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Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019


The resource for health, fitness, coaching, physical education, & recreation professionals.


by Nancy Clark

Training Guidelines by Matt Fencl

Training Guidelines by Wayne Westcott

Create a niche. KNOW. TRAIN. RETAIN.

FROM THE EDITOR “All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.” Galileo Galilei February 15, 1564 - January 8, 1642 Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer

“Knowledge without education is but armed injustice.” Horace BC 65-8 Latin lyric poet “A wise man can learn more from a foolish question than a fool can learn from a wise answer.” Bruce Lee November 27, 1940 - July 20, 1973 Actor, director, martial artist, martial arts instructor and philosopher The weather seems unrelenting - hot, hot, hot! I imagine that the debate over the truth about global warming has “heated up.” With that thought, I'll quickly move on to the theme underlying this issue of the Gamut: With whatever you do, always seek the truth through the summation of formal education, informal education and experience. Be wary. Question and discover the truth, which leads us to the introduction of this month’s articles. Nancy Clark takes on and busts six sports nutrition myths. Wayne Westcott’s research points us in the direction of less is more for attracting and retaining new fitness participants. And, Matthew Fencl’s article presents an insightful perspective on cross-training being “a model for physical fitness within the human genome.”

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

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INSIDE THIS ISSUE Sports Nutrition Myths: Busted!


Primitive Physical Activity Patterns: Exercise Like Our Ancient Ancestors


Nutrition article by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD

Training Guidelines and Programs article by Matthew Fencl, Ed.D.

Strength Training for New Members; What They Want and How It Works


Ask the Experts 159




Training Guidelines and Programs article by Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS and Rita La Rosa Loud, BS, CPT (AFAA)

Health and Wellness Across the Gamut of LIFE! is published by the American Academy of Health and Fitness, LLC located in Springfield, Virginia 22153. Copyright 2018-19.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Sports Nutrition Myths: Busted! by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), who has a private practice in the Boston area (Newton) where she counsels both casual exercisers and competitive athletes and is author of Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook. Contact info

the ease of over-eating while lounging around and watching TV. When your brain is tired from having made endless decisions all day, you can easily decide to eat more food than required.

Keeping up with the latest science-based sports nutrition recommendations is a challenge. We are constantly bombarded with media messages touting the next miracle sports food or supplement that will enhance athletic performance, promote fat loss, build muscle, and help you be a super-athlete. At this year’s Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (, a sports nutrition myth-busters session sponsored by the global network of Professionals In Nutrition for Exercise and Sport ( featured experts who resolved confusion with science-based research.

That said, bedtime carbohydrates to refuel depleted muscles and bedtime protein to build and repair muscles can optimize recovery after a day of hard training or competing. For body builders and others who want to optimize muscle growth, eating about 40 grams of protein before bed provides an extended flow of amino acids needed to build muscle. (This bedtime snack has not been linked with fat gain.) Cottage cheese, anyone?

MYTH: Protein supplements build bigger muscles.

MYTH: A gluten-free diet cures athletes’ gut problems.

Protein needs for a 150-pound (68 kg) athlete averages about 110 to 150 grams of protein per day. (More precisely, 0.7 to 1.0 g pro/lb. body weight/day; 1.6 to 2.2 g pro/kg./day) Hungry athletes can easily consume this amount from standard meals. Yet, many athletes believe they need extra protein. They consume protein shakes and bars in addition to protein-laden meals. They are unlikely to see any additional benefits from this higher-than-needed protein intake. Resistance exercise is a far more potent way to increase muscle size and strength than any protein supplement.

If you have celiac disease (as verified by blood tests), your gut will indeed feel better if you avoid wheat and other gluten-containing foods. However, very few gut issues for non-celiac athletes are related to gluten. FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols) are often the culprit. These are types of hard-for-some-peopleto-digest carbohydrates found in commonly eaten foods such as wheat, apples, onion, garlic, and milk. For example, the di-saccharide lactose (a kind of sugar found in milk) creates gut turmoil in people who are lactose intolerant. The poorly digested and absorbed lactose creates gas, bloat and, diarrhea. For certain athletes, a low FODMAP diet two or three days before a competition or long training session can help curb intestinal distress. If you live in fear of undesired pit stops, a consultation with your sports dietitian to learn more about a shortterm FODMAP reduction diet is worth considering.

MYTH: Eating just before bedtime makes an athlete fat.

While it is true the body responds differently to the same meal eaten at 9:00 a.m., 5:00 pm, or 1:00 a.m.; an athlete will not “get fat” by eating at night. The main problem with nighttime eating relates to

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

NUTRITION MYTH: Athletes should avoid caffeine because of its diuretic effect

If you do take creatine, drink enough water to prevent dehydration.)

With caffeinated beverages, the diuretic effect might be 1.2 ml. excess fluid lost per mg. of caffeine. That means, if you were to drink a small mug (7 oz./200 ml.) of coffee that contains 125 milligrams of caffeine, you might lose about 150 ml. water through excess urine loss. But you'd still have 50 ml. fluid to hydrate your body—and likely more if you drink coffee regularly. Athletes who regularly consume caffeine habituate and experience less of a diuretic effect. In general, most caffeinated beverages contribute to a positive fluid balance. Avoiding them on the basis of their caffeine content is not justified.

MYTH: The vegan diet fails to support optimal performance in athletes.

Without a doubt, vegan athletes can—and do— excel in sport. Just Google vegan athletes and you’ll find an impressive list that includes Olympians and professional athletes from many sports (including football, basketball, tennis, rowing, snowboarding, running, soccer, plus more). The key to consuming an effective vegan sports diet is to include adequate leucine, the essential amino acid that triggers muscles to grow. The richest sources of leucine are found in animal foods, such as eggs, dairy, fish, and meats. If you swap animal proteins for plant proteins, you reduce your leucine intake by about 50%. For athletes, consuming 2.5 grams of leucine every 3 to 4 hours during the day optimizes muscular development. This means vegan athletes need to eat adequate nuts, soy foods, lentils, beans and other plant proteins regularly at every meal and snack.

MYTH: Athletes should be wary of creatine because it is bad for kidneys.

Creatine is sometimes used by athletes who want to bulk up. It allows muscles to recover faster from, let's say, lifting weights, so the athlete can do more reps and gain strength. A review of 21 studies that assessed kidney function with creatine doses ranging from 2 to 30 grams a day for up to five and a half years indicates creatine is safe for young healthy athletes as well as for elderly people. Even the most recent studies using sophisticated methods to assess renal function support creatine supplements as being well tolerated and not related to kidney dysfunction. (Cautionary Note: Creatine is not recommended for people with kidney or liver disease, or diabetes. Others who should avoid taking it are children under age 18 and women who are pregnant or nursing. Also, do not use creatine if you are taking any medication or supplement that could affect your blood sugar, because creatine may also affect blood sugar levels.

