Melissa has worked in the health and fitness industry for 25 years, spending the last twelve as an educator, speaker and author. She has presented to thousands of people spreading her message on happiness and well-being.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

RANDALL BROAD – BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Randall Broad is an entrepreneur, business founder, and the guiding force behind several enterprises. After working in the aerospace industry, he moved to Hollywood to embrace his dream of being an actor, making commercials and being a leading man stunt double. In 1990, he founded Opal Enterprises, a marketing services company. A cancer survivor, he now takes the stage professionally to share his lessons on living a work/life balanced existence. In the book he co-authored, It's an Extraordinary Life, he has chronicled his experiences and adventures for future generations to learn from and enjoy.


Bradley J. Cardinal, Ph.D., is a Full Professor in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. In 2009 he received the university’s Elizabeth P. Ritchie Distinguished Professor award. He previously served on the faculties of Wayne State University (Detroit, MI) and Eastern Washington University (Cheney, WA). He is Fellow #475 of the National Academy of Kinesiology; a Fellow in the American College of Sports Medicine; a Fellow in the North American Society of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance Professionals; and a Fellow in the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.


John Paul Catanzaro, BSc Kin, CSEP-CEP is a Certified Exercise Physiologist with a Bachelor of Science degree in Kinesiology and Health Science. He owns and operates a private facility in Richmond Hill, Ontario providing training and nutritional consulting. John Paul has authored two books, The Elite Trainer (2011) and Mass Explosion (2013), and has released two DVDs, Stretching for Strengthening (2003) and Warm-Up to Strength Training (2005), which have sold copies worldwide, been featured in several magazines, and have been endorsed by many leading experts. In 2013, John Paul released two new webinars, Strength Training Parameters and Program Design and Body Composition Strategies.

SHARON CHAMBERLIN – PERSONAL TRAINING Sharon Chamberlin, BA, CPT (ACE), Fitness Nutrition Coach (NESTA), Lifestyle Fitness Coach (Spencer Institute), owns Catalyst 4 Fitness, a personal training company offering online fitness and nutrition coaching, boot camp classes, traditional fitness training, and fitness consulting. Her success with clients, both in the gym and online, is based on her pragmatic philosophy and realistic attitude. Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Ask the Experts MARCI CLARK – PILATES Marci Clark, MA, CPT, GFI, is an international fitness and wellness programming presenter with over 20 years experience in the fitness industry, specializing in Pilates exercise. She is the creator of the Foundational Pilates program and owner of Marci Clark Wellness Centers. Marci is widely published in the areas of Pilates, fitness programming and business and consults in the areas of group fitness, programming and business planning.


Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), counsels both casual and competitive athletes in her private practice in the Boston-area (Newton). The 6th edition (2019) of her best selling Sports Nutrition Guidebook, as well as teaching materials, are available at For her online workshop, see


Casey Conrad, BA, JD, President of Communication Consultants WBS, Inc., has been in the health and fitness industry for 26 years. In addition to authoring “Selling Fitness: The Complete Guide to Selling Health Club Memberships,” she has created and published over 25 other sales, marketing and management training products for the industry. She has spoken in 19 countries, is a feature presenter at conventions and trade shows worldwide and writes monthly for numerous international magazines.

ERICA N. CONRAD – EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE Erica N. Conrad is a student majoring in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. She worked for a running store where she sold running shoes to customers and gained interest in both gait mechanics and barefoot running. Her goal for this paper is to inform people of the advantages and disadvantages of shod, barefoot, and minimalist running. Erica plans on enrolling in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program for a career working as a Physical Therapist and hopes this paper will help prevent future injuries or complications for people.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

CATHERINE CRAM – PRE- AND POSTNATAL FITNESS Catherine Cram, MS, is the owner of Comprehensive Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company that specializes in providing pre- and postnatal fitness continuing education certifications and information to health and fitness professionals. Catherine is co-author of the 2012-revised edition of “Exercising Through Your Pregnancy” with Dr. James Clapp. She is the author of “Fit Pregnancy for Dummies” (Wiley Publishing, 2004) and contributing author of “Women’s Health Care in Physical Therapy” (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009). She was appointed to serve as the International Childbirth Education Association Perinatal Fitness Subgroup Chair in 2013.


