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Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019


The resource for health, fitness, coaching, physical education, & recreation professionals.


by Nancy Clark

Training Guidelines by Justin Price

Across the Gamut by Wayne Westcott

Create a niche. KNOW. TRAIN. RETAIN.

FROM THE EDITOR “Develop a passion for learning. If you do, you will never cease to grow.” Anthony J. D'Angelo American Author and Founder of Collegiate Empowerment

“All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.” Galileo Galilei February 15, 1564 - January 8, 1642 Astronomer, physicist and engineer

Though it may appear to be obvious, it is the truth that the degree of success attained as a personal trainer directly correlates to the amount of passion one has for being a personal trainer. Without passion, there is an obvious lack of purpose witnessed by others, most specifically clients and potential clients. Passion drives decisions and behavior. Passion motivates hard work and sacrifice. Getting by is not an option for the passionate personal trainer. Is personal training your passion? Does training others align with your talents? Is there an emotional connection? Are you curious and open-minded with an insatiable appetite for learning and honing your skills? Hopefully so. The articles included in this issue of the Gamut provide insights into what is adequate protein intake for vegans (and all) athletes, functional training and reducing the risk of infectious diseases in the training facility. Enjoy!

If you find an article in Health and Wellness Across the Gamut of Life! that you feel would be beneficial to a friend, family member or co-worker, all you have to do is forward this link, https://, to that person through email.

We welcome your feedback about the contents of this journal and encourage you to submit topics that are of interest to:

We are committed to our mission of providing education and training for health, fitness, physical education and recreation professionals across the GAMUT of life! Have a question? Want more information on a specific topic? Ask the Experts

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Be knowledgeable! Be successful!


Pete Bazzel Editor-in-Chief 800.957.7348

GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

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INSIDE THIS ISSUE Can Vegan Athletes Become Elite Athletes?


What Is Functional Anatomy?


Staying Healthy While You Get Fit: A New Perspective


Nutrition article by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD

Training Guidelines and Programs article by Justin Price, MA, CPT Across the Gamut article by Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS

Ask the Experts 159




Health and Wellness Across the Gamut of LIFE! is published by the American Academy of Health and Fitness, LLC located in Springfield, Virginia 22153. Copyright 2018-19.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

Can Vegan Athletes Become Elite Athletes? by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), who has a private practice in the Boston area (Newton) where she counsels both casual exercisers and competitive athletes and is author of Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook. Contact info

Fact or Fiction: The vegan diet is unlikely to support optimal performance in athletes? Fiction! No evidence suggests a nutritionally balanced vegan diet impairs athletic performance (1,2). Google vegan athletes; you’ll find an impressive list of Olympians and elite athletes from many sports (football, basketball, tennis, rowing, etc.). That said, vegans (and vegetarians) could choose a diet that helps them be powerful athletes, but do they?

eating athlete swaps beef for beans and other plantproteins (hummus, quinoa, nuts, tofu, etc.), the swap commonly reduces leucine intake by about 50%. Hence, vegan athletes need to pay attention to getting enough high-quality plant-proteins that offer the optimal amount of leucine (about 2.5 grams per meal or snack). That means, vegans want to consistently enjoy soy, beans, legumes, seeds and/or nuts regularly at every meal and snack. Don’t have just oatmeal for breakfast; add soy milk and walnuts. Don’t snack on just an apple; slather apple slices with peanut butter. Enjoy it with a swig of soy or pea milk instead of almond milk.

Some vegans eat too many salads, sweet potatoes and berries (or chips and candy), but not enough beans, nuts and seeds. They eliminate animal protein but fail to replace it with enough plant protein. Weight-conscious vegan athletes who restrict calories often reduce their intake of protein and other nutrients. Hence, dieting vegan athletes need to be extra vigilant to consume a menu supportive of their needs.

This table compares the leucine content of plant and animal foods. Note that when you swap animalbased protein for plant-based protein (such as trading eggs for peanut butter, or dairy milk for soy milk), you’ll likely need to eat more calories of plant-foods to get the same amount of leucine as in animal foods:

Two keys to thriving on a balanced vegan (and vegetarian) sports diet are to consume: 1) adequate vitamins and minerals (in particular, iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamins D and B-12), as well as omega-3 fats; and

Animal food

Eggs, 2 large Milk, 8 oz Tuna, 5-oz can Chicken, 3 oz cooked Cheese, 1 oz Beef, 5 oz ckd Plant food (swap) Peanut butter, 2 Tb Soymilk, low fat Black beans, 1/2 c Tofu, extra firm, 6 oz Almonds, 3/4 oz. Lentils, 1 cup

2) adequate protein from a variety of plant foods that offer a variety of amino acids (the building blocks of protein).

The amino acid leucine is of particular importance for athletes. Leucine is an essential amino acid your body cannot make, so you need to get it from food. Leucine triggers muscles to grow. It also can help prevent the deterioration of muscle with age. When you lift weights, you stimulate the muscles to take up leucine (and other amino acids); this triggers muscular growth. Hence, leucine is a very important component of an athlete’s diet! The richest sources of leucine are animal foods such as eggs, milk, fish and meats. When a meat-

Leucine (g) 1.1 1.0 2.3 2.1 0.6 3.8 Leucine (g) 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.4 0.3 1.3

Calories 155 120 120 150 115 265 Calories 190 105 110 140 120 225

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

NUTRITION How much protein and leucine do you need?

reduction diet for most athletes, both male and female) that offers adequate protein at every meal -but not always 2.5 grams leucine. To be a dieting vegan athlete requires some menu planning. Some dieters choose to be “mostly vegan.” This flexibility allows for leucine-rich milk, eggs & fish.