Most athletes can consume adequate leucine, but some don’t because they skip meals and fail to plan a balanced vegan menu. Vegan athletes who are restricting food intake to lose undesired body fat need to be particularly vigilant to consume an effective sports diet. Plan ahead! Contact Nancy at

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Primitive Physical Activity Patterns: Exercise Like Our Ancient Ancestors by Matt Fencl, Ed.D., an associate professor in the Dept. of Health and Human Performance at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. He possesses Exercise Physiology and Exercise in Medicine - Level II certifications from the American College of Sports Medicine. Contact info


capabilities for exercise and bodily needs essentially remain unchanged from our huntergatherer ancestors (O’Keefe et al., 2011). Thus, due to the combined factors of increased availability to readily-available foods and the decreased need for sustained effort to hunt and gather food, in recent generations our total caloric intake has been provided the opportunity to increase while the need for ongoing daily physical activity has afforded the opportunity to decrease. Despite these relatively recent societal changes, the human genome has not undergone any significant biological changes. Therefore, the hunter-gatherer nutrition and physical activity regimens appear to be logical to mimic when formulating nutritional and exercise programs for our current generations (O’Keefe, Vogel, Lavie, & Cordain, 2010).

Much attention has been placed on the health benefits of the Paleo Diet in recent years. The premise of this nutritional trend is that much of the obesity pandemic and increase in metabolic disease-related conditions in industrialized cultures is due to a combination of poor nutrition via processed, unhealthy foods and the decrease of sustained physical activity patterning in a reduced labor-intensive society. While the Paleo Diet itself has become a colossal health trend, having been the most searched diet-related term on Google in 2014 (Manheimer, van Zuuren, Fedorowicz, & Pijl, 2015), producing numerous cookbooks, diet plans, food products, and other marketable items; little attention has been placed on the physical activity patterns of our ancient hunter-gatherer ancestors and their physical activity patterns that allowed them to survive through generations of difficulty when the conveniences of readily-provided foods were not made available to them.

Changes in Physical Activity Patterns

Today’s society is sustainable due to readily available food and easy access to shelter and other primary needs without the necessity to exert significant physical demands on the body. However, this comes with substantial costs as our overfed and sedentary lifestyles bring with them disease, debility, and premature death. For hunter-gatherer people, a sedentary lifestyle was not an option. Daily physical activity was necessary for survival, and a variable nature of physical abilities were required. These people needed cardiovascular endurance to walk long distances to forage for produce or to track prey, sprint after prey within sight, and muscular strength and endurance to lift and carry slain animals back to their camps. They did not incorporate structured exercise into their daily life as we do today. However, in order to maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness, recent generations have needed to find ways to include structured physical activity into their daily

For most human existence - approximately 84,000 generations, the human genus, Homo, has needed to survive as hunter-gatherers. This method/ lifestyle of survival required significant daily energy expenditure for not only hunting and foraging activities but also for actions associated with obtaining drinkable water, making and maintaining clothing and shelters, social interaction, and others (O’Keefe, Vogel, Lavie, & Cordain, 2011). Now, technological advances, including those during the agricultural revolution (approximately 350 generations ago), the industrial revolution (approximately seven generations ago), and the digital age (two generations ago) have significantly decreased the requirement of daily physical activity needed for the basic purpose of survival. Regardless, our

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS lifestyles. While many of us lack the time and motivation to maintain similar overall activity levels of our ancient ancestors, a structured crosstraining exercise plan can allow us to simulate many of the movement patterns of our huntergatherer ancestors.

1. A large amount of daily light-to-moderate activity such as walking, housework, or yard work, as daily energy expenditures of hunter-gatherer people averaged about 3-5 times more than today’s American adult. 2. Difficult days of activity followed by easier days to allow for ample time for rest and recovery.

Simulating Hunter-Gatherer Physical Activity Patterns

3. Walking and running on natural surfaces such as grass or dirt as man-made surfaces such as concrete and asphalt are not consistent with our genetic identity and may contribute to overuse injuries.

The premise of modern cross-training involves “training for more than one sport simultaneously, or training for several different components of fitness such as endurance, strength, and flexibility” (Grier, Canham-Chervak, Anderson, Bushman, & Jones, 2015) and serves as a model for physical fitness within the human genome. Certainly, today's modern technologies and conveniences don't require peak fitness and various physical abilities. However, regular participation in a modest crosstraining plan can unquestionably improve one's health and fitness and capacity to perform daily tasks.

4. Interval training sessions (intervening bursts of moderate- to high-intensity exercise with lighter periods of rest and recovery) to be performed 12 times per week. 5. Regular sessions of strength training and flexibility exercises 2-3 times per week for 20-30 minutes per session for optimal general and musculoskeletal health and fitness. 6. Performing as much exercise as possible outdoors in the natural environment.

As research indicates that long sessions (lasting more than a few hours) of high-intensity exercise can be detrimental to one’s health in the form of myocardial damage and injuries to joints and muscles (Jassal et al., 2009), the modes and intensities of exercises for which our genome has adapted over thousands of generations include “a variety of activities performed intermittently, at moderate intensities, for moderate durations” (O’Keefe et al., 2011). Natural selection of the human genome has shaped the body to perform whatever physical tasks necessary to survive in the wild. With this in mind, the following is a summary of eight characteristics of a hunter-gatherer fitness program originally identified by O’Keefe et al. (2010):

7. Performing much of the exercise in social settings, as our ancient ancestors primarily hunted and foraged for food in small groups and exercise with partners has been shown to improve both adherence and mood. 8. Continuing a physically active lifestyle throughout one’s lifespan, as except for the very young and very old, most hunter-gatherer people were active most of their lives.

Sample Cross-training Plan

The following is a sample weekly template for a cross-training plan suited to simulate the physical activity patterns of our hunter-gatherer ancestors. General time frames are listed but could be altered.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019


Specific exercises within high-intensity interval workouts and functional strength training workouts would be chosen by the participant and/ or personal trainer based on the participant's current fitness level, experience, motivation, and health/injury concerns. Likewise, general intensity levels are provided but specific intensities (e.g. heart rate, speed, amount of weight lifted) are relative to the individual performing the activities. Monday Moderateintensity lower-body functional strength training session

20-30 min. light aerobic activity (e.g. brisk walk, easy swim)

Tuesday 40 min. highintensity interval workout

20-30 min. static/ dynamic flexibility session

Wednesday Light-intensity 20 min. trail walk/ run

All structured workouts should be supplemented with a large amount of daily light-to-moderate activity such as walking, housework, playing with children, etc. When possible, exercise with others in social settings. Perform as much activity as possible outdoors on natural surfaces such as grass, dirt, or sand.

