Issuu on Google+

THE

INTEGRATION OF

BIM

IN THE

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY IN

DENMARK

AUTHOR Galina Slavova CONSULTANT Andri Lehn

November 15, 2012


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Title: The Integration of BIM in the Architectural Design Methodology in Denmark Author: Galina Aleksandrova Slavova Consultant: Andri Lehn Horsens - November 15, 2012 Font: Calibri 12 Number of pages: 44 Number of characters: 75 814 Number of copies: 2 Bachelor of Architectural Technology and Construction Management VIA University College – Campus Horsens 7th Semester dissertation

© All rights reserved – no part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of the author. NOTE: This dissertation was completed as part of Bachelor of Architectural Technology and Construction Management Degree Course – no responsibility is taken for any advice, instruction or conclusion given within! 2


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

PREFACE: PREFACE:

This dissertation has been written as a compulsory assignment in 7th semester full degree course of Architectural Technology and Construction Management at VIA University College, Horsens – Denmark. The research deals with the Integration of the Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the architectural design methodology in Denmark. The chapters of the Research Dissertation are structured to effectively take the reader through the journey of the research, from the research background to the discussions and the conclusions. They may also be reviewed independently, as the first one observes the traditional building design process and its disadvantages; the second part contains a description of the BIM methodology and its positive contribution to the architectural field; and the third part observes how BIM is being integrated in Denmark and what the challenges in relation to that integration are. Enclosures contain mostly auxiliary and additional details intended for the most dedicated enthusiasts of the subject.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

As main sources of information several books, guidelines, standard documents, studies and a number of useful web sites have been used. Moreover, different specialists have contributed with their knowledge for the writing of this thesis.

I would personally like to thank my lecturers Andri Lehn and Ernest Vivian Müller for their direction and advice throughout the writing of this report. I would also like to thank Asbjørn Levring and Anders Hermund for introducing me to BIM and inspiring me to fall in love with the concept of Building Information Modeling. Furthermore, I would like to thank the management team of AART Architects consisting of Anders Strange, Anders Tyrrestrup and Torben Larsen, as well as the chief operating officer Jens Henrik Birkmose and the Norwegian wood project team consisting of Rasmus Kruse, Jostein Burmann, Christoffer Nielsen, David Sommer and Vibeke Jørgensen, for giving me the great opportunity to experience a real life project and working environment and a real BIM process. And finally, I would like to thank my great family and friends for every once support and for always believing in me.

3


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

ABSTRACT: The large number of errors registered on the construction sites, the architects’ ambition and the demand to create buildings that can adapt people’s needs, and the strengthened requirements for low energy consumption of buildings and reduction of CO2 emissions have created the need for new approach in the architectural design process. In the recent years Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been viewed as a “tool” of fulfilling the above mentioned demands. The author’s main objective in this thesis has been to observe the integration of BIM in the architectural design methodology in Denmark. Key attention was paid on the challenges designers face in the traditional design process, the BIM methodology as a tool of improving the old-fashioned methods, and the challenges in relation to BIM’s implementation. The methodology to investigate the research problem involved secondary data provided by approximately forty pieces of literature, online publications or interviews/discussions with employees or specialists in the field and primary data consisting of the author’s personal experience in the field. Qualitative research methodology has been used. The results of the study revealed that big amount of the construction failures and the non-satisfying conditions in buildings derive from omissions during the design process mainly due to lack of efficient communication between the different stakeholders in projects or the use of old-fashioned software tools that do not allow efficient quality control and clash detection of design solutions. Furthermore, the results indicated that BIM has a lot of potential in minimizing such omissions and has a number of benefits that significantly improve the design process, the collaboration of different disciplines and the final results of projects. Nevertheless, it has been discovered that there are also many challenges in replacing the traditional methods with BIM methodology that spread through government, company and project level. The author recommends that attention concerning BIM implementation in Denmark at the moment should mainly be paid on integration at company level. Once demanded by the government for certain kinds of projects, BIM already forms part of all companies’ practice that deal with such projects. It is recommended that a BIM team dealing with all different aspects of BIM integration is assigned in every company. Knowledge from specialists should be spread to all employees via courses, meetings and conferences. BIM manuals and websites inside the company can improve the learning process. On the other hand, it is recommended that the government takes action in making BIM more popular in the private sector. In this way clients will be aware of its benefits and will start demanding it from the designers, which might help spreading BIM through smaller companies as well. Key words: architectural design, construction errors, energy efficiency, challenges, Building Information Methodology, collaboration, benefits; 4


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

CONTENTS: 1.

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 8 1.1 Presentation, background information and reasons for choice of subject .......................... 8 1.2 Problem statement............................................................................................................... 9 1.3 Research questions............................................................................................................... 9 1.4 Delimitation .......................................................................................................................... 9 1.5 Empirical data, research methodology and working methodology ................................... 10 1.6 Overall structure of the dissertation .................................................................................. 10

2.

Traditional Architectural Design Methodology in Denmark .................................................... 11 2.1 What is a construction project? ......................................................................................... 11 2.2 Who is involved in a building project? ............................................................................... 12 2.2.1 Owner’s organization ................................................................................................. 12 2.2.2 Architects/Engineers’ organization ............................................................................ 12 2.2.3 Contractors/sub-contractors’ organization................................................................ 12 2.2.4 Building organizers ..................................................................................................... 12 2.2.5 Outside organizations and their restrictions .............................................................. 13 2.3 How do we manage a project and how do we define the scope of responsibilities of the different parties involved in a building project? ...................................................................... 14 2.4 What do the design project phases consist of?.................................................................. 15 2.4.1 Outline proposal ......................................................................................................... 15 2.4.2 Challanges in the traditional Outline proposal........................................................... 16 2.4.3 Scheme design ............................................................................................................ 18 2.4.4 Challanges in the traditional scheme design.............................................................. 19 2.4.5 Detail design 1 ............................................................................................................ 20 2.4.6 Challanges in the traditional Detail design 1 .............................................................. 21 2.4.7 Detail design 2 ............................................................................................................ 22 2.4.8 Challanges in the traditional Detail design 2 .............................................................. 22 2.5 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 23

3.

BIM methodology ..................................................................................................................... 25 3.1 Background and definitions ................................................................................................ 25 3.2 Parametric Design Tools and Building Information Models ............................................... 26 3.3 Interoperability/Support for project team collaboration................................................... 29 3.4 Levels of BIM ...................................................................................................................... 30

5


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

3.5 Benefits of BIM ................................................................................................................... 32 3.5.1 Design Assessment ..................................................................................................... 32 3.5.2 Collaboration .............................................................................................................. 35 3.5.3 Building Design Infrastructure and Building Design Environment ............................. 35 3.5.4 Cost Reliability and Management .............................................................................. 36 3.5.5 Schedule Management............................................................................................... 36 3.5.6 Sustainability .............................................................................................................. 36 3.5.7 Overcoming Labor Shortage, Education and Language Barriers ................................ 37 3.6 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 37 4.

Integration of BIM in the architectural design methodology in Denmark ............................... 39 4.1 Background of BIM integration in Denmark....................................................................... 39 4.2 BIM integration in Denmark today ..................................................................................... 40 4. 3 Challenges/barriers in the implementation of BIM........................................................... 43 4.3.1 Early collaboration of different disciplines needed ................................................... 43 4.3.2 Legal issues in relation to documentation ownership and production...................... 44 4.3.3 Changes in the project phases and activities ............................................................. 45 4.3.4 Challenges in integration of BIM at a company level ................................................. 45 4.4.5 Challenges in relation to BIM authoring tools and multi-user access to models....... 46 4.3.6 Challenges related to integration of BIM in the private sector.................................. 47 4.3.7 Other challenges......................................................................................................... 48 4.4 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 48

5.

Conclusion ................................................................................................................................ 50 5.1 Future expectations............................................................................................................ 51 5.2 Assessment ......................................................................................................................... 52

References........................................................................................................................................ 53 List of Illustrations ............................................................................................................................ 56 Enclosures ........................................................................................................................................ 58

6


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

ILLUSTRATIONS: Front cover – bips conference 2012 ................................................................................................................... 1 Background 1 - bips conference 2012................................................................................................................ 4 Background 2 - bips conference 2012................................................................................................................ 5 Background 3 - bips conference 2012................................................................................................................ 6 Background 4 - bips conference 2012................................................................................................................ 7 Background 6 - bips conference 2012.............................................................................................................. 53 Background 6 - bips conference 2012.............................................................................................................. 54 Background 6 - bips conference 2012.............................................................................................................. 55 Background 7 - bips conference 2012.............................................................................................................. 56 Background 8 - bips conference 2012.............................................................................................................. 57 Background 9 - bips conference 2012.............................................................................................................. 58 Fig. 1 – Construction project’s phases ............................................................................................................ 11 Fig. 2 – Team building activities (BIM Camp 2012) ........................................................................................ 13 Fig. 3 – Traditional architectural design methodology phases ....................................................................... 15 Fig. 4 – SketchUp model of the tower in Malmo ............................................................................................. 11 Fig. 5 – Hand-made sun path analyses ........................................................................................................... 11 Fig. 6 – Bad collaboration between the disciplines in a project (BIM Camp 2012) ......................................... 11 Fig. 7 – Big amount of drawings ...................................................................................................................... 20 Fig. 8 – Hard to store and share information ................................................................................................. 20 Fig. 9 – Deadlines in projects .......................................................................................................................... 21 Fig. 10 – Life of an architect ........................................................................................................................... 23 Fig. 11 – Life of an architect ........................................................................................................................... 24 Fig. 12 – BIM maturity levels .......................................................................................................................... 25 Fig. 13 – Building Information Models (BIM Camp 2012) ............................................................................... 27 Fig. 14 – Construction simulations................................................................................................................... 28 Fig. 15 – File formats ....................................................................................................................................... 29 Fig. 16 – Information sharing (BIM Camp 2012) ............................................................................................. 30 Fig. 17 – Demonstration of software possibilities (bips conference 2012) ...................................................... 31 Fig. 18 – Project time/cost .............................................................................................................................. 32 Fig. 19 – Reuse of data in projects ................................................................................................................... 33 Fig. 20 – Visualizations with BIM ..................................................................................................................... 34 Fig. 21 – Solibri ............................................................................................................................................... 35 Fig. 22 – Ecotect .............................................................................................................................................. 36 Fig. 23 – Visualizations with BIM ..................................................................................................................... 38 Fig. 24 – Danish regions................................................................................................................................... 41 Fig. 25 – Time line BR/BIM integration in Denmark ....................................................................................... 42 Fig. 26 – Collaboration .................................................................................................................................... 43 Fig. 27 – Time used during design phases ...................................................................................................... 44 Fig. 28 – Planning of work .............................................................................................................................. 45 Fig. 29 – BIM and senior staff ......................................................................................................................... 46 Fig. 30 – BIM in the private sector .................................................................................................................. 47 Fig. 31 – Challenges in the integration of BIM (BIM Camp 2012) ................................................................... 48 Fig. 32 – Architects then and now .................................................................................................................. 52 Fig. 33 – Individual trade contracts ................................................................................................................ 64 Fig. 34 – Trade contracts ................................................................................................................................ 65 Fig. 35 – Main contracts .................................................................................................................................. 66 Fig. 36 – Turnkey contracts ............................................................................................................................. 66 Table 1 – Danish authorities and organizations ............................................................................................. 59 Table 2 – BIM authoring tools ........................................................................................................................ 71 Table 3 – bips and Cuneco’s projects .............................................................................................................. 76

77


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

1. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION

1.1 Presentation, background information and reasons for choice of subject: This dissertation is written as a compulsory assignment in 7th semester full degree course of Architectural Technology and Construction Management. It deals with the integration of the Building Information Modeling into the architectural design methodology in Denmark. An enormous amount of errors have been registered on the construction sites during the years. The biggest percentage of them has been caused by inefficient communication between the different parties involved in a project mainly during the design phases. The high costs related to these mistakes have motivated the development of possible solutions. Furthermore, the way we consider buildings today is different from the way we considered them in the past. Architects’ aim nowadays is to create architecture that serves people and not architecture that makes people change their habits and adapt to the buildings they live in, work in, etc. Therefore, higher requirements in consideration with buildings’ functions are set. On the other hand, strengthened requirements for low energy consumption of the buildings have created the need for new methods and solutions in both the architectural design and the construction field. In this way, step by step, the traditional methods and project phases are being replaced by new ones and more effective ones. As it is well known, the traditional building design was largely reliant upon twodimensional drawings and written documentation. This was limiting the possibility of getting a good understanding of the project during the early design phases and communicating it to the other stakeholders. Therefore, errors were discovered during the construction phase, when costs for fixing them were already significantly increased compared to if they were discovered at an earlier stage. This is how, when and why the Building Information Modeling took off. According to the National BIM Standard - United States (2008 cited in Eastman, 2008), Building Information Modeling (BIM) is “a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility”. A Building Information Model (a BIM) is “a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle, defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition”. In other words, Building Information Modeling is a potential solution for the previously mentioned problems. My aim in this dissertation is to observe and compare the traditional building design methodology in Denmark and the Building Information Modeling methodology. I would like to study how they can be/are combined in a way that best results are achieved and 8


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

errors are brought to the minimum. I will also look into the challenges the architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industries in Denmark are facing in relation to that development. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT:

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

How is BIM integrated in the traditional architectural design methodology in Denmark and what are the challenges in relation to that? 1.3 Research questions:

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What do the traditional architectural design methodology in Denmark consist of? Are there any disadvantages in relation to it and where is it open for an improvement?

What does BIM stand for and how is it different from the traditional architectural design methodology? Are there any advantages in relation to it?

How is the traditional design process in Denmark being optimized and how is BIM helping this process? What are the challenges in relation to integration of BIM in the Danish architectural design methodology?