Cammy Dennis, BS, CPT (ACE and AFAA), is Fitness Director for On Top of the World Communities Inc., a 55-plus adult community and The Ranch Fitness Center and Spa. Her 20 years experience in the fitness industry includes group exercise instruction, personal training, lifestyle coaching and program management. Her specialty is curriculum development for youth and senior fitness. She co-authored Kids In Motion and numerous articles on youth and senior fitness for Asiafit, SCW Fitness Education and ICAA.

BETHANY DIAMOND – WATER FITNESS Bethany Diamond, CPT (ACE, AFAA and NASM), is founder of Ovarian Cycle, Inc. and an Ironman triathlete. She is also a PowerBar R team elite athlete and a Scwhinn Cycling master trainer. Bethany has published articles for IDEA, has DVDs produced by Healthy Learning and is a contributor to the IDEA Water Fitness Committee. She has worked with fitness professionals, nationally and internationally, sharing with them her philosophy of safe, effective exercise that is fun and results driven.


Ion Doaga is the creator of and a contributing author for Massage Dreams that features articles on alternative therapies, massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, health and fitness, motivation and inspiration. He is Second Degree Black Belt in Karate Ion believes that exercising, healthy nutrition and alternative medicine is what the human body needs to heal itself and be strong. He is growing a community on his site where he promotes a preventive care lifestyle. Ion lives in Chisinau, Moldova and speaks three languages: Romanian, Russian and English.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Ask the Experts SALLY EDWARDS – HEART RATE TRAINING Sally Edwards, MA, MBA, is a leading expert in business, exercise science and lifestyle living. She created the Heart Zones Training proprietary and branded training system. Sally is a best-selling author and sought after professional speaker with 23 books and 500 articles on health and fitness, including Heart Rate Monitor Guidebook and The Complete Book of Triathlons. She is a 16-time Ironman finisher, a member of the Triathlon Hall of Fame, and Western States 100 Mile Endurance Run winner. She is the founder and CEO of Heart Zones USA, the training, education, health club programming, and coaching company.

MATT FENCL – EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Matt Fencl, Ed.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Health and Human Performance at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. He possesses Exercise Physiology and Exercise in Medicine - Level II certifications from the American College of Sports Medicine and his research interests include personal fitness, adventure education and outdoor pursuits, and physical education pedagogy. He has previously published articles in Physical Educator and the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (JOPERD).

JENNIFER GREEN – INCLUSIVE FITNESS Jennifer Green, BS in Health Fitness and Rehabilitative and Preventative Programs, MS in Clinical Exercise Physiology, is an Information Specialist at NCPAD in the Department of Disability and Human Development at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Jennifer creates and provides fact/ information sheets and videos focused on inclusion: adapting physical activity training and programs, making fitness centers more inclusive, etc. She is the author of the monthly NCPAD News column “The training corner,” written for fitness professionals who work with individuals with various disabilities and chronic conditions.

TRACEY HARVEY – MATURE FITNESS Tracey Harvey, BS, SPINNING® Instructor, USTA Tennis player, has three decades of experience in the Health and Fitness Industry, currently specializing in managing wellness not illness in older adults; working with Independent Retirement Living Communities. Her background of packaging education with products for the commercial and consumer fitness markets is credited with introducing SPINNING around the globe. Tracey is also a published “Senior Living and Lifestyle” author and an International Council of Active Aging (ICAA) Presenter.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

SHERRI HORNER – MEET THE EXPERT Sherri Horner is a radio talk show host, fitness professional, motivational speaker and writer. She is a yoga teacher, and an AFAA certified personal trainer and group fitness instructor. She is trained in Tae Kwon Do and has received specialty training from Empower Training Systems, Yogafit and Silver Sneakers. Her column has been published in a Philadelphia Christian Bodybuilding Magazine and Delaware and New Jersey wellness magazines. She is the founder and president of Health Fitness Broadcast. Since 2004 her interviews with leading experts have resulted in a treasure chest of information.