Thursday Moderateintensity upper-body functional strength training session

Friday Moderateintensity 30 min. trail run

20-30 min. light aerobic activity (e.g. brisk walk, easy swim)

Saturday Sunday 30 min. high- Rest/ intensity recovery interval workout 20-30 min. yoga session

References Contact Matt at

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Strength Training for New Members; What They Want and How It Works by Wayne Westchester, PhD, CSCS and Rita La Rosa Loud, BS, CPT (AFAA). Wayne is professor and chair of Exercise Science at Quincy College in Quincy, Massachusetts. He has authored 29 books on strength training. Contact info In 1992, the South Shore YMCA in Quincy, MA developed a separate strength training facility for new members who preferred to exercise with other beginners in a time-efficient manner. Until 2009, when we retired from the YMCA, we trained thousands of new members with a 10-station circuit strength program using standard weight stack machines. From a practical perspective, we offered the circuit strength training program every hour of the day (6 AM through 9 PM) on a MondayWednesday-Friday or a Tuesday-Thursday class schedule. We limited each class to eight participants with two instructors, for a highly structured and carefully supervised exercise environment that emphasized member education and motivation.

organization's personal trainers favored fairly complex systems of strength training using a wide variety of exercise equipment. However, they stated that member surveys revealed a preference by new participants for basic and brief strength training programs. These findings concurred with our experiences and indicated that the KISS principle (Keep It Simple and Sensible) may be foremost in the minds of beginning exercisers. Thus, we believed that the best way for fitness facilities to attract and accommodate timepressured people who have little strength training experience (clearly the majority of American adults), is to offer exercise programs that are both effective and time-efficient.

Research Study

The semi-private and time-efficient training program proved to be safe and successful for thousands of beginning exercise enthusiasts. The large-scale studies that we conducted consistently revealed significant improvement in participants' percent body fat, lean weight, fat weight, and resting blood pressure readings (Westcott and Guy 1996, Westcott et al. 2009).

With this in mind, an express circuit strength training program was developed for new members at the facilities in this fitness club chain. This basic, eight-station strength training circuit incorporated the following weight-stack exercise machines: (1) leg press; (2) leg extension; (3) leg curl; (4) lat pulldown; (5) shoulder press (6) chest press; (7) biceps curl; and (8) triceps extension. The training protocol required one set of each exercise, using a weight load that could be performed for 8 to 12 controlled repetitions resulting in momentary muscle fatigue. The participants were requested to train three non-consecutive days a week with some instructor interaction during each exercise session.

As an example, a standard two-month circuit strength training program with 77 middle-aged golfers produced the fitness improvements shown in Table 1 (Westcott et al. 1996). The excellent results routinely attained by our program members were undoubtedly related to their training consistency. The compliance rate averaged almost 90 percent, meaning that the participants attended about 9 of every 10 scheduled exercise classes. They liked the circuit strength training format, the instructor interaction, and the company of other beginning exercisers.

Clearly, this represented a basic and brief (15minute) program of strength exercise that would seem to meet most beginning participants' training preferences. But would it be as effective as the higher volume strength training protocols that new members are typically encouraged to pursue? More importantly, would new trainees stay with

At a meeting with executives from a large fitness club chain, they reported that the majority of their

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS this simple but structured exercise program long enough to experience reinforcing results?

The major difference between the two training groups was the amount of lean (muscle) weight gained by the participants (see Table 2). Those who did the express circuit program added 4.6 pounds of lean weight, whereas those who did an individualized program added 2.0 pounds of lean weight. Both training groups consisted of 62 percent female subjects and 38 percent male subjects, so gender distribution was equal in each exercise program.

To answer these questions, the fitness club chain executives asked us to test two groups of new members at one of their Boston facilities. Group A did the express circuit program exclusively for an 8-week training period. Group B performed an individualized strength training program of their choosing, typically 8 to 16 exercises for 2 to 3 sets each. After their initial instructional sessions and workout familiarization period, these individuals exercised independently for the remainder of the 8week research program.

Why would the basic and brief express circuit strength training protocol produce twice as much muscle gain as the higher volume individualized strength training protocol? Perhaps because subjects in the shorter, more structured, and more supervised training program exercised at higher effort levels than subjects in the longer, less structured, and less supervised training program. Because exercise intensity appears to be more important than exercise volume for muscle development, it is not surprising that the express circuit group made more improvement in this fitness parameter.

Research Results

Perhaps the most important outcome of this study was the percentage of new participants who completed two months of regular strength training. Of the 27 individuals who began the express circuit strength training program, 21 finished, for a 78 percent completion rate. Of the 14 individuals who began individualized strength training program eight finished, for a 57 percent completion rate. The express circuit exercisers had a 35 percent greater completion rate, indicating that basic and brief strength workouts were advantageous for training adherence.

Although previous research has revealed significant decreases in resting blood pressures following several weeks of strength exercise (Harris and Holly 1987, Westcott and Guy 1996, Westcott et al. 2009), neither group recorded lower blood pressure readings after their strength training program (see Table 2). In this study, strength exercise did not further reduce the subjects' already low entry level systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

With respect to bodyweight, the express circuit group added 0.4 pounds, whereas the individualized trainees lost 1.9 pounds. However, both exercise groups experienced similar reductions in percent fat and fat weight. As shown in Table 2, Group A (express circuit) decreased percent fat by 2.5 percent and lost 4.3 pounds of fat weight, whereas Group B (individualized) decreased percent fat by 2.2 percent and lost 3.9 pounds of fat weight.

Analysis and Application

Both strength training groups achieved statistically significant improvements in percent fat, fat weight and lean weight after eight weeks of regular

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TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS exercise. The greater gain in lean weight experienced by express circuit exercisers indicated that a shorter, lower volume strength training protocol may be at least as effective as a longer, higher volume strength training protocol for beginning participants.

In our opinion, a new-exerciser express circuit strength training program offers members and management far more positives than negatives. If it is true that a little strength training can go a long way, this is a program that provides major health/ fitness benefits from relatively brief exercise sessions.