1.4 Delimitation: The design process might differ in each country due to different needs, culture, climate, economic situation, etc. Therefore, some countries are further in the implementation of BIM than others. In Europe the Nordic countries are the frontrunners within the integration of BIM at the moment. In this dissertation I will observe the current building design methodology and the level of integration of BIM in Denmark, due to my education and location here. The scope of this thesis will cover only the design phases of a construction project, because this is when the wish of the client turns into an idea. It’s the time to take decisions and fulfill demands. It is the time architecture is born. The construction phase is only the result of what we have previously designed. That means that the main precondition to get a good result in the construction phase is to do well during the design phase. Therefore, we should first look for improvement and innovation at the most basic level of a construction project – the design. BIM consists of two main issues – the process and the tools. Due to the fact I consider the understanding of the process my primary issue, I will focus my dissertation mainly on that and pay less attention to the software solutions. BIM spreads from earliest conceptual stages, through design and construction, operational life and eventual demolition. However, I will further narrow down my research about BIM into the design process, being my main area of interest at the moment. The aim of this dissertation is not to get deep into a specific topic, but to observe the design methodology in Denmark, the overall strategy for integrating BIM, the reason for 9


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

this integration, on what levels of the design process it is realized and what the challenges in relation to that are. My personal goal is to reflect on the experience I have gathered during my studies and additional activities in the field and gain new knowledge in relation to the topic throughout the work on this research. Moreover, it is my aim to create a piece of work that will serve as a basis for my future professional development and studies. 1.5 Empirical data, research methodology and working methodology: The inspiration for this research is a tribute to BIM Camp 2011 - Copenhagen, Denmark and BIM Camp 2012 - Aarhus, Denmark. As a basis for my research I will use a number of books, different guidelines, standard documents, studies and several useful web sites. Furthermore, I will contact Asbjørn Levring – a BIM specialist and a consultant in the Teknologisk Institut in Copenhagen, Denmark - in order to gather useful information that will help me throughout the writing of this thesis. I am also privileged to have had the opportunity to work at AART Architects, Aarhus, Denmark and gather knowledge from hands on experience. I will, moreover, interview Jens Henrik Birkmose, the chief operating officer at AART Architects, and Christoffer Nielsen, a constructing architect and BIM specialist, in order to provide an example of integration of BIM at company level in the enclosures of this dissertation. I will base my work on both primary and secondary data. I will provide theory with the help of the above mentioned sources and support it with my own experience and reflections within the traditional design methodology, the building information modeling methodology and in relation to the integration of BIM in Denmark. I will primarily use qualitative data. 1.6 Overall structure of the dissertation: The dissertation is based on an overall 3-part structure: (1) Introduction including background information, problem formulation, research questions, delimitations and choice of empirical data, research and work methodology. (2) Main section consisting of three major chapters: Traditional design methodology in Denmark, Building Information Modeling methodology and Integration of BIM in the traditional design methodology in Denmark, each one containing analyses, discussions and conclusion. (3) Final conclusion answering the questions defined in the problem formulation. In this report I will provide the answers of all research questions through theory, reflections on personal and others’ experience, analyses and interpretation. Each chapter will end up with a conclusion that will serve as a basis for the final conclusion of the report that will give a brief answer to all research questions and a personal opinion about the future expectations concerning the topic.

10


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

2.

November 15, 2012

1. TRADITIONALARCHITECTURAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY IN DENMARKDESIGN TRADITIONAL

METHODOLOGY IN DENMARK 2.1 What is a construction project? The word project comes from Latin (projectum) and it means “something that comes before anything else happens”. According to the Constructing Architect’s Manual (Müller, 1997), a construction project is something with clearly defined start, duration and finish. In other words projects are rather temporary than permanent. They have a certain goal and impact on the surroundings, either good or bad. In most cases a project is unique; it is different than any other that has been worked out so far. A project requires use of resources; could be labor, materials, machinery, money, etc. It also requires expertise of a number of individuals. In our field that would be architects, engineers, technicians, constructors, etc. In brief, projects are “temporary… social systems constituted by teams within or across organizations to accomplish particular tasks under time constrains” (Manning, n.d.). In the Danish building methodology we work out a project through a number of phases feasibility study, inception phase, detailed preliminary brief, design phase (consisting of outline proposal, scheme design, detail design 1 and detail design 2), tender phase, construction phase and operation/maintenance and feed-back. They often partly or completely overlap with the methods applied in the different countries.

9. Operation and maintenanc e

8. Construction phase

1. Inception phase 2. Brief phase

CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

7. Tendering phase

3. Outline proposal

4. Scheme design

6. Detail design 2

5. Detail design 1

Fig. 1 - Construction project's phases 11


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

2.2 Who is involved in a building project? In order to define the different individuals and their roles in a construction project, we are going to put them in several groups or organizations. 2.2.1 Owner’s organization: To start a building project, there should be a client with certain building needs. This client can be a private or a public client – someone who wants to build new home or the state building a new library building for example. Clients have requirements in relation to their projects. In case they are not experienced in the field they get help from design consultants, lawyers, bankers, etc. in order to figure out if their intention to build has a stable basis. In case the owners/clients are not the only future users of the building, then in this organization we can add the other future users of the facility and the facility managers as well. As such, they usually have certain needs and demands in relation to the building, too. The owner is the first and most important participant in a construction project due to the fact he/she sets the most basic rules, he/she pays all costs and the responsibility after all lies in his/her hands. 2.2.2 Architects/Engineers’ organization: Another organization is the one of the designers, consisting of architects, engineers, constructing architects, etc. They are specialized in converting the owner’s needs into reality and at the same time dealing with all other rules and restrictions in relation to realizing a building project. 2.2.3 Contractors/sub-contractors’ organization: The contractors, subcontractors, manufacturers, etc. are the people who are actually building the project. In some cases they might be required to handle design work in relation to construction drawings for their own discipline, too. 2.2.4 Building organizers: The building organizers are the people dealing with project management - project planning, building time schedules, cost estimates, etc. In real life the work of the building organizers often overlaps and it’s done either by the designers or by the contractors, depending on the type of contract. All the organizations we mentioned so far work in a close collaboration with each other. Even though they all have different assignments, they are also responsible for communicating with the others involved in the project, sharing their ideas, work and solutions. Any lack of communication might result in design and later on construction

12


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

errors. Such mistakes and omissions often cause unanticipated costs, delays and eventual lawsuits. (Eastman, 2008) 2.2.5 Outside organizations and their restrictions: In Denmark we have the Building Act that is the so called framework law issued by the Government. It does not contain any specific requirements and instructions in relation to projects. However, the Building Regulations (BR), which is based on the Building Act, establishes these specific requirements for all buildings in Denmark. It is not a law in itself, but it has the same effect as a law and it is, therefore, mandatory to comply with the minimum requirements set out in it. On the other hand, we have the local authorities that deal with building projects in accordance with the BR, but in some areas, the local authority may impose stricter or different rules than those stated in the BR. This is done by the local authority adopting a local plan for a specific area in the municipality. There might be further restrictions in relation to the particular plot of land on which we intend to build. These restrictions are set out in documents called easements or declarations. The BR specifies the so called functional requirements, but it is not a work instruction on how buildings should be designed in practice. For this, we have different organizations, like the Danish Building Research Institute (SBI), that provide guidance on how to fulfill these requirements. To sum it up, we have the Building Act, the BR and SBI instructions as a basis for all construction projects, but also other laws and regulations can have a great impact on a building in Denmark. This applies, for example, to some Danish Standards (DS) and Danish Engineering Society Standards that are equally valid as the SBI instructions. An example could be the Electrical Power Rules, which is the basis for electrical work in Denmark, or the Planning Act, after which the country is divided into different zones. Depending on whether the building is placed in an urban zone, rural zone or residential area, there might be different requirements to comply with. (Bejder, Wandahl, 2011)

PROJECTS MUST BE DONE IN A CLOSE COLLABORATION BETWEEN ALL DISCIPLINES PARTICIPATING Fig. 2 - Team building (BIM Camp 2012) 13


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

For more information about the different authorities and organizations in Denmark refer to Appendix 1. It is important to be aware of the legislation issues when we come to the topic of integrating BIM methodology in Denmark since one of the main strategies of integration happens at a government level. It has to be required in some way by the state; otherwise implementation might not be realized at all. However, we will observe how this actually happens later in this research (Chapter 3, p.39). 2.3 How do we manage a project and how do we define the scope of responsibilities of the different parties involved in a building project? As we already understood a building design project usually involves team work and collaboration of many different stakeholders. Therefore, a very important precondition for the elaboration of the project is to have cleared the scope of responsibilities of each and every party involved in it. Who is going to be in charge of the management, design, construction, etc. depends on the type of agreement that is signed. On the other hand, the management organization and the type of contracts will in most cases depend on the size and complexity of the project and the origin of the client. Is it a private or public client? Does the client have experience with building projects or not? What influence does the client want to have on the design of the project? This is why different types of consultancy and contracts exist. The type of consultancy and contract will define who is in charge of what, who is responsible for what and in which phase of the project. There are also different organizations, like the Danish Association of Architectural Firms (Danske Ark), the Danish Association of Consulting Engineers (FRI), the Construction – Information Technology – Productivity – Cooperation (BIPS), etc. that provide standard documents for the contractual basis and the managing of a project. They however do not form part of a legal organization. In order to get more information about the types of consultancy and contracts, you can refer to Appendix 2. Whether a traditional design process, a turnkey process or another type is applied, the same drawings and project documentation need to be prepared. They are always going to be prepared by architects, engineers and constructing architects in collaboration with the client, the authorities, the constructors, etc. Even though some of the phases the construction project runs through might change in accordance with the contract type, it will usually run through the same design phases (Outline proposal, Scheme design, Detail design 1 and Detail design 2). (Danske Ark, FRI, 2012; Bejder, Wandahl, 2011) It is important to have a basic understanding of the different types of contracts and projects implementation when talking about integration of BIM, because this is the actual operational level of integration in a specific project. Since one of the main aspects of BIM is process-related, the implementation will impose some changes in the traditional design methods and project participants’ relationships. A more detailed explanation will be provided in the last chapter of this report (Chapter 3, p.43). 14


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

2.4 What do the design project phases consist of? As we already mentioned the designers’ work is divided into different phases: 1. The proposal phase, consisting of Outline proposal, also known as “rough proposal” and Scheme Design also known as “exact proposal” 2. The project phase, consisting of Detail design 1 and Detail design 2 These phases are nowadays regulated by Danske ARK and FRI’s description of services “Building and Planning 2012”. However, the observation supplied below refers mainly to the practices in the recent past (before 2007) and to many companies that are still using these methods even today.

OUTLINE PROPOSAL Figure 3– Design phases

SCHEME DESIGN

DETAIL DESIGN 1

DETAIL DESIGN 2

TRADITIONAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY 2.4.1 Outline proposal An Outline proposal is “a motivated proposal for the environmental, aesthetic, functional, technical and economical solution to the client’s building needs” (Müller, 1997). It is drawn up by design consultants in a “dialogue” with the developer. This stage of a building design project starts with the receipt of the client’s preliminary brief. It is usually a very good idea to analyze it well in order to figure out if it represents an adequate basis for design and if the time and cost parameters are reasonable. Furthermore, it is very important to pay attention to all the demands listed and to all the other limitations defined by the BR, Local plans and Easements in relation to the type of project we are about to design. There is a minimum requirement in the traditional design methodology for what materials an Outline proposal should consist of. These are the materials that can give a general idea to the client of what his project is going to look like, what the cost of it is going be and when it is going to be finished, in other words, the things he is mostly interested to know. In some cases the clients might have additional requirements in relation to the materials handed in, so it is an important issue to be aware of if there are any. The main goals for this phase are to prepare all the general drawings for the project, i.e. a situation plan showing the orientation of the building on the plot, access to the building from the main roads, the green and recreational areas and all other facilities around the building; plan drawings showing the layout, flexibility and zoning of the interior; elevations possibly showing an idea of the materials that can be used; cross sections, showing enough floor height; visualizations of exterior and interior providing a better understanding of the building geometry. Moreover, the outline proposal should contain 15


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

basic proposals for the installations’ arrangement and the statics of the building. Proposal specifications will provide written explanation of the main concept, the use of materials, possibly an explanation of the sustainable principles used in the building and other essential information. Cost estimate (often based on m2/m3 price at this stage) will provide the financial basis of the project and a time table including design, tender and construction will define the time limits for the project. The most commonly used method of presenting all these materials to the client is by means of posters, spatial sketches and 3D visualizations. In some cases 3D models and movies can be added in order to provide a more realistic approach to the presentation. However, that usually applies for big design competitions. It is important to remember to keep the level of detailing at this stage very simple in order not to use too much time for things we are still not able to define and in order to keep the interest of the client (who we are actually doing it for) on the proposal (in case it is too detailed and complicated we might lose his attention). Other important thing we need to deal with in the Outline phase is to analyze carefully and list out all the demands we have in relation to the type of building we are designing. Those demands will be in consideration with accessibility, functionality, environmental aspects, spaces, heights, fire precautions, static system, technical installations, etc. However, they will usually not form part of our presentation; they will be our own quality check tool that will ensure no surprises will come later in the design process. (Bygningsstyrelsen, 2012; Moeslund, Eriksen, 1996; Mßller, 1997; Taylor, 1998;) 2.4.2 Challenges in the traditional Outline proposal A main problem arising from the Outline proposal is that often the initial design and visualizations are not accurate enough. However, we should not confuse the word accuracy with detailing here. What we mean is that the visualizations and drawings are often made with the help of models composed by multiple 2D views or 3D data without object attributes. That means they have no intelligence at an object level and provide no support for data integration and design analyses. Another case might be that the models define objects, but cannot adjust their positioning and proportions because they do not have parametric intelligence. Other CAD tools allow changes into dimensions in one view, but do not apply these changes automatically to the other views. So this leads to errors that are very difficult to detect at an early stage of the project. What is worse is that they might remain undiscovered until the actual construction phase. (Eastman, 2008) During our studies and even in real life we have experienced work with tools like Sketch Up and Rhino, We draw in order to have a model for nice visualizations. However, when the model becomes too complicated it gets out of control, because if there is a small mistake (like a wrong measurement of a component that affects other components as well), that means we either need to spend hours in just fixing a single mistake (that has most probably been followed by other ones) or to simply ignore it (because the deadline is coming and it is more important to finish everything; we can fix the mistakes in the next phase). (Case 1) 16


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

Fig. 4 – Sketch Up model

November 15, 2012

EVEN THOUGH IMPRESSIVE VISUALIZATIONS CAN BE ACHIEVED WITH TOOLS LIKE SKETCH UP, A SINGLE MISTAKE IN A MODEL LIKE THE ONE OF THE TOWER IN MALMO CAN CAUSE SERIOUS PROBLEMS IN THE FURTHER DESIGN STAGES AND THE MODEL CANNOT BE REUSED.

