Page 1

Issue 65, Apr/May 2019


The resource for health, fitness, coaching, physical education, & recreation professionals.

Nutrition by Nancy Clark

Training Guidelines by Karsten Jensen

Training Guidelines by Wayne Westcott

Create a niche. KNOW. TRAIN. RETAIN.

FROM THE EDITOR “Nothing will work unless you do.” Maya Angelou (April 4, 1928 - May 28, 2014) American poet “There is no substitute for hard work.” Thomas A. Edison February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931 American inventor and businessman “The only place success comes before work is in the dictionary.” Vince Lombardi June 11, 1913 - September 3, 1970 American football player, coach, and executive in the National Football League The above three quotes from three historically prominent individuals from three distinctly different professions communicate the same message... a non-negotiable constant in achieving success is hard work, 100% effort! This issue of the Gamut provides insights to smartly achieving physical development goals by maximizing the training effort. First, certainly make no mistake, the best time to train is when you can train. If morning is that choice, Nancy Clark’s relevant article addresses nutritional wisdom in maximizing the morning training effort. Depending upon the chosen goal of maximizing power, strength, muscle endurance or cardiovascular endurance; rest periods play a significant role in the achievement of maximum results. Karsten Jensen’s article addresses the utility of flexible periodization in maximizing the training effort. And, we all know that “use it or loose it” applies to each one of us. Quantifying the loss due to an inactive lifestyle... adults over 30 lose about five percent of their muscle mass per decade if they are not active and do not strength train. And, deconditioned adults over 60 lose muscle mass at the rate of up to 10 percent per decade. Wayne Westcott’s article addresses muscle training for limiting muscle loss and maintaining a strong musclo-skeletal system.

If you find an article in Health and Wellness Across the Gamut of Life! that you feel would be beneficial to a friend, family member or co-worker, all you have to do is forward this link,, to that person through email. We welcome your feedback about the contents of this journal and encourage you to submit topics that are of interest to: We are committed to our mission of providing education and training for health, fitness, physical education and recreation professionals across the GAMUT of life! Have a question? Want more information on a specific topic? Ask the Experts

Subscribe to the FREE eJournal

Be knowledgeable! Be successful!

Pete Pete Bazzel Editor-in-Chief 800.957.7348

GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Back to Table of Contents


Fueling Tips for Early Morning Exercisers Nutrition article by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD

Rest Periods with the Flexible Periodization Method


Training Guidelines and Programs article by Karsten Jensen, MS Exercise Physiology, CPT (CPTN)


Muscle and Muscle Training Training Guidelines and Programs article by article by Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS

Ask the Experts 159




Health and Wellness Across the Gamut of LIFE! is published by the American Academy of Health and Fitness, LLC located in Springfield, Virginia 22153. Copyright 2018-19.

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Fueling Tips Exercisers




by Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), who has a private practice in the Boston area (Newton) where she counsels both casual exercisers and competitive Contact info athletes and is author of Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook.

Many athletes train in the early morning. Rowers commonly meet at 5:30 a.m. Hockey players might get rink-time at 5:00 a.m. Athletes who need to be at work at 7:00 often train at 4:30 a.m. Many of these athletes report eating nothing before their training session. My stomach isn’t awake.... It’s too early to even think about food.... I get reflux if I eat. Others report they have better workouts when they eat something simple. The question arises: What’s the best way to fuel for early morning workouts?

still digest the food, but at a slower rate.) In another fueling study, athletes ate dinner and then nothing for the next 12 hours. Those who ate 180 calories (sugar) just five minutes before an hour-long exercise test performed 10% better in the last 15minute sprint compared to when they ate nothing (2). Grab that granola bar or swig of juice! If you are tempted to skip pre-exercise food so you can lose weight by burning more fat, think again. Yes, pre-exercise food will contribute to burning less fat at the moment, but that is irrelevant. The issue is not whether you have burned fat during exercise but if you have created a calorie deficit by the end of the day. Eating excess calories after a fatburning workout gets you nowhere.

Before answering that question, let’s first address the physiological goals for fueling before morning workouts. 1. To change the stress-hormone profile. Cortisol (a stress hormone) is high in the early morning. This puts your body in muscle-breakdown mode. Eating carbs + protein can switch to musclebuilding mode. 2. To provide energy. Prevent low blood glucose with the consequences of feeling light-headed, dizzy, and needlessly fatigued. 3. To be adequately hydrated. Dehydration slows you down. If you are making the effort to get up early to train, you might as well get the most out of your workout! In a fueling study, athletes had dinner the night before and then a 60-minute exercise test the next morning. They performed 6% better in the 10minute sprint to the finish when they had some fuel (carb) compared to having had nothing; 6% better when they had adequate water (compared to minimal water), and 12% better when they had both fuel + water (a sport drink). (1) Twelve percent better means running an 8-minute mile in about 7 minutes. Powerful, eh?

All of this means consuming some food and fluid on your way to the gym, spin class, or boot camp will enhance your workout—assuming you have trained your gut to tolerate the food and fluids. If you are worried about intestinal distress, start small (a few crackers) and work up to a handful of crackers, and then add, let's say, a latte. For workouts longer than 60 minutes, the recommended intake is about 200 to 400 calories within the hour before you train. That recommendation obviously varies according to body size, exercise intensity and duration, and personal tolerance to food. If you have been exercising on empty, you will likely discover you can exercise harder, feel better, and get more enjoyment from your workouts. Research subjects who ate 400 pre-exercise calories were able to exercise for 136 minutes until they were exhausted, as compared to only 109 minutes with no breakfast (3). Big difference! After learning this, one of my clients reported he was done with skipping pre-exercise fuel in the name of

Your body can digest pre-exercise food and use it to energize your exercise as long as you are exercising at a pace that you can maintain for more than 30 minutes. (If you do stop-and-start exercise, you can

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

NUTRITION intermittent fasting. “Not eating is slowing me down and taking the fun out of my workout.”

 Fuel during your workout. If your stomach isn’t

awake when you first get up, it may be receptive to fuel when you are 30 minutes into your bike ride, run, or row. Be sure you have some fuel with you: sport drink, dried pineapple, gels, chomps, gummy bears—whatever is easy to carry and simple to digest. You want to target about 30 to 60 grams carb (120 to 240 calories) if the workout lasts 1 to 2.5 hours, and 60 to 90 g carb (240 to 360 calories) if the workout is longer than that.

Early morning options Here are some options for fueling your early morning workouts so you are adequately hydrated and fueled.  Eat a quick and easy snack with about 200 to 400

calories (depending on your body size and workout intensity). Some popular options include English muffin, toast, bagel or banana (with peanut butter); oatmeal, a smoothie, Fig Newtons, or granola bar. Coffee is OK; it’s a functional fluid that boosts performance and yes, helps with hydration.

What about “training low”? If you are highly competitive and have mastered the sports nutrition basics (eat a diet with 90% quality foods; fuel evenly during the day; have no disordered eating behaviors), you might try training low (with depleted muscle glycogen and/or low blood glucose) once a week or so. To do this, eat primarily protein for dinner after a late-afternoon workout. The next morning, train without having eaten carbs. Exercising depleted like this is not fun, but it stimulates cellular changes that can be performance enhancing if you need to get to the next level (4). Novice and recreational athletes, however, first need to work on the basic ways to improve performance—by surrounding their workouts with food and fueling wisely the rest of the day.