If there is a positive relationship between training results and exercise motivation, then the express circuit strength training program scored high in this category. Nonetheless, the more important consideration may be the compliance factor. Recall that almost 80 percent of the express circuit program participants completed eight weeks of strength training, whereas less than 60 percent of the individualized exercisers did so. With respect to maintaining new members, the simplicity of the express circuit exercise protocol appeared to be advantageous.


Contact Wayne at

Contact Rita at

Going a step farther, of the 41 men and women who began this research study, 27 chose to participate in the express circuit program and 14 chose to do the individualized program. That is, almost twice as many beginning exercisers preferred to start with the short, structured, and supervised strength training program. It would therefore seem that an express circuit exercise program would be an excellent option for attracting new members. From a monetary perspective, it does increase operational costs to staff a specific area of the exercise floor. However, if almost 70 percent of potential members prefer supervised strength exercise, and if this training system has a 35 percent better retention rate (78% vs 57%), it is certainly worthy of consideration. Our experience also indicates that many of the express circuit participants chose continued supervision with personal trainers as they advanced from their introductory exercise program.

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TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS TABLE 1. Results of basic circuit strength training program over an eight-week exercise period (77 subjects).

Fitness Component

Eight-Week Changes

Body Weight

- 0.2 lbs.

Lean Weight

+ 3.9 lbs.

Percent Fat

- 2.0 %

Fat Weight

- 4.1 lbs.

Mean Blood Pressure

- 4.5 mm Hg

TABLE 2. Eight-week changes in selected fitness parameters for express circuit strength training group and individualized strength training group (Mean age 29.7 years)

Fitness Parameter

Body Weight

Percent Fat

Fat Weight

Lean Weight

Systolic BP

Diastolic BP

Group A - Xpressline (N = 21)

Group B - Individualized (N = 8)







165.0 lbs

165.4 lbs.

+ 0.4 lbs.

156.4 lbs.

154.5 lbs.

-1.9 lbs


38.8 lbs.

126.2 lbs.

114.6 mmHg

74.0 mmHg


34.5 lbs.

130.8 lbs.

- 2.5%

118.3 mmHg

77.6 mmHg

- 4.3 lbs.

+ 4.6 lbs.

+ 3.7 mmHg

+ 3.6 mmHg


34.6 lbs.

121.7 lbs.

116.6 mmHg

73.3 mmHg


30.7 lbs.

123.7 lbs.

116.1 mmHg 75.6 mmHg


- 3.9 lbs.

+ 2.0 lbs.

- 0.5 mmHg

+ 2.3 mmHg

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Ask the Experts NAOMI AARONSON – MIND BODY Naomi Aaronson, MA OTR/L CHT CPI, is an occupational therapist, certified hand therapist, and mat Pilates instructor who believes in the power of exercise in recovery. Naomi’s articles have been featured in IDEA Fitness Journal, Occupational Therapy ADVANCE, and Women and Cancer magazines. She is the co-author of the continuing education courses Return to Life: Breast Cancer Recovery Using Pilates, Breast Cancer Recovery: On Land and In Water, and The Breast Cancer Recovery Exercise Program. Naomi offers live courses through Integrated Rehabilitation and Fitness.


Phil Alwitt is the founder and CEO of MyCore Health, Inc. and an expert in developing products to improve peoples' health and quality of life-from robotic exoskeletons to the CoreCoach pressure biofeedback device. As an entrepreneur and product developer Phil works with the industry's leading fitness and medical professionals to guide the success of the products he develops. Phil is the recipient of multiple patents, product design awards and, as an athlete with decades of chronic back pain, is the beneficiary of many of the products he develops.


Pete Bazzel, MS, CPT (ACE), is Partner and Editor-in-Chief for the American Academy of Health and Fitness (AAHF); served in the military, retiring as a Colonel; then led the Washington, D.C. regional growth of Town Sports International from 3 to 17 clubs. He co-created SrFit™ and JrFit™, 19-24 hour continuing education specialty certification courses focusing on mature adult and youth fitness respectively; and Move More, Eat Better - YOU Matter!™, a lifestyle change course for the general public. He is a World Tae Kwon Do Federation Black Belt.

MELISSA BAUMGARTNER – WELLNESS COUNSELING Melissa Baumgartner, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoach), is co-owner of Midwest Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company in the St. Louis area that specializes in worksite health promotion; and creator of LWC, a Lifestyle Wellness Coaching program. Melissa has worked in the health and fitness industry for 25 years, spending the last twelve as an educator, speaker and author. She has presented to thousands of people spreading her message on happiness and well-being.

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RANDALL BROAD – BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Randall Broad is an entrepreneur, business founder, and the guiding force behind several enterprises. After working in the aerospace industry, he moved to Hollywood to embrace his dream of being an actor, making commercials and being a leading man stunt double. In 1990, he founded Opal Enterprises, a marketing services company. A cancer survivor, he now takes the stage professionally to share his lessons on living a work/life balanced existence. In the book he co-authored, It's an Extraordinary Life, he has chronicled his experiences and adventures for future generations to learn from and enjoy.


Bradley J. Cardinal, Ph.D., is a Full Professor in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. In 2009 he received the university’s Elizabeth P. Ritchie Distinguished Professor award. He previously served on the faculties of Wayne State University (Detroit, MI) and Eastern Washington University (Cheney, WA). He is Fellow #475 of the National Academy of Kinesiology; a Fellow in the American College of Sports Medicine; a Fellow in the North American Society of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance Professionals; and a Fellow in the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.


John Paul Catanzaro, BSc Kin, CSEP-CEP is a Certified Exercise Physiologist with a Bachelor of Science degree in Kinesiology and Health Science. He owns and operates a private facility in Richmond Hill, Ontario providing training and nutritional consulting. John Paul has authored two books, The Elite Trainer (2011) and Mass Explosion (2013), and has released two DVDs, Stretching for Strengthening (2003) and Warm-Up to Strength Training (2005), which have sold copies worldwide, been featured in several magazines, and have been endorsed by many leading experts. In 2013, John Paul released two new webinars, Strength Training Parameters and Program Design and Body Composition Strategies.