Karsten Jensen, MS Exercise Physiology, CPT (CPTN), is a high performance trainer and an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He has trained World Class and Olympic Athletes from 13 different sports since 1993, many winning European Championships and World Championships and Association of Tennis Professionals Tournaments. Karsten is an international speaker, author of several books (most recently The Flexible Periodization Method) and is an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He also shares “Insider Principles of World Class Strength and Conditioning Methods” through his web site.


Jenny D. Johnson, MS, CPT (NASM), began her higher education career at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro where she was a women’s volleyball NCAA Division I scholarship student athlete, earning a degree in Leisure Service Management. After a ten-year stent of career and family building, Jenny returned to California University of Pennsylvania to obtain her MS in Exercise Science and Health Promotion. She is currently completing a doctorate in education from Northcentral University. She is an Assistant Professor at American Public University System in the Sports and Health Sciences and Sport Management Department.

TIM KEIGHTLEY – THE BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Tim Keightley is V.P. of Fitness for Golds Gym International. He is also an international presenter and motivational speaker. Since teaching his first class in 1983, he has experienced life as an Officer in the British Royal Marines, a Professional Golfer, a ‘Stuntman’, a personal trainer to a Boxing World Heavy Weight Champion, built the largest personal training business in Europe and was V. P. of Fitness for Town Sports International. Tim believes that part of our secret to success is to learn how to have FUN in all that we do, build on our PASSION and show others how PROUD we are of what we can do for them.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Ask the Experts PEGGY KRAUS – CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION AND NUTRITION Peggy Kraus, MA, ACSM RCEP, NET, is a clinical exercise physiologist in cardiopulmonary rehab as well as a nutritional education trainer at Wellness Foundation where she teaches others about the benefits of following a plant-strong diet and committing to regular exercise. She is a frequent contributor to IDEA Fitness Journal and to and has been published in AFAA American Fitness and other health fitness magazines. She believes strongly that frailty and disease have become an acceptable part of life, but both are avoidable when you exercise and eat right.


Tammy LeBoss, BA, CPT (NAFC), Pilates Coach, NAFC Nutrition Coach, Pilates Post-Rehab and various yoga modalities certified, has been involved in the health and fitness industry for over 17 years. In 1997, Tammy gave her corporate job the boot and moved to San Diego where she struggled to make ends meet as a personal trainer. She has since learned about the many pitfalls of doing so and how to avoid them. She has served as head of the nutrition department for various health clubs and also helped build several successful health clubs from the ground up. Her publications have been featured by the National Association for Fitness Certification and Sports Nutrition Supplement Guide.


Susan Lee, MPE, MA, CPT (CPTN), President of the Certified Professional Trainers Network (CPTN) works with leaders and partners to offer education, certification, leadership and advocacy for personal trainers and fitness professionals. Concurrently, Susan develops co-curricular diversity and equity programs for the Faculty of Physical Education and Health at the University of Toronto in Canada.

RITA LA ROSA LOUD – TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Rita La Rosa Loud, B.S., CPT (AFAA) is an author and Adjunct Professor at Quincy College. She recently co-authored with Wayne Westcott the book No More Cellulite. She self-published the booklet W.O.W. Workout at Work; contributed a chapter in The Belly Melt Diet, a book from the editors of Prevention; developed the Nautilus At-Machine Stretching Expressway Program; and has been recognized for her innovative stretching concept by Shape Magazine. She is a recipient of the distinguished Honor Award and Outstanding Fitness Professional Award from the Mass. Assoc. of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance; plus the Nova 7 Award for exercise programming from Fitness Management magazine.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

JENNIFER MANNING – INJURY PREVENTION Jennifer Manning, DPT, OCS, CPT (NSCA CSCS), was inspired to be a physical therapist after suffering an ACL tear in high school. She is the creator of, a website focused on injury prevention and exercise education. She has had the pleasure to work with people of all ages and talents. Her latest clients include football players preparing for the NFL, a fighter in the UFC and Level 10 gymnasts in the United States and Canada. Jennifer is currently practicing physical therapy at Breakthrough Physical Therapy in Irvine California.