 Wake up 4 hours before important training

sessions/events, eat a simple breakfast (bread & peanut butter), then go back to bed. This is a common practice among elite athletes. As one marathoner explained, “I don’t want to have food in my stomach when I’m racing. If a race starts at 8:00 a.m., I’ll get up at 4:00, eat a bagel with peanut butter and a banana, and then go back to bed. At 6:00, I’ll get up, have some coffee (to help me take a dump and wake me up), and then get to the race start. Because I never really sleep well the night before an event, getting up at 4:00 isn’t terribly disruptive.” In comparison, a rower reported she used to wake up two hours before practice to eat. She became too sleep-deprived and decided she needed sleep more than food. She started eating a bigger bedtime snack.

References Contact Nancy at

 Eat your breakfast the night before via a bedtime

snack, such as a bowl of cereal, or yogurt with granola. If you have dinner at 6:00, you'll be ready for a bedtime snack by 9:00. Choose quality calories; this is your breakfast that you are eating the night before. Limit the cookies and ice cream! Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Rest Periods with the Flexible Periodization Method by Karsten Jensen, MS Exercise Physiology, CPT (CPTN), a high performance trainer at the University of Toronto. Contact info

 Inter repetition rest: rest between single repetitions within a set  Intra set rest: rest between groups of repetitions within a set  Inter set rest: rest between sets. Across the literature the terms are used interchangeably, especially intra set vs. inter set rest.1

 The exercise The ideal inter-set rest period may also be determined by the type of exercise. Multi-joint exercises may require longer rest periods compared to single-joint exercises.4 Upper body exercises may require longer rest intervals compared to lower body exercises.4 The inter-set rest period may be affected by several different factors. If the relative intensity, absolute load or number of reps per set is lower or higher the inter set rest period becomes shorter or longer

What are the factors that determine ideal rest periods?

How do inter set rest periods affect the target training adaptations to resistance training?

What is the definition of rest periods? The literature mentions three types of rest periods:

 The training goal Rest periods commonly vary per training goal.2,3 As such, duration of the rest period is periodized to optimally support the target training adaptations.  Individual factors Required rest periods for any level of recovery between or within a set or interval may depend on training intensity, load, sex, age, type of muscle contraction, exercise order, strength and genetics.3 Since no athlete-client comes to the gym with the purpose of resting and many have strict time constraints for their workouts, it is the clear that the rest intervals (RI) should be as short as possible while allowing for optimal training adaptations. It is possible that individuals can adapt to shorter rest periods over time. The rest period of Chinese elite weightlifters is done by feel, but rarely exceeds two minutes, even between heavy sets of squats or pulls.

It is intuitively obvious that if the rest period is longer, then the chance of recovery between sets is higher and the athlete-client can do more reps with a higher load. In contrast, it is equally obvious that shorter rest periods may increase fatigue and impact the work that could be done in an upcoming set. Thus, rest periods should be used to elicit desired degrees of fatigue ranging from no to minimal fatigue to high-maximal fatigue in order to optimize the target training adaptations.

A. What is fatigue? Fatigue may be divided into performance fatigue ability and perceived fatigued ability: 5 Performance fatigue ability is an exerciseinduced reduction in the ability of a muscle to produce force or power, whether or not the task can be sustained.6 Perceived fatigue ability is changes in the sensations that regulate the integrity of the performer.

Back to Table of Contents – News You Can Use


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS B. What are the causes of fatigue? The two major sites of fatigue are the nervous system (sometimes termed central fatigue) and the muscle fibre (sometimes referred to as peripheral fatigue). The cause/source of fatigue can be found in any of the steps in the process that begins with a nervous signal and ends with the muscle contraction: 5,6 The following factors relate mainly to the nervous signal:  An insufficient drive to the neurons in the motor cortex  A decrease in the activation of the motor unit population by descending inputs  An increase in afferent feedback that reduces motor neuron excitability  A decline in the afferent support of motor neuron discharge

 A reduction in the motor output from the spinal cord The following factors relate mainly to the muscle contraction:  A decline in neuromuscular propagation and the inward spread of action potentials down the transverse tubules  Metabolic changes that influence the supply of ATP and impede the function of cross bridges and an inadequate perfusion of the active muscles  A decline in the efficacy of the excitation contraction coupling The factor (nervous signal or muscle contraction) that contributes the most to fatigue will vary based on the type of activity. This is known as the task dependency of fatigue.5 The experience of fatigue during activity is easily recognized by the athlete-client and or coach/ trainer as described in Table 1:

TABLE 1. Rough description of relation between degree of fatigue and changes in power output and exercise


Degree of fatigue Low Moderate High Maximal

Change in power output and exercise form. Power output can be maintained but requires increased voluntary effort. There is no deterioration of form. There is some reduction of power output. There may be possible deterioration of form by novice athlete-client. There is significant reduction of power output. There is a very high likelihood of deterioration of form regardless of experience level. The activity stops.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Psychological factors may directly or indirectly affect both perceived and performance fatigue ability.5 The physiological adjustments associated with performance fatigue ability are also associated with ratings of perceived exertion.5 Thus, aiming to reduce the rating of perceived exertion may affectreduce both forms of fatigue.

“When pulled muscles, sore, tired and aching body areas scream at you to quit, you must simply put the discomfort out of your mind. Success comes to the lifter, who pushes and knows how to push”.7 “…repping out to RM or close to it leads to fatigue and prevents the athletes from fulfilling the required volume of work…. Last repetitions of a set [taken to failure] are performed on the background of reduced, due to fatigue, excitability of the central nervous system.”8 From a physiological standpoint, rest periods should be used to elicit a desired degree of fatigue ranging from no to minimal fatigue to maximal fatigue. The degree of fatigue, in turn, determines the load, volume and tempo of execution and resulting training adaptations (see Figure 2 below).

C. What are the ideal levels of fatigue to support different target training adaptations? Some parts of the training literature reflect an almost philosophical view of the role of fatigue. “Fatigue makes cowards of us all.” A quick Google search has this quote ascribed to several persons including famous football coach Vince Lombardi and British author William Shakespeare. Muscular Endurance


Maximal Strength



Moderate Low FIGURE 2. Target training adaptations in relation to levels of fatigue  Longer sets with shorter rest are associated with greater metabolic stress compared to shorter sets with longer rest.15  Shorter rest periods may compromise the total work performed, but as long as a certain threshold of volume load is achieved, the associated metabolic stress may be a valid strategy to stimulate hypertrophy 16,17,18  There is no evidence to support that longer rest periods are needed to develop maximal strength compared to the rest periods that are needed to develop hypertrophy.3  Power may require longer rest periods.2

For example, training to failure can lead to greater strength gains through increased recruitment of active motor units. However, maximal motor unit recruitment might be achieved a few repetitions before failure. The increased motor unit recruitment can be an important stimulus for hypertrophy 9.10, 11 Rest periods and their effect are shown on the continuum shown in Table 2 (on the next page). 1,2,3,12,13

The following key points support Table 2:

 To maximally stimulate hypertrophy, mechanical work (load, reps, and distance) should be optimized.12,3,14

Back to Table of Contents – News You Can Use


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS TABLE 2. The table shows that the distinction between a cluster set configuration and a continuous set

configuration, as well as the choice of a key stimulus (volume, load, etc.), are essential to determine the ideal rest periods. (NA = not applicable)

Set Structure


Rest periods


< 1 min

1-2 min


Cluster / Continuous

Intra-set rest

Inter-set rest

Optimal/sub optimal




Volume load


Optimal-high/ compromised.