A 150-pound vegan athlete who seriously wants to build muscle should plan to eat about 20 grams of protein with 2.5 grams leucine every 3-4 hours during the day. (If you weigh more or less than 150 pounds, adjust that target accordingly.) Here’s a sample 1,800-calorie vegan diet (read that, weight Sample 1,800 calorie Vegan Diet

B: 2 slices whole wheat toast 2 tablespoons peanut butter 1 cup soy milk Sn: 1 medium apple L: Salad: greens plus vegetables 1/2 cup chickpeas 1/4 cup sunflower seeds 1 tablespoon oil Sn: 1/3 cup hummus 10 baby carrots D: 1/3 cake tofu 1 cup cooked brown rice 2 cups broccoli Total for the day: Target for the day:



2.5 g /meal


0.5 g 0.5 0.5 trace 0.3 0.8 0.9 -0.2 trace 1.1 0.4 0.5 10

Note: I have not included fake meats such as the Impossible Burger or Beyond Burger in this menu. Those are ultra-processed foods that have a questionable place in any diet. I have also not included almond milk (a poor source of protein) nor supplements with leucine. You want to choose whole foods; they come with a matrix of nutrients that boost protein synthesis and can better invest in your health, recovery and overall well-being.

10. g 8 7 0.5 4 6 12 -3 0.5 12 6 7 76


200 200 100 100 50 100 350 100 100 50 100 250 100 1,800


Nancy Clark, MS, RD counsels both casual and competitive athletes at her Boston-area office (617795-1875). The new 2019 edition of her bestselling Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook is available at, as is information about her popular online workshop.


Contact Nancy at

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What Is Functional Anatomy? by Justin Price, MA, CPT, the creator of The BioMechanics Method® - the world’s fastest growing corrective exercise education program for health and fitness professionals. Contact info

Most textbooks on traditional anatomy tell us that 'Muscle A' goes from 'Bone 1' to 'Bone 2', and when it contracts it pulls these two bones together. For example, a text of this type might explain that the quadriceps muscles of the leg are responsible for shortening or contracting to straighten the knee (Golding & Golding, 2003). That is why people perform the leg extension exercise to strengthen the quadriceps, and this would seem like a valid rationale for doing this exercise. However, in real life muscles function very differently and need to be exercised as such. So, “What is functional anatomy and how do muscles work when we move?” Additionally, what can you do to design better exercise programs to strengthen muscles more effectively?

Looking at the quadriceps for example, the lengthening of these muscles when we squat stores energy to then help contract these muscles to straighten the knee and extend the hips to stand us back upright again.

Functional Anatomy in a Nutshell

An overlooked real-life function (i.e., functional anatomy) of most muscles is to lengthen effectively in order to slow down parts of our body as they move. In order to better appreciate how our muscles work in this way visualize a person who is attached by their feet to the end of a bungee cord as they jump off a bridge. If the bungee cord gets the right amount of tension on it as the person nears the ground, then they will be saved from smashing into the earth. However, if the bungee cord doesn't pull tight at the right time, the person will impact the ground with dire consequences. The muscles of our body act in a similar way. When our muscles work as 'bungee cords' they help protect our body (especially the joints) from excessive stress by pulling tight at the right moment. For example, one of the real-life functions of the quadriceps muscles is to lengthen and slow down the knee and hips as they bend when we squat or lunge (see Figure 1) (Price and Bratcher, 2018).

Figure 1. Lengthening of the Quadriceps Muscles to Slow Knee and Hip Flexion Here is another example to help you understand the real-life function of the soleus muscle and how you might apply this new way of thinking about muscle function to design better exercises.

Functional Anatomy of the Soleus Muscle

Traditionally, we have been taught that the primary action of the soleus muscle is to push the foot down when the knee is bent (Kendall, et al. 2005). This is why seated calf raises are commonly recommended as an exercise to work the soleus muscle. However, in real-life the job of the soleus muscle (via the Achilles tendon) is to help slow down the ankle and knee as they bend. When a person is performing actions such as squatting, lunging, or going up stairs, the lower leg moves forward over the foot as the heel remains planted on the ground. This forward movement of the lower leg causes the Achilles tendon and soleus to elongate which helps load

In addition to controlling forces through the body, our body’s muscular bungee cord system also stores energy that can be used to create strong, powerful movements as this energy is released (i.e. when the muscle fibers contract). Just like when the bungee cord reaches its maximum stretch and pulls the person powerfully back up to where the bungee cord is anchored, our muscles contract powerfully to create and continue movement.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS the 'bungee cord' feature of these tissues and protect the ankle and knee from excessive stress (see Figure 2).

enable you to create effective exercises that build strength, improve function and eliminate pain.

As such, a more appropriate functional exercise for strengthening the soleus muscle would be deep squats where the ankle and knee are flexing together. This exercise would help train and strengthen the tissues of the lower leg to better absorb shock to the ankle and knee, and maximize the stored energy potential of the muscle to improve performance.

Bear in mind that most people will not be used to performing exercises that work muscles in primarily an eccentric (i.e. lengthening) fashion, and doing so can be surprisingly taxing to the muscles and joints. Therefore, before beginning or recommending any program of functional strengthening that includes exercises that place the muscles under a lengthening load, perform selfmyofascial and isolated stretching exercises to help prepare the tissues for these additional stressors. For example, before attempting the deep squat above, have clients massage and stretch their calf muscles and quadriceps muscles first (Price, 2018). Furthermore, if you suspect your client has an injury, it is recommended that you obtain clearance from a medical professional before facilitating any exercises or movements that place emphasis on the lengthening function of muscles. An understanding of the real-life function of muscles will help you design both corrective and performance enhancement exercise strategies that train muscles to react appropriately during real life movements. By progressively integrating these types of exercises into your clients' programs, they will reach their goals more easily and you will set yourself apart as an industry expert who understands the true nature of muscle function. To learn more about how muscles should work when we move check out the Understanding Muscles and Movement course (Module 2 of The BioMechanics Method Corrective Exercise Specialist program) available through AAHF.