Another problem we often face is that the cost estimates based on m2 and m3 done in this phase are not realistic enough and surprises come later in the design process. This is a reason for many projects to be stopped or delayed since the clients are not able to handle the financial surprises. Finding out that a project is significantly over budget after a considerable amount of time and effort has been expended is wasteful. Therefore, an appropriate way of providing more accurate and realistic information in relation to both costs and project timing need to be applied. A very common old-fashioned tool for preparing cost estimates is Excel. That automatically means that we insert the information by hand, calculating quantities from our “wrong” model that we have prepared for the visualizations. If we are lucky enough and 100% concentrated we might not commit new errors, but the ones we ignored while drawing will for sure remain. (Case 2)

The tremendous development of the construction “science” in the last decades and the increasing demands in relation to that cannot be met by the old traditional methods anymore. The high requirements for quality, sustainable solutions and energy efficiency due to the depletion of non-renewable resources, the increase of global warming and the enormous impact buildings have on it, have led to the need of improving the building design and construction methodology and search for new solutions from earliest design stages. Thus, sustainability and environmentally friendly design have become a requirement in every new construction and renovation project. Therefore, great attention on sustainable solutions is paid both by the developers and the architects. It is to a great extent one of the winning criteria in most design competitions as well. In order to apply passive design and other sustainable solutions, the architects need to make a number of analyses and simulations. This is not possible using traditional 2D tools which require that separate energy analyses are performed at the end of the design process, thus reducing the opportunities for modifications that could improve the building’s energy performance. Accurate and realistic results in the early stages can be achieved only by means of specific modern software tools. (Eastman, 2008) 17


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

In the old-fashioned methodology a number of hand-sketches of plans, elevations, sections and orientations of the building were enough to define the best conditions. Knowledge based on theory was guiding us how to orientate the building on the plot in order to gain daylight in certain areas of the interior and how to “calculate” shadows and screening. But that’s not how we can efficiently apply sustainable solutions to our project. Therefore, an enormous amount of buildings were ending up with overheating during warm seasons, bad indoor climate, high heat loss during cold seasons, etc. (Case 3) Fig. 5 – Hand-made sun path analyses

2.4.3 Scheme design Right after receiving an approval of the Outline proposal from the client, the Scheme design phase can start. The Scheme design is the most complicated design planning and management phase. In this stage all decisions in relation to all major technical problems need to be made by the designers. It is again prepared in close collaboration with the developer and the other consultants involved in the project. After all, the client will have to approve and make his/her final decisions in consideration with all aesthetical, functional, environmental, technical and economical solutions. Since the Scheme design represents a further development of the Outline proposal, no major changes in the conceptual design are usually allowed. However, the designers are required to provide different proposals and solutions on how this design can be realized. Since, the level of detailing in comparison with the previous phase significantly increases in Scheme design, there is a much more equal distribution of the work load between the architects, landscape architects, engineers, etc. Now everybody is required to deal with their own tasks to a level that ensures the best possible solutions. In this phase we revise all analyses made in the previous stage and bring them to a higher level. In case there are uncertainties or mistakes, we need to find new solutions and at the same time stay with the promised design as much as possible. We also start looking into different materials and components that can best suit our building. We compare them on the basis of quality, sound and thermal insulation, moisture absorption, reaction to fire, durability, aesthetics, cost, etc. On the other hand all calculations in relation to loads, pipes sizes, U-values, Energy frame, etc. are made in order to define the right components sizes, insulation thickness, floor height, areas, etc. Based on our analyses and calculations we start solving both vertical and horizontal details as well. We bring all general drawings to a more detailed level. We also update our cost estimate and time schedule this time using the chosen materials and components prices, construction principles and sequence. It is very essential in this phase to make sure the building complies with all requirements stated in the BR since it will serve as a basis for the next phase, when we will prepare the materials in order to get a building approval from the authorities. (Bygnisngsstyrelsen, 2012; Moeslund, Eriksen, 1996; Taylor, 1998) 18


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

2.4.4 Challenges in the traditional scheme design A big problem in the old-fashioned design approach is that we are not able to reuse the work we have previously done. We often start the Scheme design by drawing a new model instead of reusing the one from the Outline proposal, because it was meant to be used just for graphic visualizations. On the other hand, it is often as time consuming to update a 2D drawing as it is to simply draw it all over again. This takes a lot of time that could be used in a much better way. (Eastman, 2008) Besides the fact we need to draw a whole new model again (since until some years ago the tools that were good for visualizations were not good for detailing and vice versa, for example Sketch Up and AutoCAD), we also need to fix the mistakes we ignored in the previous phase due to the lack of time. Now when redrawing the model, we should pay extra attention to measurements, areas, etc. (Case 4)

The high complexity and the big number of individuals participating in this phase of the project require not only a good planning of the work, but a transparent work flow, a very good communication and an integrated design approach. This is where we often face challenges, misunderstandings happen and design errors remain unnoticed, or even worse, new ones appear. In real life it often happens that the architects and the engineers work in different offices and during the meetings they have they are not able to cover all the necessary topics they need to discuss. Besides, in the old days (until 5-6 years ago), mainly 2D drawings where used, so it was very difficult to communicate the ideas and solutions of all different parties, to combine them and figure out if they work together. Even nowadays many companies (mainly small companies) continue using the old fashioned 2D based approach.

Fig. 6 – Bad collaboration between the different disciplines in a project

It is extremely difficult to synchronize the solutions from all disciplines when the work is constantly under development. This may result in crossing of pipes, inconsistency in between the architects’ and the engineers’ solutions or other mistakes. In another scenario, the engineers might wait for the design to be finished in order to figure out the construction principles and the installations. But that gives a lot of limitations in relation to the design and might result in not enough floor height for installation pipes or problems with structures, areas, etc. Besides, this type of procedure takes more time.

As we previously mentioned in relation to the Outline proposal, it is extremely difficult to control the quality of the work when 3D models without object attributes or parametric 19


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

intelligence or 2D CAD tools misleading themselves are used. In the Scheme design phase this becomes a much bigger problem due to the fact the amount of work is greater as well. It becomes very difficult and time consuming to maintain the quality and the status of all drawings. It is impossible to ensure efficient design checks. (Eastman, 2008) When we cannot rely on the program to at least keep the scale and measurements of our project correct, we have many more things to consider and remember. In this way, being focused in keeping good quality of the drawings, we might forget other more important issues related to the actual solutions. (Case 5)

Moreover, what we very often experience in our daily work as designers is to work under pressure when deadlines are coming. We need to finish an enormous amount of drawings and documents for a very short period of time. And when we do that using the old fashioned methods we commit many mistakes. Furthermore, we start applying fast and not thought through solutions. We do not look for improvement and innovation, but choose solutions we consider good enough thanks to the experience we have with them. So, instead of spending our time in working for best possible quality of the solutions, we waste our time in drafting and at the same time we are not even able to ensure 100% correct drawings. Furthermore, experience is not the only key to success; innovation is a very important issue as well. DUE TO THE OLDFASHIONED APPROACH EFFORD IS WASTED IN THE QUANTITY OF THE WORK INSTEAD OF THE QUALITY.

Fig. 7 – Big amount of drawings

Fig. 8 – Hard to store and share information

It is pretty clear that the consequences of all this again result in many additional and unpredicted costs deriving from the mistakes in the drawings and the inaccurate cost estimates. On the other hand, this can again lead to very big delays or even cancelation of the project. 2.4.5 Detail design 1: The Detail design 1 phase (also called “The Local Authority’s project”) starts when the client approves all the designers’ solutions from the Scheme design. Then the client has no longer influence on the design of the project and the Detail 1 is executed in close cooperation between the architectural and engineering office. It is often the architects’ responsibility to send an application for building permit to the authorities. Even though communication with them should be established from the previous design stages, in the Detail design 1 is when a building permit can actually be obtained. 20


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

In this phase all the part-solutions of the project are drawn up into a whole and all general drawings (site plan, building floor plans, elevations, and cross sections) have to be finalized. They should contain all modules, measurements and important information as descriptions of components, fire, sound and U-value qualities of the materials. They should show compliance with all kinds of requirements drawn out from the BR and Local plans. It is often necessary to provide different load-bearing and load-transferring key details as well. It is the engineers’ responsibility to prepare a structural design report with all calculations necessary for the implementation of the project, fire documentation, energy consumption calculations and a sewer plan showing connections to the gullies inside and outside the building plot. The project’s estimates are going to be revised as well. (Bygninsstyrelsen, 2012; Moeslund, Eriksen, 1996; Müller, 1997;) Here the level of detailing is already very high, but still not high enough for implementation of the project, because the authorities are interested to know what the solutions of the building are, but not how exactly they are going to be executed. 2.4.6 Challenges in the traditional Detail design 1 In this phase of the project we are not supposed to come up with new materials or solutions, but only to update the ones we already have in the required format and present them to the authorities. However, the problems arising from the previous phases can affect the Detail design 1 as well. Usually, the more we do in the Scheme design, the less we need to do in the Detail design 1. So, any kind of work we haven’t managed to do before or any kind of mistakes we have discovered need to be fixed now; otherwise, we run the risk of not getting an approval from the local authorities. Furthermore, this will end up in more delays, extra work and extra costs for the client. Sometimes in real life it might be the case that the Scheme design and the Detail design 1 are done simultaneously. When the architects and the engineers are pushed by deadlines it might happen that from analyzing different possibilities, they straight take decisions and come up with the final drawings. (Case 6)

Fig. 9 - Deadlines in projects

On the other hand, the local authorities are often busy revising many different projects. Therefore, while checking, they are concentrating on the design solutions and fulfillment of functional requirements, and not on if there are any inaccuracies in relation to the drawings. So, in this way even after getting an approval for implementing the project, there is no guarantee that our work is absolutely correct. 21


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

2.4.7 Detail design 2: The Detail design 2 is also called a “late tender”, as opposed to tendering the project at the Outline proposal or Scheme design phases (or even at the Detailed preliminary brief) – these being called “early tenders”. Projects developed to a Detail design 2 level, are specifically aimed for certain types of contracts, as Individual Trade contract for example (refer to Appendix 2). This phase represents a further development of the Scheme design and the Detail design1phases. Now it is the time to prepare implementation drawings, project and work specifications and other enclosures that will be directed to the craftsman, contractors, suppliers and their technicians. Therefore, the drawings prepared at this stage need to be detailed to such an extent that they form basis for the tender of the project for bids, establishing a contract, and for the execution of the project. The work will be done again by the architects, constructing architects, landscape architects, engineers, etc. The client is no longer involved in the project’s design. The scope of this stage covers all main drawings of the building, summary drawings, building component drawings, details, building case specifications, work and building component specifications and quality assurance, often done by the architects. It covers as well constructions, further structural calculations, technical installations drawings, refuse systems and other systems, usually done by engineers. In relation to the management of the project, the final cost estimates need to be calculated, health and safety plan, tender forms, tender time schedules and many other documents have to be prepared. (Bygningsstyrelsen, 2012; Moeslund, Eriksen, 1996; Müller, 1997) 2.4.8 Challenges in the traditional Detail design 2 In the Detail design 2 we face the same problems as in the previous phases – mistakes in the drawings, wrong cost estimates, time consuming production of construction documents due to the inability of reusing materials from previous stages and automating standard forms of detailing, correction of discovered mistakes, etc. There are two possibilities of preparing implementation drawings – process oriented or combined for all disciplines. The process oriented drawings are better, because they provide information about the building sequence and make it easier for the contractors to detect which materials belong to them and need to be included in the final costs. However, combined drawings are more frequently used due to the fact they are less time consuming to prepare. This is a reason more for mistakes in the cost estimates by the contractors. (Case 7)

In the traditional design process most of the time is spent during the detailed phases, partly due to the big number of mistakes that are discovered and the need of finding new solutions for them. As we can suggest, the possibilities of changes are extremely limited at such an advanced level of the project, since everything has already been decided and approved both by the client and the authorities. (Eastman, 2008)

22


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

On the other hand, the design defects that remain undetected in this phase automatically become construction errors. They result in the inability of building things that seem correct in the drawings, delivery of wrong components, the necessity of designing and ordering new ones, etc. The costs for all this are already extremely high in comparison with what they would have been if discovered earlier in the design process.

Fig. 10 - Life of an architect

THE COSTS FOR FIXING MISTAKES IN THE END OF THE DESIGN PROCESS, ESPECIALLY WHEN THE CONSTRUCTION PHASE HAS STARTED, ARE SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED COMPARED TO IF THEY WERE DISCOVERED AND FIXED EARLIER.

Besides, inconsistent and poor environmental solutions are implemented in the end, due to the fact they haven’t been analyzed in the right way in the beginning of the project and they can no longer be optimized even if lacks are already obvious. 2.5 Conclusion: There are several very important conditions we need to ensure before starting a project – a clear and informative preliminary brief forming a stable and realistic basis for a project, clear scope of responsibilities of all parties involved and an efficient way of communicating and sharing of documentation chosen before the actual start. Even if we are given a good preliminary brief and we have clearly defined who is responsible for what, we often face many problems in relation to collaboration in the traditional design methodology. Consequently, by starting a project in a wrong way, we cannot expect to finish it in a good way. Due to the use of the old-fashioned 2D based approach in the past and by many companies even nowadays, challenges concerning the collaboration between the AEC industries arise from the first steps of the design until the handing of the project. This approach prevents a transparent work flow which is essential for achieving good results in our field. Besides, it is time-consuming and it cannot ensure an effective quality control of the work. Frequently, such problems result in wrong drawings and poor solutions, wrong cost estimates and time schedules, extra costs for the client, delays, construction failures, lawsuits and even cancellation of projects. On the other hand good environmentally friendly solutions are hard to apply, due to the lack of consistent analyses in the early design stages. Such analyses cannot be performed 23


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

by hand or when using 2D CAD tools. In the end of the design process, when more information concerning the building is already available and analyses can be performed a little more accurately, no longer changes can be applied since the project has been approved by the client and for construction. Therefore, environmental solutions are based on suggestions and general knowledge. They are poor and end up in bad indoor climate, overheating during the warm seasons, bad energy frame, etc. Those and many other problems used to form a great part of the daily life of architects, engineers and constructors. The need for improvement and innovation in the building design methodology has become even more obvious thanks to organizations like BygErfa, for example, that are dealing with construction errors. However, being aware of the problem and understanding it is the first step for facing it and solving it. Therefore, the first step has already been undertaken. Our next task is to look for solutions, see how we are dealing with the problem and how close we are to the solution. WRONG DRAWINGS, POOR SOLUTIONS, WRONG COST ESTIMATES AND TIME SCHEDULES, EXTRA COSTS FOR THE CLIENT, DELAYS, CONSTRUCTION FAILURES, LAWSUITS AND CANCELLATION OF PROJECTS USED TO FORM BIG PART OF THE DAILY LIFE OF ARCHITECTS, ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS.

Fig. 11 – Life of an architect

24


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

3. BIM METHODOLOGY 3. BIM METHODOLOGY

3.1 Background and definitions: Even though it is considered a relatively new concept, the first information about BIM dates back in 1975 in the working prototype “Building Description System” published in AIA Journal by Charles M. Eastman: [designing by] “…interactively defining elements…derive[ing] sections, plans, isometrics or

perspectives from the same description of elements… Any change of arrangement would have to be made only once for all future drawings to be updated. All drawings derived from the same arrangement of elements would automatically be consistent… any type of quantitative analysis could be coupled directly to the description… cost estimating or material quantities could be easily generated… providing a single integrated database for visual and quantitative analysis… automated building code checking in city ha;; or the architect’s office. Contractors of large projects may find this representation advantageous for scheduling and materials ordering.” (Eastman, 1975)

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

MATURITY LEVELS

PHASE 3

iBIM

CAD

3D

CPIC AVANTI BS1192:2007 User Guides

ISO BIM

IDM IFC

2D

AIM SIM FIM BSIM

BIMs

PROJECT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT

BIM

PHASE 0

DRAWINGS, LINES, ARCS, TEXT, ETC.