SHARON CHAMBERLIN – PERSONAL TRAINING Sharon Chamberlin, BA, CPT (ACE), Fitness Nutrition Coach (NESTA), Lifestyle Fitness Coach (Spencer Institute), owns Catalyst 4 Fitness, a personal training company offering online fitness and nutrition coaching, boot camp classes, traditional fitness training, and fitness consulting. Her success with clients, both in the gym and online, is based on her pragmatic philosophy and realistic attitude. Back to Table of Contents

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Ask the Experts MARCI CLARK – PILATES Marci Clark, MA, CPT, GFI, is an international fitness and wellness programming presenter with over 20 years experience in the fitness industry, specializing in Pilates exercise. She is the creator of the Foundational Pilates program and owner of Marci Clark Wellness Centers. Marci is widely published in the areas of Pilates, fitness programming and business and consults in the areas of group fitness, programming and business planning.


Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), counsels both casual and competitive athletes in her private practice in the Boston-area (Newton). The 6th edition (2019) of her best selling Sports Nutrition Guidebook, as well as teaching materials, are available at For her online workshop, see


Casey Conrad, BA, JD, President of Communication Consultants WBS, Inc., has been in the health and fitness industry for 26 years. In addition to authoring “Selling Fitness: The Complete Guide to Selling Health Club Memberships,” she has created and published over 25 other sales, marketing and management training products for the industry. She has spoken in 19 countries, is a feature presenter at conventions and trade shows worldwide and writes monthly for numerous international magazines.

ERICA N. CONRAD – EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE Erica N. Conrad is a student majoring in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. She worked for a running store where she sold running shoes to customers and gained interest in both gait mechanics and barefoot running. Her goal for this paper is to inform people of the advantages and disadvantages of shod, barefoot, and minimalist running. Erica plans on enrolling in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program for a career working as a Physical Therapist and hopes this paper will help prevent future injuries or complications for people.

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CATHERINE CRAM – PRE- AND POSTNATAL FITNESS Catherine Cram, MS, is the owner of Comprehensive Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company that specializes in providing pre- and postnatal fitness continuing education certifications and information to health and fitness professionals. Catherine is co-author of the 2012-revised edition of “Exercising Through Your Pregnancy” with Dr. James Clapp. She is the author of “Fit Pregnancy for Dummies” (Wiley Publishing, 2004) and contributing author of “Women’s Health Care in Physical Therapy” (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009). She was appointed to serve as the International Childbirth Education Association Perinatal Fitness Subgroup Chair in 2013.


Cammy Dennis, BS, CPT (ACE and AFAA), is Fitness Director for On Top of the World Communities Inc., a 55-plus adult community and The Ranch Fitness Center and Spa. Her 20 years experience in the fitness industry includes group exercise instruction, personal training, lifestyle coaching and program management. Her specialty is curriculum development for youth and senior fitness. She co-authored Kids In Motion and numerous articles on youth and senior fitness for Asiafit, SCW Fitness Education and ICAA.

BETHANY DIAMOND – WATER FITNESS Bethany Diamond, CPT (ACE, AFAA and NASM), is founder of Ovarian Cycle, Inc. and an Ironman triathlete. She is also a PowerBar R team elite athlete and a Scwhinn Cycling master trainer. Bethany has published articles for IDEA, has DVDs produced by Healthy Learning and is a contributor to the IDEA Water Fitness Committee. She has worked with fitness professionals, nationally and internationally, sharing with them her philosophy of safe, effective exercise that is fun and results driven.


Ion Doaga is the creator of and a contributing author for Massage Dreams that features articles on alternative therapies, massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, health and fitness, motivation and inspiration. He is Second Degree Black Belt in Karate Ion believes that exercising, healthy nutrition and alternative medicine is what the human body needs to heal itself and be strong. He is growing a community on his site where he promotes a preventive care lifestyle. Ion lives in Chisinau, Moldova and speaks three languages: Romanian, Russian and English.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Ask the Experts SALLY EDWARDS – HEART RATE TRAINING Sally Edwards, MA, MBA, is a leading expert in business, exercise science and lifestyle living. She created the Heart Zones Training proprietary and branded training system. Sally is a best-selling author and sought after professional speaker with 23 books and 500 articles on health and fitness, including Heart Rate Monitor Guidebook and The Complete Book of Triathlons. She is a 16-time Ironman finisher, a member of the Triathlon Hall of Fame, and Western States 100 Mile Endurance Run winner. She is the founder and CEO of Heart Zones USA, the training, education, health club programming, and coaching company.

MATT FENCL – EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Matt Fencl, Ed.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Health and Human Performance at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. He possesses Exercise Physiology and Exercise in Medicine - Level II certifications from the American College of Sports Medicine and his research interests include personal fitness, adventure education and outdoor pursuits, and physical education pedagogy. He has previously published articles in Physical Educator and the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (JOPERD).

JENNIFER GREEN – INCLUSIVE FITNESS Jennifer Green, BS in Health Fitness and Rehabilitative and Preventative Programs, MS in Clinical Exercise Physiology, is an Information Specialist at NCPAD in the Department of Disability and Human Development at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Jennifer creates and provides fact/ information sheets and videos focused on inclusion: adapting physical activity training and programs, making fitness centers more inclusive, etc. She is the author of the monthly NCPAD News column “The training corner,” written for fitness professionals who work with individuals with various disabilities and chronic conditions.

TRACEY HARVEY – MATURE FITNESS Tracey Harvey, BS, SPINNING® Instructor, USTA Tennis player, has three decades of experience in the Health and Fitness Industry, currently specializing in managing wellness not illness in older adults; working with Independent Retirement Living Communities. Her background of packaging education with products for the commercial and consumer fitness markets is credited with introducing SPINNING around the globe. Tracey is also a published “Senior Living and Lifestyle” author and an International Council of Active Aging (ICAA) Presenter.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

SHERRI HORNER – MEET THE EXPERT Sherri Horner is a radio talk show host, fitness professional, motivational speaker and writer. She is a yoga teacher, and an AFAA certified personal trainer and group fitness instructor. She is trained in Tae Kwon Do and has received specialty training from Empower Training Systems, Yogafit and Silver Sneakers. Her column has been published in a Philadelphia Christian Bodybuilding Magazine and Delaware and New Jersey wellness magazines. She is the founder and president of Health Fitness Broadcast. Since 2004 her interviews with leading experts have resulted in a treasure chest of information.


Karsten Jensen, MS Exercise Physiology, CPT (CPTN), is a high performance trainer and an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He has trained World Class and Olympic Athletes from 13 different sports since 1993, many winning European Championships and World Championships and Association of Tennis Professionals Tournaments. Karsten is an international speaker, author of several books (most recently The Flexible Periodization Method) and is an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He also shares “Insider Principles of World Class Strength and Conditioning Methods” through his web site.