Figure 2. Lengthening on the Soleus Muscle to Slow Ankle and Knee Flexion

A New Approach to Exercise Understanding anatomy in real-life terms and thinking about how muscles in the body work to slow down the forces of nature by lengthening like bungee cords will


Justin at

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Staying Healthy While You Get Fit: A New Perspective by Wayne L. Westcott, Ph.D., CSCS, who directs the Exercise Science and Fitness Research Programs at Quincy College, in Quincy, Massachusetts. He has authored 30 books on strength training and physical fitness. Contact info

My experiences as a participant and presenter at the annual American College of Sports Medicine World Congress on Exercise is Medicine meetings have enhanced my understanding of the fitness, health and medical benefits associated with both resistance exercise and aerobic activity. In addition to well-known adaptations in our muscular and cardiovascular systems, appropriate exercise reduces the risk of sarcopenia, osteopenia, metabolic rate reduction, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, low-back pain, arthritis, falls, cognitive decline, depression, many types of cancer, and allcause mortality (Bushman 2019, Pronk et al. 2019, Westcott 2012). I have always had the highest respect for medical professionals (doctors, nurses, therapists, etc.), but I have also considered properly designed exercise programs to be an important factor in preventive medicine. However, there is one area in which both medical professionals and fitness professionals can be more effective in reducing the risk of infectious diseases.

antimicrobial properties (Ibrahim et al. 2017). Whereas disinfectants have a relatively shortterm effect on common bacteria (approximately 20 minutes), copper alloys have been shown to destroy approximately 99 percent of MRSA bacteria over a 2-hour period, even with continuing applications of this resistant strain of bacteria over a 24-hour period (Michels and Michels 2016).

Hospital-Acquired Infections

In a large-scale study involving three major U.S. hospitals, copper components reduced the bacteria count by almost 85 percent compared to non-copper components on typical room touch surfaces, such as bed rails, call buttons, chair arms, tray tables and IV poles (Salgado et al. 2013). This same study found that patients in the rooms with these copper touch surfaces had an almost 60 percent lower rate of hospitalacquired infections than patients in rooms with standard (non-copper) touch surfaces. These are important findings, as on any given day, 1 in 25 United States hospital patients has at least one hospital-acquired infection, resulting in 75,000 deaths every year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2019).

Touch Surface Bacteria

Community-Acquired Infections

A pervasive problem in both healthcare facilities and fitness facilities is the plethora of bacteria that are present on touch surfaces (Michels and Michels 2016). While cleaning agents may offer a degree of temporary germ protection, copper alloys provide a high level of permanent germ reduction due to their

Research has also revealed a diversity of potentially pathogenic bacteria on a variety of touch surfaces in fitness centers, which poses risk of community-acquired infections for susceptible exercisers (Mukherjee et al. 2014). In a recent fitness center study (Ibrahim et al.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

ACROSS THE GAMUT 2017), standard resistance exercise equipment grip surfaces (e.g., dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells, lat pulldown attachments, and low row attachments) were made of either copper alloy or non-copper material (stainless steel or rubber coating). Over the 16-month study period, the copper alloy grip surfaces averaged almost 95 percent lower bacteria levels than the stainless steel and rubber coated grip surfaces, even though the exercisers continued to implement all of the standard antibacterial cleaning procedures (gels, wipes, and sprays). The researchers concluded that the use of copper alloy grip surfaces significantly reduces the bacterial burden on standard exercise equipment and may, therefore, mitigate the spread of community-acquired infections. The prevention of infectious diseases is particularly important due to the resistance of many bacterial strains (super bugs) to currently available antibiotics.

renders fitness facility germ-fighting procedures an important consideration.

Presently, best practices for facility and equipment cleanliness include the use of antibacterial soaps and disinfectant cleaning agents (spays and wipes). The most effective chemicals for destroying dangerous germs, such as MRSA, are ammonia-based quaternary compounds. However, these are impractical in most fitness facilities, as the wet chemicals must remain on the equipment for 5 to 10 minutes after spraying, and few members are likely to be this patient, especially during heavy-use times (Berg 2019).

An alternative approach and a more permanent solution to the problem of touch surface bacteria, is the incorporation of copper surfaces on exercise equipment. Antimicrobial copper is the only solid touch surface registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make public health claims. Consider that copper surfaces provide a nonchemical intervention that kills bacteria 24/7, does not wear out, does not adversely affect exercise equipment, is not harmful to humans, and destroys 99 percent of common bacteria and viruses (including MRSA and flu strains) on a continuing basis (Michels and MIchels 2016). The concept timeline from initial laboratory testing on the antimicrobial effects of copper alloys until the actual installation of copper touch surfaces in hospitals was almost 13 years. Based on the knowledge and experience

Fitness Center Equipment

As a comparison between standard exercise equipment and common items, the bacteria levels on exercise bike handles are 39 times higher than bacteria levels found on reusable cafeteria trays, and the bacteria levels on freeweight handles are 362 times higher than the bacteria levels found on toilet seats ( Approximately 70 percent of the bacteria that live on exercise equipment may be potentially harmful to humans, which

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ACROSS THE GAMUT gained over this time span, it would be prudent for fitness facilities to begin implementation of copper touch surfaces in the near future. While this could include a variety of contact surfaces such as water fountains, showers, sinks/ faucets, and locker handles, the most important touch surfaces for exercisers would logically be the grip areas on dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells, cable attachments, resistance equipment, and cardio equipment.

Exercise centers that place a high priority on all aspects of health and fitness (including germ control) will undoubtedly be viewed more positively by both present and potential members. Utilizing EPA approved antimicrobial copper touch surfaces wherever feasible is definitely an important factor in keeping exercisers healthy while they get fit. References

Presently, there is one exercise equipment company that offers EPA approved and patented antimicrobial copper touch surfaces on (otherwise) all steel dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells, and cable attachments. This company is Black Iron Strength ( Owner Tom Grace is a pioneer in developing precision and durable free-weights that have antimicrobial copper hand grips. If you are interested in providing your fitness program participants with exercise equipment and training facilities that have a reduced risk of infectious disease transmission, I suggest the following “best practices” for enhanced hygiene/sanitation:

Contact Wayne at

 EPA approved antimicrobial copper touch-

points on exercise equipment  Antibacterial soap in restrooms  Hand sanitizers throughout facility  Disinfectant wipes, cleansers, or sprays at resistance machines, cardio machines, free-weight equipment, stretching devices, and mat areas

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

Ask the Experts NAOMI AARONSON – MIND BODY Naomi Aaronson, MA OTR/L CHT CPI, is an occupational therapist, certified hand therapist, and mat Pilates instructor who believes in the power of exercise in recovery. Naomi’s articles have been featured in IDEA Fitness Journal, Occupational Therapy ADVANCE, and Women and Cancer magazines. She is the co-author of the continuing education courses Return to Life: Breast Cancer Recovery Using Pilates, Breast Cancer Recovery: On Land and In Water, and The Breast Cancer Recovery Exercise Program. Naomi offers live courses through Integrated Rehabilitation and Fitness.