MODELS, OBJECTS, COLLABORATION

INTEGRATED, INTEROPERABLE DATA

95% of users, 2D drawings lack of coordination impact, 25% waste through rework

2D and 3D spatial coordination based around Avanti and the BS1192:2007 has the potential to remove error and reduce waste by 50%

A fully integrated and interoperable iBIM has the potential to mitigate risk throughout the process and increase profit by +2% through a collaborative process

Fig. 12 – BIM maturity levels

Today Building Information Modeling (BIM) stands for a process involving the “generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of a facility” (National Building Information Modeling Standard - US, 2012) 25


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

where the greatest focus is placed on the actual information provided (method = building + information + modeling). It is composed by two technological foundations: Parametric Design Tools that produce Building Information Models - “shared knowledge resources aimed to support decision-making about a facility from earliest conceptual stages, through design, construction and through its operational life and eventual demolition” (National Building Information Modeling Standard, US, 2012) - and Interoperability - the possibility of passing data between applications, allowing multiple types of experts and applications to contribute to the work at hand - (product = method + application). The Building Information Modeling is both process and product oriented methodology and represents a close link between process, tools and mindsets. It should be noted here that the abbreviation BIM might refer to both Building Information Modeling and Building Information Model, depending on the context in which it is used. When it is not clear to which one it is referred, the entire term will be utilized. (Eastman, 2008; Pniewski, 2011) Since there is no widely-accepted definition of BIM that can describe all its features, M.A. Mortenson Company in USA (n.d), has distinguished six key characteristics that the BIM technology possesses. It must be digital, spatial (3D), measurable (quantifiable, dimension-able, and query-able), comprehensive (encapsulating and communicating design intent, building performance, constructability, and include sequential and financial aspects of means and methods), accessible (to the entire AEC/owner team through an interoperability and intuitive interface) and durable (usable through all phases of a facility’s life). (Eastman, 2008) 3.2 Parametric Design Tools and Building Information Models: Previously in this dissertation, we shortly introduced the old-fashioned design methods (2D CAD tools or 3D models without object and parametric intelligence). Due to all their disadvantages and the big number of design and construction failures they have led to, new methods have been established in the AEC field. These methods find their application in the Parametric Design Tools and the Building Information Models (also called “Virtual Buildings” or “Integrated Project Models” depending on the software chosen). In Denmark they are commonly known as Building Information Models since this is the name Autodesk has come up with and due to the fact that Autodesk is the most commonly used software in the country. However, the first implementation of BIM was under the “Virtual Building” concept by Graphisoft’s ArchiCAD in 1987. BIM represents a coordinated and information-rich building model with capabilities for virtual prototyping, analysis, and virtual construction of a project. Furthermore, it has the ability to link design information with business processes, such as cost estimating, time schedules and other operations. This is what makes it different from the drawing-based processes, where analyses must be done independently of the building design information, wrong data is often inserted and consequently wrong results are obtained. (Eastman, 2008) 26


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Since the concept of parametric design is central to understanding the Building Information Modeling methodology and its differentiation from the traditional design methodologies, we will further observe what Building Information Models are characterized by: (1) Building components that are represented with intelligent digital objects that “know” what they are, and can be associated with computable graphic and data attributes and parametric rules – parametric rules for objects automatically modify associated geometries when inserted into a building model or when changes are made to associated objects; for example, a door will fit automatically into a wall, a light switch will automatically locate next to the proper side of the door, a wall will automatically resize itself to attach to a roof, etc.; on the other hand object rules can identify when a particular change violates object feasibility regarding size, manufacturability, etc.; (2) Components that include data that describes how they behave, as needed for analyses and work processes – objects have the ability to link to or receive, broadcast or export sets of attributes, i.e., structural materials, acoustic data, energy data, etc. to other applications and models; objects can be defined at different levels of aggregation, so we can define a wall as well as its related components; objects can be defined and managed at any number of hierarchy levels, for example, if the weight of the wall subcomponent changes, the weight of the wall should also change; (3) Consistent and non-redundant data such that changes to component data are represented in all views of the component – when an object is shown in 3D, the shape cannot be represented internally redundantly, for example as multiple 2D views; a plan, an elevation or a cross section of a given object must always be consistent and dimensions cannot be fudged;

BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS:

Fig. 13 – Building Information Models

• INTELIGENT DIGITAL OBJECTS • PARAMETRIC INTELIGNCE • NON-REDUNDANT DATA • COORDINATED DATA

(4) Coordinated data such that all views of a model are represented in a coordinated way – all views of the model are stored inside the same file in the desired organization; (Eastman, 2008) 27


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Furthermore, 4D and 5D Building Information Models have been introduced. 4D refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D components or assemblies with time- or schedule- related information. The use of the term 4D refers to the fourth dimension: time, i.e. 4D = 3D + schedule (time). 4D models enable the various participants in an AEC project to visualize the entire duration and series and display the construction progression over time. It vastly improves the management of projects of any size and complexity. 5D refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D components or assemblies with schedule (time) constraint and cost-related information. The use of the term 5D refers to the addition of fourth dimension: time and fifth dimension: cost to the 3D model, i.e. 5D = 3D + schedule (time) + cost.

WITH BIM AUTORING TOOLS

SIMULATIONS

CONSTRUCTION

6D and 7D Building Information Models are currently under development. They link 3D components and assemblies with the entire project’s life cycle information. They are intended for the owners and delivered when the construction project is ready to be closed-out. They contain all the relevant building component information such as product data and details, maintenance manuals, cut sheet specifications, photos, manufacturers’ information and contracts, etc. It is made to serve facility managers for maintenance of a facility through its life cycle as well. (Cholakis, 2012)

Fig. 14 – Construction simulations

Building Information Models can be produced only by means of BIM tools (BIM authoring tools/Parametric design tools). Nowadays, there are many different BIM authoring tools available on the market, produced by a number of software companies. They have certain distinctions and store information in their own native formats, but in general they all serve the same purpose – to create Building Information Models and facilitate the AEC industry’s processes. For more information about different BIM authoring tools refer to Appendix 3.

28


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

3.3 Interoperability/Support for project team collaboration: The complex nature of the AEC projects today, the numerous stakeholders, such as interdisciplinary professionals, often spread around the world, using diversified computer applications and systems, have imposed the need of finding an effective support for the use and exchange of information. As people are subject to dialogue and understanding each other – the software applications need to do the same. Therefore, open interfaces allow for the import of relevant data (for creating and editing a design) and export of data in various formats (to support integration with other applications and workflows). (Eastman, 2008; Pniewski 2011)

IFC CIS/2

attributes

objects

DWF 3D PDF Games formats

PDF

DXF 3DS OBJ VRML

colors

textures

STRUCTURE AND INTELIGENCE

object relations

rules

NATIVE BIM FORMATS DWG, RVT, DGN, GSM

IMAGE (raster formats) JPEG pixels

Fig. 15 – File formats

2D lines

3D

3D GEOMETRY

solids

parametric relations

Two primary approaches for collaboration and sharing of information exist: the first one is to stay within one software vendor’s products, which is often difficult due to the different companies’ approaches and standards, especially when talking about projects at international level; and the second one is to use software from various vendors that can exchange data using industry supported standards. The first approach allows for tighter integration among products in multiple directions, for example, changes to the architectural model will generate changes to the structural model and vice versa. 29


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

However, the second approach is much more commonly used. It uses either proprietary or open-source, publicly available and supported standards created to translate the characteristics of building objects. These standards provide a mechanism for interoperability among applications with different internal formats. This approach provides much more flexibility, but not as much interoperability. Examples for such standards are the two main building product data models – the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) for building planning, design, construction and management and CIMSteel Integration Standards (CIS/2) for structural steel, engineering and fabrication. Despite certain reservations to IFC, it remains the only well-developed, non-proprietary and public data model for the AEC industry, existing today. (Eastman, 2008; Pniewski 2011) For more information about different standards, refer to Appendix 3.

BIM PROVIDES EFFICIENT METHODS FOR INTEROPERABILITY AND INFORMATION SHARING

Fig. 16 – Information sharing

3.4 Levels of BIM: The two technological foundations of BIM – the parametric design tools and the interoperability – have offered many improvements in the traditional architectural design methodology. Those improvements can be observed from four levels/viewpoints which apply in varying degrees to different projects, depending on the level of information required for them. (Eastman, 2008) (1) The first level of BIM refers to conceptual design, involving generation of basic building plans, their massing and general appearance, determining the building’s orientation on the site, its structure and how the project realizes the basic building program – the traditional unknowns for every building project. This is where Green BIM has its greatest impact, too. Previously in this report we mentioned the dramatic change in the climate, the limitation of fossil fuels and the increasing demands for reducing CO2 emissions. In this context, Green BIM refers to the 30


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

use of specialized tools that enable highly sustainable outcomes through energy simulations and analyses. On the other hand, the strong growth of the green building market is encouraging BIM adoption both in the initial phase by the integration of Green BIM and consequently in the further design phases of the project by the implementation of many other BIM methods as well. (Levring, Nielsen, 2011) (2) The second level refers to the use of BIM for design and analyses of building systems (mainly during the Scheme design phase). These analyses may cover all the different aspects of the building’s performance, as for example, the type of components, structural integrity, temperature control, ventilation, acoustics, energy consumption, etc. This level comprises also the collaboration and the interoperability of all the parties involved and the tools they are using.

BIM FOR DESIGN AND ANALYSES OF BUILDING SYSTEMS AS FOR EXAMPLE TYPE OF COMPONENTS, STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY, TEMPERATURE CONTROL, VENTILATION, ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS, ETC. Fig. 17 – Demonstration of software

In general the implementation of BIM requires a very well planned strategy in all phases and levels of the project. However, this second level is the most critical one, since this is the time all the important decisions about a project are made and collaborated by all disciplines. Therefore, the strategy should involve a plan for BIM implementation at both concept and project level (including coordination, exchange of data and collaboration). (3) The third level comprises the use of BIM in developing construction-level information (during Detail design 1 and Detail design 2). This is where we can currently find one of the biggest strengths of the BIM authoring tools. They have the ability to automatically generate standard or predefined construction documentation. This is significantly speeding up the detailed design phases and reducing the possibility of committing errors. (4) The last level involves design and construction integration (4D and 5D Building Information Models). That gives the opportunity to apply well-integrated design-build processes in conventional construction, facilitating fast and efficient construction of the

31


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

building after design, or in parallel with it. This emphasizes the growing use of the Building Information Models for direct use in construction. These different viewpoints of BIM explain the transfer of work load from the detailed phases to the initial phases of a project. This is also one of the main goals of BIM due to the fact that in the early stages the decisions have the greatest impact and accordingly the lowest costs in case changes are required. (Eastman, 2008) 100%

100%

CONSTRUCTION COST

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND OUTLINE PROPOSAL

CONSTRUCTION COST

DETAIL DESIGN 1 AND DETAIL DESIIGN 2

PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTION ABILITY TO INFLUENCE THE CONSTRUCTION COST 0%

STARTUP

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

SCHEME DESIGN

0%

PROJECT TIME

START

More common application of BIM

Emerging uses of BIM

Fig. 18 – Project time/costs

3.5 Benefits of BIM: As previously mentioned the Building Information Modeling spreads from earliest conceptual stages of a project, through design, construction and through its operational life and eventual demolition. Therefore, it should be noted here that the benefits of BIM spread much beyond the scope of this dissertation that covers only the major benefits for the client, the designers and the contractors during the design process or deriving from the design process of an AEC project. 3.5.1 Design Assessment: (1) Earlier and more accurate visualizations of a design - a 3D model generated by a BIM authoring tool is designed directly, instead of by multiple 2D views, as in the oldfashioned methods; that provides more accuracy, correct scaling and dimensioning; furthermore, the model can be used for visualizations at any stage of the design process; 32


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

REUSE

OF MODEL/DATA

In the recent past most of the BIM tools specialized in conceptual design were not that convenient for detailed design and vice versa. However, the most recent developments are focused in exactly improving the tools used during the detailed phases for conceptual design, too. Good examples of such tools are ArchiCAD 16 GraphiSoft and, to a certain extent, Revit Architecture 2013 by Autodesk. That simplifies the reuse of the model from Outline proposal to the next stages of the project. Otherwise, different interoperability methods and file formats, allow the import and export of conceptual models and consequently their partial reuse. (Case 8)

Unlike the traditional design process, here the phases are complementing each other by reusing the data/model from the previous phase and adding each time more details and information according to the development of the project.