Jenny D. Johnson, MS, CPT (NASM), began her higher education career at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro where she was a women’s volleyball NCAA Division I scholarship student athlete, earning a degree in Leisure Service Management. After a ten-year stent of career and family building, Jenny returned to California University of Pennsylvania to obtain her MS in Exercise Science and Health Promotion. She is currently completing a doctorate in education from Northcentral University. She is an Assistant Professor at American Public University System in the Sports and Health Sciences and Sport Management Department.

TIM KEIGHTLEY – THE BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Tim Keightley is V.P. of Fitness for Golds Gym International. He is also an international presenter and motivational speaker. Since teaching his first class in 1983, he has experienced life as an Officer in the British Royal Marines, a Professional Golfer, a ‘Stuntman’, a personal trainer to a Boxing World Heavy Weight Champion, built the largest personal training business in Europe and was V. P. of Fitness for Town Sports International. Tim believes that part of our secret to success is to learn how to have FUN in all that we do, build on our PASSION and show others how PROUD we are of what we can do for them.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Ask the Experts PEGGY KRAUS – CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION AND NUTRITION Peggy Kraus, MA, ACSM RCEP, NET, is a clinical exercise physiologist in cardiopulmonary rehab as well as a nutritional education trainer at Wellness Foundation where she teaches others about the benefits of following a plant-strong diet and committing to regular exercise. She is a frequent contributor to IDEA Fitness Journal and to and has been published in AFAA American Fitness and other health fitness magazines. She believes strongly that frailty and disease have become an acceptable part of life, but both are avoidable when you exercise and eat right.


Tammy LeBoss, BA, CPT (NAFC), Pilates Coach, NAFC Nutrition Coach, Pilates Post-Rehab and various yoga modalities certified, has been involved in the health and fitness industry for over 17 years. In 1997, Tammy gave her corporate job the boot and moved to San Diego where she struggled to make ends meet as a personal trainer. She has since learned about the many pitfalls of doing so and how to avoid them. She has served as head of the nutrition department for various health clubs and also helped build several successful health clubs from the ground up. Her publications have been featured by the National Association for Fitness Certification and Sports Nutrition Supplement Guide.


Susan Lee, MPE, MA, CPT (CPTN), President of the Certified Professional Trainers Network (CPTN) works with leaders and partners to offer education, certification, leadership and advocacy for personal trainers and fitness professionals. Concurrently, Susan develops co-curricular diversity and equity programs for the Faculty of Physical Education and Health at the University of Toronto in Canada.

RITA LA ROSA LOUD – TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Rita La Rosa Loud, B.S., CPT (AFAA) is an author and Adjunct Professor at Quincy College. She recently co-authored with Wayne Westcott the book No More Cellulite. She self-published the booklet W.O.W. Workout at Work; contributed a chapter in The Belly Melt Diet, a book from the editors of Prevention; developed the Nautilus At-Machine Stretching Expressway Program; and has been recognized for her innovative stretching concept by Shape Magazine. She is a recipient of the distinguished Honor Award and Outstanding Fitness Professional Award from the Mass. Assoc. of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance; plus the Nova 7 Award for exercise programming from Fitness Management magazine.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

JENNIFER MANNING – INJURY PREVENTION Jennifer Manning, DPT, OCS, CPT (NSCA CSCS), was inspired to be a physical therapist after suffering an ACL tear in high school. She is the creator of, a website focused on injury prevention and exercise education. She has had the pleasure to work with people of all ages and talents. Her latest clients include football players preparing for the NFL, a fighter in the UFC and Level 10 gymnasts in the United States and Canada. Jennifer is currently practicing physical therapy at Breakthrough Physical Therapy in Irvine California.

GREG MAURER – BUSINESS, MARKETING, TECHNOLOGY AND PROGRAM INTEGRATION, AND PERSONAL TRAINING Greg Maurer, BS Exercise Physiology, CPT (ACE and NASM), is an Associate Partner with New Paradigm Partners health club consulting firm. Greg is also a fitness consultant for several emerging technologies in the fitness/wellness/medical industries, including bioDensity Strength Technology, Power Plate Whole Body Vibration and reACT – Rapid Eccentric Anaerobic Core Trainer, and Bulgarian Bag (


James McPartland, former President of Star Trac Fitness, Author, International Speaker, TV/Radio Host, and ‘Wellness Ambassador’ focused on developing the Human Potential within business. His present endeavor at The JMac Performance Group has allowed him to further play a leadership role in the health & fitness industry for now more than twenty years. Much of his current business advisory and speaking activity demonstrates a philosophy called Crosstraining for Life™, focusing on uncovering the potential that lies within a company by developing the potential of the people employed inside the business.


Carol Michaels, MBA, CPT (ACSM, ACE), is the founder of Recovery Fitness®, a cancer exercise program. Her new book, Exercises for Cancer Survivors, is a fantastic resource for anyone undergoing cancer surgery or treatments. Carol also developed and produced two DVD’s called Recovery Fitness Cancer Exercise-Simple Stretches and Recovery Fitness-Strength Training. She owns and operates Carol Michaels Fitness and Recovery Fitness and is a consultant, author, speaker, Pilates instructor, and cancer exercise specialist. She is on the advisory board for several cancer organizations, and has appeared on health related television and radio programs. The American Council on Exercise recognized Carol as a Trainer to Watch in 2011 and Personal Fitness Professional honored her as the 2012 PFP Trainer of the Year. Back to Table of Contents

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Ask the Experts NICOLE NELSON - PERSONAL TRAINING Nicole Nelson, MS, LMT, holds a masters degree in Health Science from the University of North Florida. In addition to being a licensed massage therapist, she is also certified as an Advanced Health and Fitness Specialist through ACE. She has a full time massage and training practice in Ponte Vedra Beach, FL and has contributed articles to IDEA Fitness Journal and Massage magazine.

DORETTE NYSEWANDER – CORPORATE HEALTH, WELLNESS AND ANTI-AGE RESEARCH Dorette Nysewander, EdD, “DrD”, is Founder and President of D Group Consulting Services, Inc, a wellness education consulting company, facilitating initiatives worldwide. Committed to the health and well-being of all, she has been recognized in Sutton's Who’s Who in Elite Healthcare, Jacksonville Chamber 904 magazine as one of 75 Most Influential People In JAX Healthcare. Her articles have appeared in American Fitness, Jacksonville Business Journal, Liberation Wellness, several local publications, national fitness organizations and corporate industries. Contact her: 904-859-1425.