Phil Alwitt is the founder and CEO of MyCore Health, Inc. and an expert in developing products to improve peoples' health and quality of life-from robotic exoskeletons to the CoreCoach pressure biofeedback device. As an entrepreneur and product developer Phil works with the industry's leading fitness and medical professionals to guide the success of the products he develops. Phil is the recipient of multiple patents, product design awards and, as an athlete with decades of chronic back pain, is the beneficiary of many of the products he develops.


Pete Bazzel, MS, CPT (ACE), is Partner and Editor-in-Chief for the American Academy of Health and Fitness (AAHF); served in the military, retiring as a Colonel; then led the Washington, D.C. regional growth of Town Sports International from 3 to 17 clubs. He co-created SrFit™ and JrFit™, 19-24 hour continuing education specialty certification courses focusing on mature adult and youth fitness respectively; and Move More, Eat Better - YOU Matter!™, a lifestyle change course for the general public. He is a World Tae Kwon Do Federation Black Belt.

MELISSA BAUMGARTNER – WELLNESS COUNSELING Melissa Baumgartner, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoach), is co-owner of Midwest Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company in the St. Louis area that specializes in worksite health promotion; and creator of LWC, a Lifestyle Wellness Coaching program. Melissa has worked in the health and fitness industry for 25 years, spending the last twelve as an educator, speaker and author. She has presented to thousands of people spreading her message on happiness and well-being.

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RANDALL BROAD – BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Randall Broad is an entrepreneur, business founder, and the guiding force behind several enterprises. After working in the aerospace industry, he moved to Hollywood to embrace his dream of being an actor, making commercials and being a leading man stunt double. In 1990, he founded Opal Enterprises, a marketing services company. A cancer survivor, he now takes the stage professionally to share his lessons on living a work/life balanced existence. In the book he co-authored, It's an Extraordinary Life, he has chronicled his experiences and adventures for future generations to learn from and enjoy.


Bradley J. Cardinal, Ph.D., is a Full Professor in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. In 2009 he received the university’s Elizabeth P. Ritchie Distinguished Professor award. He previously served on the faculties of Wayne State University (Detroit, MI) and Eastern Washington University (Cheney, WA). He is Fellow #475 of the National Academy of Kinesiology; a Fellow in the American College of Sports Medicine; a Fellow in the North American Society of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance Professionals; and a Fellow in the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.


John Paul Catanzaro, BSc Kin, CSEP-CEP is a Certified Exercise Physiologist with a Bachelor of Science degree in Kinesiology and Health Science. He owns and operates a private facility in Richmond Hill, Ontario providing training and nutritional consulting. John Paul has authored two books, The Elite Trainer (2011) and Mass Explosion (2013), and has released two DVDs, Stretching for Strengthening (2003) and Warm-Up to Strength Training (2005), which have sold copies worldwide, been featured in several magazines, and have been endorsed by many leading experts. In 2013, John Paul released two new webinars, Strength Training Parameters and Program Design and Body Composition Strategies.

SHARON CHAMBERLIN – PERSONAL TRAINING Sharon Chamberlin, BA, CPT (ACE), Fitness Nutrition Coach (NESTA), Lifestyle Fitness Coach (Spencer Institute), owns Catalyst 4 Fitness, a personal training company offering online fitness and nutrition coaching, boot camp classes, traditional fitness training, and fitness consulting. Her success with clients, both in the gym and online, is based on her pragmatic philosophy and realistic attitude. Back to Table of Contents

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Ask the Experts MARCI CLARK – PILATES Marci Clark, MA, CPT, GFI, is an international fitness and wellness programming presenter with over 20 years experience in the fitness industry, specializing in Pilates exercise. She is the creator of the Foundational Pilates program and owner of Marci Clark Wellness Centers. Marci is widely published in the areas of Pilates, fitness programming and business and consults in the areas of group fitness, programming and business planning.


Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), counsels both casual and competitive athletes in her private practice in the Boston-area (Newton). The 6th edition (2019) of her best selling Sports Nutrition Guidebook, as well as teaching materials, are available at For her online workshop, see


Casey Conrad, BA, JD, President of Communication Consultants WBS, Inc., has been in the health and fitness industry for 26 years. In addition to authoring “Selling Fitness: The Complete Guide to Selling Health Club Memberships,” she has created and published over 25 other sales, marketing and management training products for the industry. She has spoken in 19 countries, is a feature presenter at conventions and trade shows worldwide and writes monthly for numerous international magazines.

ERICA N. CONRAD – EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE Erica N. Conrad is a student majoring in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. She worked for a running store where she sold running shoes to customers and gained interest in both gait mechanics and barefoot running. Her goal for this paper is to inform people of the advantages and disadvantages of shod, barefoot, and minimalist running. Erica plans on enrolling in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program for a career working as a Physical Therapist and hopes this paper will help prevent future injuries or complications for people.

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CATHERINE CRAM – PRE- AND POSTNATAL FITNESS Catherine Cram, MS, is the owner of Comprehensive Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company that specializes in providing pre- and postnatal fitness continuing education certifications and information to health and fitness professionals. Catherine is co-author of the 2012-revised edition of “Exercising Through Your Pregnancy” with Dr. James Clapp. She is the author of “Fit Pregnancy for Dummies” (Wiley Publishing, 2004) and contributing author of “Women’s Health Care in Physical Therapy” (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009). She was appointed to serve as the International Childbirth Education Association Perinatal Fitness Subgroup Chair in 2013.