Detail design 2 Detail design 1 Scheme design

Outline proposal

Fig. 19 – Reuse of data

(2) Fast reconfiguring and exploration of design scenarios – designers can prepare different proposals for design solutions faster and in an easily understandable way; (ref. 20) (3) More valuable input from project stakeholders – more valuable and accurate information about design solutions and their consequences can be obtained by visual simulations; (Eastman, 2008) A good example of exploration of design scenarios and input from stakeholders are the climate analyses (in relation to wind, sun path, thermal radiation, etc.) we make during the conception and outline phase with the help of tools like Ecotect and Project Vasari. We try different solutions by which we should convince either the client or another participant in the project why a certain solution is the best one. Proving it is much easier and faster by visual simulations showing the actual consequences of all proposed solutions. (Case 9)

(4) Automatic low-level corrections when changes are made to the design – if the model is controlled by parametric rules that ensure the model will be constructible; this reduces the designer’s need to manage certain design changes and gives them the opportunity to focus on important tasks instead; (Eastman, 2008) What we often see in the form of messages or warnings in Revit Architecture, for example, are errors that come after we try to make a certain change in the geometry of the model. Those messages are actually preventing us from designing something that cannot be done in real life. The parameters relating the components in the model configure the consequences of our actions very fast and serve as guidance and a low-level quality check tool. (Case 10) 33

Fig. 19


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

(5) Generation of accurate and consistent 2D drawings at any stage of the design – accurate and consistent drawings can automatically be extracted from the model for any set of objects at any stage of the project design; that significantly reduces the time spend on producing detailed/construction drawings for all design disciplines; (Eastman, 2008)

VISUALIZATIONS

ACCURATE

EARLY AND MORE

Ones drawn, the 3D model can provide us with views from any part of the building with just few clicks of the mouse. The way it is drawn in 3D, is the way it will appear in 2D in the form of plans, facades or sections. Everything is in scale and correctly dimensioned. That saves enormous amount of time compared to drawing from scratch every single view we need to solve in the building as with the old CAD tools. (Case 11)

Fig. 20 – Visualizations with BIM

(6) Easy checks against design intent – building information models provide the opportunity to insert different quantitative or qualitative requirements and check for different solutions in relation to that; (Eastman, 2008) Except for the model itself, a BIM can easily give us the quantities of all the components used in it in the form of schedules for example. Then, there are programs like Grasshopper that can show the relationships and parameters of components in the form of a “brainstorm”. This kind of intelligence of the model makes it extremely easy to identify the desired relationships and test the building against them in order to make sure it complies with certain qualitative or quantitative requirements. (Case 12) 34


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

(7) Improved building program compliance – compliance with the building program can be ensured through ongoing BIM spatial analysis of the building model against the owner, BR and local code requirements; (Eastman, 2008) Programs like Solibri Model Checker have the ability to check both a single model against different type of requirements (as enough space for disabled people for example) and a combination of models from different disciplines for clash detection (crossing of pipes, a column behind a window, etc.). (Case 13)

EFFICIENT

DESIGN CHECKS

Fig. 21 – Solibri

(8) Reduced design errors and therefore construction costs - through efficient design coordination, quality checks and clash detection higher quality of the work and minimized number of design and construction failures are ensured; (Eastman, 2008) 3.5.2 Collaboration: (9) Earlier collaboration of multiple design disciplines - BIM facilitates simultaneous work by multiple disciplines, sharing of information and managing quality control of the projects; thus, it gives earlier insight into the design problems and the possibility to find solutions at an earlier stage when changes are still applicable at much lower costs; furthermore, architectural and engineering work can be done simultaneously, instead of applying value engineering only after the major design decisions have been made; Collaboration is often established by the use of websites like Byggweb (Docia) where files can be shared, updated and reviewed on a daily basis no matter the location of the different parties. In this way all participants have an access to the latest changes made by all disciplines. (Case 14)

3.5.3 Building Design Infrastructure and Building Design Environment: (10) Coordinated infrastructure - through fully-integrated 3D models across all disciplines well-coordinated infrastructure is applied; (11) Better communication – easy communication between the owners, designers and contractors is established through visualization and easy and understandable design reviews; (12) Easier track of project activities – much easier follow up on the project planning and activities is ensured for all parties involved; (Eastman, 2008) 35


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

3.5.4 Cost Reliability and Management: (13) Exact cost estimates during the design stage - reliable and accurate cost estimates through automatic quantity take-off from the building model provide feedback earlier in a project when decisions will have the greatest impact; (Eastman, 2008) Revit Architecture, for example, allows export of quantities to Sigma, where prices are inserted and an accurate cost estimate is achieved. Other tools allow such procedures inside a single model without facing the need to export to other tools. (Case 15)

3.5.5 Schedule Management: (14) Shorten project schedules – shorter project timing from approval to completion is ensured by using building information models to coordinate and prefabricate design; (15) Reduced schedule-related risks - when BIM-based planning is applied and tested, risks in relation to project planning are minimized; (16) Visual communication of schedules – easily understandable visual 4D schedule simulations give the possibility of combining design and construction and significantly improving the construction phase by predesigning the best construction processes; (Eastman, 2008) Programs like Naviswork deal with 4D models. They are able to perform a project construction digitally. In this way any kind of problems can be predicted and avoided. (Case 16)

3.5.6 Sustainability: (17) Increased building value/improved energy efficiency and sustainability – different energy analyses tools give the opportunity to test and evaluate different sustainable solutions and improve the overall building performance in the very beginning of the design process; (Levring, Nielsen, 2011; Eastman, 2008) Tools like Ecotect and Vasari perform all types of climate and energy simulations and find the most suitable solutions for a certain region and project.

EFFICIENT Fig. 22 - Ecotect

CLIMATE ANALYSIS 36


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

3.5.7 Overcoming Labor Shortage, Education and Language Barriers: (18) Reduced onsite labor/costs – reduced construction costs are achieved through improved design quality and designed pre-fabrication; (19) Overcome language barriers – no language barriers exist through BIM simulation and communication; (20) Educating the project team - through interactive BIM reviews all parties involved in the project have the opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in relation to the others’ activities; (Eastman, 2008) 3.6 Conclusion: The Building Information Modeling is one of the most promising developments in the AEC industries and represents a revolution in the digital architectural design. If applied correctly and fully with the help of its two major technological foundations –parametric design tools and interoperability methods - it gives the possibility to create digital models of buildings that can provide an instant and precise feed-back on the proposed solutions for all disciplines during all phases of the project. Moreover, all the information about a project in relation to components characteristics, structural integrity, installations, energy performance, costs, planning, etc. can from part of a single digital model. That extremely facilitates the workflow and the collaboration between the different parties involved in a project in comparison to the old-fashioned methods when an enormous number of project documents had to be prepared, shared and stored. Thanks to BIM the AEC industries can enjoy a great number of benefits for their businesses. These benefits can be registered in all the different levels and phases of a project. During the design phases they can have a great impact on the design assessment, collaboration between different disciplines, the building design infrastructure, cost and schedule management, sustainable design solutions and many others. All these benefits provide the necessary improvement and innovation in the traditional design methodology for achieving the quality we are aiming for in the building design and construction field. For the owners the greatest benefit of BIM would be in relation to planning and cost estimations’ accuracy – area number one of impact of risk on the project realization. For the project itself the greatest contribution of BIM will be in relation to quality, environmentally friendly solutions and the overall building performance. The designers and constructors will benefit mostly from an improved working process, easier communication with other disciplines, better results (thanks to the reduced drafting time and the increased designing time) and significantly reduced risks of design and consequently construction errors.

Fig. 23 37


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

BETTER RESULTS WITH

BIM

Even though it is obvious that BIM can offer us a methodology ensuring the results we want both for our projects and as benefits for our business, there are many challenges to be faced in relation to its integration in the traditional design methodology. Its huge differentiation from what we are used to makes it very complicated for implementation at government, company, operational/project and concept level. In the next chapter we will observe these challenges into more details.

Fig. 23 – Visualization with BIM

38


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

4. INTEGRATION OF BIM IN THE

4. INTEGRATION OF BIM IN THE TRADITIONAL BUILDING DESIGN METHODOLOGY IN DENMARK

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN METHODOLOGY IN DENMARK 4.1 Background of BIM integration in Denmark: The CAD-based modeling – the predecessor of BIM - was introduced in Denmark many years ago (in the beginning of the 1980s) with the IT guidelines for public clients and the development of standards and common practices for CAD modeling and information with the aim to increase digitalization of the construction field. However, the actual integration of BIM started back in 2001 with Digital Construction (Det digitale byggeri) – a Danish government initiative - with a report outlining the basis of a development with the same name. This movement fitted well with the government’s building policy action plan named “The state as developer – Growth and efficiency in construction”. Furthermore, organizations like Realdania (a philanthropic association supporting projects in the built environment within three focus areas: cities, buildings and built heritage) and the Danish Enterprise and Construction Authority (DEACA) launched the new development “Digital Construction” in 2003. From 2004 until 2006 a development program of the concept was prepared. The AEC industries were encouraged to form consortia and compete in their own concept of how they would approach the task. Afterwards, a committee for Digital Construction laid the foundation for the current client requirements for digital opportunities, 3D models, project web and digital delivery. The first tests of the solutions were undertaken by three state builders – the Defense Construction and Establishment Service, the University and Property Agency and the Palaces and Properties Agency. Later on when BIPS was formed (a member-driven non-profit association that supports member companies and their employees with standards and tools for the daily work and in their cooperation through the construction process), they were handed the responsibility to deal with standardization and laying down the digital construction foundations. Thus, they came up with the new Danish classification system (DBK) that replaced the old SfB system and “3D working” (common specifications for creating, reusing and sharing the 3D model through the phases of the project). The DKB system was especially designed for Digital Construction to facilitate the workflow, collaboration and sharing of documentation of the different parties involved in the project. Thus, it is also a requirement for public projects nowadays. BIPS, furthermore, laid the basics for the concept of “Productions Map”, which is currently under development, and organized the so-called “learning networks” which provoke dialogue on development tasks within the field through a number of workshops.

39


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

In 2007 the actual implementation phase of Digital Construction started. A number of building organizations – BAT-Kartellet (a cooperative cartel on agreed technical areas coordinating the federations’ interests), Bygherreforeningen (The Danish Association of Construction Clients – DACC), Danske Ark (the Danish Association of Architectural Firms), Dansk Buggeri (The Danish Construction Association), DI Byggematerialer (a trade association of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and contractors in the construction industry), Foreningen af Rådgivende Ingeniører (the Danish Engineering Society – FRI) and TEKNIQ (The Danish Mechanical and Electrical Contractors’ Association) – put together the results of the Digital Construction development and formed the Implementing Network for Digital Construction. A new website was created, different information sessions were organized across the country and learning materials and training packages were spread and served as a learning support and implementation in individual companies until 2009. The implementation continued two years more (from 2009 until 2010) with a project called “New Knowledge for the Construction Industry” that had the purpose to create practical knowledge such as case examples and guidelines on how to work with the principles of Digital Construction/BIM. During this second period more test projects were elaborated and results were spread around the country to serve as a feed-back and an example of how BIM methodology should be implemented. The state client requirements that entered into force in 2007 were last reviewed in 2010 and had an effect from 1 March 2011 with the purpose to promote the development of digital standards and to increase the efficiency and quality of the construction field in Denmark. It includes over-all demands in four different areas – electronic tendering, project web, 3D models and electronic hand-over. For a review of the government client requirements refer to Digital Construction´s website (http://www.detdigitalebyggeri.dk/). However, the government client requirements do not contain any guidelines on how BIM process can be implemented in practice. The only guidance provided so far are the project case studies made during the two BIM implementation periods and a number of documents standardizing and facilitating practices prepared by BIPS in collaboration with Cuneco (the author of the last Classification System that is about to replace the DKB one). For more information about BIPS and Cuneco’s work refer to Appendix 4. (BIPS, 2012; Coling, 2012; Danske Ark, 2012; Det digitale byggeri, 2012) 4.2 BIM integration in Denmark today: The state of Denmark is nowadays divided into 5 regions - Capital Region of Denmark, Region Zealand, Region of Southern Denmark, Central Denmark Region and North Denmark Region (6, including the Regional Municipality of Bornholm). They are further divided into 98 municipalities. Regions and municipalities in Denmark enjoy a delicate balance between central control and self-government. Each region has certain tasks to deal with – Health care, Psychiatry, Social services, Regional development and Economy 40


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

and finances. Thus, main focus of all regions and municipalities today is to develop a strategy (Local agenda 21; last adopted for the period 2012-2015 replacing the old one from 2009) for sustainable development that at ones benefits people, the environment and the local economy. Therefore, each region sets goals and plans for the execution of specific projects that reduce pollution levels and focus on the use of local resources. Nowadays, great attention is paid to green businesses, i.e. increase of use of renewable energy and ensuring energy savings and efficiency by the use of wind power, solar energy, biogas, biomass, hydrogen and wave energy, finding their application in different green technologies as district heating, biodiesel for public transport, etc. Among the things the Regional development has to deal with are the development plans for the green growth of the region’s urban, rural and remote areas, the regional business growth and climate policies. Consequently, unlike the system in many other countries the Danish public construction development is also controlled by the six regions on which the state is divided. All of them are under the Building Act and the BR (incl. the State Client Requirements), but as described in the beginning of the research, they can adopt Local plans and Easements, containing specific requirements for the certain region, municipality or even plot of land. Currently one of the biggest focus areas of all regions is to build green hospitals, being the major consumers of energy used in cooling, heating, ventilation, lighting and processing equipment. Therefore, eleven hospital projects in Skejby, Odense, Aalborg, Viborg, Kolding, Slagelse, Herlev, Aarhus and Copenhagen are under development. (Hansen, Astman, 2009; Levring, 2012; Regions Denmark, 2012)

DENMARK DANISH REGIONS ARE IN CHARGE OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR.

5+1 Fig. 24 – Danish Regions

REGIONS All these projects serve as a driver for the adoption of BIM (especially Green BIM in the initial phases and application of different interoperability methods during the entire design process) in Denmark today. BIM is viewed as a tool of achieving the quality of buildings we are aiming for and fulfilling the strengthened requirements for low energy consumption of buildings from BR10, including the demands for 2015 and 2020. 41


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

However, as already mentioned no guidelines are supplied to serve as a standard for its implementation at an operational level. The main reason for the lack of such guidelines (similar to the ones of Finland for example) is the Danish system itself, the wish of the regions to ensure competitiveness by giving a little more freedom to how different AEC companies implement and handle their work, and the limited funds that are already distributed among all the tasks of the six regions. All these tasks and projects are financed by the contributions from the state and the municipalities (incl. rate payment) and EU funds. Funds for elaboration of BIM guidelines and their maintenance cannot be obtained at the moment since this is not a priority in the overall strategy of each region but a tool of achieving some of the goals. Therefore, the responsibility for that is transferred mainly to BIPS (that is, however, not a legal organization and, therefore, cannot create over-all guidelines with the function of demands) and then to the different AEC industries that have to find a way to deal with the assignment themselves. (Hansen, Astman, 2009; Levring, 2012; Regions Denmark, 2012)

DEMAND 2020

DWELLINGS, STUDENT ACCOMODATION, HOTELS – 20 kW/m2 OFFICES, SCHOOLS, INSTITUTIONS – 25 kW/m2

DEMAND 2015

DWELLINGS, STUDENT ACCOMODATION, HOTELS – (30 + 1000/A) kW/m2 OFFICES, SCHOOLS, INSTITUTIONS – (41 + 1000/A) kW/m2

BR10

DWELLINGS, STUDENT ACCOMODATION, HOTELS – (52,2 + 1650/A) kW/m2 (low energy – (30 + 1000/A) kW/m2) OFFICES, SCHOOLS, INSTITUTIONS – (71,3 + 1650/A) kW/m2 (low energy – (41 + 1000/A) kW/m2)

BR08

DWELLINGS, STUDENT ACCOMODATION, HOTELS – (70 + 2200/A) kW/m2 (low energy – (35 + 1100/A) kW/m2) OFFICES, SCHOOLS, INSTITUTIONS – (95 + 2200/A) kW/m2 (low energy – (50 + 1100/A) kW/m2)

THIS IS WHERE WE ARE TODAY

FUTURE

BEFORE 2008

TIMELINE – ENERGY FRAME DEMANDS IN DENMARK

FUTURE

2001 Digital construction initiative

2003 Digital construction development

2004-2006 Foundation for the state client requirements, BIPS

2007-2009 Case studies, learning

2009-2011 Case studies, learning, State Client requirements

2012 Bips standardization of practices, Danish regions

TIMELINE – BIM INTEGRATION IN DENMARK Fig. 25 – Time line BR/BIM integration in Denmark 42