GREG MAURER – BUSINESS, MARKETING, TECHNOLOGY AND PROGRAM INTEGRATION, AND PERSONAL TRAINING Greg Maurer, BS Exercise Physiology, CPT (ACE and NASM), is an Associate Partner with New Paradigm Partners health club consulting firm. Greg is also a fitness consultant for several emerging technologies in the fitness/wellness/medical industries, including bioDensity Strength Technology, Power Plate Whole Body Vibration and reACT – Rapid Eccentric Anaerobic Core Trainer, and Bulgarian Bag (


James McPartland, former President of Star Trac Fitness, Author, International Speaker, TV/Radio Host, and ‘Wellness Ambassador’ focused on developing the Human Potential within business. His present endeavor at The JMac Performance Group has allowed him to further play a leadership role in the health & fitness industry for now more than twenty years. Much of his current business advisory and speaking activity demonstrates a philosophy called Crosstraining for Life™, focusing on uncovering the potential that lies within a company by developing the potential of the people employed inside the business.


Carol Michaels, MBA, CPT (ACSM, ACE), is the founder of Recovery Fitness®, a cancer exercise program. Her new book, Exercises for Cancer Survivors, is a fantastic resource for anyone undergoing cancer surgery or treatments. Carol also developed and produced two DVD’s called Recovery Fitness Cancer Exercise-Simple Stretches and Recovery Fitness-Strength Training. She owns and operates Carol Michaels Fitness and Recovery Fitness and is a consultant, author, speaker, Pilates instructor, and cancer exercise specialist. She is on the advisory board for several cancer organizations, and has appeared on health related television and radio programs. The American Council on Exercise recognized Carol as a Trainer to Watch in 2011 and Personal Fitness Professional honored her as the 2012 PFP Trainer of the Year. Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Ask the Experts NICOLE NELSON - PERSONAL TRAINING Nicole Nelson, MS, LMT, holds a masters degree in Health Science from the University of North Florida. In addition to being a licensed massage therapist, she is also certified as an Advanced Health and Fitness Specialist through ACE. She has a full time massage and training practice in Ponte Vedra Beach, FL and has contributed articles to IDEA Fitness Journal and Massage magazine.

DORETTE NYSEWANDER – CORPORATE HEALTH, WELLNESS AND ANTI-AGE RESEARCH Dorette Nysewander, EdD, “DrD”, is Founder and President of D Group Consulting Services, Inc, a wellness education consulting company, facilitating initiatives worldwide. Committed to the health and well-being of all, she has been recognized in Sutton's Who’s Who in Elite Healthcare, Jacksonville Chamber 904 magazine as one of 75 Most Influential People In JAX Healthcare. Her articles have appeared in American Fitness, Jacksonville Business Journal, Liberation Wellness, several local publications, national fitness organizations and corporate industries. Contact her: 904-859-1425.


Gary L. Palmer, BSEd, CPT (NCSF), a free lance writer and fitness enthusiast, served in the Navy during the Vietnam War, earned a football scholarship as a walk-on at Ohio University, and went on to a successful 15-year teaching and coaching career. He also spent 26 productive years in the business world before transitioning to a full time writer. His first published book, Chagrin Falls, is a memoir. The theme is overcoming adversity as an abandoned, impoverished foster child growing up in a small Midwest town during the 1940’s and 1950’s. His latest health and fitness writing focuses on the need to speed up, not slow down, exercise and physical activity, as we age.