Cammy Dennis, BS, CPT (ACE and AFAA), is Fitness Director for On Top of the World Communities Inc., a 55-plus adult community and The Ranch Fitness Center and Spa. Her 20 years experience in the fitness industry includes group exercise instruction, personal training, lifestyle coaching and program management. Her specialty is curriculum development for youth and senior fitness. She co-authored Kids In Motion and numerous articles on youth and senior fitness for Asiafit, SCW Fitness Education and ICAA.

BETHANY DIAMOND – WATER FITNESS Bethany Diamond, CPT (ACE, AFAA and NASM), is founder of Ovarian Cycle, Inc. and an Ironman triathlete. She is also a PowerBar R team elite athlete and a Scwhinn Cycling master trainer. Bethany has published articles for IDEA, has DVDs produced by Healthy Learning and is a contributor to the IDEA Water Fitness Committee. She has worked with fitness professionals, nationally and internationally, sharing with them her philosophy of safe, effective exercise that is fun and results driven.


Ion Doaga is the creator of and a contributing author for Massage Dreams that features articles on alternative therapies, massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, health and fitness, motivation and inspiration. He is Second Degree Black Belt in Karate Ion believes that exercising, healthy nutrition and alternative medicine is what the human body needs to heal itself and be strong. He is growing a community on his site where he promotes a preventive care lifestyle. Ion lives in Chisinau, Moldova and speaks three languages: Romanian, Russian and English.

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Ask the Experts SALLY EDWARDS – HEART RATE TRAINING Sally Edwards, MA, MBA, is a leading expert in business, exercise science and lifestyle living. She created the Heart Zones Training proprietary and branded training system. Sally is a best-selling author and sought after professional speaker with 23 books and 500 articles on health and fitness, including Heart Rate Monitor Guidebook and The Complete Book of Triathlons. She is a 16-time Ironman finisher, a member of the Triathlon Hall of Fame, and Western States 100 Mile Endurance Run winner. She is the founder and CEO of Heart Zones USA, the training, education, health club programming, and coaching company.

MATT FENCL – EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Matt Fencl, Ed.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Health and Human Performance at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. He possesses Exercise Physiology and Exercise in Medicine - Level II certifications from the American College of Sports Medicine and his research interests include personal fitness, adventure education and outdoor pursuits, and physical education pedagogy. He has previously published articles in Physical Educator and the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (JOPERD).

JENNIFER GREEN – INCLUSIVE FITNESS Jennifer Green, BS in Health Fitness and Rehabilitative and Preventative Programs, MS in Clinical Exercise Physiology, is an Information Specialist at NCPAD in the Department of Disability and Human Development at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Jennifer creates and provides fact/ information sheets and videos focused on inclusion: adapting physical activity training and programs, making fitness centers more inclusive, etc. She is the author of the monthly NCPAD News column “The training corner,” written for fitness professionals who work with individuals with various disabilities and chronic conditions.

TRACEY HARVEY – MATURE FITNESS Tracey Harvey, BS, SPINNING® Instructor, USTA Tennis player, has three decades of experience in the Health and Fitness Industry, currently specializing in managing wellness not illness in older adults; working with Independent Retirement Living Communities. Her background of packaging education with products for the commercial and consumer fitness markets is credited with introducing SPINNING around the globe. Tracey is also a published “Senior Living and Lifestyle” author and an International Council of Active Aging (ICAA) Presenter.

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SHERRI HORNER – MEET THE EXPERT Sherri Horner is a radio talk show host, fitness professional, motivational speaker and writer. She is a yoga teacher, and an AFAA certified personal trainer and group fitness instructor. She is trained in Tae Kwon Do and has received specialty training from Empower Training Systems, Yogafit and Silver Sneakers. Her column has been published in a Philadelphia Christian Bodybuilding Magazine and Delaware and New Jersey wellness magazines. She is the founder and president of Health Fitness Broadcast. Since 2004 her interviews with leading experts have resulted in a treasure chest of information.


Karsten Jensen, MS Exercise Physiology, CPT (CPTN), is a high performance trainer and an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He has trained World Class and Olympic Athletes from 13 different sports since 1993, many winning European Championships and World Championships and Association of Tennis Professionals Tournaments. Karsten is an international speaker, author of several books (most recently The Flexible Periodization Method) and is an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He also shares “Insider Principles of World Class Strength and Conditioning Methods” through his web site.


Jenny D. Johnson, MS, CPT (NASM), began her higher education career at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro where she was a women’s volleyball NCAA Division I scholarship student athlete, earning a degree in Leisure Service Management. After a ten-year stent of career and family building, Jenny returned to California University of Pennsylvania to obtain her MS in Exercise Science and Health Promotion. She is currently completing a doctorate in education from Northcentral University. She is an Assistant Professor at American Public University System in the Sports and Health Sciences and Sport Management Department.

TIM KEIGHTLEY – THE BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Tim Keightley is V.P. of Fitness for Golds Gym International. He is also an international presenter and motivational speaker. Since teaching his first class in 1983, he has experienced life as an Officer in the British Royal Marines, a Professional Golfer, a ‘Stuntman’, a personal trainer to a Boxing World Heavy Weight Champion, built the largest personal training business in Europe and was V. P. of Fitness for Town Sports International. Tim believes that part of our secret to success is to learn how to have FUN in all that we do, build on our PASSION and show others how PROUD we are of what we can do for them.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

Ask the Experts PEGGY KRAUS – CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION AND NUTRITION Peggy Kraus, MA, ACSM RCEP, NET, is a clinical exercise physiologist in cardiopulmonary rehab as well as a nutritional education trainer at Wellness Foundation where she teaches others about the benefits of following a plant-strong diet and committing to regular exercise. She is a frequent contributor to IDEA Fitness Journal and to and has been published in AFAA American Fitness and other health fitness magazines. She believes strongly that frailty and disease have become an acceptable part of life, but both are avoidable when you exercise and eat right.