Mechanical tension/stress load



Metabolic stress

Low/low med.

D.Is there a best way to secure the ideal rest periods? Fixed versus Auto-regulated rest periods Both fixed and flexible, auto-regulated rest periods can be used. Arguments in support of fixed rest periods:  It might be easier to determine the total duration of the session.  Athlete-clients with less body-awareness may need the guidance of fixed rest periods.  Certain personality types prefer a strong structure to each session. Arguments in support of auto-regulated rest periods:  The required rest periods are highly individual.3

 The readiness of the athlete-client to train on any given day is fundamentally unpredictable.  As fatigue increases within a session, there might be a need for increased rest periods.  As fatigue might increase within a 2 to 3-week block of increasing volume, and/or intensity, there might be a need for increased rest periods.  Self-suggested versus 2 minutes fixed rest periods results in the same number of repetitions completed, but a shorter total time to complete the workout.20 References Contact Karsten at

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Muscle and Muscle Training by Wayne Westchester, PhD, CSCS is professor and chair of Exercise Science at Quincy College in Quincy, Massachusetts. He has authored 29 books on strength training. Contact info

utilization of strength trained muscles is 50 percent greater than the resting energy utilization of non-strength trained muscles. Of course, stronger muscles are capable of performing physical activities at a higher level, thereby increasing the energy demands during exercise as well. Equally impressive with respect to energy use, resting metabolic rate increases approximately 7 percent for 3 full days following a standard strength training session.6, 9 Over the course of a year, this increase in resting energy expenditure would exceed the calorie content of 10 pounds of fat.

Resistance exercise is essential for attaining and maintaining muscular fitness. This is particularly important for people over age 30 who otherwise lose about 5 percent of their muscle mass every decade,5 and even more important for people over 60 who otherwise lose up to 10 percent of their muscle mass every decade.11 Because muscle loss is closely associated with bone loss, resistance exercise is also essential for attaining and maintaining a strong musculo-skeletal system. Adults who do not perform strength training lose 10 to 20 percent of their bone mass every decade, and older adults who do not perform strength training lose 20 to 30 percent of bone mass every decade.10, 12, 16

In addition to burning calories during both physical activity and inactivity, resistance exercise is a highly effective means for regulating blood sugar.13 Our muscles are the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest storage area for sugar, in the form of glycogen, so larger and stronger muscles facilitate this distribution process. Strength training also enhances both insulin sensitivity7 and glycemic control4 for better sugar transport from the blood to the muscles. It is therefore not surprising that the American Diabetes Association recommends high-intensity strength training for the management of diabetes and prediabetes.14

Because the muscles function as the engines of our bodies they play a major role in maintaining our metabolic rate and energy production. Even during sleep, our muscles account for almost 30 percent of the calories we burn, as relatively large amounts of energy are required for muscle remodeling 24 hours a day. If you do not perform resistance exercise, every pound of muscle uses approximately 6 calories per day.18 However if you do perform resistance exercise, every pound of muscle uses approximately 9 calories per day for enhanced tissue maintenance and rebuilding processes.15 Amazingly, the resting energy

Two of the major risk factors for heart disease are high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol. Like aerobic activity,

Back to Table of Contents â&#x20AC;&#x201C; News You Can Use


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS resistance exercise has been shown to reduce resting blood pressure,17 to increase good (HDL) cholesterol1, to decrease bad (LDL) cholesterol,1 and to lower triglyceride levels.1 These cardiovascular benefits have led the American Heart Association to recommend high-intensity strength training for coronary patients.8

 Speed: Use controlled movement speed

for concentric and eccentric actions.  Range: Perform each concentric and

eccentric muscle action though the full range of joint movement. It is important to consider the application of these resistance training recommendations when designing strength training programs. The primary purpose and function of skeletal muscle is to produce joint movement by means of concentric and eccentric muscle actions. As stated in the ACSM resistance training guidelines, “Proper resistance exercise techniques employ controlled movements through the full range of motion and involve concentric and eccentric muscle actions.” 2 The secondary purpose and function of skeletal muscle is to prevent joint movement (stabilization) by means of isometric muscle contractions. Although isometric exercise can produce muscle stimulation and improve muscle strength, it is not the preferred resistance training technique for two reasons. First, it is difficult to progressively increase the exercise resistance (the key to strength development), and second, it is difficult to develop full-range muscle strength from performance of fixed-position exercises.

The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association resistance exercise recommendations are consistent with those of the American College of Sports Medicine,2 which provide the following strength training guidelines:  Exercises: Perform multi-joint and sin-

gle-joint exercises that cumulatively address all of the major muscle groups (typically 8 to 12 exercises).  Sets: Perform 1 to 4 sets for each major

muscle group, with single sets suggested for beginners and older adults.  Repetitions:

Use a resistance that enables 8 to 12 properly performed repetitions to momentary muscle fatigue.

 Progression: Increase the resistance

gradually when 12 repetitions can be completed (typically by 5 percent).  Frequency: Train each major muscle

group 2 or 3 non-consecutive days per week.

Take the plank exercise, for example. Planks can be performed for progressively longer time periods to provide greater challenge to

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS 1. Concentric and eccentric muscle actions

the rectus abdominis muscles. However, increasing the duration of an exercise is not nearly as effective as increasing the intensity of an exercise for eliciting gains in muscle strength and size. Therefore, exercises that enable progressive increments in the training resistance, such as machine abdominal curls, are preferable to planks for increasing rectus abdominis muscle strength and hypertrophy.

2. Controlled movement speed during all muscle actions 3. Complete movement range between (non-painful) positions of full joint flexion and full joint extension (or abduction and adduction) 4. Progression of training intensity through gradual and systematic increases in the exercise resistance

Properly performed resistance machine exercises, free-weight exercises, and body weight exercises can all be effective for attaining health, fitness, and performance goals associated with muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy, especially when they are integrated into comprehensive and complementary training programs. Keep in mind that a major key to productive strength training is progressive, full-range resistance exercise that fatigues the target muscles within the anaerobic energy system (generally less than 90 seconds).

In like manner, properly performed planks maintain a static trunk position which provides limited strength-building stimulus throughout the majority of the rectus abdominis muscle movement range. On the other hand, full-range trunk flexion exercises elicit significantly more rectus abdominis muscle activation than reduced-range trunk flexion exercises. For example, full-range trunk curls performed on an exercise ball produced 40 percent more rectus abdominis muscle activation than half-range trunk curls performed on the floor.3 This is not to suggest that people should avoid isometric exercises, such as planks, or partial range exercises, such as standard trunk curls. However, for greater muscle/ strength development and full-range functional performance, it is advisable to also do resistance exercises that facilitate the following training factors:

References Contact Wayne at

Back to Table of Contents â&#x20AC;&#x201C; News You Can Use


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019


Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Ask the Experts NAOMI AARONSON – MIND BODY Naomi Aaronson, MA OTR/L CHT CPI, is an occupational therapist, certified hand therapist, and mat Pilates instructor who believes in the power of exercise in recovery. Naomi’s articles have been featured in IDEA Fitness Journal, Occupational Therapy ADVANCE, and Women and Cancer magazines. She is the co-author of the continuing education courses Return to Life: Breast Cancer Recovery Using Pilates, Breast Cancer Recovery: On Land and In Water, and The Breast Cancer Recovery Exercise Program. Naomi offers live courses through Integrated Rehabilitation and Fitness.

