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GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION

GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION PROJECTS 2003 PROJECT NAME

GALVANIZING ARCHITECTURE TWELVE CONTEMPORARY PROJECTS

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CONTENTS


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CONTENTS

PROJECT _

ARCHITECT _

LOCATION _

PAGE _

IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM - NORTH

STUDIO LIBESKIND, BERLIN

MANCHESTER, UK

12-19

HOUSES IN CONSTANCE

SCHAUDT ARCHITECTS

CONSTANCE, GERMANY

20-25

SILVERSMITH’S WORKSHOP

PLASMA STUDIOS

LONDON, UK

26-29

GLASS CENTRE

GOLLIFER LANGSTON ARCHITECTS

SUNDERLAND, UK

30-35

KINGS WHARF

STEPHEN DAVY PETER SMITH

LONDON, UK

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BOATHOUSE

McALLISTER & Co

LONDON, UK

40-43

THE RECEPTION BUILDING H M PRISON, SAUGHTON

GARETH HOSKINS ARCHITECTS

EDINBURGH, UK

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LYHNER DAIRY

SUTHERLAND HUSSEY ARCHITECTS

CORNWALL, UK

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HOMES FOR THE FUTURE

IAN RITCHIE ARCHITECTS USHIDA FINLEY (UK) LIMITED RICK MATHER ARCHITECTS ELDER & CANNON ARCHITECTS JM ARCHITECTS (FORMERLY McKEAWN ALEXANDER)

GLASGOW, UK

52-57

SPRINGTECTURE H

SHUHEI ENDO

OSAKA, JAPAN

58-61

CHORLTON PARK

STEPHENSON BELL ARCHITECTS

MANCHESTER, UK

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EDEN PROJECT

NICHOLAS GRIMSHAW & PARTNERS

CORNWALL, UK

68-73

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INTRODUCTION

Steel is a strong, versatile and inexpensive material with uses in many different industries. It has, however, one major disadvantage: it is prone to corrosion, even in some interior environments. Corrosion prevention is therefore essential if steel structures are to be economical.

This book aims to give an overview of the versatility of galvanized steel. Today it is used not only to provide corrosion protection but also to enhance the architectural aesthetic of buildings across the UK & the world.

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INTRODUCTION

Twelve projects are featured to show galvanizing in action. Within each project galvanizing has an integral part to play fusing together architecture and structural design.

Whether it is used within a major signature building, or the ordinary handrail, galvanizing brings a certain solidity and vitality to the fabric of the building.

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HISTORY

Why Galvanizing?

Birth of the UK galvanizing industry

Any old Iron – the first galvanized product?

The word “galvanizing” is derived from the name of Luigi Galvani, an Italian physiologist, who, in 1786, made the classic observation that when the bodies of dead frogs were hung on an iron frame by copper wires, twitching of the legs occurred whenever they touched the iron. It was later recognized that the legs of the frogs were galvanized into apparent life by electric currents, generated by two dissimilar metals in contact, which flowed through the frogs’ legs when the circuit was completed by their touching the ironwork.

Commander HV Crawford RN took out the first galvanizing patent in 1837. By 1839, the British Galvanization of Metals Company had been formed in London. Although galvanizing began in London it moved almost immediately to the Black Country, in particular Wolverhampton, where Edward Davies built works at Snow Hill in 1838 and later in Foxes Lane.

The first iron sheets made in Britain were rolled at the end of the 18th century. The industrial revolution brought an increasing demand for larger industrial buildings, railway stations being an example. The traditional roofing materials such as tiles and slate were not suitable for the large spans of the new buildings and the sheet roofing systems using copper and lead were too expensive for the new utilitarian buildings.

Volta continued work on the nature of Galvani’s discovery and in 1799 invented the copper-zinc primary cell, which was capable of producing considerable quantities of electricity by dissolving zinc. This electricity was known as galvanic electricity to distinguish it from the far smaller quantities of electricity generated by friction or by electro-static machines. In 1829 Faraday observed that, with zinc and iron in contact with one another in the presence of a saline solution, the iron remained completely protected and did not rust; whereas if the zinc was removed or separated from the iron by a piece of wood the iron rusted rapidly. He attributed this “to the effect of chemical action, etc, in existing electricity.” Seven years later Sorel took out a patent in France for a process of coating steel by dipping it in molten zinc and named the process “galvanizing.” The word was clearly used to indicate the electro-chemical protection given by zinc where breaks in the coating exposed the underlying iron. The minute currents of galvanic electricity set up by the zinc and iron in contact prevented exposed parts of the iron from rusting. The name given to the new zinc coating was quickly adopted, since zinc was the metal almost universally used at that time for producing galvanic electricity.

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The galvanizing industry grew quickly in the mid-1800s as demand for galvanized corrugated iron sheeting for temporary buildings took off with the discovery of gold in Australia and California.

It is claimed in Loudon’s encyclopaedia that “Walker of Rotherhithe” was the inventor of corrugated iron. However, the first patent connected to corrugated iron was granted to Henry Palmer, a London civil engineer, in 1829. Palmer did not claim the forming of the sheets as his invention but he claimed originality for its application to roofs and walls.

It seems the material was first used for large-span roofs in the London docks. The corrugation of sheet was an ingenious invention – the corrugation significantly increases the strength of the material – but curving the sheet meant that it could be connected with other sheets to form an arch to provide a self supporting roof. The concept of galvanizing corrugated iron was developed very quickly as a way of prolonging the life of the iron. It was so successful that by 1860 out of the 10,000t of iron that were being galvanized almost all of it was corrugated sheet.


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PRESENT DAY

Present day...

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PROJECT IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM NORTH _ ARCHITECT STUDIO LIBESKIND, BERLIN _ LOCATION MANCHESTER, UK _

The Imperial War Museum – North is a building dealing with the ravages and implications of world conflict. The concept for the project is that of a globe shattered into fragments, reassembled on the site as an iconic emblem of conflict. The building brings together culture and regeneration, craft and design, in order to give the public a striking emblem, which in an instant illuminates both tradition and the new. “The building is a simple interlocking of three shards, representing Earth, Air and Water, constituting the various functions of the Museum. The entire composition is founded in the narration of a landscape designed to show 24 time gardens giving the public immediate topographical orientation with the matrix of globalised conflict,” says Daniel Libeskind. The site is on the Manchester Ship Canal, an area adjacent to the Manchester United Football ground, currently undergoing major economic and commercial regeneration. The high Air Shard creates a dramatic view of the museum and attracts visitors from all over the northern region. Visitors can view out from a 29m high viewing platform over the canal to the skyline of Manchester. “Only through the use of galvanized steel could the high demands on architecture, function and cost be achieved.”

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“The Air Shard is the main entrance to the museum. The exposed galvanized steel structure in the Air Shard relates the museum to the former industrial harbour of the Manchester Ship Canal. The ageing patina of the galvanized tubes connects the building to its historical contents. The galvanized structure creates a homogenous web of lines that challenges the visitors’ views and weaves the experience of the Air Shard into the visitors’ total experience of the museum.

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In order to create the maximum effect the façade of the Air Shard allows light to stream in which reflects off the galvanized steel adding another dimension to the scale and complexity of the experience on entry into the museum. _ Photographers: Ian Lawson \ Studio Libeskind

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HOUSES IN CONSTANCE

PROJECT HOUSES IN CONSTANCE _ ARCHITECT SCHAUDT ARCHITECTS _ LOCATION CONSTANCE, GERMANY _

In 1990 the city of Constance held a competition to update an obsolete plan for the building of single-family houses in the Jungerhalde area. The idea was that the plan should be put together in such a way that approximately 35 residential units suitable for families with children could be erected on the site. Preference would be given to self-contained single-family dwellings, rather than the usual type of flats. In particular, there should be an incentive to buy the property rather than just rent it. Schaudt Architects won the design competition. The proposal included dividing the singlefamily residential units into approximately 35 blocks, which would be constructed in different styles, in order to carry out a cost comparison and, if possible, to produce cost reductions. One of the blocks was constructed using conventional house building materials, a second using a timber frame and the third using a steel frame. The steel frame was not very popular with the buyers of the houses so the architects decided to purchase one of the units for themselves to use it as a "sample house" that would be built according to their original ideas. The entire steel structure was galvanized, to protect against corrosion but also for design reasons. The surfaces inside the house have not been painted because the “galvanized surface is one of the most beautiful of all building materials.” Schaudt like the slightly

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irregular surface texture and its pleasing, neutral grey-silver colour. It produces the sensation of a certain visual depth, so that structures made of galvanized steel have a more delicate effect than those that have been painted. In contrast to the steel framework, the partition walls were painted white (to give a bright atmosphere in the rooms) and all the floors were covered with larch boards (creating a warm atmosphere). Both external walls were almost fully glazed. It was very important for the architects to create a bright and friendly atmosphere in the rooms to differentiate it from a typical terraced house. Martin Cleffmann of Schaudt Architects says, “a further important consideration was to make use of the third dimension, as this is one of the advantages of a single-family house.” In blocks of flats people move about between two concrete ceilings (like in a sandwich) and for this reason throughout the whole house we linked the different levels with each other by means of large airy spaces and galleries. In this way the full volume of the house can be used and a spatial structure is produced which bears no relation to the usual cramped conditions of a terraced house. _ Photographs: Reiner Blünck, Germany


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SILVERSMITH’S WORKSHOP

PROJECT SILVERSMITH’S WORKSHOP _ ARCHITECT PLASMA STUDIOS _ LOCATION LONDON, UK _

The concept behind this very unusual and highly creative use of galvanized steel grating, which forms a translucent, internal, spiral landscape is explained by its designers: “Working as a silversmith, our client needed more useable space in his industrial shell but could not afford to loose any of the natural light provided by the existing sky-light. Solving this apparent contradiction became the driving force for the distinctive tectonics of this project. The solution creates a continuous ‘landscape’ circumscribing a central void underneath the existing roof light. Made from industrial galvanized steel grating that at once transmits and deflects a large amount of light, the upward spiralling surface is guided and structurally supported by a truss structure that acts as a balustrade. It offers a continuous succession of areas, each one staging a different activity, yet with no clear definitions.” Conceptually stretching the boundaries between work and rest, into transitional zones, this structure offers the experience of a seamless, viscous unity. The ascension of a user through the continuous spiral produces a gradual shift towards increasingly private and personal spaces. The new spaces also need to serve as a gallery for the display of the client’s crafted pieces. Visitors move upwards while examining the work at gradually progressive stages until reaching the final treasures that are displayed directly underneath the skylight.

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The project progressed through close collaboration with the manufacturer, who specially developed the galvanized steel grating used for the surfaces. The steel mesh size derived from the need to comfortably accommodate bare feet without compromising the passage of light from the roof. The resulting solution condenses the cross bars while maintaining the usual distance between the baring bars. The galvanized finish allows for the even reflection of light throughout the space producing a visual moiré effect and eliminating the need for additional finishes. “While the material was selected on the basis of its formative qualities, the act of shifting the galvanized grating from its regular industrial context to a residential environment unfolded new possibilities in its use and applications.” _ Photographs: Plasma studios


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PROJECT GLASS CENTRE _ ARCHITECT GOLLIFER LANGSTON ARCHITECTS _ LOCATION SUNDERLAND, UK _

In 1994 Gollifer Langston Architects won the competition held by the Tyne and Wear Development Corporation for the design of the National Glass Centre, Sunderland. The site is on the north bank of the River Wear - known as St. Peter's Riverside - on what was until recently former shipyards but is now dominated by the new Sunderland University campus. Most of the original features of the site had been removed and the river's edge had been defined with a stone revetment. The project won lottery funding to become one of the major projects of the Millennium for the north east.

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Sunderland has an ancient association with glassmaking. This started in 67AD when glassmaking was first introduced at St. Peters monastery when glassmakers from Gaul taught local people the craft. Although it has not been continuously associated with the city since, glass has been a prominent industry within the city for the last 300 years and currently Sunderland is the home to major producers. The client identified a combination of uses which were designed to provide both largescale glass production space and small-scale space for individual glass makers and researchers. The centre was designed to be a resource that would act as a focus for the local industry and for glass making nationwide. On the public side there was recognition of a local interest in the industry and an opportunity to allow the public a closer view via a prescribed route through the glass making areas.

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The architecture emerges from the land rather than being imposed upon it like an object. From the point of arrival at the top of the site the building is almost unseen. All that is visible are the canopies, the ventilation towers and chimneys of the factory, which are sculptural objects in an artificial landscape.

Gollifer Langston chose hot dip galvanizing for several reasons: “The silver colour fitted in with the other materials being used and with the general policy of using “natural” finishes. Galvanizing was competitive on an initial cost basis as well as providing low maintenance protection for the future.”

The glass roof lets light into the broad plan of the building - and the broad plan itself is generated by the decision to house all the working space at ground level. It also allows visitors to experience glass in a particularly intense way by walking upon it. What is normally an unused, or at least uninhabited area of a building, thus becomes fully accessible - giving a distinctive building form.

This is a major new public building that exploits the use of steel and glass to give a light appearance. All the external stairs, ramps, walkways and canopies, which are a fundamental part of the architecture, are constructed of galvanized steel.

Gollifer Langston say “steel - the material which really created the possibility of glass in this kind of scale - is an essential part of the character of the building, with its expressed industrial language, and gives an energy to the spaces beneath the calm roof plane. Very little of the structure is hidden and much of the workings and processes are on view. In some cases, such as the front facade, elements are dissected and pulled apart a kind of unveiling of the real and another level of transparency.”

This light, refreshing design demonstrates the possibilities of steel and glass. _ Photographs: Tim Soar

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KINGS WHARF

PROJECT KINGS WHARF _ ARCHITECT STEPHEN DAVY PETER SMITH _ LOCATION LONDON, UK _

This bright, modern, mixed use development has revitalised a previously dreary plot on the Kingsland Road, East London. Located on the site of a former petrol station the scheme, which overlooks Regent’s Canal, falls within a defined employment zone and conservation area in the London Borough of Hackney. Stephen Davy and Peter Smith Architects have confidently conceived a functional design solution to this unyielding site with their King’s Wharf development. The King’s Wharf scheme comprises three separate buildings containing 57 stacked units split between private and social use positioned in a ‘U’ shape around a central courtyard. The buildings have been designed to both complement and challenge the industrial urban setting with the use of sturdy construction materials such as brick, galvanized steel and glass. At the Kingsland Road façade a combination of purplish grey engineering bricks and thin, slashed windows have been utilised above the glazed retail units that line the ground floor providing the exterior of the development with a uniform, fortress-like appearance.

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By contrast the internal courtyard has a light, welcoming atmosphere with white-painted walls and cedar panelling softening the core of the scheme. An imposing cantilevered steel frame supports a walkway deck that provides access to ground level by way of two stairwells contained within steel mesh towers situated at either end of the courtyard. To prevent the King’s Wharf complex from being an isolated development the deck platforms have been cleverly designed to loop through the bottom of the internal courtyard to the exterior façade linking it to the surrounding area. A paved walkway area has also been installed along the western side of the scheme connecting it to Regent’s Canal. The architects chose galvanized steelwork because it would provide long term corrosion protection as well a maintenance-free finish. But another very important aspect for them was that it created a link between the development and the industrial nature of the area. _ Photographs: Nick Hufton, View


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PROJECT BOATHOUSE _ ARCHITECT McALLISTER & Co _ LOCATION LONDON, UK _

London architects McAllister & Co recently completed a project to design a new boathouse beside a lake in a London park. It was to replace an earlier block-work garage that had major structural problems and was considered unsuitable for such an important setting. The boathouse was constructed as part of a larger restoration project in Battersea Park, funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund.

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The new boathouse is designed to accommodate a rescue craft, a small workshop, boat parts storage and a soundproofed chamber for a lake aerator compressor. The building was located so that it appeared to float on the water from many aspects and was positioned so as to terminate the new balau wood boardwalk that sweeps around the lake from the park cafĂŠ. The large, sliding doors at each end of the boathouse are of the same width and material as the deck so they become an integral (and moveable) part of the landscape; opening and closing like an in-out sign and allowing views through the building.

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The boathouse rests on concrete pile foundations. A concrete raft supports the cast, in-situ concrete compressor chamber. A simple three-bay box-frame of galvanized steel universal beams forms the main structure. It supports 12 triangular trusses of greenheart, a sustainable hardwood that is suitable for damp conditions. The trusses, in turn, support treated softwood purlins and softwood joists. The roof consists of copper sheets, jointed with standing seams, which lie on a geotextile fleece and a 25mm birch-ply deck. Rainwater is directed by the standing seams and runs off the roof into the lake. The design of the new structure was to follow a rationale established very early on. This was a building which should be robust, withstand vandalism but must also be rather timeless, well proportioned, contribute to its picturesque environment and have an integrity which comes from the honesty of the construction materials. It was decided that, wherever possible, materials should be unfinished. _ Photographs: Dennis Gilbert, View

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PROJECT THE RECEPTION BUILDING H _ M PRISON, SAUGHTON ARCHITECT GARETH HOSKINS ARCHITECTS _ LOCATION EDINBURGH, UK _

Saughton prison, situated just to the west of Edinburgh, is a grim place. However, there was no reason why the reception and waiting area for visitors should not be an open and friendly building. Gareth Hoskins Architects succeeded in the difficult task of designing a building that provides essential facilities such as a café, waiting room, crèche, toilets, counselling suites and an information centre for friends and relations visiting the prisoners. It is simple, light and welcoming. The visitors enter through the north side of the building, which appears quite conventional. However, the roof on the south side of the building is raised allowing sunlight to flood the waiting area. The south wall is a simple construction of galvanized columns and beams inset with large windows. Along the north side, galvanized steel cruciform columns support glulam beams. The mixture of galvanized steel and untreated timber is used repeatedly throughout the building. _ Photographs: David Churchill

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PROJECT LYHNER DAIRY _ ARCHITECT SUTHERLAND HUSSEY ARCHITECTS _ LOCATION CORNWALL, UK _

The project involved the construction of a new factory for the production of Cornish Yarg cheese (a nettle-wrapped, local, hard cheese). The client wished, for reasons of sustainability and image, to locate the factory on his own farmland. This called for a building that would be both sympathetic to its highly visible rural location, yet be as economic as a modern industrial estate unit, whilst fulfiling all the requirements of a flexible and expandable floor-plate with hygienic walls, ceilings and floors. The inception of the project coincided with the foot and mouth outbreak at a time when the farming industry in the UK was in chaos and the government espoused diversification. The planners were therefore willing to consider an application on the understanding that the building would be as discrete and as sensitive to its surroundings as possible. The architects achieved this by designing a single storey, steel framed building clad with timber. The frame was made from galvanized steel, as were several non-structural details such as the gutters and vents. _ Photographs: Morley Von Sternberg

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HOMES FOR THE FUTURE

PROJECT HOMES FOR THE FUTURE _ ARCHITECT IAN RITCHIE ARCHITECTS USHIDA FINLEY (UK) LIMITED RICK MATHER ARCHITECTS _

ELDER & CANNON ARCHITECTS JM ARCHITECTS (FORMERLY McKEAWN ALEXANDER)

LOCATION GLASGOW, UK _ Glasgow Green was the city’s first public space. An area close to the old town which provided a safety valve for the tightly packed buildings of the time - somewhere to escape to for pleasure or for dissent. It was around the edge of Glasgow Green that the wealthy industrialists built their homes at the end of the 18th century. Glasgow was the Hong Kong or Shanghai of its day and as the population doubled every generation, so the city expanded westwards, away from the Green. The wealthy abandoned the area for the new suburbs leaving behind dereliction and decay.

Two competitions were held - one to choose the architects to draw up a master plan for the area and a second to choose architects to design the individual buildings within it. Page and Park won the first competition and their master plan allowed for a variety of different building types and so several architects, some local, some national and one international were used.

In 1995, Glasgow won the right to stage a year-long cultural event: to own the coveted title of “UK City of Architecture and Design, 1999.” Several ideas were put forward and, although it was not one of the original ones, the idea of a demonstration housing project soon caught the public imagination. The project would be in three phases with the first phase, on a triangular plot of land by Glasgow Green, to be completed in 1999. The project would set out to demonstrate that new and exciting architecture could play its part in stimulating the repopulation of Glasgow’s East End.

The other great feature expressed throughout almost all of the designs was the use of galvanized steel. _

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The designs, although very different both in conception and construction, all come together to form an almost magical triangle of homes.

Photographs: David Churchill


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SPRINGTECTURE H

PROJECT SPRINGTECTURE H _ ARCHITECT SHUHEI ENDO _ LOCATION OSAKA, JAPAN _

This is a facility in a small park sited in a highly artificial location, which can be reached in one hour from Osaka, using the bullet train in the mountains of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Located in a park sandwiched by newly built elementary and secondary school buildings, the facility has a simple structure comprising three sections: a janitor's room, a men's room and a women's room. Public lavatories are required to provide convenience, based on openness, and security, deriving from closedness. This small facility, apparently a simple assemblage of parts, is described by it’s designer, as "Halftecture" (half + architecture), since it is characterized simultaneously by both openness and closedness.

The architectural concept of this facility aims to form a linkage between openness and closedness through continuity of galvanized corrugated steel sheets. Interior walls double as exterior ceilings and floors, which also extend as exterior walls and roofs and once again turn into interior parts. The interior and exterior form a linkage of changes, challenging architectural norms expected by the observer, and suggesting a new, heterogeneous architectural form. The facility is also a small attempt towards a new architecture, realised by the continuous interplay between the interior and the exterior and the interactive effect of partial sharing of roofs, floors and walls. _

“Openness is essentially the possibility of passage. In the case of this facility, however, passage is provided in three directions, with no clearly defined entrance. This avoids the defensiveness that is created, paradoxically, by demarcated openings and the transparency of glass; in other words making the whole facility a structure for passage, suggesting the possibility of entrance from almost anywhere. On the other hand, closedness as a spatial attribute is created by the use of corrugated steel, roofs, walls and floors, to which permeability is added by the 3.2 mm clearance of reversed steel sheets.”

Photographs: Yoshiharu Matsumura

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CHORLTON PARK

PROJECT CHORLTON PARK _ ARCHITECT STEPHENSON BELL ARCHITECTS _ LOCATION MANCHESTER, UK _

The limited, invited competition by Irwell Valley Housing Association, originally required 20 new homes to be built on the site of a disused and badly contaminated former petrol filling station. The design brief called for space, light and integration of the external environment. Planners recognised that the immediate area had little to offer in terms of design and were keen to see a distinctive and landmark design on the site. Tom Bloxham of Urban Splash was one of the assessors and proposed a design, totalling 27 units, which involved forming an underground car park utilising the void caused by removal of contaminated earth and adding four duplex apartments above the original proposal. The majority of the development remains at three storeys, although the five-storey element is at the current height limit for timber framed construction. The bold use of green-oak gives the building an immediate distinctiveness. Access to flats is via generous timber floored decks. A network of galvanized steel both to the rear and front elevations of the building surrounds them. Although there is little communal space, the roof garden, circulation areas, and single entrance, will encourage communal activity. The plan and section layout is devised to provide for both community and privacy.

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More space is given to the living areas by reducing circulation. Natural light is maximised by the orientation of all living areas. High levels of insulation (U value = 0.11) and the whole house ventilation ensure very low heating costs (estimated to be under ÂŁ100 per annum). Privacy and security are enhanced with a raised ground floor; and car parking is safely controlled and screened by planting. Expensive energy generators, photo voltaics, solar panels, or windmills have been rejected in favour of high insulation and energy conservation. Louvered screens provide shade and privacy. The balcony is an extension of the living space overlooking the park and uses massive green-oak posts and beams from wind damaged French forests. Construction of the timber frame is quick, efficient and cost effective. Galvanized steel connectors are used to slot the oak posts together. The building has low embedded energy, is highly insulated, quiet and warm. The external materials have been selected for their robustness and ease of maintenance. _ Photographs: Charlotte Wood


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EDEN PROJECT

PROJECT EDEN PROJECT _ ARCHITECT NICHOLAS GRIMSHAW & _ PARTNERS LOCATION CORNWALL, UK _

The Eden project has captured the imagination of the public not just in the UK but also in Europe and the rest of the world. The project is a showcase for bio-diversity. It is has converted disused clay-pits into the largest plant enclosure in the world and has been built in the lightest and most ecological way possible. The giant biomes covering 15 hectares (the size of 35 football pitches) house thousands of plants from around the world, promoting environmental awareness and understanding. The biomes comprise of two chains, each with four inter-linked, nesting domes, set in a disused clay pit. The biomes vary in size from 37m to 124m diameters, and up to 40m high. The four west domes contain the equatorial, tropical rain forest climate zones. The four east domes have warm climate zones for Mediterranean fauna. The trees in this area are expected to reach heights of over 40m. The support structure for the eight biomes is extremely light, considering its impressive size and has been galvanized to provide the best solution for corrosion protection.

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The galvanized steel structure is a two-layer, spherically curved, three-dimensional framework comprising almost 4,000 joints and over 11,000 rods using the Mero threedimensional framework system. The top, or outer, layer forms a hexagonal network (hexahedron network). The transparent covering for all eight biomes consists of large hexagonal air pads, each consisting of three layers of high-strength, Texlon fluoroplastic films. Although separated by air cushions, these pads are held in place by a frame of specially extruded aluminium profiles. Nowhere in the world has anyone used so many, or such large, pads (max. 5.2m) before. The two superimposed insulating cushions explain the outstanding heat insulation of this Texlon system. This spectacular structure with its fascinating geometry effortlessly brings everything together, architecture, structural design and the environment. _ Photographs: Peter Cook, View


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS WITH THANKS TO: _

ARCHITECTS _

.

PHOTOGRAPHERS _

.

ELDER & CANNON ARCHITECTS

RICK MATHER ARCHITECTS

CHARLOTTE WOOD

PETER COOK, VIEW

GARETH HOSKINS ARCHITECTS

SCHAUDT ARCHITECTS

DAVID CHUCHILL

PLASMA STUDIOS

GOLLIFER LANGSTON ARCHITECTS

SHUHEI ENDO

DENNIS GILBERT, VIEW

REINER BLÜNCK, GERMANY

IAN RITCHIE ARCHITECTS

STEPHEN DAVY PETER SMITH

IAN LAWSON

STUDIO LIBESKIND, BERLIN

McALLISTER & Co

STEPHENSON BELL ARCHITECTS

MORLEY VON STERNBERG

TIM SOAR

JM ARCHITECTS

STUDIO LIBESKIND, BERLIN

NICK HUFTON, VIEW

YOSHIHARU MATSUMURA

(FORMERLY McKEAWN ALEXANDER)

NICHOLAS GRIMSHAW & PARTNERS

SUTHERLAND HUSSEY ARCHITECTS

PLASMA STUDIOS

USHIDA FINLEY (UK) LIMITED

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PLEASE NOTE: _

CARE HAS BEEN TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT THE CONTENTS OF THIS PUBLICATION ARE ACCURATE, BUT GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION DOES NOT ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ERRORS OR FOR INFORMATION WHICH IS FOUND TO BE MISLEADING. SUGGESTIONS FOR, OR THE END USE OR APPLICATION OF, GALVANIZED PRODUCTS ARE FOR INFORMATION ONLY GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION ACCEPTS NO LIABILITY IN RESPECT THEREOF. BEFORE HAVING PRODUCTS HOT DIP GALVANIZED, THE CUSTOMER SHOULD SATISFY THEMSELVES OF THEIR SUITABILITY.

DESIGN: _

UN.TITLED TEL: 0116 2471111 WWW.UN.TITLED.CO.UK

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galvanizers association

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TEL: +44 (0) 121 355 8838 FAX: +44 (0) 121 355 8727 E-MAIL: hdg.org.uk WEBSITE: www.galvanizing.org.uk

12 CONTEMPORARY PROJECTS

DESIGN: UN.TITLED TEL: 0116 2471111 WWW.UN.TITLED.CO.UK

WREN’S COURT 56 VICTORIA ROAD SUTTON COLDFIELD WEST MIDLANDS B72 1SY


12 Contemporary Projects  

An overview of 12 contemporary architecture projects that use galvanizing.

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