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

4. 3 Challenges/barriers in the implementation of BIM: Due to its complexity and big differentiation from the traditional architectural design methodology in Denmark and in every other country, the integration of BIM is related to many barriers and challenges. They can be grouped under two major categories – process-related barriers, including legal and organizational issues that prevent the BIM integration; and technology-related barriers related to readiness, the current knowledge about BIM, software issues, etc. The challenges can, further, be observed at a government level (meaning the legal issues and organization in the country that we looked into above), concept level (including a strategy for implementation in the design, construction and operation phases of a project, as well as in renovation projects), project level (referring to the collaboration and exchange of data between all stakeholders) and company level (including a strategy for implementation at all aspects of a company). (Eastman, 2008, Levring, 2012, Moeslund, Eriksen, 1996) 4.3.1 Early collaboration of different disciplines needed: An intelligent/full implementation and use of BIM in a project requires and causes significant changes in the relationships of project participants and the contractual agreement between them, first of all because the traditional contract terms refer to paper-based practices and, second, because in a BIM based methodology earlier collaboration between architects, engineers and contractors is needed. Due to the fact the time spent on the project design is greater in the initial phases when BIM is applied (by encouraging the integration of construction knowledge in the early design phases), opposed to the long detailed phases in the traditional design methodology, this is when the knowledge of the specialists is more useful as well. Such early collaboration between the designers and the contractors cannot be established in the cases when a project is tendered after the Detail design 1 or Detail design 2 stages. Therefore, if the architectural company uses 2Dbased approach and hasn’t built up a model so far, the contractor will have to do that instead. In some cases it might be appropriate to start a BIM process even after Detail design 2 and to create this building information model in order to facilitate the construction and operation phases, but that happens only when such procedure will for sure pay off the extra time and expenses spent on the modeling. Otherwise, that would only delay the construction phase and add extra costs to the project. Another issue is that despite all the advantages of early collaboration between all parties, it also makes heavy demands on the will and capacity for cooperation. (Eastman, 2008)

Fig. 26– Collaboration

43


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

TIME USED, WORK LOAD AND DECISION MAKING

November 15, 2012

CONCEPTUALDESIGN OTULINE PROPOSAL

SCHEME DESIGN

DETAIL DESIGN 1

DETAIL DESIGN 2

PROJECT PHASES

Fig. 27 – Time used during design phases

4.3.2 Legal issues in relation to documentation ownership and production: A full BIM integration requires a long and complex planning phase before the actual start of the project. Methods of sharing data need to be determined, responsibilities have to be distributed carefully to the different disciplines participating in the project, the use of tools and the interoperability issues in relation to them have to be figured out. Furthermore, the legal issues in relation to documentation ownership and production have to be agreed. Legal concerns are presenting challenges with respect to who owns the multiple design, fabrication, analysis and construction data, who pays for it and who is responsible for it. (Eastman, 2008) An extra type of agreement – an ICT agreement – is made to facilitate the establishment of responsibilities and ownership of documents and models and determining of BIM authoring tools in a concrete project. It is a supplementary agreement to the usual performance and subcontracting agreement in a construction project and it replaces the former 3D CAD project or other ICT agreements. It is signed between the developer and the other parties involved in the project and it contains the client’s requirement in relation to digital construction (in accordance with the State Client Requirements when applied in public projects). It describes step by step the services in the specific construction project with regard to the digital communication, building models, supply and delivery. Deviations from normal situations are further described in project-specific agreements. The ICT contract is, moreover, complemented by a set of ICT technical specifications detailing how the agreed ICT applications are technically realized in the concrete project. Moreover, the use of IFC format for the exchange of model data is mandatory in construction projects, which are covered by ICT notice and the Digital Client Requirements. Thus, the IFC is considered the Danish standard for exchanging data. (BIPS, 2012)

44


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

INTELLIGENT IMPLEMENTATION OF BIM REQUIRES VERY GOOD AND

EARLY PLANNING OF THE ENTIRE DESIGN PROCESS

Fig. 28 – Planning of work

4.3.3 Changes in the project phases and activities: As previously described, the traditional design methodology in Denmark consists of four phases - Outline proposal, Scheme design, Detail design 1 and Detail design 2. However, when BIM is implemented the Building Information Models operate with 7 levels of information instead: (0) “Requirements model” – it contains the client’s requirements and constraints, other regulations, the terrain and the building site, etc.; (1) Visualization of solutions – it contains volumes and spatial models; (2) Decisions model – containing the functional properties and the building’s physical solutions; (3) Authority project – elaborated to a level that can be presented to the authorities for a building approval; (4) Supply project – representing the basis for procurement, costing and production planning; (5) Execution project – serving as a production basis for the constructors; (6) “As built” model – as built documentation made for the operator; Such kind of procedure explains the progressive course of decisions and information structure through the design process, where the sum of choice and data created in one phase forms the basis for initiating the next one. This process supports the reuse of data/model and saves time in redrawing, remodeling, etc. However, it creates milestones and to a certain extent it represents a challenge to apply “new” project phases in the design process. (Eastman, 2008) 4.3.4 Challenges in integration of BIM at a company level: There are many challenges in relation to the integration of BIM at a company level. Replacing a 2D or 3D CAD environment with a BIM system involves acquiring new software, training and upgrade of hardware. There are very high costs related to all these issues. Besides, the training is not only a cost-related issue, but also a question of culture, 45


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

willingness and know-how of the employees. It often represents a great challenge to convince the senior staff of the benefits of the new methodology.

CONVINCING

SENIOR STAFF IN THE BENEFITS OF

BIM OFTEN REPRESENTS A

CHALLANGES CHALLANGE

Fig. 29 – BIM and senior staff

Besides, many changes have to be implemented in almost every aspect of a firm’s business. It requires a thorough implementation planning prepared by an assigned BIM management team. It is a good idea to create an internal team of key managers responsible for the implementation plan covering all different aspects of the company, as for example, cost, time, performance budgets, configuration of libraries for detailing and other design information to facilitate the transfer of specialized staff knowledge to corporate knowledge, etc. The implementation can start with smaller test projects. The initial results can be used for educating the rest of the staff. The work with outside members of projects can then start as well. Thus, the implementation will be done step by step and the employees will also have the time to adapt themselves to the new methodology. Another major challenge for the companies will be in relation to composition of staff/work with respect to skills. As already mentioned, in the BIM process the load of work is transferred from the detailed design phases to the initial phases of the project. Therefore, fewer specialists will be required in the late design phases and will be able to deal with the modeling with less outside help from junior staff members. Consequently, it will be difficult to teach and train new employees. (Eastman, 2008) As an example of how companies deal with these challenges refer to the interview of Christoffer Nielsen and Jens Henrik Birkmose from AART Architects in Appendix 5. 4.4.5 Challenges in relation to BIM authoring tools and multi-user access to models: Even though there are many BIM authoring tools on the market that facilitate the implementation of BIM, few of them are able to support integrated design. Most of them are ready for single-discipline design and allow export of data to other tools; few of them are able to support several disciplines design tasks. However, none are yet able to cover 46


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

the complexity of the entire project. Thus, project teams are required to use third reviewing and design check tool, as Solibri Model Viewer and Solibri Model Checker for example (where IFC models from different disciplines can be combined and checked for clashes). These kinds of tools are really good, but still can omit certain errors and add extra costs to projects (as an extra software tool to be purchased). On the other hand, it represents a very big challenge for the client to ensure increased IT maturity among all disciplines, too. A great barrier is also related to the acquiring of a multi-user access to building information models. It requires technical expertise, establishment of protocols to manage updates of the model and establishing a network and a server to store and share the model. (Eastman, 2008) 4.3.6 Challenges related to integration of BIM in the private sector:

THE PRIVATE SECTOR

IN INTEGRATING BIM IN

Fig. 30 – BIM in the private sector

CHALLENGES

One of the greatest challenges is in relation to integrating BIM in private projects. In public projects requirements about using BIM can easily be established by the government, but in the private sector clients are able to make their own choice of what methods they would like to use. Therefore, they should first of all be well informed and convinced of the benefits of BIM for their own projects, otherwise they wouldn’t risk adding extra costs to them. In the previous chapters the benefits of BIM concerning all kinds of projects were clearly outlined. So, in case BIM does not form part of the companies’ standards and work processes, it is mostly a question of educating and promoting the digital construction advantages to clients in order to make them require BIM from their designers. On the other hand due to the fact BIM is not fully implemented in the country yet, especially in smaller companies that often deal with private projects, clients might not be given competitive results if they require BIM in their own projects.

47


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

4.3.7 Other challenges: Depending on what kind of participant we are talking about (an owner, an architectural company, an engineering company or a contractor), the already mentioned and many other minor challenges will be faced in relation to the implementation of BIM into the traditional design methodology. Such barriers derive mainly during the transformation phase from the old processes to the new ones. A kind of a contradiction between senior and junior staff also exists in relation to the advantages and disadvantages of BIM. Furthermore, a great gap of knowledge lies in between the two. Even though there are already many BIM specialists, the majority of the employees in the AEC industries are still not experienced enough. Many of them are still applying old-fashioned methods together with BIM methods, which often slows down the process, causes mistakes and prevents taking a full advantage of BIM’s benefits.

CHALLENGES at government, concept, project and company level Fig. 31 – Challenges in integrating BIM

4.4 Conclusion: Even though it is considered a relatively new concept in the country, BIM’s integration in Denmark started back in 2001. At that time it was the government’s aim to develop and improve the architectural design and construction practices. Thus, the actual integration was initiated when a number of organizations were formed and given the assignment to research, test and spread the new methodology across the country. They made several project case studies, new classification systems facilitating the organization of digital construction’s documentation and drawings, introduced the ICT agreement and standardized the use of IFC format in Denmark. Moreover, the State Client Requirements covering issues like electronic tendering, project web, 3D models and electronic handover were established by the Government for public projects of certain size and cost. Due to the fact the construction field in Denmark is controlled by the six regions on which the country is divided no common guidelines for BIM implementation have been 48


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

established. Furthermore, each region distributes their funds in between the major projects and tasks in relation to Health care, Psychiatry, Social services, Regional development and Economy and finances they are given. No finance for the establishment and maintenance of such guidelines and assigning an organization responsible for that can be supplied at the moment. This is why organizations like BIPS take care of BIM’s development, standardization and integration in Denmark. Since it is a member-driven non-legal organization, representatives of the AEC industries control and decide how the methodology will find its implementation, but cannot create overall guidelines for the country. However, big changes are related to facing big challenges. Therefore, the integration of BIM even in Denmark, one of the most developed countries in Europe concerning all aspects, results in many different barriers that have to be overcome. Those barriers find place at government, concept, project and company level and are deriving from the enormous differences existing between the traditional design methodology and the BIM methodology. Greatest challenges we face are concerning establishing of contracts and finding out responsibilities and ownership of all stakeholders in relation to digital models, establishing of early collaboration between all disciplines in certain project contract types, changes in the project phases and activities, educating and training staff, acquiring software and upgrading hardware, establishing servers for data exchange and especially in integration of BIM in the private sector. Thus, a lot of work still needs to be done until full advantage of BIM can be acquired in the country. However, a great progress can be seen in the last years and an enormous potential for this to happen exists thanks to the increasing number of specialists and people from the AEC industries interested in and recognizing the benefits of BIM.

49


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

5. CONCLUSION

5. CONCLUSION

Several major issues have changed the way architecture in Denmark is seen today, compared to what it meant before. People spend most of their lives indoors doing different activities or outside surrounded by buildings. In the past buildings were designed in a way that people had to adapt themselves to them, opposed to nowadays, when focus is paid on creating buildings that serve and are adapted to their users’ needs and create a nice living or working environment. Thus, the demands for quality in the buildings in relation to function have grown considerably. On the other hand the enormous number of construction failures shows that there is a need of improvement both in the design and construction methodologies and principles. Furthermore, environmental considerations have become an integral part of decision making during the design process of a construction project along with architectural and functional terms and economy. The strengthen requirements for low energy consumption of buildings and reduction of CO2 emissions have created a challenge for the designers in the AEC industries as well. The above mentioned issues and challenges have made us look into the most basic phase of a construction project – the design (in Denmark consisting of Outline proposal, Scheme design, Detail design 1 and Detail design 2), since this is the time we actually create buildings. Thus, we have discovered many problems in the Danish traditional building design methodology deriving from the inefficient energy and climate analyses during the initial design phases of a project, the bad communication and collaboration between the different disciplines along the entire design process, and the use of old-fashioned 2Dbased approach. All these things result in wrong drawings and poor solutions, wrong cost estimates and time schedules, extra costs for the client, delays, bad indoor climate and energy frame of buildings, construction failures, lawsuits and cancellation of projects. The Building Information Modeling has been introduced in Denmark as a “solution to all problems” and a tool of achieving the high goals set in every construction project today. Being both process and product oriented, it gives the opportunity to improve the traditional design methodology while achieving buildings of high performance. Formed by two major issues – parametric design tools (producing building information models) that replace the old-fashioned 2D approach and interoperability methods that supply different solutions for collaboration of the stakeholders – it provides innovation and improvement in the exact areas we find disadvantages in the traditional design methodology. It consists of digitalization of the building design and construction processes and it gives the opportunity to test all kinds of buildings’ solutions against different requirements (client’s demands, BR requirements, local requirements, etc.) and ensures efficient quality control through well-organized collaboration with all participants in the projects, clash detections through quality checks of multi-disciplinary models, automatic low-level corrections, fast 50


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

and semi-automated production of construction drawings, etc. It, furthermore, places the focus and moves the most important decisions of a project from the detailed phases to the initial design phases, when design changes are still applicable and less expensive. Besides that, by applying Green BIM as an integrated part of the design process starting from early conception, environmentally friendly solutions of much better quality will be ensured for our project. Viewed as a tool of achieving the desired improvement in the construction field, BIM’s integration in Denmark started back in 2001. Until now specialists from the AEC industries have been working on and developing different projects for the realization of this implementation. On the other hand, the Government has imposed the use of BIM for state projects of a certain size and cost as a requirement. A number of non-legal organizations have undertaken the task of standardization of BIM practices and are, therefore, facilitating its integration. However, being very different from the traditional design methodology in Denmark, BIM induces a number of challenges for the AEC industries in relation to its integration. These challenges can be observed at government, company, concept and project level. Most of them are related to the changes of the design phases that are required, the changes in the contractual agreements between stakeholders, the early collaboration of all disciplines needed that cannot be realized when certain contract types are selected for a project, the necessary upgrading of software and hardware in the companies and the establishment of common servers for sharing of data, the training of staff and the convincing of the senior employees in the benefits of BIM, etc. 5.1 Future expectations: Despite all barriers a great progress in the integration of BIM in the traditional design methodology in Demark can be seen in the last few years thanks to the higher interest towards BIM development (especially by the younger people in the AEC industries), the more knowledge available as a consequence of that, and the constant development of the software solutions. On the other hand, the strengthened requirements for sustainable design serve as a driver for the integration of BIM, being the only “tool� able to help us achieve our goals and fulfill the demands. Thanks to the great amount of information available, the sharing of knowledge by specialists through seminars, conferences and workshops, the increasing integration of BIM methodology in the education system in the country, and the increasing amount of projects done with BIM showing extremely good results and outlining the benefits of the new methodology both for the project itself and all the parties involved in it, the Building Information Modeling is gaining popularity and trust within the AEC industries. This, moreover, serves as a motivation for overcoming all the challenges in relation to its implementation. 51


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Being educated in BIM, the new generation of architects, engineers and other specialist realize its importance and do not see its implementation as such a big change and a deviation. Therefore, with the years it will become easier to adapt all processes to BIM, because the issue of convincing and training the employees will no longer exist. They will be prepared for it in advance. This is also when the transition phase will end and solutions for all other issues and challenges will easily be found.