PHIL ALWITT – CORE STRENGTH AND STABILITY Phil Alwitt is the founder and CEO of MyCore Health, Inc. and an expert in developing products to improve peoples' health and quality of life-from robotic exoskeletons to the CoreCoach pressure biofeedback device. As an entrepreneur and product developer Phil works with the industry's leading fitness and medical professionals to guide the success of the products he develops. Phil is the recipient of multiple patents, product design awards and, as an athlete with decades of chronic back pain, is the beneficiary of many of the products he develops.

PETE BAZZEL – EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Pete Bazzel, MS, CPT (ACE), is Partner and Editor-in-Chief for the American Academy of Health and Fitness (AAHF); served in the military, retiring as a Colonel; then led the Washington, D.C. regional growth of Town Sports International from 3 to 17 clubs. He co-created SrFit™ and JrFit™, 19-24 hour continuing education specialty certification courses focusing on mature adult and youth fitness respectively; and Move More, Eat Better - YOU Matter!™, a lifestyle change course for the general public. He is a World Tae Kwon Do Federation Black Belt.

MELISSA BAUMGARTNER – WELLNESS COUNSELING Melissa Baumgartner, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoach), is co-owner of Midwest Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company in the St. Louis area that specializes in worksite health promotion; and creator of LWC, a Lifestyle Wellness Coaching program. Melissa has worked in the health and fitness industry for 25 years, spending the last twelve as an educator, speaker and author. She has presented to thousands of people spreading her message on happiness and well-being.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

RANDALL BROAD – BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Randall Broad is an entrepreneur, business founder, and the guiding force behind several enterprises. After working in the aerospace industry, he moved to Hollywood to embrace his dream of being an actor, making commercials and being a leading man stunt double. In 1990, he founded Opal Enterprises, a marketing services company. A cancer survivor, he now takes the stage professionally to share his lessons on living a work/life balanced existence. In the book he co-authored, It's an Extraordinary Life, he has chronicled his experiences and adventures for future generations to learn from and enjoy.

BRADLEY J. CARDINAL – EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE Bradley J. Cardinal, Ph.D., is a Full Professor in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. In 2009 he received the university’s Elizabeth P. Ritchie Distinguished Professor award. He previously served on the faculties of Wayne State University (Detroit, MI) and Eastern Washington University (Cheney, WA). He is Fellow #475 of the National Academy of Kinesiology; a Fellow in the American College of Sports Medicine; a Fellow in the North American Society of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance Professionals; and a Fellow in the Research Consortium of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.

JOHN PAUL CATANZARO – PERSONAL TRAINING John Paul Catanzaro, BSc Kin, CSEP-CEP is a Certified Exercise Physiologist with a Bachelor of Science degree in Kinesiology and Health Science. He owns and operates a private facility in Richmond Hill, Ontario providing training and nutritional consulting. John Paul has authored two books, The Elite Trainer (2011) and Mass Explosion (2013), and has released two DVDs, Stretching for Strengthening (2003) and Warm-Up to Strength Training (2005), which have sold copies worldwide, been featured in several magazines, and have been endorsed by many leading experts. In 2013, John Paul released two new webinars, Strength Training Parameters and Program Design and Body Composition Strategies.

SHARON CHAMBERLIN – PERSONAL TRAINING Sharon Chamberlin, BA, CPT (ACE), Fitness Nutrition Coach (NESTA), Lifestyle Fitness Coach (Spencer Institute), owns Catalyst 4 Fitness, a personal training company offering online fitness and nutrition coaching, boot camp classes, traditional fitness training, and fitness consulting. Her success with clients, both in the gym and online, is based on her pragmatic philosophy and realistic attitude.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Ask the Experts MARCI CLARK – PILATES Marci Clark, MA, CPT, GFI, is an international fitness and wellness programming presenter with over 20 years experience in the fitness industry, specializing in Pilates exercise. She is the creator of the Foundational Pilates program and owner of Marci Clark Wellness Centers. Marci is widely published in the areas of Pilates, fitness programming and business and consults in the areas of group fitness, programming and business planning.

NANCY CLARK – NUTRITION Nancy Clark, MS, RD, CSSD (Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics), counsels both casual and competitive athletes in her private practice at Healthworks, the premier fitness center in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Her Sports Nutrition Guidebook and food guides for marathoners, new runners, and cyclists are available via For a list of upcoming events/workshops, see

CASEY CONRAD – GROWING YOUR PT BUSINESS Casey Conrad, BA, JD, President of Communication Consultants WBS, Inc., has been in the health and fitness industry for 26 years. In addition to authoring “Selling Fitness: The Complete Guide to Selling Health Club Memberships,” she has created and published over 25 other sales, marketing and management training products for the industry. She has spoken in 19 countries, is a feature presenter at conventions and trade shows worldwide and writes monthly for numerous international magazines.

ERICA N. CONRAD – EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE Erica N. Conrad is a student majoring in Exercise and Sport Science at Oregon State University. She worked for a running store where she sold running shoes to customers and gained interest in both gait mechanics and barefoot running. Her goal for this paper is to inform people of the advantages and disadvantages of shod, barefoot, and minimalist running. Erica plans on enrolling in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program for a career working as a Physical Therapist and hopes this paper will help prevent future injuries or complications for people.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

CATHERINE CRAM – PRE- AND POSTNATAL FITNESS Catherine Cram, MS, is the owner of Comprehensive Fitness Consulting, LLC, a company that specializes in providing pre- and postnatal fitness continuing education certifications and information to health and fitness professionals. Catherine is co-author of the 2012-revised edition of “Exercising Through Your Pregnancy” with Dr. James Clapp. She is the author of “Fit Pregnancy for Dummies” (Wiley Publishing, 2004) and contributing author of “Women’s Health Care in Physical Therapy” (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009). She was appointed to serve as the International Childbirth Education Association Perinatal Fitness Subgroup Chair in 2013.

CAMMY DENNIS – YOUTH AND MATURE ADULT FITNESS PROGRAMMING Cammy Dennis, BS, CPT (ACE and AFAA), is Fitness Director for On Top of the World Communities Inc., a 55-plus adult community and The Ranch Fitness Center and Spa. Her 20 years experience in the fitness industry includes group exercise instruction, personal training, lifestyle coaching and program management. Her specialty is curriculum development for youth and senior fitness. She co-authored Kids In Motion and numerous articles on youth and senior fitness for Asiafit, SCW Fitness Education and ICAA.

BETHANY DIAMOND – WATER FITNESS Bethany Diamond, CPT (ACE, AFAA and NASM), is founder of Ovarian Cycle, Inc. and an Ironman triathlete. She is also a PowerBar R team elite athlete and a Scwhinn Cycling master trainer. Bethany has published articles for IDEA, has DVDs produced by Healthy Learning and is a contributor to the IDEA Water Fitness Committee. She has worked with fitness professionals, nationally and internationally, sharing with them her philosophy of safe, effective exercise that is fun and results driven.