Gary L. Palmer, BSEd, CPT (NCSF), a free lance writer and fitness enthusiast, served in the Navy during the Vietnam War, earned a football scholarship as a walk-on at Ohio University, and went on to a successful 15-year teaching and coaching career. He also spent 26 productive years in the business world before transitioning to a full time writer. His first published book, Chagrin Falls, is a memoir. The theme is overcoming adversity as an abandoned, impoverished foster child growing up in a small Midwest town during the 1940’s and 1950’s. His latest health and fitness writing focuses on the need to speed up, not slow down, exercise and physical activity, as we age.


Lori Patterson, BA, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoaches) is the CEO of VicteliB, LLC, and the creator of successful fee based programming to include Boot Camp Challenge®, Baby Boomer Boot Camp Challenge® and Kids Kamp Challenge. Lori served in the US Army as well as 28 years in the fitness industry. You can reach Lori at or the website at

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

TAMMY J. PETERSEN – MATURE ADULT AND YOUTH HEALTH AND FITNESS Tammy Petersen, MSE, is the Founder and Managing Partner for the American Academy of Health and Fitness. She has written two books on adult fitness, SrFit™ and Functionally Fit™, and designed corresponding specialty certification training programs. She cocreated JrFit™, a specialty certification course focusing on youth strength training and nutrition and Move More, Eat Better— YOU Matter!™, a lifestyle change course. Her articles have appeared on PTontheNet; and in Club Business for Entrepreneurs, Personal Fitness Professional, Fitness Business Pro, American Fitness and OnSitefitness.


Lori Pine, MA, CPT (ACE) is the Programs Director at In Motion Fitness in Chico, California. She is an APEX certified Nutritional Counselor and a member of Power Bar’s Team Elite. She holds certifications and certificates in Youth Fitness, BOSU, TRX, Nordic Walking, Body Bar, Gliding, Kettlebell, GRAVITY, Drums Alive, and STRONG. Lori has 20+ years experience working with youth and adults in schools. She organizes events and charitable activities, including the “B.A.M.” fitness conference.

JOHN PLATERO – PERSONAL TRAINING John Platero, CPT, is a fitness educator who has consulted both nationally and internationally, most recently for the Royal family of Qatar. He is the Director of Education for the National Council for Certified Personal Trainers. He has obtained 35 personal training certifications, filmed over 30 fitness videos and infomercials has been published by most of the fitness magazines and is the author of “Yes You Can – Fitness After 40 – A New Beginning.” As an athlete, John was a champion bodybuilder who turned cyclist and has won 21 gold, two silver and two bronze medals in cycling in the Senior Olympics and the Master’s Pan American Games.

JUSTIN PRICE - CORRECTIVE EXERCISE Justin Price, MA, CPT (ACE), is the creator of The BioMechanics Method® Corrective Exercise Specialist (TBMM-CES) program, the fitness industry's highest-rated CES credential with trained professionals in over 60 countries. He is also the author of several books including The Bio-Mechanics Method for Corrective Exercise academic textbook, a former IDEA Personal Trainer of the Year, and a subject matter expert for The American Council on Exercise, PTA Global, PTontheNET, TRX, BOSU, Arthritis Today, BBC, Discovery Health, Los Angeles Times, Men's Health, MSNBC, New York Times, Newsweek, Time, Wall Street Journal, WebMD and Tennis.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Ask the Experts KRISTEN PUHLMAN – NUTRITION Kristen Puhlman, RD, CPT (NASM and WITS), Spinning Certified (IFTA), is an Outpatient Diabetes Educator at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center; currently residing in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She has a BS in Nutrition and Food from Kent State University. She owns and operates Obliques, LLC; a personal training business specializing in core training, weight management and individualized nutritional planning. She is also the on staff Dietitian for Aspire Fitness Studios. Her experience in the hospital setting is in clinical nutrition with a primary focus on weight management and the psychology of weight loss.


Amy Rauworth, MS, RCEP, is the Associate Director of Operations and Exercise Physiology Research at the Center on Health Promotion Research for Persons with Disabilities (CHP). CHP is located at the University of Illinois at Chicago in the Depa2rtment of Disability and Human Development. She is a Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist with ACSM. Amy conducts Inclusive Fitness training nationally on behalf of the National Center on Physical Activity and Disability and specializes in accessible fitness center design.

TIM ROCHFORD – SELF DEFENSE Tim Rochford, MS in Exercise Science, BS in Sport Management has been in the fitness industry since 1984. His certifications include ACE Medical Fitness Specialist, ACE and NASM CPT, The Cooper Institute MPFS, IYCA Level 1 and AAHF Senior Fitness, plus he holds a 7th degree Black Belt in Kajukenbo/Kajukenpo Karate. Additionally, Tim is an adjunct instructor for Harper College in Palatine, Illinois. He is the founder of Empower Training Systems (a self defense and kickboxing fitness instructor training company). He is the co-author of the ACE Kickboxing Fitness Specialty Training manual. He has also designed and patented the P2 Force, a unique body weight and elastic resistance training apparatus that provides true multi-planar and multi-angle resistance training capabilities. www.empower‐

MARK ROOZEN – YOUTH STRENGTH AND SPORT CONDITIONING Mark Roozen, MEd, certified strength and conditioning coach (NSCA CSCS*D and CPT, and FNSCA), is Senior Content Editor for STACK Media which promotes safe training and sports enhancement and is Co-Director of the Performance Education Association. He has been in the strength, conditioning and performance field for over 28 years. Mark has worked with teams from the high school to the professional levels as a strength coach; performed as director of a hospital owned fitness and training facility, as well as owned his own training center; and, has worked with over 30,000 youth in sport camps across the country. He has presented, written and consulted worldwide.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

TARA SAREEN - WELLNESS COACHING Tara Sareen, BS, is a Institute For Integrative Nutrition Certified Health Coach in the Greater Boston area and founder of iCrave Coaching. Through a unique, intensive 6-month coaching partnership, Tara's clients lose weight, identify food sensitivities, discover ‘life after sugar’ and heal and reduce chronic conditions such as joint pain, skin irritations, headaches, fatigue, infections, anxiety and depression.


Cody Sipe, PhD, ACSM Certified Clinical Exercise Specialist, ACSM Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist, is an award-winning industry leader in fitness for older adults with over 17 years of experience. He serves on the editorial boards of IDEA and Active Aging Today and is an advisory member for Canadian Fitness Education Services, WholyFit, the National Posture Institute and the ICAA Visioning Board. Cody is a past recipient of the IDEA Program Director of the Year award. His blog provides innovative fitness and business information for professionals working with older adults.