Tammy LeBoss, BA, CPT (NAFC), Pilates Coach, NAFC Nutrition Coach, Pilates Post-Rehab and various yoga modalities certified, has been involved in the health and fitness industry for over 17 years. In 1997, Tammy gave her corporate job the boot and moved to San Diego where she struggled to make ends meet as a personal trainer. She has since learned about the many pitfalls of doing so and how to avoid them. She has served as head of the nutrition department for various health clubs and also helped build several successful health clubs from the ground up. Her publications have been featured by the National Association for Fitness Certification and Sports Nutrition Supplement Guide.


Susan Lee, MPE, MA, CPT (CPTN), President of the Certified Professional Trainers Network (CPTN) works with leaders and partners to offer education, certification, leadership and advocacy for personal trainers and fitness professionals. Concurrently, Susan develops co-curricular diversity and equity programs for the Faculty of Physical Education and Health at the University of Toronto in Canada.

RITA LA ROSA LOUD – TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Rita La Rosa Loud, B.S., CPT (AFAA) is an author and Adjunct Professor at Quincy College. She recently co-authored with Wayne Westcott the book No More Cellulite. She self-published the booklet W.O.W. Workout at Work; contributed a chapter in The Belly Melt Diet, a book from the editors of Prevention; developed the Nautilus At-Machine Stretching Expressway Program; and has been recognized for her innovative stretching concept by Shape Magazine. She is a recipient of the distinguished Honor Award and Outstanding Fitness Professional Award from the Mass. Assoc. of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance; plus the Nova 7 Award for exercise programming from Fitness Management magazine.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

JENNIFER MANNING – INJURY PREVENTION Jennifer Manning, DPT, OCS, CPT (NSCA CSCS), was inspired to be a physical therapist after suffering an ACL tear in high school. She is the creator of, a website focused on injury prevention and exercise education. She has had the pleasure to work with people of all ages and talents. Her latest clients include football players preparing for the NFL, a fighter in the UFC and Level 10 gymnasts in the United States and Canada. Jennifer is currently practicing physical therapy at Breakthrough Physical Therapy in Irvine California.

GREG MAURER – BUSINESS, MARKETING, TECHNOLOGY AND PROGRAM INTEGRATION, AND PERSONAL TRAINING Greg Maurer, BS Exercise Physiology, CPT (ACE and NASM), is an Associate Partner with New Paradigm Partners health club consulting firm. Greg is also a fitness consultant for several emerging technologies in the fitness/wellness/medical industries, including bioDensity Strength Technology, Power Plate Whole Body Vibration and reACT – Rapid Eccentric Anaerobic Core Trainer, and Bulgarian Bag (


James McPartland, former President of Star Trac Fitness, Author, International Speaker, TV/Radio Host, and ‘Wellness Ambassador’ focused on developing the Human Potential within business. His present endeavor at The JMac Performance Group has allowed him to further play a leadership role in the health & fitness industry for now more than twenty years. Much of his current business advisory and speaking activity demonstrates a philosophy called Crosstraining for Life™, focusing on uncovering the potential that lies within a company by developing the potential of the people employed inside the business.


Carol Michaels, MBA, CPT (ACSM, ACE), is the founder of Recovery Fitness®, a cancer exercise program. Her new book, Exercises for Cancer Survivors, is a fantastic resource for anyone undergoing cancer surgery or treatments. Carol also developed and produced two DVD’s called Recovery Fitness Cancer Exercise-Simple Stretches and Recovery Fitness-Strength Training. She owns and operates Carol Michaels Fitness and Recovery Fitness and is a consultant, author, speaker, Pilates instructor, and cancer exercise specialist. She is on the advisory board for several cancer organizations, and has appeared on health related television and radio programs. The American Council on Exercise recognized Carol as a Trainer to Watch in 2011 and Personal Fitness Professional honored her as the 2012 PFP Trainer of the Year. Back to Table of Contents

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

Ask the Experts NICOLE NELSON - PERSONAL TRAINING Nicole Nelson, MS, LMT, holds a masters degree in Health Science from the University of North Florida. In addition to being a licensed massage therapist, she is also certified as an Advanced Health and Fitness Specialist through ACE. She has a full time massage and training practice in Ponte Vedra Beach, FL and has contributed articles to IDEA Fitness Journal and Massage magazine.

DORETTE NYSEWANDER – CORPORATE HEALTH, WELLNESS AND ANTI-AGE RESEARCH Dorette Nysewander, EdD, “DrD”, is Founder and President of D Group Consulting Services, Inc, a wellness education consulting company, facilitating initiatives worldwide. Committed to the health and well-being of all, she has been recognized in Sutton's Who’s Who in Elite Healthcare, Jacksonville Chamber 904 magazine as one of 75 Most Influential People In JAX Healthcare. Her articles have appeared in American Fitness, Jacksonville Business Journal, Liberation Wellness, several local publications, national fitness organizations and corporate industries. Contact her: 904-859-1425.


Gary L. Palmer, BSEd, CPT (NCSF), a free lance writer and fitness enthusiast, served in the Navy during the Vietnam War, earned a football scholarship as a walk-on at Ohio University, and went on to a successful 15-year teaching and coaching career. He also spent 26 productive years in the business world before transitioning to a full time writer. His first published book, Chagrin Falls, is a memoir. The theme is overcoming adversity as an abandoned, impoverished foster child growing up in a small Midwest town during the 1940’s and 1950’s. His latest health and fitness writing focuses on the need to speed up, not slow down, exercise and physical activity, as we age.


Lori Patterson, BA, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoaches) is the CEO of VicteliB, LLC, and the creator of successful fee based programming to include Boot Camp Challenge®, Baby Boomer Boot Camp Challenge® and Kids Kamp Challenge. Lori served in the US Army as well as 28 years in the fitness industry. You can reach Lori at or the website at

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

TAMMY J. PETERSEN – MATURE ADULT AND YOUTH HEALTH AND FITNESS Tammy Petersen, MSE, is the Founder and Managing Partner for the American Academy of Health and Fitness. She has written two books on adult fitness, SrFit™ and Functionally Fit™, and designed corresponding specialty certification training programs. She cocreated JrFit™, a specialty certification course focusing on youth strength training and nutrition and Move More, Eat Better— YOU Matter!™, a lifestyle change course. Her articles have appeared on PTontheNet; and in Club Business for Entrepreneurs, Personal Fitness Professional, Fitness Business Pro, American Fitness and OnSitefitness.