ION DOAGA – PERSONAL TRAINING Ion Doaga is the creator of and a contributing author for Massage Dreams that features articles on alternative therapies, massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, health and fitness, motivation and inspiration. He is Second Degree Black Belt in Karate Ion believes that exercising, healthy nutrition and alternative medicine is what the human body needs to heal itself and be strong. He is growing a community on his site where he promotes a preventive care lifestyle. Ion lives in Chisinau, Moldova and speaks three languages: Romanian, Russian and English. Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Ask the Experts SALLY EDWARDS – HEART RATE TRAINING Sally Edwards, MA, MBA, is a leading expert in business, exercise science and lifestyle living. She created the Heart Zones Training proprietary and branded training system. Sally is a best-selling author and sought after professional speaker with 23 books and 500 articles on health and fitness, including Heart Rate Monitor Guidebook and The Complete Book of Triathlons. She is a 16-time Ironman finisher, a member of the Triathlon Hall of Fame, and Western States 100 Mile Endurance Run winner. She is the founder and CEO of Heart Zones USA, the training, education, health club programming, and coaching company.

JENNIFER GREEN – INCLUSIVE FITNESS Jennifer Green, BS in Health Fitness and Rehabilitative and Preventative Programs, MS in Clinical Exercise Physiology, is an Information Specialist at NCPAD in the Department of Disability and Human Development at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Jennifer creates and provides fact/ information sheets and videos focused on inclusion: adapting physical activity training and programs, making fitness centers more inclusive, etc. She is the author of the monthly NCPAD News column “The training corner,” written for fitness professionals who work with individuals with various disabilities and chronic conditions.

TRACEY HARVEY – MATURE FITNESS Tracey Harvey, BS, SPINNING® Instructor, USTA Tennis player, has three decades of experience in the Health and Fitness Industry, currently specializing in managing wellness not illness in older adults; working with Independent Retirement Living Communities. Her background of packaging education with products for the commercial and consumer fitness markets is credited with introducing SPINNING around the globe. Tracey is also a published “Senior Living and Lifestyle” author and an International Council of Active Aging (ICAA) Presenter.

SHERRI HORNER – MEET THE EXPERT Sherri Horner is a radio talk show host, fitness professional, motivational speaker and writer. She is a yoga teacher, and an AFAA certified personal trainer and group fitness instructor. She is trained in Tae Kwon Do and has received specialty training from Empower Training Systems, Yogafit and Silver Sneakers. Her column has been published in a Philadelphia Christian Bodybuilding Magazine and Delaware and New Jersey wellness magazines. She is the founder and president of Health Fitness Broadcast. Since 2004 her interviews with leading experts have resulted in a treasure chest of information.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

KARSTEN JENSEN – STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING Karsten Jensen, MS Exercise Physiology, CPT (CPTN), is a high performance trainer and an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He has trained World Class and Olympic Athletes from 13 different sports since 1993, many winning European Championships and World Championships and Association of Tennis Professionals Tournaments. Karsten is an international speaker, author of several books (most recently The Flexible Periodization Method) and is an educator with the Certified Professional Trainers Network. He also shares “Insider Principles of World Class Strength and Conditioning Methods” through his web site.

JENNY D JOHNSON – PERSONAL TRAINING Jenny D. Johnson, MS, CPT (NASM), began her higher education career at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro where she was a women’s volleyball NCAA Division I scholarship student athlete, earning a degree in Leisure Service Management. After a ten-year stent of career and family building, Jenny returned to California University of Pennsylvania to obtain her MS in Exercise Science and Health Promotion. She is currently completing a doctorate in education from Northcentral University. She is an Assistant Professor at American Public University System in the Sports and Health Sciences and Sport Management Department.

TIM KEIGHTLEY – THE BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Tim Keightley is V.P. of Fitness for Golds Gym International. He is also an international presenter and motivational speaker. Since teaching his first class in 1983, he has experienced life as an Officer in the British Royal Marines, a Professional Golfer, a ‘Stuntman’, a personal trainer to a Boxing World Heavy Weight Champion, built the largest personal training business in Europe and was V. P. of Fitness for Town Sports International. Tim believes that part of our secret to success is to learn how to have FUN in all that we do, build on our PASSION and show others how PROUD we are of what we can do for them.

PEGGY KRAUS – CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION AND NUTRITION Peggy Kraus, MA, ACSM RCEP, NET, is a clinical exercise physiologist in cardiopulmonary rehab as well as a nutritional education trainer at Wellness Foundation where she teaches others about the benefits of following a plant-strong diet and committing to regular exercise. She is a frequent contributor to IDEA Fitness Journal and to and has been published in AFAA American Fitness and other health fitness magazines. She believes strongly that frailty and disease have become an acceptable part of life, but both are avoidable when you exercise and eat right.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Ask the Experts TAMMY LEBOSS – BUSINESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING Tammy LeBoss, BA, CPT (NAFC), Pilates Coach, NAFC Nutrition Coach, Pilates Post-Rehab and various yoga modalities certified, has been involved in the health and fitness industry for over 17 years. In 1997, Tammy gave her corporate job the boot and moved to San Diego where she struggled to make ends meet as a personal trainer. She has since learned about the many pitfalls of doing so and how to avoid them. She has served as head of the nutrition department for various health clubs and also helped build several successful health clubs from the ground up. Her publications have been featured by the National Association for Fitness Certification and Sports Nutrition Supplement Guide.

SUSAN LEE – DIVERSITY AND EQUITY PROGRAMS Susan Lee, MPE, MA, CPT (CPTN), President of the Certified Professional Trainers Network (CPTN) works with leaders and partners to offer education, certification, leadership and advocacy for personal trainers and fitness professionals. Concurrently, Susan develops co-curricular diversity and equity programs for the Faculty of Physical Education and Health at the University of Toronto in Canada.

RITA LA ROSA LOUD – TRAINING GUIDELINES AND PROGRAMS Rita La Rosa Loud, B.S., CPT (AFAA) is an author and Adjunct Professor at Quincy College. She recently co-authored with Wayne Westcott the book No More Cellulite. She self-published the booklet W.O.W. Workout at Work; contributed a chapter in The Belly Melt Diet, a book from the editors of Prevention; developed the Nautilus At-Machine Stretching Expressway Program; and has been recognized for her innovative stretching concept by Shape Magazine. She is a recipient of the distinguished Honor Award and Outstanding Fitness Professional Award from the Mass. Assoc. of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance; plus the Nova 7 Award for exercise programming from Fitness Management magazine.

JENNIFER MANNING – INJURY PREVENTION Jennifer Manning, DPT, OCS, CPT (NSCA CSCS), was inspired to be a physical therapist after suffering an ACL tear in high school. She is the creator of, a website focused on injury prevention and exercise education. She has had the pleasure to work with people of all ages and talents. Her latest clients include football players preparing for the NFL, a fighter in the UFC and Level 10 gymnasts in the United States and Canada. Jennifer is currently practicing physical therapy at Breakthrough Physical Therapy in Irvine California. Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

GREG MAURER – BUSINESS, MARKETING, TECHNOLOGY AND PROGRAM INTEGRATION, AND PERSONAL TRAINING Greg Maurer, BS Exercise Physiology, CPT (ACE and NASM), is an Associate Partner with New Paradigm Partners health club consulting firm. Greg is also a fitness consultant for several emerging technologies in the fitness/wellness/medical industries, including bioDensity Strength Technology, Power Plate Whole Body Vibration and reACT – Rapid Eccentric Anaerobic Core Trainer, and Bulgarian Bag (

JAMES MCPARTLAND – PURPOSEFUL EMPOWERMENT James McPartland, former President of Star Trac Fitness, Author, International Speaker, TV/Radio Host, and ‘Wellness Ambassador’ focused on developing the Human Potential within business. His present endeavor at The JMac Performance Group has allowed him to further play a leadership role in the health & fitness industry for now more than twenty years. Much of his current business advisory and speaking activity demonstrates a philosophy called Crosstraining for Life™, focusing on uncovering the potential that lies within a company by developing the potential of the people employed inside the business.