BRIAN SOUZA – EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY AND NUTRITION Brian Souza, BS, ACSM-HFS, is the owner of Be Fit Personal Training, a company providing theoretically and evidence based exercise to a variety of populations. Brian has been in the personal training industry for 10 years. He is will obtain a Master’s degree in Sport and Exercise Psychology from Springfield College in May 2011 and then will continue his education in a Doctoral level Sport and Exercise Psychology program. His research interests include exercise psychology, applied sports psychology, sports and exercise nutrition, positive psychology, and youth sport. He competes as a recreational triathlete.


At the age of 18, Matthew B. Spanier was diagnosed with Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus. Due to his very active lifestyle he has been able to control the disease very well. He will graduate in June, 2013 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Exercise and Sport Science from Oregon State University. During his undergraduate studies he has interned and worked for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF). After graduation Matt will continue his education at Ohio University, where he will be pursuing a Master's degree in Clinical Exercise Physiology.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

Ask the Experts JIM STARSHAK – TAI CHI FOR HEALTH Jim Starshak, MS, NSCA-CPT, IDEA Elite PFT is the Governing Board Chairman for the international Tai Chi for Health Institute, a Tai Chi for Health Master Trainer, an Exercise Science Adjunct Professor, and founder of The Home Gym, Inc. After 18+ years in US Special Forces (“Green Beret”), Jim is a disabled veteran who promotes tai chi internationally for its functional fitness and health benefits. He certifies Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi instructors and provides continuing education for Health & Fitness Professionals, Athletic Trainers, Physical & Occupational Therapists, and Nurses.


Derrick Sweet is best known as a popular corporate keynote speaker and author of three highly celebrated books: Healthy Wealthy and Wise, Get The Most Out Of Life, and You Don't Have to Die to Go to Heaven. He is the creator of the Hypnolinguistics Course: Derrick is also the Chairman and Founder of the Certified Coaches Federation. Derrick created the coaching model that is the foundation of the Certified Coaches Federation's Certified Coach Practitioner Training and Development Program. For more information on the Certified Coaches Federation please visit:


Kelly Ward, MS in Therapeutic Aging, CPT (AFAA and SFA), author of “The Complete Guide to Fall Prevention: Everything You Need to Know to Remain Independent,” is a certified FallProof™ balance and mobility specialist who has been teaching fall prevention classes for six years and has worked with older adults for over 15 years. Kelly’s mission is to educate and facilitate the adaptation of a reduced fall risk lifestyle. She presents easily understandable evidence-based research, applying this knowledge to daily life situations, and offers train-the-trainer programs. For more information on Kelly’s comprehensive fall prevention services or to order her book, see


Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS, directs the Quincy College Fitness Research Programs. He has been a strength training consultant for the US Navy, ACE, the YMCA of the USA and Nautilus. He is an editorial advisor for numerous publications, including The Physician and Sportsmedicine, ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, Prevention, Shape, and OnSitefitness; and has authored 24 books on strength training. He serves on the International Council on Active Aging Board of Advisors and ACSM’s New England Chapter.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

WENDY A. WILLIAMSON - POST REHABILITATION SPECIALIST Wendy A. Williamson, PhD, ACE – CPT & CMES; NASM – CPT & CES; CFAS is nationally recognized as a leading educator, writer, and author. She has owned Williamson Wellness Center for over five years and has been in the fitness industry for over 20 years training, and speaking nationally, regionally and locally. She specializes in orthopedic conditions, neurological diseases, and serves as adjunct lecturer for Wichita State University with the Physician Assistant and Physical Therapy departments. Dr. Williamson also supervises exercise science interns from the Exercise Science Department. Her research focus has been with Parkinson Disease and Exercise.


Michael Wozniak BS, CPT, is the manager of the hospital‐related fitness center at Harbor Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He has 13 years experience in the fitness industry working with clients ranging from youth athletes to seniors and special populations. He has a Bachelors degree in Sport Psychology and is an ACE Certified Personal Trainer.


Rose Zahnn, CPT (ACE), GFI (AFAA), E‐RYT200 (Yoga Alliance), is the founder and owner of Healthy Habits Fitness‐Yoga‐Pilates Studios, creator of PilatesFit and the Learn to Be Lean Program, and is a Master Trainer for YogaFit International, Flirty Girl Fitness, and Balletone. A UCLA graduate and a fitness professional for over 20 years, Rose teaches at Healthy Habits in Sacramento, California; presents at conferences, leading teacher trainings and workshops; and is a continuing education provider for ACE and AFAA.

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GAMUT, Issue 67, Aug/Sept 2019

References Primitive Physical Activity Patterns: Exercise Like Our Ancient Ancestors Grier, T., Canham-Chervak, M., Anderson, M.K., Bushman, T.T., & Jones, B.H. (2015). The effects of crosstraining on fitness and injury in women. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, 23. Jassal, D.S., Moffat, D., Krahn, J., Ahmadie, R., Fang, T., Eschun, G., & Shama, S. (2009). Cardiac injury markers in non-elite marathon runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(2).

Manheimer, E.W. van Zuuren, E.J., Fedorowicz, Z., & Pijl, H. (2015) Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: Systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(4). O'Keefe, J.H., Vogel, R., Lavie, C.J., & Cordain, L. (2010). Achieving hunter-gatherer fitness in the 21st century: Back to the future. The Journal of American Medicine, 123(12).

O'Keefe, J.H., Vogel, R., Lavie, C.J., & Cordain, L. (2011). Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: A prescription for organic physical fitness. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 53.

Strength Training for New Members; What They Want and How It Works

1) Harris, K. and Holly, R. 1987. Physiological response to circuit weight training in borderline hypertensive subjects. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 10: 246-252. 2) Westcott, W. and Guy, J. 1996. A physical evolution: Sedentary adults see marked improvements in as little as two days a week. IDEA Today, 14 (9): 58-65. 3) Westcott, W., Dolan, F. and Cavicchi, T. 1996. Golf and strength training are compatible activities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning, 18 (4): 54-56. 4) Westcott, W., Winett, R., Annesi, J., et al. 2009. Prescribing physical activity: Applying the ACSM protocols for exercise type, intensity, and duration across 3 training frequencies. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 37 (2): 51-58.

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Gamut Issue 67 Aug/Sept 2019  

With whatever you do, always seek the truth through the summation of formal education, informal education and experience. Be wary. Question...

Gamut Issue 67 Aug/Sept 2019  

With whatever you do, always seek the truth through the summation of formal education, informal education and experience. Be wary. Question...

Profile for gamut9