HOWEVER, SOME THINGS WILL MOST PROBABLY NOT CHANGE FOR NOW

Fig. 32 – Architect then and now

5.2 Assessment As a part of my final semester I find the work on this dissertation very useful, due to the fact I was given the opportunity to observe an interesting for me topic that is both related to my education and of a very high importance in the Danish architectural field today. Throughout the work on this research I have managed to create both a summary of my education and personal development in the last three and a half years and an overview of the old and contemporary building design processes in Denmark including all their major aspects. Furthermore, through an observation of the theory from the listed resources, experience gained through studies, during the practical placement period and conferences, seminars and workshops, knowledge gained from specialist in the field, and personal reflections I have managed to answer all research questions at a satisfactory level and fill in with knowledge all the major gaps I had in relation to the topic before. Therefore, I have achieved my goal to create a piece of work that will serve as a basis for my future development, studies and career. Once I have made an overview of my main area of interest, I am able to and I feel motivated to choose and step by step get deeper into every specific detail I would like to know. Thus, it is my new goal to continue developing in the field of modern architecture and one day have my own real contribution to it.

52


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

REFERENCES: Bat – Kartellet, 2012. Work. [online] Available at: <http://www.batkartellet.dk/> [Accessed 27 October 2012] Bejder, Wandahl, E.B., S.W., 2011. Anlægsteknik 2: Styring af byggeprocessen. Copenhagen: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag. BIMbyen, 2012. Forum Talk about BIM. [online] Available at: <http://www.bimbyen.dk/> [Accessed 30 October 2012] BIM Camp 2011, 2011. Copenhagen – Denmark. [online] Available at: <http://www.detdigitalebyggeri.dk/sites/default/files/attachments/FolderUdkast_BIMCamp2011.pdf> BIM Camp 2012, 2012. Aarhus – Denmark. [online] Available at: <http://www.bimcamp.blogspot.dk/> BIM Finland conference, 2012. Aarhus – Denmark. [online] Available at: <http://bimaarhus.dk/bim-finland-konference/> BIPS, 2012. News, Tools, Knowledge and development. [online] Available at: <http://bips.dk/> [Accessed 26 October 2012] Byggematerialer, 2012. [online] Available at: <http://bm.di.dk/Pages/Forside.aspx> [Accessed 30 October 2012] Bygherre Foreningen, 2012. Organization. [online] Available at: <http://www.bygherreforeningen.dk/english/about-us> [Accessed 27 October 2012] Bygningsstyrelsen, 2012. Projekteringens faser. [online] Available at: <http://bygningsstyrelsen.dk/offentligt-byggeri/bygherrevejledningen/del-7-projektering-afbyggeri/7-6-projekteringens-faser> [Accessed 26 October 2012] Cholakis, P.C., 2012. Efficient Construction Project Delivery Methods – Sustainability – High Performance Buildings – Knowledge-based Building Information Modeling Systems – BIM – 3D 4D 5D BI, [blog] [online] Available at: <http://buildinginformationmanagement.wordpress.com/> [Accessed 20 October 2012] Coling, L.C., 2012, bipsnyt. [online] Available at: <http://bips.dk/artikel/bips-nyt> [Accessed 20 October 2012] Danish Building Regulations, 2010. Translated from Danish by Kurir Sprogservice ApS, Copenhagen: The Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs, Danish Enterprise and Construction Industry.

53


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Danish Mechanical and Electrical Contractors, 2012. Association. [online] Available at: <http://www.tekniq.dk/OmTEKNIQ/TEKNIQinEnglish.aspx> [Accessed 30 October 2012] Dansk Byggeri, 2012. Danish construction policies. [online] Available at: <http://www.danskbyggeri.dk/english/english> [Accessed 27 October 2012] Danske Ark, 2012. Counselor law, Sustainability, ICT in construction. [online] Available at: <http://www.danskeark.dk/> [Accessed 26 October 2012] Danske Ark, FRI, 2012. Description of services ”Building and planning”. [online] Available at: <http://www.danskeark.dk/Medlemsservice/Raadgiverjura/Aftalegrundlag/Ydelsesbeskrivelser/B yggeri-og-planlaegning.aspx> [Accessed 5 October 2012] Det digitale byggeri, 2012. Academic subjects. [online] Available at: <http://www.detdigitalebyggeri.dk/english> [Accessed 27 October 2012] Digital Construction – A Danish government initiative, 2007. English Introduction, 2010. Copehagen: Det digitale byggeri. Eastman, C.E., et al., 2008. BIM Handbook, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Erhvervsstyrelsen, 2012. The digital society. [online] Available at: <http://www.erhvervsstyrelsen.dk/styrelsensopgaver> [Accessed 27 October 2012] Foreningen af Rådgivende Ingeniører, 2012. Articles. [online] Available at: <http://www.frinet.dk/> [Accessed 27 October 2012] Hansen, B.H., Ulla Astman, U.A., 2009. Green growth in the Regions. [online] Available at: <http://regioner.dk/In+English/Regional+Denmark/Regional+Tasks/Regional+Development.aspx> [Accessed 25 October 2012] Hansen, B.H., Ulla Astman, U.A., 2009. Energy and climate in Danish hospitals. [online] Available at: <http://regioner.dk/In+English/Regional+Denmark/Regional+Tasks/Regional+Development.aspx> [Accessed 25 October 2012] Levring, A.L., 2012. BIM Integration in Denmark, Danish regions. [phone talks] (25 October, 2012) Levring, A.L., Daniel Nielsen, D.N., 2011. Schematic Strategies and workflows for sustainable design development. Copenhagen: Autodesk Manning, S.M., n.d. SSRN – Embedding Projects in Multiple Contexts: A Structuration Perspective Moeslund, J.M., Gunnar Eriksen, G.E., 1996. The methodology of building design, Translated from Danish by Ernest Müller, E.M., 3rd ed., Horsens: Horsens Polytechnic. Mosegaard, J.M., Ove Broch, O.B., 2008. Design Methodology, Copenhagen: Nyt Teknik Forlag. 54


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Müller, E.M., 2012. Construction law in Denmark, BIM. [meetings, e-mails] (Personal communication, September 28, 2012; 30 September, 2012; October 12, 2012) Müller, E.M.,1997. The Constructing Architect’s Manual. Horsens: Horsens Polytechnic. Pniewski, V.P., 2011. Building Information Modelling (BIM) – Interoperability Issues, in light of Interdisciplinary Collaboration. 3rd ed., MSc AIA, London. [online] Available at: <http://www.collaborativemodeling.com/bim_interoperability_issues_rev03.htm> [Accessed 20 October 2012] RealDania, 2012. Focus areas. [online] Available at: <http://www.realdania.dk/> [Accessed 27 October 2012] Regions Denmark, 2012. Regional development. [online] Available at: <http://www.regioner.dk/In+English/Publications+and+Policy+Papers/Regional+ Development.aspx> [Accessed 26October 2012] Taylor, R.T., 1998. The brief. Taylor, R.T., 1998. The working process in the scheme design phase, Horsens: 1. Impression. The planning Act in Denmark, 1999. Translated from Danish by David Breuer. Copenhagen: The Ministry of Environment and Energy. World’s Best BIM Practices, 2012. Aarhus – Denmark. [online] Available at: <http://www.bimhub.com/> Ydelsesbeskrivelser – Byggeri og Planlægning, 2012. Copenhagen: Foreningen af Rådgivende Ingeniører, Danske Arkitekt Virksomheder. Ydelsesbeskrivelser – Byggeri og Planlægning, Vejledning om digital projektering, 2012. Copenhagen: Foreningen af Rådgivende Ingeniører, Danske Arkitekt Virksomheder.

55


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

List of Illustrations: Front cober - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 1 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 2 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 3 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 4 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 5 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 6 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 7 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 8 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Background 9 - bips conference 2012 - Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. bips conference 2012. [photograph], editted by Slavova, G.S. Fig.1 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Construction project phases [diagram] Fig.2 – Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. Team building activities. [photograph], (BIM Camp 2012) Fig.3 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Traditional architectural design methodology phases [diagram] Fig.4 – Danaher, T.D., n.d. Sketch Up model of the tower in Malmo [Electronic print] Available at: <http://vizarch3.blogspot.dk/2006_10_01_archive.html> Fig.5 – n.n., n.d. Hand-made sun path analyses [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.discoverdesign.org/discover/site/climate> Fig.6 – Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. Ib Kjeldsmark illustrating bad collaboration between the different disciplines in a project [photograph], (BIM Camp 2012) Fig.7 – Cheltenham CAD Services, 2012. Big amount of drawings [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.canine-capers.net/paperto%20CAD.html> Fig.8 – Life of an architect, 2012. Hard to store and share information [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.lifeofanarchitect.com/what-did-you-want-to-be-when-you-grew-up/> Fig.9 – Archata, 2012. Deadlines in projects [Electronic print] Available at: <http://archata.lt/?cat=5&paged=5> Fig.10 – n.n., n.d. Life of an architect [Electronic print] Available at: <http://mralvy.blogspot.dk/2012/02/i-am-not-sure-how-long-i-can-last.html> Fig.11 – n.n., n.d. Life of an architect [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2204565/Stressed-work-Blame-genes-jobsuggests-study.html> Fig.12 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. BIM maturity levels [diagram]

56 56


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Fig.13 – Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. Building Information Models [photograph], (BIM Camp 2012) Fig.14 – n.n., 2012. Construction simulation [Electronic print] Available at: <http://bim42.com/2012/07/29/4d-planning/> Fig.15 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. File formats [diagram] Fig.16 – Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. Ib Kjeldsmark illustrating Information sharing [photograph], (BIM Camp 2012) Fig.17 – Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. Demonstration of software [photograph], (bips conference 2012) Fig.18 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Project time/cost [diagram] Fig.19 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Reuse of model/data [diagram] Fig.20 – BIMbyen, 2012. Nightschene visualization [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.bimbyen.dk/blogs/graabaek/bim-equity-ny-spiller-paa-den-danske-bim-scene> Fig.21 – BuildingSmart, 2012. Solibri [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.bimproducts.net/bll_4D_4.htm> Fig.22 – dB, 2012. Ecotect [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.dbrep.net/portfolio/simulation-analysis/> Fig.23 – BIMbyen, 2012. Nightschene visualization [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.bimbyen.dk/blogs/graabaek/bim-equity-ny-spiller-paa-den-danske-bim-scene> Fig.24 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Danish regions [diagram] Fig.25 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Timeline BR/BIM integration in Denmark [diagram] Fig.26 – Another day, 2012. Collaboration [Electronic print] Available at: <http://www.anotherway.org/2011/11/business-collaboration-best-practice/> Fig.27 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Time used in project phases [diagram] Fig.28 – Vladimirov, S.V., 2012. Planning of work [photograph], (bips conference 2012) Fig.29 – Architexting, 2012. Senior staff [Electronic print] Available at: <http://architexting.wordpress.com/category/cartoon/> Fig.30 – BIM in the private sector Fig.31 – Dornob, 2012. Challenges in the integration of BIM in private sector [Electronic print] Available at: <http://dornob.com/exploded-in-3d-architectural-perspective-projections-pics/> Fig.32 – Architecture for breakfast, 2012. Architect then and now [Electronic print] Available at: <http://architectureforbreakfast.com/2011/04/architects-slouch/> Fig.33 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Individual trade contract [diagram] Fig.34 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Trade contract [diagram] Fig.35 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Main contract [diagram] Fig.36 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Turnkey contract [diagram] Table 1 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. Danish authorities and organizations [table] Table 2 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. BIM authoring tools [diagram] Table 3 – Slavova, G.S., 2012. bips and Cuneco’s projects [diagram]

* Photographs by Vladimirov, S.V. available at: <http://www.vladington.com/>

57


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

List of Enclosures: Appendix 1 – Danish authorities and organizations ............................................................ 59 Appendix 2 .......................................................................................................................... 61 1. Types of consultancy .................................................................................................. 61 Role of the consultants ............................................................................................... 61 Types of consultancy .................................................................................................. 61 2. Types of contracts ...................................................................................................... 64 1. Individual trade contract ....................................................................................... 64 2. Trade contract ....................................................................................................... 64 3. Main contract ........................................................................................................ 65 4. Turnkey contract.................................................................................................... 66 3. Types of tender forms ................................................................................................ 67 1. Public tendering ..................................................................................................... 68 2. Restricted tendering with prequalification............................................................ 68 3. Restricted tendering without prequalification ...................................................... 69 4. Confidential tendering ........................................................................................... 69 Appendix 3 .......................................................................................................................... 71 1. BIM Authoring Tools................................................................................................... 71 2. Exchange Formats ...................................................................................................... 73 Appendix 4 – BIPS and Cuneco’s projects ............................................................................ 76 Appendix 5 – Interview at AART Architects ......................................................................... 80

58 58


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

APPENDIX 1:

APPEND DANISH AUTHORITIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

DANISH AUTHORITIES AND ORGANZIATIONS:

NATION

SCALE

AUTHORITIES/ ORGANIZATIONS

WEBSITE

RESPONSIBILITY

Danish Standards/Dansk standard (DS)

www.ds.dk

Responsible for national and international standardization. Develops and publishes standards, offering courses and advice.

Danish Building Legislation/ Retsinformation

www.retsinformati on.dk/Forms/R071 0.aspx?id=133389

The Building Act aims to ensure quality to buildings designed and built so that it meets the applicable requirements.

http://www.bygnin gsreglementet.dk/

BR10 contains specific requirements for the construction and functions of a building. Regulations are issued in consideration with the Building Act.

Danish Regions/Danske Regioner

www.regioner.dk

An organization for the 5 (6) regions of Denmark, each dealing with health care, psychiatry, social services, regional development and economy issues.

Local Government Association (KL)

www.kl.dk

Supports Denmark's total number of municipalities.