CAROL MICHAELS - PERSONAL TRAINING Carol Michaels, MBA, CPT (ACSM, ACE), is the founder of Recovery Fitness®, a cancer exercise program. Her new book, Exercises for Cancer Survivors, is a fantastic resource for anyone undergoing cancer surgery or treatments. Carol also developed and produced two DVD’s called Recovery Fitness Cancer Exercise-Simple Stretches and Recovery Fitness-Strength Training. She owns and operates Carol Michaels Fitness and Recovery Fitness and is a consultant, author, speaker, Pilates instructor, and cancer exercise specialist. She is on the advisory board for several cancer organizations, and has appeared on health related television and radio programs. The American Council on Exercise recognized Carol as a Trainer to Watch in 2011 and Personal Fitness Professional honored her as the 2012 PFP Trainer of the Year.

NICOLE NELSON - PERSONAL TRAINING Nicole Nelson, MS, LMT, holds a masters degree in Health Science from the University of North Florida. In addition to being a licensed massage therapist, she is also certified as an Advanced Health and Fitness Specialist through ACE. She has a full time massage and training practice in Ponte Vedra Beach, FL and has contributed articles to IDEA Fitness Journal and Massage magazine. Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Ask the Experts DORETTE NYSEWANDER – CORPORATE HEALTH, WELLNESS AND ANTI-AGE RESEARCH Dorette Nysewander, EdD, “DrD”, is Founder and President of D Group Consulting Services, Inc, a wellness education consulting company, facilitating initiatives worldwide. Committed to the health and well-being of all, she has been recognized in Sutton's Who’s Who in Elite Healthcare, Jacksonville Chamber 904 magazine as one of 75 Most Influential People In JAX Healthcare. Her articles have appeared in American Fitness, Jacksonville Business Journal, Liberation Wellness, several local publications, national fitness organizations and corporate industries. Contact her: 904-859-1425.

GARY L. PALMER – MATURE ADULT FITNESS Gary L. Palmer, BSEd, CPT (NCSF), a free lance writer and fitness enthusiast, served in the Navy during the Vietnam War, earned a football scholarship as a walk-on at Ohio University, and went on to a successful 15-year teaching and coaching career. He also spent 26 productive years in the business world before transitioning to a full time writer. His first published book, Chagrin Falls, is a memoir. The theme is overcoming adversity as an abandoned, impoverished foster child growing up in a small Midwest town during the 1940’s and 1950’s. His latest health and fitness writing focuses on the need to speed up, not slow down, exercise and physical activity, as we age.

LORI PATTERSON – BOOT CAMP Lori Patterson, BA, CPT (ACE, ACSM, AFAA and WellCoaches) is the CEO of VicteliB, LLC, and the creator of successful fee based programming to include Boot Camp Challenge®, Baby Boomer Boot Camp Challenge® and Kids Kamp Challenge. Lori served in the US Army as well as 28 years in the fitness industry. You can reach Lori at or the website at

TAMMY J. PETERSEN – MATURE ADULT AND YOUTH HEALTH AND FITNESS Tammy Petersen, MSE, is the Founder and Managing Partner for the American Academy of Health and Fitness. She has written two books on adult fitness, SrFit™ and Functionally Fit™, and designed corresponding specialty certification training programs. She cocreated JrFit™, a specialty certification course focusing on youth strength training and nutrition and Move More, Eat Better— YOU Matter!™, a lifestyle change course. Her articles have appeared on PTontheNet; and in Club Business for Entrepreneurs, Personal Fitness Professional, Fitness Business Pro, American Fitness and OnSitefitness.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

LORI PINE – MIND BODY Lori Pine, MA, CPT (ACE) is the Programs Director at In Motion Fitness in Chico, California. She is an APEX certified Nutritional Counselor and a member of Power Bar’s Team Elite. She holds certifications and certificates in Youth Fitness, BOSU, TRX, Nordic Walking, Body Bar, Gliding, Kettlebell, GRAVITY, Drums Alive, and STRONG. Lori has 20+ years experience working with youth and adults in schools. She organizes events and charitable activities, including the “B.A.M.” fitness conference.

JOHN PLATERO – PERSONAL TRAINING John Platero, CPT, is a fitness educator who has consulted both nationally and internationally, most recently for the Royal family of Qatar. He is the Director of Education for the National Council for Certified Personal Trainers. He has obtained 35 personal training certifications, filmed over 30 fitness videos and infomercials has been published by most of the fitness magazines and is the author of “Yes You Can – Fitness After 40 – A New Beginning.” As an athlete, John was a champion bodybuilder who turned cyclist and has won 21 gold, two silver and two bronze medals in cycling in the Senior Olympics and the Master’s Pan American Games.

JUSTIN PRICE - CORRECTIVE EXERCISE Justin Price, MA, CPT (ACE) is the creator of The BioMechanics Method® - the world's fastest growing corrective exercise education program for health and fitness professionals. He is an IDEA International Personal Trainer of the Year, subject matter expert on corrective exercise for the American Council on Exercise and BOSU, founding author of PTA Global, Director of Content and featured author on corrective exercise for PTontheNet and an education provider for TRX and the National Strength and Conditioning Association.

KRISTEN PUHLMAN – NUTRITION Kristen Puhlman, RD, CPT (NASM and WITS), Spinning Certified (IFTA), is an Outpatient Diabetes Educator at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center; currently residing in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She has a BS in Nutrition and Food from Kent State University. She owns and operates Obliques, LLC; a personal training business specializing in core training, weight management and individualized nutritional planning. She is also the on staff Dietitian for Aspire Fitness Studios. Her experience in the hospital setting is in clinical nutrition with a primary focus on weight management and the psychology of weight loss.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Ask the Experts AMY RAUWORTH – INCLUSIVE FITNESS Amy Rauworth, MS, RCEP, is the Associate Director of Operations and Exercise Physiology Research at the Center on Health Promotion Research for Persons with Disabilities (CHP). CHP is located at the University of Illinois at Chicago in the Depa2rtment of Disability and Human Development. She is a Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist with ACSM. Amy conducts Inclusive Fitness training nationally on behalf of the National Center on Physical Activity and Disability and specializes in accessible fitness center design.

TIM ROCHFORD – SELF DEFENSE Tim Rochford, MS in Exercise Science, BS in Sport Management has been in the fitness industry since 1984. His certifications include ACE Medical Fitness Specialist, ACE and NASM CPT, The Cooper Institute MPFS, IYCA Level 1 and AAHF Senior Fitness, plus he holds a 7th degree Black Belt in Kajukenbo/Kajukenpo Karate. Additionally, Tim is an adjunct instructor for Harper College in Palatine, Illinois. He is the founder of Empower Training Systems (a self defense and kickboxing fitness instructor training company). He is the co-author of the ACE Kickboxing Fitness Specialty Training manual. He has also designed and patented the P2 Force, a unique body weight and elastic resistance training apparatus that provides true multi-planar and multi-angle resistance training capabilities.