Lori Pine, MA, CPT (ACE) is the Programs Director at In Motion Fitness in Chico, California. She is an APEX certified Nutritional Counselor and a member of Power Bar’s Team Elite. She holds certifications and certificates in Youth Fitness, BOSU, TRX, Nordic Walking, Body Bar, Gliding, Kettlebell, GRAVITY, Drums Alive, and STRONG. Lori has 20+ years experience working with youth and adults in schools. She organizes events and charitable activities, including the “B.A.M.” fitness conference.

JOHN PLATERO – PERSONAL TRAINING John Platero, CPT, is a fitness educator who has consulted both nationally and internationally, most recently for the Royal family of Qatar. He is the Director of Education for the National Council for Certified Personal Trainers. He has obtained 35 personal training certifications, filmed over 30 fitness videos and infomercials has been published by most of the fitness magazines and is the author of “Yes You Can – Fitness After 40 – A New Beginning.” As an athlete, John was a champion bodybuilder who turned cyclist and has won 21 gold, two silver and two bronze medals in cycling in the Senior Olympics and the Master’s Pan American Games.

JUSTIN PRICE - CORRECTIVE EXERCISE Justin Price, MA, CPT (ACE), is the creator of The BioMechanics Method® Corrective Exercise Specialist (TBMM-CES) program, the fitness industry's highest-rated CES credential with trained professionals in over 60 countries. He is also the author of several books including The Bio-Mechanics Method for Corrective Exercise academic textbook, a former IDEA Personal Trainer of the Year, and a subject matter expert for The American Council on Exercise, PTA Global, PTontheNET, TRX, BOSU, Arthritis Today, BBC, Discovery Health, Los Angeles Times, Men's Health, MSNBC, New York Times, Newsweek, Time, Wall Street Journal, WebMD and Tennis.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

Ask the Experts KRISTEN PUHLMAN – NUTRITION Kristen Puhlman, RD, CPT (NASM and WITS), Spinning Certified (IFTA), is an Outpatient Diabetes Educator at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center; currently residing in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She has a BS in Nutrition and Food from Kent State University. She owns and operates Obliques, LLC; a personal training business specializing in core training, weight management and individualized nutritional planning. She is also the on staff Dietitian for Aspire Fitness Studios. Her experience in the hospital setting is in clinical nutrition with a primary focus on weight management and the psychology of weight loss.


Amy Rauworth, MS, RCEP, is the Associate Director of Operations and Exercise Physiology Research at the Center on Health Promotion Research for Persons with Disabilities (CHP). CHP is located at the University of Illinois at Chicago in the Depa2rtment of Disability and Human Development. She is a Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist with ACSM. Amy conducts Inclusive Fitness training nationally on behalf of the National Center on Physical Activity and Disability and specializes in accessible fitness center design.

TIM ROCHFORD – SELF DEFENSE Tim Rochford, MS in Exercise Science, BS in Sport Management has been in the fitness industry since 1984. His certifications include ACE Medical Fitness Specialist, ACE and NASM CPT, The Cooper Institute MPFS, IYCA Level 1 and AAHF Senior Fitness, plus he holds a 7th degree Black Belt in Kajukenbo/Kajukenpo Karate. Additionally, Tim is an adjunct instructor for Harper College in Palatine, Illinois. He is the founder of Empower Training Systems (a self defense and kickboxing fitness instructor training company). He is the co-author of the ACE Kickboxing Fitness Specialty Training manual. He has also designed and patented the P2 Force, a unique body weight and elastic resistance training apparatus that provides true multi-planar and multi-angle resistance training capabilities. www.empower‐

MARK ROOZEN – YOUTH STRENGTH AND SPORT CONDITIONING Mark Roozen, MEd, certified strength and conditioning coach (NSCA CSCS*D and CPT, and FNSCA), is Senior Content Editor for STACK Media which promotes safe training and sports enhancement and is Co-Director of the Performance Education Association. He has been in the strength, conditioning and performance field for over 28 years. Mark has worked with teams from the high school to the professional levels as a strength coach; performed as director of a hospital owned fitness and training facility, as well as owned his own training center; and, has worked with over 30,000 youth in sport camps across the country. He has presented, written and consulted worldwide.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

TARA SAREEN - WELLNESS COACHING Tara Sareen, BS, is a Institute For Integrative Nutrition Certified Health Coach in the Greater Boston area and founder of iCrave Coaching. Through a unique, intensive 6-month coaching partnership, Tara's clients lose weight, identify food sensitivities, discover ‘life after sugar’ and heal and reduce chronic conditions such as joint pain, skin irritations, headaches, fatigue, infections, anxiety and depression.


Cody Sipe, PhD, ACSM Certified Clinical Exercise Specialist, ACSM Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist, is an award-winning industry leader in fitness for older adults with over 17 years of experience. He serves on the editorial boards of IDEA and Active Aging Today and is an advisory member for Canadian Fitness Education Services, WholyFit, the National Posture Institute and the ICAA Visioning Board. Cody is a past recipient of the IDEA Program Director of the Year award. His blog provides innovative fitness and business information for professionals working with older adults.

BRIAN SOUZA – EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY AND NUTRITION Brian Souza, BS, ACSM-HFS, is the owner of Be Fit Personal Training, a company providing theoretically and evidence based exercise to a variety of populations. Brian has been in the personal training industry for 10 years. He is will obtain a Master’s degree in Sport and Exercise Psychology from Springfield College in May 2011 and then will continue his education in a Doctoral level Sport and Exercise Psychology program. His research interests include exercise psychology, applied sports psychology, sports and exercise nutrition, positive psychology, and youth sport. He competes as a recreational triathlete.