Navodita Pande is a Ph.D. in Media Studies and is an independent researcher. She is also a media trainer at Sheiling House School, Kanpur, India. She has written four books on media and Yoga: TV Journalism: An Introduction to Practices, Mass Media and Elections, Yoga: The Oriental Healing, and Yoga Education. She trains the National Yoga team and conducts summer and winter workshops in Kanpur.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

LORI PATTERSON – BOOT CAMP Lori Patterson, BA, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoaches) is the CEO of VicteliB, LLC, and the creator of successful fee based programming to include Boot Camp Challenge®, Baby Boomer Boot Camp Challenge® and Kids Kamp Challenge. Lori served in the US Army as well as 28 years in the fitness industry. You can reach Lori at or the website at

TAMMY J. PETERSEN – MATURE ADULT AND YOUTH HEALTH AND FITNESS Tammy Petersen, MSE, is the Founder and Managing Partner for the American Academy of Health and Fitness. She has written two books on adult fitness, SrFit™ and Functionally Fit™, and designed corresponding specialty certification training programs. She cocreated JrFit™, a specialty certification course focusing on youth strength training and nutrition. Her articles have appeared on PTontheNet; and in Club Business for Entrepreneurs, Personal Fitness Professional, Fitness Business Pro, American Fitness and OnSitefitness.


Lori Pine, MA, CPT (ACE) is the Programs Director at In Motion Fitness in Chico, California. She is an APEX certified Nutritional Counselor and a member of Power Bar’s Team Elite. She holds certifications and certificates in Youth Fitness, BOSU, TRX, Nordic Walking, Body Bar, Gliding, Kettlebell, GRAVITY, Drums Alive, and STRONG. Lori has 20+ years experience working with youth and adults in schools. She organizes events and charitable activities, including the “B.A.M.” fitness conference.

JOHN PLATERO – PERSONAL TRAINING John Platero, CPT, is a fitness educator who has consulted both nationally and internationally, most recently for the Royal family of Qatar. He is the Director of Education for the National Council for Certified Personal Trainers. He has obtained 35 personal training certifications, filmed over 30 fitness videos and infomercials has been published by most of the fitness magazines and is the author of “Yes You Can – Fitness After 40 – A New Beginning.” As an athlete, John was a champion bodybuilder who turned cyclist and has won 21 gold, two silver and two bronze medals in cycling in the Senior Olympics and the Master’s Pan American Games.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Ask the Experts JUSTIN PRICE - CORRECTIVE EXERCISE Justin Price, MA, CPT, is one of the world’s foremost experts in musculoskeletal assessment and corrective exercise and creator of The BioMechanics Method Corrective Exercise Specialist certification (TBMM-CES) available through AAHF. The BioMechanics Method is the fitness industry's highest-rated CES credential with trained professionals in over 60 countries. Justin is also the author of several books including The BioMechanics Method for Corrective Exercise academic textbook, a former IDEA Personal Trainer of the Year, and a subject matter expert for The American Council on Exercise, Human Kinetics, PTA Global, PTontheNET, TRX, BOSU, Arthritis Today, BBC, Discovery Health, Los Angeles Times, Men’s Health, MSNBC, New York Times, Newsweek, Time, Wall Street Journal, WebMD and Tennis Magazine.


Kristen Puhlman, RD, CPT (NASM and WITS), Spinning Certified (IFTA), is an Outpatient Diabetes Educator at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center; currently residing in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She has a BS in Nutrition and Food from Kent State University. She owns and operates Obliques, LLC; a personal training business specializing in core training, weight management and individualized nutritional planning. She is also the on staff Dietitian for Aspire Fitness Studios. Her experience in the hospital setting is in clinical nutrition with a primary focus on weight management and the psychology of weight loss.


Amy Rauworth, MS, RCEP, is the Associate Director of Operations and Exercise Physiology Research at the Center on Health Promotion Research for Persons with Disabilities (CHP). CHP is located at the University of Illinois at Chicago in the Depa2rtment of Disability and Human Development. She is a Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist with ACSM. Amy conducts Inclusive Fitness training nationally on behalf of the National Center on Physical Activity and Disability and specializes in accessible fitness center design.