MARK ROOZEN – YOUTH STRENGTH AND SPORT CONDITIONING Mark Roozen, MEd, certified strength and conditioning coach (NSCA CSCS*D and CPT, and FNSCA), is Senior Content Editor for STACK Media which promotes safe training and sports enhancement and is Co-Director of the Performance Education Association. He has been in the strength, conditioning and performance field for over 28 years. Mark has worked with teams from the high school to the professional levels as a strength coach; performed as director of a hospital owned fitness and training facility, as well as owned his own training center; and, has worked with over 30,000 youth in sport camps across the country. He has presented, written and consulted worldwide.

TARA SAREEN - WELLNESS COACHING Tara Sareen, BS, is a Institute For Integrative Nutrition Certified Health Coach in the Greater Boston area and founder of iCrave Coaching. Through a unique, intensive 6-month coaching partnership, Tara's clients lose weight, identify food sensitivities, discover ‘life after sugar’ and heal and reduce chronic conditions such as joint pain, skin irritations, headaches, fatigue, infections, anxiety and depression.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

CODY SIPE – EXERCISE AND AGING Cody Sipe, PhD, ACSM Certified Clinical Exercise Specialist, ACSM Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist, is an award-winning industry leader in fitness for older adults with over 17 years of experience. He serves on the editorial boards of IDEA and Active Aging Today and is an advisory member for Canadian Fitness Education Services, WholyFit, the National Posture Institute and the ICAA Visioning Board. Cody is a past recipient of the IDEA Program Director of the Year award. His blog provides innovative fitness and business information for professionals working with older adults.

BRIAN SOUZA – EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY AND NUTRITION Brian Souza, BS, ACSM-HFS, is the owner of Be Fit Personal Training, a company providing theoretically and evidence based exercise to a variety of populations. Brian has been in the personal training industry for 10 years. He is will obtain a Master’s degree in Sport and Exercise Psychology from Springfield College in May 2011 and then will continue his education in a Doctoral level Sport and Exercise Psychology program. His research interests include exercise psychology, applied sports psychology, sports and exercise nutrition, positive psychology, and youth sport. He competes as a recreational triathlete.

MATTHEW B. SPANIER At the age of 18, Matthew B. Spanier was diagnosed with Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus. Due to his very active lifestyle he has been able to control the disease very well. He will graduate in June, 2013 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Exercise and Sport Science from Oregon State University. During his undergraduate studies he has interned and worked for the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF). After graduation Matt will continue his education at Ohio University, where he will be pursuing a Master's degree in Clinical Exercise Physiology.

JIM STARSHAK – TAI CHI FOR HEALTH Jim Starshak, MS, NSCA-CPT, IDEA Elite PFT is the Governing Board Chairman for the international Tai Chi for Health Institute, a Tai Chi for Health Master Trainer, an Exercise Science Adjunct Professor, and founder of The Home Gym, Inc. After 18+ years in US Special Forces (“Green Beret”), Jim is a disabled veteran who promotes tai chi internationally for its functional fitness and health benefits. He certifies Arthritis Foundation Tai Chi instructors and provides continuing education for Health & Fitness Professionals, Athletic Trainers, Physical & Occupational Therapists, and Nurses. Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Ask the Experts DENNIS SWEET Derrick Sweet is best known as a popular corporate keynote speaker and author of three highly celebrated books: Healthy Wealthy and Wise, Get The Most Out Of Life, and You Don't Have to Die to Go to Heaven. He is the creator of the Hypnolinguistics Course: Derrick is also the Chairman and Founder of the Certified Coaches Federation. Derrick created the coaching model that is the foundation of the Certified Coaches Federation's Certified Coach Practitioner Training and Development Program. For more information on the Certified Coaches Federation please visit:

KELLY WARD – MATURE FITNESS Kelly Ward, MS in Therapeutic Aging, CPT (AFAA and SFA), author of “The Complete Guide to Fall Prevention: Everything You Need to Know to Remain Independent,” is a certified FallProof™ balance and mobility specialist who has been teaching fall prevention classes for six years and has worked with older adults for over 15 years. Kelly’s mission is to educate and facilitate the adaptation of a reduced fall risk lifestyle. She presents easily understandable evidence-based research, applying this knowledge to daily life situations, and offers train-the-trainer programs. For more information on Kelly’s comprehensive fall prevention services or to order her book, see

WAYNE L. WESTCOTT – STRENGTH TRAINING Wayne Westcott, PhD, CSCS, directs the Quincy College Fitness Research Programs. He has been a strength training consultant for the US Navy, ACE, the YMCA of the USA and Nautilus. He is an editorial advisor for numerous publications, including The Physician and Sportsmedicine, ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, Prevention, Shape, and OnSitefitness; and has authored 24 books on strength training. He serves on the International Council on Active Aging Board of Advisors and ACSM’s New England Chapter.

WENDY A. WILLIAMSON - POST REHABILITATION SPECIALIST Wendy A. Williamson, PhD, ACE – CPT & CMES; NASM – CPT & CES; CFAS is nationally recognized as a leading educator, writer, and author. She has owned Williamson Wellness Center for over five years and has been in the fitness industry for over 20 years training, and speaking nationally, regionally and locally. She specializes in orthopedic conditions, neurological diseases, and serves as adjunct lecturer for Wichita State University with the Physician Assistant and Physical Therapy departments. Dr. Williamson also supervises exercise science interns from the Exercise Science Department. Her research focus has been with Parkinson Disease and Exercise.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

MICHAEL WOZNIAK Michael Wozniak BS, CPT, is the manager of the hospital-related fitness center at Harbor Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. He has 13 years experience in the fitness industry working with clients ranging from youth athletes to seniors and special populations. He has a Bachelors degree in Sport Psychology and is an ACE Certified Personal Trainer.

ROSE ZAHNN â&#x20AC;&#x201C; YOGA Rose Zahnn, CPT (ACE), GFI (AFAA), E-RYT200 (Yoga Alliance), is the founder and owner of Healthy Habits Fitness-Yoga-Pilates Studios, creator of PilatesFit and the Learn to Be Lean Program, and is a Master Trainer for YogaFit International, Flirty Girl Fitness, and Balletone. A UCLA graduate and a fitness professional for over 20 years, Rose teaches at Healthy Habits in Sacramento, California; presents at conferences, leading teacher trainings and workshops; and is a continuing education provider for ACE and AFAA.

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

References Fueling Tips for Early Morning Exercisers 1) Below, P. et al. Fluid and carbohydrate ingestion independently improve performance during 1 hour of intense exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:200-210, 1995. 2) Neufer P. et al. Improvements in exercise performance: effects of carbohydrate feedings and diet. J Appl Physiol 62(3):983, 1987 3) Schabort, E. et al. The effect of a preexercise meal on time to fatigue during prolonged cycling exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31(3):464-471, 1999. 4) Hawley J and Burke L. Carbohydrate availability and training adaptation: effects on cell metabolism. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 38(4):152-60, 2010.