At the age of 18, Matthew B. Spanier was diagnosed with Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus. Due to his very active lifestyle he has been able to control the disease very well. He will graduate in June, 2013 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Exercise and Sport Science from Oregon State University. During his undergraduate studies he has interned and worked for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF). After graduation Matt will continue his education at Ohio University, where he will be pursuing a Master's degree in Clinical Exercise Physiology.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

Ask the Experts JIM STARSHAK – TAI CHI FOR HEALTH Jim Starshak, MS, NSCA-CPT, IDEA Elite PFT is the Governing Board Chairman for the international Tai Chi for Health Institute, a Tai Chi for Health Master Trainer, an Exercise Science Adjunct Professor, and founder of The Home Gym, Inc. After 18+ years in US Special Forces (“Green Beret”), Jim is a disabled veteran who promotes tai chi internationally for its functional fitness and health benefits. He certifies Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi instructors and provides continuing education for Health & Fitness Professionals, Athletic Trainers, Physical & Occupational Therapists, and Nurses.


Derrick Sweet is best known as a popular corporate keynote speaker and author of three highly celebrated books: Healthy Wealthy and Wise, Get The Most Out Of Life, and You Don't Have to Die to Go to Heaven. He is the creator of the Hypnolinguistics Course: Derrick is also the Chairman and Founder of the Certified Coaches Federation. Derrick created the coaching model that is the foundation of the Certified Coaches Federation's Certified Coach Practitioner Training and Development Program. For more information on the Certified Coaches Federation please visit:


Kelly Ward, MS in Therapeutic Aging, CPT (AFAA and SFA), author of “The Complete Guide to Fall Prevention: Everything You Need to Know to Remain Independent,” is a certified FallProof™ balance and mobility specialist who has been teaching fall prevention classes for six years and has worked with older adults for over 15 years. Kelly’s mission is to educate and facilitate the adaptation of a reduced fall risk lifestyle. She presents easily understandable evidence-based research, applying this knowledge to daily life situations, and offers train-the-trainer programs. For more information on Kelly’s comprehensive fall prevention services or to order her book, see


Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS, directs the Quincy College Fitness Research Programs. He has been a strength training consultant for the US Navy, ACE, the YMCA of the USA and Nautilus. He is an editorial advisor for numerous publications, including The Physician and Sportsmedicine, ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, Prevention, Shape, and OnSitefitness; and has authored 24 books on strength training. He serves on the International Council on Active Aging Board of Advisors and ACSM’s New England Chapter.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

WENDY A. WILLIAMSON - POST REHABILITATION SPECIALIST Wendy A. Williamson, PhD, ACE – CPT & CMES; NASM – CPT & CES; CFAS is nationally recognized as a leading educator, writer, and author. She has owned Williamson Wellness Center for over five years and has been in the fitness industry for over 20 years training, and speaking nationally, regionally and locally. She specializes in orthopedic conditions, neurological diseases, and serves as adjunct lecturer for Wichita State University with the Physician Assistant and Physical Therapy departments. Dr. Williamson also supervises exercise science interns from the Exercise Science Department. Her research focus has been with Parkinson Disease and Exercise.


Michael Wozniak BS, CPT, is the manager of the hospital‐related fitness center at Harbor Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He has 13 years experience in the fitness industry working with clients ranging from youth athletes to seniors and special populations. He has a Bachelors degree in Sport Psychology and is an ACE Certified Personal Trainer.


Rose Zahnn, CPT (ACE), GFI (AFAA), E‐RYT200 (Yoga Alliance), is the founder and owner of Healthy Habits Fitness‐Yoga‐Pilates Studios, creator of PilatesFit and the Learn to Be Lean Program, and is a Master Trainer for YogaFit International, Flirty Girl Fitness, and Balletone. A UCLA graduate and a fitness professional for over 20 years, Rose teaches at Healthy Habits in Sacramento, California; presents at conferences, leading teacher trainings and workshops; and is a continuing education provider for ACE and AFAA.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

References Can Vegan Athletes Become Elite Athletes? For additional information about a vegan sports diet:

1) Wirnitzer, K. et al. 2018. Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores-Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2). Nutrients 11(1):29 doi: 10.3390/nu11010029 (Free access) 2) Rogerson, D. 2017. Vegan diets: Practical advice for athletes and exercisers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 14: 36 doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0192-9 (Free access)

Staying Healthy While You Get Fit: A New Perspective Berg A. How to clean your high-end fitness equipment. 2019.

Bushman B. Physical activity guidelines for Americans. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal. 2019; 23(3): 59.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019. dpk-hai.html Examining gym cleanliness. 2019.

Ibrahim Z., et al. Reduction of bacterial burden by copper alloys on high-touch athletic center surfaces. American Journal of Infectious Control. 2017.

Michels H. and Michels C. Copper alloys - the new ‘old’ weapon in the fight against infectious disease. Current Trends in Microbiology. 2016:10:23-45.

Mukherjee N., et al. Diversity of bacterial communities of fitness center surfaces in a U.S. metropolitan area. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014 Dec: 11(12): 12544-61. Pronk N., et al. The 2018 physical activity guidelines for Americans. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal. 2019; 23(3): 38-41.

Salgado C., et al. Copper surfaces reduce the rate of healthcare-acquired infections in the intensive care unit. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology. 2013:34:479-86.

Westcott W. Resistance training is medicine: Effects of strength training on health. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2012: 11(4): 209-216. Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

What Is Functional Anatomy? Golding, L.A. & Golding, S.M. 2003. Fitness Professional’s Guide to Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Human Movement. Monterey, CA: Healthy Learning.

Kendall, F.P. et al. 2005. Muscles Testing and Function with Posture and Pain (5th ed.). Baltimore, MD.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Price, J., and M. Bratcher. 2018. The BioMechanics Method Corrective Exercise Specialist Certification Program. 2nd Ed. San Diego, CA: The BioMechanics Press. Price, J. 2018. The BioMechanics Method for Corrective Exercise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

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GAMUT, Issue 68, Oct/Nov 2019

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Gamut Issue 68 - Oct/Nov 2019  

Is personal training your passion? Does training others align with your talents? Is there an emotional connection? Are you curious and open-...

Gamut Issue 68 - Oct/Nov 2019  

Is personal training your passion? Does training others align with your talents? Is there an emotional connection? Are you curious and open-...

Profile for gamut9