TIM ROCHFORD – SELF DEFENSE Tim Rochford, MS in Exercise Science, BS in Sport Management has been in the fitness industry since 1984. His certifications include ACE Medical Fitness Specialist, ACE and NASM CPT, The Cooper Institute MPFS, IYCA Level 1 and AAHF Senior Fitness, plus he holds a 7th degree Black Belt in Kajukenbo/Kajukenpo Karate. Additionally, Tim is an adjunct instructor for Harper College in Palatine, Illinois. He is the founder of Empower Training Systems (a self defense and kickboxing fitness instructor training company). He is the co-author of the ACE Kickboxing Fitness Specialty Training manual. He has also designed and patented the P2 Force, a unique body weight and elastic resistance training apparatus that provides true multi-planar and multi-angle resistance training capabilities. www.empower‐

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

MARK ROOZEN – YOUTH STRENGTH AND SPORT CONDITIONING Mark Roozen, MEd, certified strength and conditioning coach (NSCA CSCS*D and CPT, and FNSCA), is Senior Content Editor for STACK Media which promotes safe training and sports enhancement and is Co-Director of the Performance Education Association. He has been in the strength, conditioning and performance field for over 28 years. Mark has worked with teams from the high school to the professional levels as a strength coach; performed as director of a hospital owned fitness and training facility, as well as owned his own training center; and, has worked with over 30,000 youth in sport camps across the country. He has presented, written and consulted worldwide.


Tara Sareen, BS, is a Institute For Integrative Nutrition Certified Health Coach in the Greater Boston area and founder of iCrave Coaching. Through a unique, intensive 6-month coaching partnership, Tara's clients lose weight, identify food sensitivities, discover ‘life after sugar’ and heal and reduce chronic conditions such as joint pain, skin irritations, headaches, fatigue, infections, anxiety and depression.


Cody Sipe, PhD, ACSM Certified Clinical Exercise Specialist, ACSM Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist, is an award-winning industry leader in fitness for older adults with over 17 years of experience. He serves on the editorial boards of IDEA and Active Aging Today and is an advisory member for Canadian Fitness Education Services, WholyFit, the National Posture Institute and the ICAA Visioning Board. Cody is a past recipient of the IDEA Program Director of the Year award. His blog provides innovative fitness and business information for professionals working with older adults.

BRIAN SOUZA – EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY AND NUTRITION Brian Souza, BS, ACSM-HFS, is the owner of Be Fit Personal Training, a company providing theoretically and evidence based exercise to a variety of populations. Brian has been in the personal training industry for 10 years. He is will obtain a Master’s degree in Sport and Exercise Psychology from Springfield College in May 2011 and then will continue his education in a Doctoral level Sport and Exercise Psychology program. His research interests include exercise psychology, applied sports psychology, sports and exercise nutrition, positive psychology, and youth sport. He competes as a recreational triathlete.

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Ask the Experts MATTHEW B. SPANIER At the age of 18, Matthew B. Spanier was diagnosed with Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus. Due to his very active lifestyle he has been able to control the disease very well. He will graduate in June, 2013 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Exercise and Sport Science from Oregon State University. During his undergraduate studies he has interned and worked for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF). After graduation Matt will continue his education at Ohio University, where he will be pursuing a Master's degree in Clinical Exercise Physiology.


Jim Starshak, MS, NSCA-CPT, IDEA Elite PFT is the Governing Board Chairman for the international Tai Chi for Health Institute, a Tai Chi for Health Master Trainer, an Exercise Science Adjunct Professor, and founder of The Home Gym, Inc. After 18+ years in US Special Forces (“Green Beret”), Jim is a disabled veteran who promotes tai chi internationally for its functional fitness and health benefits. He certifies Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi instructors and provides continuing education for Health & Fitness Professionals, Athletic Trainers, Physical & Occupational Therapists, and Nurses.


Derrick Sweet is best known as a popular corporate keynote speaker and author of three highly celebrated books: Healthy Wealthy and Wise, Get The Most Out Of Life, and You Don't Have to Die to Go to Heaven. He is the creator of the Hypnolinguistics Course: Derrick is also the Chairman and Founder of the Certified Coaches Federation. Derrick created the coaching model that is the foundation of the Certified Coaches Federation's Certified Coach Practitioner Training and Development Program. For more information on the Certified Coaches Federation please visit:


Kelly Ward, MS in Therapeutic Aging, CPT (AFAA and SFA), author of “The Complete Guide to Fall Prevention: Everything You Need to Know to Remain Independent,” is a certified FallProof™ balance and mobility specialist who has been teaching fall prevention classes for six years and has worked with older adults for over 15 years. Kelly’s mission is to educate and facilitate the adaptation of a reduced fall risk lifestyle. She presents easily understandable evidence-based research, applying this knowledge to daily life situations, and offers train-the-trainer programs. For more information on Kelly’s comprehensive fall prevention services or to order her book, see

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

WAYNE L. WESTCOTT – STRENGTH TRAINING Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS, directs the Quincy College Fitness Research Programs. He has been a strength training consultant for the US Navy, ACE, the YMCA of the USA and Nautilus. He is an editorial advisor for numerous publications, including The Physician and Sportsmedicine, ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, Prevention, Shape, and OnSitefitness; and has authored 24 books on strength training. He serves on the International Council on Active Aging Board of Advisors and ACSM’s New England Chapter.

WENDY A. WILLIAMSON - POST REHABILITATION SPECIALIST Wendy A. Williamson, PhD, ACE – CPT & CMES; NASM – CPT & CES; CFAS is nationally recognized as a leading educator, writer, and author. She has owned Williamson Wellness Center for over five years and has been in the fitness industry for over 20 years training, and speaking nationally, regionally and locally. She specializes in orthopedic conditions, neurological diseases, and serves as adjunct lecturer for Wichita State University with the Physician Assistant and Physical Therapy departments. Dr. Williamson also supervises exercise science interns from the Exercise Science Department. Her research focus has been with Parkinson Disease and Exercise.


Michael Wozniak BS, CPT, is the manager of the hospital‐related fitness center at Harbor Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He has 13 years experience in the fitness industry working with clients ranging from youth athletes to seniors and special populations. He has a Bachelors degree in Sport Psychology and is an ACE Certified Personal Trainer.


Rose Zahnn, CPT (ACE), GFI (AFAA), E‐RYT200 (Yoga Alliance), is the founder and owner of Healthy Habits Fitness‐Yoga‐Pilates Studios, creator of PilatesFit and the Learn to Be Lean Program, and is a Master Trainer for YogaFit International, Flirty Girl Fitness, and Balletone. A UCLA graduate and a fitness professional for over 20 years, Rose teaches at Healthy Habits in Sacramento, California; presents at conferences, leading teacher trainings and workshops; and is a continuing education provider for ACE and AFAA.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

References Aging and the Endocrine System Petersen, T. SrFit: The Personal Trainer's Resource for Senior Fitness, Third Edition. The American Academy of Health and Fitness, 2008 - 2018.

Midlife Weight Gain

Ward, E. and H. Wright. The Menopause Diet Plan. Rodale, 2020

Tasali, E. et al. The effects of extended bedtimes on sleep duration and food desire in overweight young adults: A home-based intervention. Appetite 80:220-224, 2014.

When Lower Back Pain Is Not A Lower Back Problem

Lees, K. 2014. Low Back Pain Leading Cause of Disability Worldwide. Science World Report.Com. Cook, G. 2010. Movement. Aptos, CA: On Target Publications.

McGill, S. 2002. Low Back Disorders: Evidence Based Prevention and Rehabilitation. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Myers, T. 2001. Anatomy Trains. Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Price, J. and Bratcher, M. 2019. The BioMechanics Method Corrective Exercise Specialist Education Program (2nd ed). San Diego, CA: The BioMechanics Press. Price, 2018. The BioMechanics Method for Corrective Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Rolf, I. P. 1989. Rolfing: Reestablishing the Natural Alignment and Structural Integration of the Human Body for Vitality and Well-Being (revised edition). Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Back to Basics: Process and Product Benefits from a Standard Exercise Program

1) Borg, G. 1998. Borg's Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 2) Westcott, W. and J. Guy. 1996. A physical evolution: Sedentary adults see marked. improvements in as little as two days a week. IDEA Today, 14 (9: 5-8—65.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 75, Dec 2020/Jan 2021

Join us on:

Or visit us on social media:

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal

Back to Table of Contents

Create a niche. KNOW. TRAIN. RETAIN.

Profile for American Academy of Health and Fitness

Gamut Issue 75 Dec-Jan, 2021  

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded