Aug / Sept ’11
Bishop James S. Wall,
v oice S o u t h w e s t
Fidelity and Ser vice to our Church, the Faithful, and Christ
Newspaper for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gallup
VOL. 51 NO. 3
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Meet New Chancellor,
Returned to Her
Sacred Heart School
Safe Environment Director
Place in Heaven
Saint Paul’s in Crownpoint, NM Celebrates 50 years
Diocese’s Four Seminarians ‘Josephinum Sees Record Enrollment’ page 11
‘Pray for Our Seminarians’ page 16
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Around the time John F. Kennedy succeeded Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency, and a gallon of gas was 27 cents, Saint Paul’s Catholic Church was canonically established in Crownpoint, New Mexico, within the Diocese of Gallup. It was 1961. Franciscan missionaries had catechized in the area for many years. Now Sunday Mass was being offered at the boarding school. It seemed the right time to build a church. Rev. Conall Lynch, OFM, the founding pastor, also took care of Saint Bonaventure in Thoreau, New Mexico and the two parishes were known as the Checkerboard Catholic Missions, so named because of the land status of the area. By 1985, the primarily Navajo parish had outgrown the small mission-style church and ground was broken for the current hogan-shaped structure.
“Saint Paul’s” continued on page 11 > >
A New Direction
The Church Remembers
for Diocesan Schools
pages 8 and 9
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Bishop Wall Appoints Chancellor Safe Environment Director; Opens Mission Resource Office Bishop Wall recently announced the appointment of Father Kevin Finnegan as Chancellor of the Diocese of Gallup and Deacon Paul Endter as the Safe Environment director. Father Matthew Keller—the diocese’s former chancellor—remains the Director of Vocations for the diocese and will manage a new mission resource office.
Deacon Paul Endter, Safe Environment Director
Deacon Paul Endter was born in 1934 in Benshausen, Germany, and escaped Communist East Germany with his mother in 1946. His father escaped through the Berlin Air Lift in 1948, and the family settled in Reading, Pennsylvania. Deacon Endter then went on to receive a tool-making degree from the Wyomissing Polytechnic Institute (a division of Penn State University) and a degree in mechanical engineering from the Drexel Institute of Technology. He enjoyed a successful engineering career prior to coming to the Diocese of Gallup, when he was ordained to the Permanent Diaconate in 2007. Deacon Endter worked for Tinsley Laboratories, where he designed and built a measuring machine for lenses used in the Russian television industry; Atlantic Richfield Development as an engineering manager; Integrated Micro Machines (received a patent for micromachining pressure sensors); Kulicke and Soffa—a semiconductor equipment manufacturer—as a division manager and vice president; and Integrated Processing Equipment Corporation, where he retired as vice president of manufacturing. Once he retired, Deacon Endter moved with his wife of 56 years, Valerie, to Overgaard, Arizona. “I looked around and saw all the blessings that God had bestowed upon me during my lifetime—particularly a loving family and a successful career,” he says. “I vowed to spend the rest of my life giving back to God.” A few months prior to his ordination to the Permanent Diaconate in August 2007, he was asked to move from Arizona to Gallup to be the Director of the Catholic Peoples Foundation’s mission co-op, which is a fundraising program in the diocese. Deacon Endter is assigned to Saint Francis Parish in Gallup and will oversee the Virtus Program as the Diocese of Gallup’s Safe Environment Director.
Father Kevin Finnegan, Chancellor
Father Kevin Finnegan was ordained in 1990 after attending Saint Joseph’s Seminary (also known as Dunwoodie) located in Yonkers, New York. He obtained a Juris Canonici Licentia (J.C. L.) from Saint Paul University located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada in 1997. Father Finnegan’s previous assignments in the Diocese of Gallup include Saint Joseph and Madre de Dios parishes in Winslow, Arizona; Saint Paul in Crownpoint,
New Mexico; and Risen Savior Mission located at Bluewater Lake in Thoreau, New Mexico. As Chancellor, Father Finnegan will serve under the direction of the Bishop as established by universal canon law (c.482.1) and is responsible for gathering, arranging, and safeguarding the deeds, proceedings, and records of the diocese and the verification of the signature of the Bishop. The Chancellor is also the diocesan notary and is in charge of the diocesan seal. In most dioceses, the Chancellor is placed in the position of overseeing diocesan archives and safeguards all documents for the diocese, parishes, schools, and administrative offices. His duties also include leadership positions assigned to him by the Bishop, including assisting him with canonical and other matters relating to the operation of the Diocese of Gallup.
Father Matthew Keller, Vocations and Mission Resource Director
Bishop Wall has appointed Father Matthew Keller as Director of a new Mission Resource Office while he contin-
ues his dedication to the diocesan vocations office. Fr. Keller was ordained in 2002 and has served in the parish communities of Cibola and Catron County New Mexico. He was first assigned Chancellor Pro-tem and then Chancellor in 2009. He also serves as Director of the Cure of Ars House of Discernment. In his role as Director of the new Mission Resource Office for the diocese, Fr. Keller will be responsible for coordinating the mission cooperative plan—which gives the diocese the opportunity to appeal for funds for its missions from parishes around the country—organizing the groups of mission volunteers who come to work in the diocese, and helping missions in the diocese locate and apply for grants from the Catholic Extension Society, the Black and Indian Collection Fund, and the Home Missions Fund.
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Returned to Her Place in Heaven:
Santana Milagros Teresa Andrade July 15, 2009 - August 14, 2011 Santana Milagros Teresa Andrade was born on July 15, 2009, at 4:02 p.m. at Presbyterian Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She was born measuring only 3 pounds 4.8 ounces and 16 1/4 inches long surrounded by family and friends who loved her even before she was born. Due to medical conditions including Complete Trisomy 9, Santana was not expected to live. Minutes after she was born, while Fr. Lawrence O’Keefe prayed the prayer of the dying, upon hearing the words, “May the Angels of God welcome you into the kingdom of Heaven,” she took her first breath. Santana not only survived, but she thrived and grew. Santana’s first birthday was a joyous celebration. Santana was cared for by her amazing and tireless grandparents, Richard and Lupe Andrade of Gallup, who babysat her. Santana grew despite many medical challenges, surviving four cardiac surgeries and multiple pneumonias. Santana defied all medical expectations and celebrated two years of life, growing to 32 inches long and weighing 25 pounds. Santana was a true angel from heaven, and all who met her loved her and were inspired by her presence. She was always happy and smiling despite the many physical challenges she encountered during her two
short years of life. Santana Milagros Teresa Andrade returned to her rightful place in heaven on August 14, 2011, at 1:27 p.m. at Presbyterian Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Santana returned to heaven in the same manner she arrived, surrounded by all of her loving family, godparents, and close friends. She is survived by her loving family: parents Drs. Aedra and Lawrence Andrade, older sister Iliana Rae Andrade, older brother Lawrence Xavier Andrade;
paternal grandparents Richard and Lupe Andrade, Aunt and Uncle Maria and Joe Saucedo, Aunt and Uncle Paul and Yvonne Andrade, godparents Katie and Brian Long, cousins Paul Gerard Andrade, Mariah Saucedo, Miranda Saucedo, and Madalyn Saucedo all of Gallup; Aunt and Uncle Richard and Sally Andrade of Glendale, Arizona; Maternal Grandparents Jim and Mary Wenger of Vancouver, Washington; Uncle Corin Wenger of New York City, New York; Aunt and Uncle Sarah and Brandon Wenger and cousins Logan and Avery Wenger of Portland, Oregon. Santana is preceded in death by her great grandfather, Gil King of Albany, Oregon. A funeral Mass of the Angels was celebrated by Father Lawrence O’Keefe on Thursday August 18, 2011, at Sacred Heart Cathedral followed by burial at Hillcrest Cemetary. Pallbearers were Richard C. Andrade, Paul Andrade, Joe Saucedo, and Scott MacLaren; honorary pallbearers were Corin Wenger and Brandon Wenger. We are forever grateful to God for the miracle of Santana’s life and for allowing us to be blessed by her beautiful spirit for the last two years. She taught us all about faith, hope, love, patience, and trust in God. Her impact on our life cannot be measured. She is greatly missed, but we rejoice that she is singing and praising God with all the angels in heaven.
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Does the Catholic Church Have Doubts about Brain Death? by Father Tad Pacholczyk
The Catholic Church has long acknowledged the role of the medical professional in declaring death. It is the proper competency of medicine, not theology, to identify reliable signs that death has occurred. The hardening of the body known as rigor mortis, for example, is a reliable medical indicator that death has occurred. When the heart permanently stops beating and the lungs permanently stop functioning (cessation of cardio-pulmonary function), medical professionals recognize these signs as another reliable way to assess that death has occurred. The complete and irreversible loss of all brain function (commonly known as “brain death”) is yet another reliable way medical professionals determine that a patient has died. In an August 2000 address, Pope John Paul II took up the particular question of brain death and concluded: “The criterion adopted in more recent times for ascertaining the fact of death, namely the complete and irreversible cessation of all brain activity, if rigorously applied, does not seem to conflict with the essential elements of a sound anthropology.” In other words, he affirmed that the Church does not see any fundamental conceptual problems with the idea of brain death. The complete cessation of all brain function (brain death), is also referred to as “neurological criteria” for determining death, to distinguish it from the classic “cardio-pulmonary criteria” used for centuries. The medical profession initially accepted the notion of brain death not because it was looking to procure organs for transplant, as is sometimes supposed, but because of a new situation that arose from the burgeoning use of ventilators, with some patients becoming permanently “ventilator-dependent.” As early as 1959, well before widespread organ transplantation was possible, Drs. Mollaret and Goulon wrote in the Review of Neurology about a subgroup of these ventilator-dependent patients who had suffered catastrophic brain injuries. This could result in a definable condition from which recovery was impossible (“a state beyond coma”). Patients in this state had died, even though ventilators could continue to oxygenate their bodies and preserve organs for a limited period of time. Following the publication of a pivotal 1968 report detailing this kind of situation by a committee at Harvard Medical School, the notion of brain death gained consensus and became widely accepted within both the medical and legal communities. The Catholic Church likewise acknowledged these medical developments and has never expressed any serious conceptual reservations about brain death in the years following the Harvard report. Today, medical professionals remain in broad agreement that the complete
and irreversible cessation of all brain activity serves as a reliable indicator that a person has died. Major medical societies such as the American Medical Association and the American Academy of Neurology have issued official statements affirming this. Nevertheless, a certain number of Catholics today insist that brain death is not really death. One moral theologian, for example, recently expressed doubts “that ventilator-sustained brain dead bodies are corpses.” Several Catholic physicians have raised similar concerns. As long as thorough and accurate medical testing is performed, however, the Church continues to support the determination of death based on neurological criteria. In addition to Pope John Paul II’s address mentioned earlier, a number of other Church documents and declarations affirm this. These include statements from the Pontifical Academy of Life, the Pontifical Council for Healthcare Workers, and the Pontifical Academy for Sciences, among others. In a recent article on the Catholic News Agency website, Dr. John Haas argues that the number and common thread of these ecclesiastical statements in recent years indicates that the teaching authority of the Church has “generally resolved” the question of the acceptability of relying on neurological criteria as a means for ascertaining death. In the face of clear Church teaching on this issue, Dr. Haas further observes how it is not responsible for Catholics to generate uncertainty by openly and publicly disputing the suitability of neurological criteria for determining death. Such speculations can “cause confusion in the minds of the faithful and unsettle consciences.” If consciences become unsettled on this matter, the practical ramifications can be far-reaching: consent to harvest organs is not given, transplants of such organs do not occur, and lives that could validly be saved by such transplants are instead lost. The fact remains that the Catholic Church to date has expressed no official doubts about brain death, emphasizing instead that a healthcare worker can use neurological criteria as the basis for arriving at “moral certainty” that death has occurred. Meanwhile, the Church continues to recognize the generous nature of freely-chosen organ donation, an act Pope John Paul II once called “particularly praiseworthy” and an act which can offer “a chance of health and even of life itself to the sick who sometimes have no other hope.” --Rev. Tadeusz Pacholczyk, Ph.D. earned his doctorate in neuroscience from Yale and did post-doctoral work at Harvard. He is a priest of the diocese of Fall River, MA, and serves as the director of education at The National Catholic Bioethics Center in Philadelphia. See www.ncbcenter.org
Aug / Sept 2011
ARIZONA KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS CHEER AS PLANNED PARENTHOOD STOPS ABORTION SERVICES AT SEVEN LOCATIONS PHOENIX - Planned Parenthood of Arizona announced that it will stop providing abortion services at seven of its statewide locations. This action, they state, is in response to the Arizona Appeals Court ruling on a pro-life bill passed in 2009 by the state legislature and signed by Governor Brewer. This news was met by members of the Knights of Columbus with cheers of victory, tears for the thousands of innocent lives killed by abortion while waiting for this decision, and prayers of thanksgiving for lives to be saved. The measures that were upheld by the Court of Appeals give women seeking an abortion an informed consent consultation with the physician performing the abortion 24 hours prior to the procedure; requires minors to provide notarized parental consent before getting an abortion; protects pharmacists and other healthcare professionals if they refuse to provide emergency contraception on religious or moral grounds; and limits the provision of surgical abortions to only physicians. Patrick Schuller, state deputy (chief executive) for the Knights of Columbus in Arizona was ecstatic upon learning that mothers and their babies would finally receive protections under these laws passed two years ago, “The Knights of Columbus works constantly to seek an end to abortion through prayer, support of pro-life legislation, and by assisting pro-life organizations.” According to Planned Parenthood, they will continue to provide abortion services in two locations in the metropolitan Phoenix area and one location in Tucson. “It is unfortunate that organizations like Planned Parenthood, responsible for the deaths of millions of babies, are allowed to keep operating,” Schuller said. The Knights work with local pro-life groups in a daily campaign of peaceful prayer vigils at abortion facilities. According to State Deputy Schuller, “With fewer facilities conducting abortions we can concentrate our prayer programs on just those three locations, and we will continue to pray until they close their doors for the last time.” The Knights of Columbus is the largest family fraternal service organization with over 1.8 million members in 10 countries including the Unites States, Puerto Rico, Canada, Mexico, the Philippines, and Poland. Last year, the Knights of Columbus donated over $151 million to charities, and its members donated nearly 69 million man-hours in charitable projects. For further information, contact John Garcia, State Public Relations Director for the Arizona State Council. He can be reached at 602.525.442. Local information on activities of the Arizona State Council can be found on their website: www.azknightsofcolumbus.com
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November 27, 2011:
New English Translation of the Roman Missal As you are undoubtedly aware, November 27, 2011, will mark an important transition in the life of the Catholic Church in the United States. On that date, at the Vigil Mass for the First Sunday of Advent, we will begin to use the new English translation of the Roman Missal. Preparation for the changes has been an ongoing process in the Diocese of Gallup. Initially, a liturgical commission to assist with the translation changes was established. This committee established and outlined a process for the diocese, so that the forthcoming translation changes would go as smoothly as possible. In March 2011, the Liturgical Institute from Chicago offered a day-long workshop on the new English translation to the priests, deacons, and parish life coordinators of the diocese. This past month, a similar diocesan workshop was offered to the consecrated religious and parish directors of religious education. The intent of this article is to offer catechesis to all the members of the Diocese of Gallup concerning the future changes in the English translation of the Mass. Therefore, I also wish to call to your attention several key points regarding the changes that I believe will assist in the process of transitioning from our present translation to the new one. I realize that the time available for such catechesis is very short, only about two months. For this reason I have asked that instruction on the new Mass language be the focal point of all catechesis from now until the Advent season. This catechesis is not just about language use, but really affords a marvelous opportunity for everyone to grow in their understanding of and reverence for the Eucharist—which remains as it has always been the heart of the Catholic faith. There are many materials available to our parishes in this task. A listing of these materials is given on the Diocese of Gallup website www.dioceseofgallup.org or on the National website of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops www.usccb.org. In order to help you further in preparing for the upcoming changes, I offer the following points which I consider key to understanding the importance of the Mass and the “what and why” of the language changes:
Bishop James S. Wall
The next two months will be a time of transition, as we change from wording with which we have become so familiar to new and sometimes very different wording - Each celebration of Mass is an action of Jesus himself, our eternal High Priest. The Mass is a “making present,” in this time and place, of the one eternal sacrifice of Jesus to his heavenly Father for our salvation. The first Mass was celebrated by Jesus in person, at the Last Supper. Through the power of the Holy Spirit, Jesus is sacramentally present at every Mass. The human priest acts “in persona Christi Capitis” (in the person of Christ the Head). - From ancient times there have been different forms for celebrating Mass, called “Rites.” As Roman Catholics, we use the “Roman Rite,” sometimes called the “Latin Rite.” - The basic principle of wording for the liturgical texts of the Roman Rite is “lex orandi, lex credendi” (“the law of praying is the law of believing” or “the way we pray is the way we believe”). For well over 1,500 years, the only “official” language of the Roman Rite has been Latin. This remains true today. - It was less than 50 years ago that the Church permitted the celebration of the Mass of the Roman Rite to be done in any language other than Latin. We began using English in the Mass only in 1965. This marked the very first time in the history of the Church that Mass was celebrated in English (or any other “modern” language). - From the outset, the Church considered the first translations of the Latin text to be provisional or “experimental,” that is, they would be used for a period of time and would be evaluated with respect to how well they conveyed the Catholic faith embodied in the official Latin text of the Mass.
- In 2000, Blessed Pope John Paul II promulgated a new Latin edition of the Roman Missal, and soon after issued new norms for the way the Missal was to be translated. The guiding principle was to be faithful, as much as possible, to the official Latin text.
- It is important to emphasize that the Mass itself —in terms of its meaning, structure, gestures and order—is not changing. Our primary focus is on the change of the prayers and responses of the priest and the assembly. - The language of the liturgy is the Church’s public language for addressing, praising, worshipping and thanking God Himself. It should therefore be as beautiful and as reverent as possible. - The new translation will be a more formal, more poetic and even more majestic rendering of the prayers and responses of the Mass into English. The fact that, at times, the new English may be more difficult to understand can and should be an occasion to delve more profoundly into the deeper meaning of the Latin text. For example, when the assembly responds to the priest’s greeting, ‘The Lord be with you’ by saying ‘And with your spirit’ (rather than ‘And also with you’), what is really being proclaimed? The next two months will be a time of transition, as we change from wording with which we have become so familiar to new and sometimes very different wording. It will require our attention, our openness to learning and growing, our patience and our eagerness to each continue to take our proper role in the Church’s public worship of God. It will be a challenging but exciting time. I assure you that your openness to this endeavor will be deeply appreciated by your Bishop, as well as by the Priests, Deacons and Parish Life Coordinators of the diocese. Let us rely on the help of the Lord, and trust in the intercession of the patroness of our diocese, Our Lady of Guadalupe, so that our liturgical endeavors are for the Glory of God. Sincerely Yours in Christ, Bishop James Wall
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Aug / Sept 2011
Saint Michael Indian School Welcomes New Students, New Teachers, and New Principal by Diego James Robles Monday, August 15, 2011, was a day of firsts for many people at Saint Michael Indian High School. Among the new and anxious were the freshman class, new teachers, and the principal. For the first day of school, the halls of Saint Michael were relatively quiet as only the freshman had class. There was a feeling of nervousness in the air during Dan Groucutt’s English class as freshman looked at each other when he mentioned the penalties for being late and or turning in assignments late. “I’ll give you detention and I’ll tell you why but that doesn’t mean I want to,” Groucutt said. Also new in school and nervous for his first interview as a teacher, Brendan McCarthy, a graduate of the University of Notre Dame, teaches 9th, 10th and 11th grade world and American history. “Everybody I’ve met has been very welcoming and friendly,” McCarthy said. Originally from Connecticut and coming from New Orleans, McCarthy was visibly excited about meeting his students for the first time after the lunch break. “I’m looking forward to meeting the students and teaching history as I taught 4th grade in New Orleans, so I am excited to make the jump with a subject I care and am passionate about.”
Another Notre Dame alumnus and first year teacher, Carissa Brownotter, half Diné and Standing Rock Sioux, will teach 9th, 11th and 12th grade mathematics including algebra and survey of mathematics. “I’m going to really work these students,” Brownotter said with a serious grin on her face. Others however, didn’t see the first day of high school as a big deal at all. Freshman Faith Kee, 13, wasn’t as visibly excited about starting high school as she was about a grasshopper that momentarily disrupted her previous class when it jumped around some of her classmate’s desks. “High school is okay so far,” Kee said. “Just okay, I’m not nervous.” On the other hand, 9th grader Shania Yazzie, 14, of Fort Defiance, described as outgoing by school administrators, was ready to start the new school year. “It’s kinda scary cause I’m a freshman and I don’t know what to do,” Yazzie said. “ I’m trying to really focus on my school work and then I’m going to join a lot of sports.” New 9th, 10th and 12th grade English teacher Cleofus Nelson of Fort Defiance was in a special position as a returning member of the community. “It’s my first year and I’m looking forward to gaining experience on how to teach and manage my classroom,” Nelson said. “I see myself as a role-model. I would like
to represent my tribe being Navajo and showing other Navajo students that they can accomplish whatever they put their mind to.” Also new to Saint Michael’s— but in his 41st year in education, 37 in the Catholic education system—Principal James Anderson sees Diné students the same as any others. “Children are children and teenagers are teenagers no matter where you go,” Anderson said. “The only thing that is different is that I am coming into a remote area from an urban setting. I find it different naturally but I’m liking it.” His goal for the new school year is simple. “What I would like to see is a continuance of the school’s mission statement which is to provide a quality education and to prepare our young people to enter the next phase of their development whether it be in college or the work place or whatever it might be,” Anderson said. “So just continuing the tradition of quality education and service that Saint Michael has provided the Navajo Nation with since 1902.” Sheldon Shepherd, 14, of Gallup, New Mexico, said what many of his peers were thinking after moving back and forth throughout the school all day: “It’s a lot more classes and switching than junior high but I just like saying that I’m in high school.”
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A New Vision for Catholic Education in the Diocese
by Fr. Ravi Kiran, Director of Catholic Education
Catholic schools, especially over the last decade, have been the subject of much commentary by numerous sources both within and outside the Church. First, the schools have been praised for their effectiveness, especially for their irreplaceable value not only for those who attend them, but also for the Church that sponsors them. Unfortunately, over the last several decades, many of these schools have been forced to close. There have been calls for action both within and without the Church to find remedies to turn the situation around. Popes, bishops, and American presidents have proclaimed the value of and the need to preserve this national resource. Pope Benedict XVI made a special appeal to priests and religious: “Do not abandon the school apostolate; indeed renew your commitment to schools especially those in poorer areas.” Further, he proclaimed that Catholic schools are “an outstanding apostolate of hope…. Their long term sustainability must be assured.” Catholic education provides children with academic excellence enhanced by traditional Catholic Christian values. The teachers in Catholic schools have the opportunity to interact with and mold every aspect of a child’s growth and development. The educators create a safe, loving environment that encourages students to believe in their capabilities and to work toward their potential. The teachers prepare the individual for an ever-changing world in which right thinking is not only a habit, but a way of life. Our principal focus in developing Catholic education in the Diocese of Gallup will be to provide a series of strategies which will significantly improve the condition of Catholic education in our diocese and to foster a willingness to undertake a series of reforms.
The transition of Catholic Schools from separately incorporated corporations to Church envisioned institutions The Catholic school office for the Diocese of Gallup is able to vision out a strategic plan of action for Catholic schools in the Diocese of Gallup (with the exception of Saint Michaels, a private Catholic school founded and administered by the Blessed Sacrament Sisters). Bishop Wall expressed his ardent desire to see Catholic schools in our diocese reflect Church modeled institutions. The Catholic school office is striving to realize the vision for Catholic Schools in our diocese, emphasizing the need for Church modeled institutions. The Bishop’s priorities and objectives for the change are: - To be church-envisioned ecclesiastical institutions - To be integrated with a faithful community - To affirm the leadership role of the Pastor - To bring stability and continuity - To emphasize Catholic identity - To promote proper religious instruction - To be places for catechesis and evangelization “Catholic Education” continued on page 12 > >
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Aug / Sept 2011
Common Questions Catholic Answers Why do Catholics believe Mary was a perpetual virgin when Matthew 13:55 names four of Jesus’ brothers: “Isn’t Mary known to be his mother and James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas his brothers?”
by Jim Burnham The Bible uses “brother” in many ways, just as we do today. “Brother” can mean sibling, relative, friend, or associate. In the book of Acts, fellow Christians are called brothers (Acts 21:7), as are Jewish leaders (Acts 22:1). In the original Hebrew, Lot is called the “brother” of Abraham (Genesis 14:14), when in fact, Lot was Abraham’s nephew (Genesis 11:26-28). For this reason, many modern translations use the word “nephew” or “kinsman” because that’s what the Hebrew word for brother indicates. To determine the exact relationship of Jesus’ “brothers,” we must examine other verses to get a fuller picture. Matthew 27:56 and Mark 15:40 tell us two of these “brothers,” James and Joseph, are sons of another Mary, not the mother of Jesus. John 19:25 identifies this other Mary as the wife of Clopas. Interestingly, Matthew specifically calls this Mary—the mother of James and Joseph—“the other Mary” (Matthew 27:16, 28:1) to distinguish her from Mary, the mother of Jesus. If two of the four “brothers” are sons of “the other Mary,” they obviously cannot be Jesus’ blood-brothers. Therefore, “brothers” in Matthew 13:55 doesn’t necessarily mean “blood brothers.” “But in Matthew 13:55, the word for ‘brothers’ is a very precise Greek word, adelphoi, which literally means ‘from the same womb.’ Therefore, these brothers must have the same mother.” Our English word “brother” literally means “from the same parents” and yet we often use it for all sorts of looser relationships: “brothers in Christ,” “brothers in arms,” relatives, friends, and so on. Yes, the Greek word for brothers does literally mean “from the same womb.” But just as we do in English, the Jews used this precise Greek word to refer both to blood-brothers as
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well as to other relationships (see Matthew 23:8 and Acts 7:23). 1 Corinthians 15:6 says Jesus “appeared to more than 500 brethren [adelphoi] at one time.” If all 500 were “from the same womb,” that was one miraculous mother! The same holds true for the 120 brethren [adelphôn] mentioned in Acts 1:15. “But Matthew 1:24-25 says Joseph ‘knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son.’ Doesn’t ‘till’ imply that after she gave birth, Mary had normal sexual relations with Joseph?”
Our English word ‘brother’ literally
means ‘from the same parents’ and yet we often use it for all sorts of looser relationships: ‘brothers in Christ,’ ‘brothers in arms,’ relatives, friends, and so on.
In English, the word “till” or “until” often implies a subsequent change of condition. But not so in scripture. 1 Corinthians 15:25 says Christ “must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet.” Does this mean after he has put all his enemies under his feet, Christ will cease to reign? No, Christ will reign up to that time and forever after (Luke 1:32-33). In Matthew 28:20, Jesus says he will remain with his Church “until the end of the age.” Will Jesus abandon his Church after the end of the age? No, Christ will reign up to the end and beyond. 2 Samuel 6:23 tells us, “Michal the daughter of Saul had no child until the day of her death.” Does that mean after she died, Michal had triplets!? No, Michal had no children up to the day of her death and thereafter.
Southwest Fidelity and Ser vice to our Church, the Faithful, and Christ
“Till” or “until” doesn’t imply things changed later. “But in the same passage, Jesus is also called ‘firstborn son.’ Doesn’t this prove Mary had other children, at least a secondborn?” “Folly” is what John Calvin called this interpretation of Matthew 1:25: “Christ is called the first-born. This is not because there was a second or a third, but because the gospel writer is paying regard to the precedence. Scripture speaks thus of naming the firstborn whether or not there was any question of the second.” “Firstborn” indicates special privilege or rank. Psalm 89:27 calls David “firstborn,” even though he was Jesse’s eighth-born son (1 Samuel 16). Colossians 1:15 calls Jesus “the firstborn of all creation” even though many people were born before Christ. King David had primacy over his brothers; Jesus has primacy over all creatures. Remember, the Old Testament law required parents to redeem all “firstborn” males 40 days after birth (Exodus 34:20), when a woman couldn’t know if she would have other children. She still called him her “firstborn son” even if he turned out to be her only child. Therefore, “firstborn son” in Matthew 1:25, doesn’t imply Mary had other children. In sum, nothing in the Bible contradicts Catholic teaching on Mary’s perpetual virginity. Jim Burnham is director of the New Mexico Roman Catholic apologetics group, San Juan Catholic Seminars. He gives seminars throughout the country on defending the Catholic faith. Visit www.catholicapologetics.com for more info.
Verses at a Glance: Acts 21:7 Matthew 27:56 with Mark 15:40 1 Corinthians 15:6 1 Corinthians 15:25 Psalm 89:27 Exodus 34:20
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Pontifical College Josephinum Sees Record Enrollment Diocese of Gallup seminarians Mitchell Brown and Scott Peters among those enrolled at Pontifical College. Columbus, OH – When the doors of the Pontifical College Josephinum opened this fall for its 124th year of forming men for the Catholic priesthood, more than 40 new seminarians joined the community. With their arrival, the total number of men in discernment at the Josephinum reached 186—the seminary’s highest enrollment since the 1970s. As a national seminary not governed by any one diocese or religious community, the Josephinum educates seminarians from an average of 25 dioceses throughout the United States. In 2011, six new dioceses were added to the growing list: Victoria, Ogdensburg, Kansas City-Saint Joseph, Birmingham, Lexington, and Great Falls-Billings. Very Reverend James Wehner, STD, Rector/President, attributes the rise in enrollment—53 percent in two years—and addition of new dioceses to the excellence of the seminary’s programs, its highly-qualified and dedicated faculty, and to its pontifical status. “Bishops are looking for seminaries who clearly define the character, purpose, and intent of priestly formation as it relates to the realities of the Church in America, while also considering the universality of the Church,” he said. “The Josephinum achieves these expectations in every aspect of its formation program.” The Josephinum’s formation program is centered on the concept of forming renaissance priests: spiritual Fathers for the New Evangelization. The thought of Blessed Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI is integrated throughout the formation program, emphasizing a dialogue between faith and culture. “What is meant by renaissance,” explains Father Wehner, “is taking what is best from culture and conjoining it to the faith experience. Faith is meant to be lived in the present moment. Faith, therefore, needs culture to find expression. Without culture, faith remains an unlived reality, something remote and inaccessible. The renaissance priest is both a man of culture and a man of faith, propagating the mission of the Church in a language, method, and ministry accessible to the People of God.” At the Josephinum, every undergraduate seminarian must fulfill 33 credits in philosophy; those pursuing a degree in philosophy must earn 42 credits, exceeding the 30-credit requirement of the Program of Priestly
to provide an environment conducive to study and discernment. The solid financial condition of the Josephinum has enabled the institution to fund extensive capital improvement projects, including chapel renovations, recreational facility improvements, and a complete renovation of every seminarian room in the College of Liberal Arts. The 2011-2012 year of formation marks the Pontifical College Josephinum’s 80th year at its present location and its 124th year of forming priests for the Church. Founded in 1888, the Josephinum was originally located on East Main Street in downtown Columbus; it was relocated north of the city in 1931. Plans are already underway for the Josephinum’s 125th anniversary in 2013—a yearlong celebration with many special events open to the public. As seminarians arrived this fall to fill nearly every available room on campus, the Josephinum has much to celebrate and looks to the future with renewed energy, a grateful spirit, and unwavering confidence in God’s providence.
Formation and meeting the new standards of the Decree on the Reform of Ecclesiastical Studies of Philosophy (Congregation for Catholic Education, January 28, 2011). To assist seminarians with this rigorous coursework, and to ensure their success in all aspects of formation, the Josephinum strives
“Saint Paul’s” continued from cover > >
The interior reflects a blending of Navajo culture and the Catholic way. Services often include scripture readings and songs in Navajo. The parish has been served by Franciscan, Dominican and diocesan priests. The Missionaries of St. Stephen were established and headquartered at Saint Paul’s for a few years. Two communities of religious women, the Maryknoll Sisters and the Adorers of the Blood of Christ have helped staff the parish. Besides parishioners and lay ministers, numerous volunteers, twinning parishes, the local community and a large array of friends have contributed to the life and growth of Saint Paul’s. Currently, Rev. Lawrence J. O’Keefe serves as the canonical pastor. The staff is comprised of a deacon, Rev. Mr. Sherman Manuelito, and Sister Maureen Farrar, ASC, administrator. Sister Michelle Woodruff, ASC, is in residence. Saint Paul’s celebrated its 50th anniversary in midAugust with Mass celebrated by Most Rev. James S. Wall, Bishop of Gallup. Concelebrating were Fathers Lawrence O’Keefe; Kevin Finnegan; Thomas Manion, former administrator and priest of the Diocese of Pittsburgh; Jeff Stone of the Diocese of Springfield, Illinois. Assisting were deacons Sherman Manuelito and Daniel Martin. Rev. Mr. Randy Copeland served as master of ceremonies.
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Pope to Youth at WYD ’11:
‘You are the future of the Church’ “Planted and built up in Jesus Christ, firm in the faith” (cf. Col 2:7) In order to highlight the importance of faith in the lives of believers, I would like to reflect with you on each of the three terms used by Saint Paul in the expression: “Planted and built up in Jesus Christ, firm in the faith” (cf. Col 2:7). We can distinguish three images: “planted” calls to mind a tree and the roots that feed it; “built up” refers to the construction of a house; “firm” indicates growth in physical or moral strength. These images are very eloquent. Before commenting on them, I would like to point out that grammatically all three terms in the original text are in the passive voice. This means that it is Christ himself who takes the initiative to plant, build up, and confirm the faithful. The first image is that of a tree which is firmly planted thanks to its roots, which keep it upright and give it nourishment. Without those roots, it would be blown away by the wind and would die. What are our roots? Naturally our parents, our families, and the culture of our country are very important elements of our personal identity. But the Bible reveals a further element. The prophet Jeremiah wrote: “Blessed are those who trust in the Lord, whose trust is the Lord. They shall be like a tree planted by water, sending out its roots by the stream. It shall not fear when heat comes, and its leaves shall stay green; in the year of drought it is not anxious, and it does not cease to bear fruit” (Jer 17:7-8). For the prophet, to send out roots means to put one’s trust in God. From him we draw our life. Without him, we cannot truly live. Just as the roots of a tree keep it firmly planted in the soil, so the foundations of a house give it long-lasting stability. Through faith, we have been built up in Jesus Christ (cfr Col 2:7), even as a house is built on its foundations. Sacred history provides many examples of saints who built their lives on the word of God. The first is Abraham, our father in faith, who obeyed God when he was asked to leave his ancestral home and to set out for an unknown land. “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness, and he was called the friend of God” (Jas 2:23). Being built up in Jesus Christ means responding positively to God’s call, trusting in him, and putting his word into practice. Jesus himself reprimanded his disciples: “Why do you call me ‘Lord’ and do not do what I tell you?” (Lk 6:46). He went on to use the image of building a house: “I will show you what someone is like who comes to me, listens to my words, and acts on them. That one is like a person building a house, who dug deeply and laid the foundation on rock; when the flood came, the river burst against that house but could not shake it because it had been well built” (Lk 6:47-48). Dear friends, build your own house on rock, just like the person who “dug deeply”. Try each day to follow Christ’s word. Listen to him as a true friend with whom you can share your path in life. With him at your side, you will find courage and hope to face difficulties and problems, and even to overcome disappointments and set-backs. You are constantly being offered easier choices, but you yourselves know that these are ultimately deceptive and cannot bring you serenity and joy.
Youth from the Show Low, Arizona, and Farmington, New Mexico, areas of the Diocese of Gallup attend WYD 2011. Photo Courtesy of Glenda Allies-Fox
Aug / Sept 2011 “Catholic Education” continued > > What has been done by the Catholic Schools Office? The Catholic schools office worked out various strategies to bring Catholic schools from privatization to parochial or diocesan schools. It started when Bishop Wall shared his vision for Catholic schools and how they should reflect the vision of the Church. The Catholic schools office began its preparations and made a presentation to the presbyteral council with several recommendations and an action plan. In 2010, Gallup Catholic Elementary and High School was made a diocesan school. The Catholic schools office made presentations to Gallup Catholic School board members on how the transition of the school from privatization to Diocesan entity would go into effect. The articles of incorporation specify that when a corporation of a Catholic school dissolves, the entity will automatically fall back to the Diocese. One of the significant changes of this model will be that school boards will become advisory in nature. The board members were given an orientation and in-service workshops to help them to understand the change in their functioning and to assist them to become effective instruments in this ministry. In April, 2010, we made preparations to make Sacred Heart Catholic School in Farmington a parochial school. The board members were also given an orientation and in-service workshop. The pastor talked about the possible change with the parish faith community. The Sacred Heart Catholic School board communicated to the diocese the possible dates for transition and transferred funds to the diocese and finally concluded their activity as a governing board. Preparations are underway for four other Catholic schools to be made parochial/diocesan schools for the year 2012-2013. The process begins at least a year ahead of time. The purpose is to educate the community and bring awareness to this transition. The pastors are entrusted with a key responsibility of administering the schools. The primary function will be to maintain the Catholic identity and promote proper religious instruction and faith formation.
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The Church Remembers 9/11
The Church’s Noblest at Ground Zero by Sister Mary Ann Walsh, USCCB There are many times when the Church makes you feel proud. Priests’ response to 9/11, 10 years ago, is one of them. Cardinal Edward Egan, retired archbishop of New York, was one of the first responders that fateful morning. He headed for Ground Zero when he heard of the attack. As he was on the way, Mayor Rudolph Giuliani called and asked him to go instead to await the injured at Saint Vincent’s Hospital. Thus began the cardinal’s critical service to a city in need. The first person he met at Saint Vincent’s was a woman burned from head to foot. The second was one of his priests, a fire department chaplain. By rank, a cardinal is like a U.S. senator or a general, a big-time leader you don’t expect to find on the front of any war. Cardinal Egan didn’t see himself that way. “I kept saying to myself, ‘I’m not a fireman, a fire person, a firefighter,’” he recalled on video. “I’m not a police officer. I’m not an emergency worker. I’m a priest and I’m going to do everything that a priest can do under these circumstances.’” Afterwards, he worked at Ground Zero, a site so contaminated that officials told him to discard all his clothes when he returned home. He anointed bodies, listened to rescuers, and consoled both the disconsolate and their consolers.
He celebrated funeral Masses at St. Patrick’s Cathedral and led prayers when President George W. Bush arrive at Ground Zero and at an ecumenical service he organized at Yankee Stadium. Other priests sprang into action too. Msgr. Kevin Sullivan, head of Catholic Charities of the New York Archdiocese, saw that it was not just Wall Street people with significant finances who were affected. It was also those who live on the edge, such as the wait staff at Windows on the World, the restaurant atop one of the Twin Towers. Msgr. Sullivan contacted the unions and said Catholic Charities would pay the salaries for six months for restaurant workers there who were suddenly out of work, enough time, he thought, for them to find another job. Other priests made their way to the scene, most notably the fire department chaplain, Franciscan Father Mychal Judge, the first officially recorded fatality of the attack. Weeks later, when rescuers found his body, firemen carried it from the rubble, not to a mortuary van but to the sanctuary of a nearby church. Other clergy responded as priests too. The city established a site for those looking for missing family members, a place with counselors and social workers. The line went on for blocks
and priests walked alongside it and helped people accept the inevitable—a loss of someone only to be found again in heaven. A veteran psychiatrist told Cardinal Egan that he was amazed when he interviewed families and saw how deeply they had been touched by their sidewalk conversations with priests. The Church knows the importance of chaplains and designates priests to help emergency workers such as police, firefighters, and Federal Bureau of Investigation agents. These public servants need one of their own in crises and at 9/11 their own priests responded. 9/11’s own, however, also turned out to be not just official chaplains but also priests in other ministries, like Msgr. Anthony Sherman, a Brooklyn pastor who counseled strangers and led funeral Masses for the dead from his parish, some whose bodies were never found. And Jesuit Father James Martin, an editor at America magazine, who worked with rescuers in the aftermath. And other unnamed and unrecognized priests who offered the sacraments, encouragement and human consolation. They rose to the heights of their calling in the depths of that tragedy. Cardinal Egan calls Ground Zero, “Ground Hero.” He speaks of a medical intern who stayed on duty though his father worked high in one of the Twin Towers, of a widow with babe in arms in the front pew of Saint Patrick’s for her husband’s funeral, of the police who demanded for five days that the cardinal wear a gas mask to protect him from the contaminated air at the site but didn’t wear their own because the masks impaired visibility. New York’s fire department, which lost 343 members, is known as “New York’s Bravest;” the police department as “New York’s Finest.” Looking at the church’s response to 9/11, the priests who responded would say they were “just priests,” but surely they were “the Church’s Noblest” too.
The Parable of Ground Zero
By Father James Martin, SJ
On the morning of September 11, 2001, I was working at my desk at America magazine in midtown Manhattan. Around 9 a.m., my mother called from Philadelphia to say that she had heard about a plane crashing into the World Trade Center. I thought it was odd that she would call; she knew that my office was uptown, not downtown. A few minutes later, I decided to turn on the television set. It was only then that I saw the unfolding tragedy. That morning I had a doctor’s appointment and so, still unsure of what exactly was happening, I walked the few blocks to his office. But as I peered down Sixth Avenue (a few feet away from our office) I was horrified to see the Twin Towers with inky black smoke pouring from their tops. Even then, panicked people were streaming uptown, desperately trying to use their cell phones (many of which had ceased to work since the cell phone towers at the World Trade Center had been rendered useless). Numbly, I made my way to my doctor’s appointment. An hour later, the scene was utterly different. Everyone’s eyes faced downtown. People were weeping in the streets, scanning the skies for another plane, racing toward subway entrances and desperately hailing cabs. When I returned to our offices, our receptionist told me that one of the buildings had collapsed. “That’s ridiculous,” I said, angrily. “What radio station is saying that? That’s impossible.”
Turning on the television confirmed my worst fears. That evening, I put my collar on and made my way to a local hospital a few blocks away, where victims were to be brought. But the police officers in the lobby suggested that I walk farther downtown. So through the empty streets, I walked to Chelsea Piers, a large sporting arena, to wait for victims who never came. The next day I spent several hours at a family counseling center downtown, helping family members pour through hospital records of patients who had been admitted. But, in the end, there would be few survivors. Finally, on September 13, I returned to Chelsea Piers and asked a police officer if they needed any help downtown. He nodded curtly, waved for a police cruiser, and I jumped in and was taken down to “the site.” It was an absolutely appalling sight—the colossal, twisted buildings still on fire, piles of rubble covered with a heavy layer of gray ash, and hundreds of uniformed firefighters and police officers seemingly everywhere.Ten years later, I can still remember the terrible acrid smell that pervaded everything. I felt like I was in hell. After emerging from the police car, stunned, I wondered what to do. I thought: I cannot bear to look at bodies, I cannot bear to be in the morgue, but I can help the rescue workers. So I spent the next few days and weeks, in between my work at the magazine, ministering to the rescue workers — firefighters, police officers, EMTs, nurses, construction workers, military personnel and government workers from every conceivable office. In time I was joined by my Jesuit brothers, many of them still in training.
In this hell I found grace. Working at the World Trade Center was one of the most profound experiences of the Holy Spirit I’ve ever had, for there I encountered an overwhelming sense of charity, unity, and concord. Every person working at Ground Zero was “other-directed.” Every person was selfless, utterly unconcerned for himself or herself. Every person seemed kind, considerate, loving. All of their work, of course, was deeply informed by the sacrifices that had already been made by the firefighters and rescue workers who gave their lives as they raced into the burning buildings on September 11. For me, it was as if God was offering us a parable. In the Gospels, when people asked what God or the Kingdom of God is like, Jesus offered them a parable, a story drawn from nature or everyday life to help them understand things more deeply. Jesus would say: God is like the father welcoming back his son. Or: God is like a woman sweeping her house. And here was God offering us a parable today. As I looked around at the rescue workers, I thought, what is God like? God is like the firefighter who rushes into a burning building to save someone. That’s how much God loves us. And I saw this love expressed in the great charity of all the rescue workers who gathered at the American Golgotha. So for me, the experience of September 11, 2001, was not simply one of tragedy but also of resurrection. For me it embodied the Christian mystery of the cross: the place of unimaginable tragedy can also be the place of new life that comes in unexpected ways.
Father James Martin, SJ, is a Jesuit priest, culture editor of America magazine, and the author of several books, including Searching for God at Ground Zero.
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THE LITURGICAL RENEWAL OF VATICAN Second in a series on the new English translation of the Roman Missal. by Father Lawrence O’Keefe
In undertaking the first stage of our preparation for the upcoming changes of the Roman Missal, we need to “go back to the basics” of Catholic understanding of the Mass. The “magna carta” of contemporary official Church teaching on liturgy in general, and the Eucharist in particular, is found in the Vatican II council document, Sacrosanctam conciliam (The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy). Promulgated on December 4, 1963, at the close of the second session of Vatican II, this was the very first document published by the Council Fathers. By the conclusion of the Second Vatican Council, the Pope and Bishops of the Catholic Church had issued a total of 16 separate documents, of varying degrees of theological importance. There were four “Constitutions”, nine “Decrees”, and three “Declarations.” The most authoritative of these were the four Constitutions. These are (in order of the dates published); The Constitution of the Sacred Liturgy (12/4/63), The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church (11/21/64), The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (11/18/65), and The Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (12/7/65). Of all of these documents, it is beyond question that the one which has had the greatest impact on the day-to-day life of Catholic people throughout the world is the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy. In the first 10 years following its publication (i.e., 1964-1974), the Holy See issued no less than 24 major documents, either implementing various provisions of the Constitution or clarifying its meaning! Since 1974, there have been many other documents published by the Vatican on the Liturgy, and all of them are based in one way or another on the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy. It is a very important document in the life of the Church! For this reason, if we are going to prepare for the upcoming language changes in the Mass, we need to review the key provisions of Vatican II’s Constitution on the Scared Liturgy. The Council Fathers, in the Introduction to the Constitution, set forth the purpose of the Council itself and the crucial importance of the Church’s liturgy in these words: The sacred Council has set out to impart an everincreasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful; to adapt more closely to the needs of our age those institutions which are subject to change; to foster whatever can promote union among all who believe in Christ; to strengthen whatever can help to call all humanity into
the Church’s fold. Accordingly, it sees particularly cogent reasons for undertaking the reform and promotion of the liturgy [emphasis added]. For it is the liturgy through which, especially in the divine sacrifice of the Eucharist, “the work of our redemption is accomplished,” and it is through the liturgy, especially, that the faithful are enabled to express in their lives and manifest to others the mystery of Christ and the real nature of the Church… The liturgy daily builds up those who are in the Church, making of them a holy temple of the Lord, a dwelling place for God in the Spirit (cf., Eph. 2.21-22), to the mature measure of the fullness of Christ (cf., Eph. 4.13) [SC, #’s 1,2]. The Council Fathers of Vatican II, then, intended nothing less than “the reform and promotion of the liturgy.” This reform was not to come out of thin air—as if the Church had to “start from scratch” in concocting a “new way” to worship God. Almost a century of scholarly research, prior to Vatican II, into the rites and practices of the ancient Church enabled the conciliar reform to be based on solid scriptural, historical, pastoral and liturgical practices. The general principles and norms governing liturgical reform and promotion are set down in Chapter I of the Constitution (#’s 21-46). Among the most important of these are the following: Every liturgical action of the Church (i.e., the celebration of Mass and of the sacraments) is an action of Christ himself (SC, #7). The liturgy is the “summit toward which all the activity of the Church is directed” (SC, #10). “In the restoration and promotion of the sacred liturgy the full and active participation by all of the people is the aim to be considered before all else, for it
is the primary and indispensible source from which the faithful are to derive the true Christian spirit” (SC, #14). “… [The] liturgy is made up of unchangeable elements divinely instituted, and of elements subject to change. These latter not only may be changed but ought to be changed with the passage of time if they have suffered from the intrusion of anything out of harmony with the inner nature of the liturgy or have become less suitable … The Christian people, as far as is possible, should be able to understand [the texts and rites] with ease and take part in them fully, actively and as a community” (SC, #21). Regulation of the liturgy depends solely on the authority of the Church, i.e., the Apostolic See and, according to the norm of canon law, on bishops within their jurisdiction (SC, #22). Sacred scripture is of the greatest importance in celebrating the liturgy (SC, #24): “… a more ample, more varied and more suitable reading from sacred scripture should be restored … The ministry of preaching is to be fulfilled most faithfully and carefully … [and] should draw its content mainly from scriptural and liturgical sources …” (SC, #35) Liturgical services are not private functions, but are celebrations of the Church in which there are distinct roles and ministries for the ordained, as well as for servers, readers, commentators, choir members and lay faithful (SC, #’s 26-30). “The rites should be distinguished by a noble simplicity. They should be short, clear and free from useless repetitions. They should be within the people’s powers of comprehension, and normally should not require much explanation” (SC, #34). These principles and norms apply to the celebration of all the sacraments, including the Eucharist. Chapter II of the Constitution focuses on the “Most Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist,” (i.e., the celebration of Mass). Echoing the above principles, it calls for informed and active participation of the laity (SC, #48), the simplification of the rites (SC, #50), more extensive use of scripture readings (SC, #51), the preaching of a homily (SC, #52), the restoration of the “prayer of the faithful” (SC, #53), the reception of Holy Communion by the faithful, with suggested times when communion under both species might be given (SC, #55), and the restoration of the ancient practice of con-celebration by several priests on given occasions (SC, #57).