Rest Periods with the Flexible Periodization Method 1) Penzer F, Cabrol A, Baudry S, Duchateau J. Comparison of muscle activity and tissue oxygenation during strength training protocols that differ by their organization, rest interval between sets and volume. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1795-1806. 2016. 2) Salles BF, Simao R, Miranda F, Novaes JS, Lemos A, Willardson JM. Rest Interval Between Sets in Strength Training. Sports Med, 39(9): 765-777. 2009. 3) Henselmans M, Schoenfeld BJ. The Effect of Inter-Set Rest Intervals on Resistance Exercise Induced Muscle Hypertrophy. Sports Medicine. 2014. 4) Senna GW, Willardson JM, Scudese E. Simao R, Queiroz C, Avelar R, Dantas EHM. Effect of Different Interset Rest Intervals On Performance of Single And Multijoint Exercises With Near Maximal Loads. J Strength Cond Res. 30(3): 710-716. 2016. 5) Enoka RM, Duchateau J. Translating Fatique To Human Performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Published Ahead of Print. 6) Enoka RM. Acute Adjustments. Neuromechanics of Human Movement 4th Ed. Chapter 8, page 317. Human Kinetics. 2008. 7) Kubik BD. The Iron Will To Succeed. Dinosaur Training Lost Secrets of Strength and Development. Chapter 21, p 188. Brooks D Kubik. 1996. 8) Counts BR, Buckner SL, Dankel SJ, Jessee MB, Mattocks KT, Mouser JG, Laurentino GC, Loenneke JP. The acute and chronic effects of "NO LOAD" resistance training. Physiol Behav. 2016;164 (Pt A):345-352. 9) Drinkwater EJ, Lawton TW, Lindsell RP, Pyne DB, Hunt PH, McKenna MJ. Training Leading to Repetition Failure Enhances Bench Press Strength Gains In Elite Junior Athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 19(2): 382-388. 2005. 10) Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Anderson CH, Zebis MK, Mortensen OS. Muscle Activation Strategies During Strength Training With Heavy Loading Vs Repetitions To Failure. J Strength Cond Res. 26(7): 1897-1903. 2012 11) Schoenfeld B. The Mechanisms Of Muscle Hypertrophy and their application to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. 24(10): 2857-2872. 2010. 12) Schoenfeld BJ, Pope ZK, Benik FM, Hester GM, Sellers J, Nooner JL, Schnaiter JA, Bond Williams KE, Carter AS, Ross CL, Just BL, Henselmanns M, Krieger JW. Longer Inter-set Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance Trained Men. J Strength Cond Res. 30(7):1805-1812. 2016.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

13) Jensen K. Intra-set Rest, Inter-repetition rest - Cluster Training. Maximal Strength: How to Manifest Untapped Potential for Strength Using The Flexible Periodization Method. Appendix 4. 14) Fink JE, Schoenfeld BJ, Kikuchi N, Nakarato K. Acute and Long Term Responses To Different Rest Intervals in Low-Load Resistance Training. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016. 15) Rogatzki MJ, Wrigth GA, Mikat RP, Brice AG. Blood Ammonium and Lactate Accumulation Response to Different Training Protocols Using the Parallel Squat Exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 28(4): 1113-1118. 2014. 16) De Souza JTP, Fleck SJ, Simao R, Dubas JP, Perreira B, Pacheco EM, Da Silva AC, De Oliveira PR. Comparison Between Constant and Decreasing Rest Intervals: Influence on Maximal Strength and Hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res. 24(7):1843-1050. 2010. 17) 17Penzer F, Cabrol A, Baudry S, Duchateau J. Comparison of muscle activity and tissue oxygenation during strength training protocols that differ by their organization, rest interval between sets and volume. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1795-1806. 2016 18) Schoenfeld BJ. Potential Mechanisms of Metabolic Stress in Hypertrophic Adaptations to Resistance Training. 43:179-194. 2013. 19) Rossi FE, Gerosa-Neto J, Diniz TA, Junior IFF, Lira FS, Cholewa JM. Moderate Rest Intervals are superior to short intervals for improving PAI-1 following exhaustive exercise in recreational weightlifters. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation. 12(6):559-566. 2016. 20) De Salles BF, Polito MD, Goessler KF, Mannarino P, Matta TT, Simao R. Effects of fixed vs. self-suggested rest between sets in upper and lower body exercise performance. European Journal of Sport Science. 2016.

Muscle and Muscle Training 1) American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2009; 41:1510-1530. 2) American College of Sports Medicine. ACSMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer, 2018. 3) American Council on Exercise. New study puts the crunch on ineffective ab exercises. ACE Fitness Matters. May/June 2001. 4) Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, et al. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diab. Care. 2002; 25(10): 1729-1736. 5) Flack KD, Davy KP, Huber MAW, et al. Aging, resistance training, and diabetes prevention. J. Aging Res. 2011; doi:10.4061/2011/127315. 6) Hackney KJ, Engels HJ, Gretebeck RJ. Resting energy expenditure and delayed-onset muscle soreness after full-body resistance training with an eccentric concentration. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2008; 22(5):1602-1609. 7) Holten MK, Zacho M, Gaster C, et al. Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2004; 53(2):294-305 8) Haskell W, Lee I, Pate R, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendations for adults from the American College of Sporte. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 84:475-4s Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2007; 39:1423-1434. 9) Heden T, Lox C, Rose P, et al. One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 hours similar to three sets. Eur. J. App. Physiol. 2011; 111:477-484. Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

10) Kemmler WS, Von Stengel S, Weineck J, et al. Exercise effects on menopausal risk factors of early postmenopausal women: 3-yr Erlangen fitness osteoporosis prevention study results. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005; 37:194-203. 11) Marcell TJ. Sarcopenia: Causes, consequences, and preventions. J. Gerontol. 2003; 58A:M911-M916. 12) Nelson ME, Fiatarone M, Morganti C., et al. Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. JAMA. 1994; 272: 1909-1914. 13) Phillips SM, Winett RA. Uncomplicated resistance training and health-related outcomes: Evidence for a public health mandate. Current Sports Med. Reports. 2010; 9(4):208-213. 14) Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diab. Care. 2006; 29(1):S4-S42. 15) Strasser B, Schobersberger W. Evidence of resistance training as a treatment therapy in obesity. J. Obesity; 2011; doi:1155/2011/482564 16) Warren M, Petit A, Hannan P, Schmitz K. Strength training effects on bone mineral content and density in premenopausal women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2008; 40(7):1282-1288. 140. 17) Westcott WL, Winett RA, Annesi JJ, et al. Prescribing physical activity: Applying the ACSM protocols for exercise type, intensity, and duration across 3 training frequencies. Physician Sportsmed. 2009; 2(37):5158. 18) Wolfe RR. The unappreciated role of muscle in health and diseas82.

Back to Table of Contents


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Back to Table of Contents

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal


GAMUT, Issue 65, Apr/May 2019

Join us on:

Or visit us on Facebook and Twitter

Subscribe to the FREE e-Journal

Back to Table of Contents

Create a niche. KNOW. TRAIN. RETAIN.

Profile for Gamut

Gamut Issue 65 Apr/May 2019  

This issue of the Gamut provides insights to smartly achieving physical development goals by maximizing the training effort.

Gamut Issue 65 Apr/May 2019  

This issue of the Gamut provides insights to smartly achieving physical development goals by maximizing the training effort.

Profile for gamut9