Danish Municipalities/Kommu nerogregioner (KRAK)

www.ni.dk

Denmark's total number of 98 municipalities linked together in the same portal.

Clients' organization/Bygherre foreningem

www.bygherrefore ningen.dk

Interest organization which promotes and disseminates professional Danish developers' attitude and interests.

CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATIONS

MUNICIPALITIES

REGIONS

Danish Building Regulations/Bygningsre glementet (BR)

Danish construction/Dansk byggeri

Building Information Center/Byggeccentrum

The construction sector and www.danskbyggeri. employers organization covering all dk stages of the construction process.

www.byggecentru m.dk

Disseminates knowledge about construction, energy and environment for professionals in the construction industry.

59


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

www.bips.dk

Member-driven association that supports member companies and their employees with standards and tools with special focus on ICT.

www.frinet.dk

Supports member companies conditions, profiles industry and increases their recognition nationally and internationally.

Danish Architects' Association/Arkitekt Foreningen

www.arkitektforeni ngen.dk

Ensuring the best conditions for the individual architect and the quality of our common cities, buildings and the environment.

Danish Association of Architectural firms/Danske Ark

Represents the commercial http://www.danske interests of practicing architects ark.dk/ and in this capacity as impartial consultant to building clients

bips

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZARIONS

Association of consulting engineers/Foreningen af Rådgicende Ingeniører (FRI)

Digital construction/Det digitale byggeri

TEKNIQ

Association of Municipal Emergency Managers (FKB)

http://www.detdigi talebyggeri.dk/

In charge of information about and implementation of Digital Construction in the construction industry and its companies.

www.tekniq.dk

Represents the technical installation companies in the electrical and plumbing industry and aims to ensure member companies maximum impact.

www.fkbnet.dk

Develops and coordinates local emergency response and disseminates knowledge about the emergency preparedness tasks.

Table 1 – Danish authorities and organizations

The table has been prepared with the help of research Byggevejledninger – Mapning af danske og svenske vejledninger målrettet digitale byggeprocesser (Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, 2012) and the websites of all organizations mentioned above.

60


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

APPENDIX 2:

APPENDIX 3

1. TYPES OF CONSULTANCY

1.TYPES OF CONSULTANCY: Roles of the consultants: According to the Description of services “Building and planning” (FRI, Danske Ark, 2012), consultancy can provide both architect-specific and engineer-specific services. “The consultant is trained specifically to manage architecture, technical solution, programming and costing in planning tasks and building projects and also manages human, aesthetic and functional aspects of a holistic solution”. Consultancy can be provided in different forms: It can be client consultancy, when the consultant safeguards the interests of the client in relation to designers and constructors. This type of consultancy can be provided during the feasibility study phase and the elaboration of the preliminary brief, during the conceptual design or during the entire design and construction process. It can be full-service consultancy, when the consultant is responsible for the entire process, both the management and the design issues. The client needs to enter into only one agreement. This is typical in cases when the client doesn’t have experience in the building field. So, then the consultant will take care of everything. This type of consultancy is often provided by a group of consultants with an assigned design manager who is responsible for the communication with the client. There is also the split consultancy. This is when the client gets into an individual agreement with all the separate consultants. Logically, this will happen when the client has experience in the building field. We can often see that in projects for public clients like owners of supermarket chains, the state, etc. However, the client can also appoint a design manager who will handle the relations between the client and the consultants. The last type is the sub-consultancy. This is when the sub-consultants get into an agreement with the main consultant and have no direct relationship with the client. Types of consultancy: 1. Pre-design consultancy. The pre-design consultancy may comprise the feasibility study and/or the preliminary brief phase.

61


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

The responsibility of the consultant is to analyze the potential of the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ideas and figure out whether and how they can be realized. It will also include planning work and relevant investigations like archeology, a study of the building site, an analysis of needs and functions, etc. In some cases the feasibility study work might include existing drawings of the site location, the particulars of its nature, site development, plot ratio, etc. If no drawings are available it could be the consultant responsibility to arrange the elaboration of such in case it is required by the client. The feasibility study might also contain a study of the time frame for the project, the financial basis and different regulations. All the work will be done in contact and regularly meetings with the client, who will finally approve the feasibility study. If the consultancy includes the preliminary brief phase, then the consultant should help the client to list out the necessary conditions for the further development of the project. The preliminary brief is drawn up on the basis of the feasibility study. Therefore, the investigations done in the previous phase are needed in order to prepare the brief. It should state all the requirements in relation to the functions of the building, the rooms, the indoor climate, accessibility, etc. It should state the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time frame and the overall budget prepared for the building. It should also contain information about general regulatory requirements, incl. zoning, easements, technical installations supply, traffic, roads, etc. At the same time quality assurance for the design and construction must be described. In the end the client must make sure that the preliminary brief contains all the necessary information and that it represents a good basis for the starting of the design process. After all he needs to approve it. 2. Design management consultancy. Consultancy of this type comprises the design management and the IT coordination. This is when the consultant is in charge of the total project. However, in some cases the client might handle the design management himself. When we have this type of consultancy, the consultant is responsible for the coordination between the different parties involved in the project, the communication between them and the client and he also needs to make sure that the preliminary brief made by the client represents a good basis for the starting up of a project. Moreover, he needs to define approved methods of description and drawing principles. He recommends the tender form to the client and controls the invitations to tenderers. So, he is also in charge of preparing all the tender documents and descriptions. He has to draw up a time table for the project and a cost estimate with the help of the different contractors. The consultant is also in charge of the dialogue with the authorities. He has to draw up a quality assurance plan and make the follow up of it as well. On the other hand the client needs to approve all the work of the consultant.

62


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

In relation to the IT coordination the consultant needs to determine the data structure and in case of project web to ensure the access to all the parties. He determines the scope of procedures and how the data between the parties will be exchanged. He is in charge of the digital data security as well. He needs to participate to all design meetings when necessary and as well report from other meetings in this respect. He forms part of the drawing up of the design timetable. The client has to specify requirement for access rights and security, the structure and amount of data to be provided and hand over an available digital basis to the consultants. 3. Design phase consultancy The design phase consultancy comprises the entire design process, i.e. Outline proposal, Scheme design, Detail design 1 and Detail design 2. Whether the project will be drawn up to the Detail design 2 depends on the consultation agreement signed. This type of consultancy comprises the preparation of different drawings, elaboration of the time schedule for the design, tender and construction in collaboration with the design manager and preparation of the financial basis in relation to own responsibilities. The consultant needs to prepare certain documents in collaboration with the design manager to be presented to the authorities. He is also responsible for the quality of his own work. The above mentioned tasks need to be done both during the outline proposal and the scheme design phases of course according to the level of detailing required in every phase. In the detail design 1 phase the consultant will take part in the preparation of project descriptions and different documentations, he will finalize all drawing and prepare them to the necessary level to be presented for an approval to the authorities. He will again in collaboration with the design manager take part in the time and financial schedules for the project. He also needs to review the quality of the project proposal and make sure all the building regulations are fulfilled. After getting an approval from the authorities the project needs to be drawn up to a detail design 2 level, when all drawings must be ready and detailed enough for the implementation of the project. The consultant will participate in the preparation of project descriptions and tender documents. He will again assist the design manager in the finalizing of time and financial schedules for the project. He will submit any supplementary materials to the authorities and notify the design manager accordingly. He will draw up a tender verification plan, participate in project reviews, etc. There are also other types of consultancy like for example Construction phase consultancy, Operational phase consultancy, Fittings, fixtures and equipment

63


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

consultancy, Planning consultancy and other services that are not going to be covered in this Appendix, since they are not related to the design process. The information for this appendix has been written with the help of the description of services Ydelsesbeskrivelser – Byggeri og Planlægning (Foreningen af Rådgivende Ingenører, Danske Arkitekt Virksomheder, 2012). 2. TYPES OF CONTRACTS 2.TYPES OF CONTRACTS: According to type of project and type of client a suitable contract form has to be determined. This often happens with the help and advice of a consultant. 1. Individual Trade Contract • The building owner enters into a contract with each individual trade contractor and the consultant of the project. That usually happens when the client has experience with building projects. • Organization – each individual trade contractor reports to the building management who reports to the building owner. • The building management – the building manager who coordinates the individual trade contracts is not included in the tender price, but separately; • Participating at building meetings – all contractors and the expert supervision are required to participate in meetings; • Tender form – the tender form can be both public or restricted; • Implementation/tender documents – the tender documents are prepared by the consultant and paid as a separate fee;

BUILDING OWNER

Fig. 33 – Individual trade contract

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

DESIGN CONSULTANT

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

2. Trade Contract • The building owner enters into a contract with each trade contractor and the consultant of the project. The trade contractor makes contracts with several of the individual trade contracts. That also usually happens when the client has experience with building projects. 64


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

• Organization – each trade contractor repots to the building management who reports to the building owner; • The building management – the building management who coordinates the construction contracts is not included in the tender price; • Participating at building meetings – all contractors and the expert supervision; • Tender form – the tender form can be both public and restricted; • Implementation/tender documents – the tender documents are prepared by the consultant and paid as a separate fee;

BUILDING OWNER

Fig. 34 – Trade contract

TRADE CONTRACT

TRADE CONTRACT

TRADE CONTRACT

DESIGN CONSULTANT

TRADE CONTRACT

3. Main/Total Contract • The building owner enters into a contract with the main contractor and the consultant of the project. The main contractor makes a contract with all individual trade contractors. This type of contract is used very often when clients have experienced in the building area. • Organization – the main contractor reports to the building management who reports to the building owner; • The building management – the main contractor is responsible for the building management and the building management is therefore included in the tender price; • Participating at building meetings – the main contractor and the expert supervision are required to participate at building meetings; • Tender form – the tender form can be both public and restricted; • Implementation/tender documents – the tender documents are prepared by the consultant and paid as a separate fee; The total contractor’s work includes the design. However, this design is based on either an outline proposal prepared by the client’s consultant or on a preliminary brief done by the client/client’s consultant. In both cases, the majority of the design work is fast-track (done simultaneously with the construction work) and done by the contractor’s design team in materials that the contractor is used to work with. If a brief or outline is used as a basis for the tender of a total contract, the incoming bid may be designed as a concrete 65


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

building by one contractor whose specialty is concrete or a steel building by another, whose specialty is steel, etc. (Bejder, Wandahl, 2011) MAIN CONTRACTOR

Fig. 35 – Main contract

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

BUILDING OWNER

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

DESIGN CONSULTANT

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

4. Turnkey Contract • The building owner enters into a contract only with the turnkey contractor. The turnkey contractor has made a contract with all specialist contractors and the project planners. • Organization – the turnkey contractor has the building management and reports to the building owner; project planners and individual trade contractors report to the turnkey contractor. • The building management – the turnkey contractor is responsible for the building management and the building management is therefore included in the tender price; • Participating at building meetings – the turnkey contractor is required to participate at meetings; the counselors of the building owner might be required to participate as well; • Tender form – the choice of the turnkey contractor is realized with restricted procedure; BUILDING OWNER

Fig. 36 Turnkey contract

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

TURNKEY CONTRACTOR

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

DESIGN CONSULTANT

INDIVIDUAL TRADE CONTRACT

66


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

• Implementation/tender documents – documents are prepared by counselors in cooperation with project implementers; price is included in the total tender amount and contract; Turnkey contracts are usually based on a preliminary brief and are used for buildings like: turnkey dairies (where milk, cheese or other products are processed), chicken farms, power stations, etc. The client usually prepares only the preliminary brief and the contractor delivers the factory totally run-in (usually with the key employees of the factory trained and running it). A variation of turnkey project can be a prefabricated single-family house, but this can be tailor made for the client, where he/she can have a choice of kitchen and bathroom fittings, etc. However, the main layout exists on the turnkey contractor’s catalogue. Turnkey projects can be low priced, but there is different quality level on the market to choose from, as with single-family houses for example. However, there are only few contractors that are able to execute certain type of projects, i.e. atomic power stations. In this case the price is not necessarily cheap since there are only a few companies in the world that can execute them and they have a monopoly on the market and can set the price. The same applies for cement factories. FL Smidt in Denmark is one of the few companies in the world that can build such kind of factories. The turnkey contractor’s responsibilities are both the design and construction in accordance with the performance demands stated in the client’s preliminary brief and running the project in order to make sure it functions (perhaps with a crew hired to operate the unit). The only thing the client needs to do is to “turn the key” to the unit’s door and take over the running and responsibility for it. The information about turnkey contracts has been prepared with the help of Ernest Müller (ref. 30). The overall information about types of contracts has been prepared on the basis of Building, Planning and Management description document (Aarhus Technical College, 2010). TYPES OF TENDER FORMS

3.TYPES OF TENDER FORMS: Together with the contract type a suitable tender forms has to be determined by the client with the help of his consultants. Private construction projects are not bound to follow the open procedures as they may choose either to go directly to a certain counselor or construction contractor of their own choice or to comply with public rules. 67


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

However, the EU determines that public authorities must be standardized and open procedures and equal treatment of tenderers for public projects have to be allocated. 1. Public tendering • Contracting entities – the building owner and the counselors; • Number of tenderers/applicants – unlimited; • Contact to tenderers – a tender notice – has to be announced in the daily and local press/the Internet, etc.; • Award criteria – the economically most advantageous – it shall be stated how the criteria will be weighed and if that is not possible a prioritized order must be stated; • Award criteria – the lowest tender – negotiations are not permitted and the contractor with the lowest price gets the job; • Form of bid – only in writing; • Rejection of bid – it is possible if there is a reason for it; • Annulment of the tendering – it is possible; • Attendance of tenderer – the tenderer is allowed to take part at the tender opening of the bids and to be acquainted with the amounts of the bids and their reservations; • Notifying the tenderer – as fast as possible and with the decision of who won the tendering and why; • Deadline in DK – 15 days to respond to the advert; • Threshold limits before the project must be put up for tender according to the EU directives – national tendering below DKK 44 mln./DKK 7,4 mln. Partial work; • Minimum deadlines according to the EU directives – 52 days to submit a tender; 2. Restricted tendering with prequalification: • Contracting entities – the building owner and the counselors; • Number of tenderers/applicants – unlimited number of applicants; number of selected applicants 5-20 (5-7) after the award criteria must be announced; • Contact to tenderers – a tender notice – has to be announced in the daily and local press/the Internet, etc.; • Award criteria – the economically most advantageous – it shall be stated how the criteria will be weighed and if that is not possible a prioritized order must be stated; • Award criteria – the lowest tender – negotiations are not permitted and the contractor with the lowest price gets the job; • Form of bid – only in writing; • Rejection of bid – it is possible if there is a reason for it; • Annulment of the tendering – it is possible; • Attendance of tenderer – the tenderer is allowed to take part at the tender opening of the bids and to be acquainted with the amounts of the bids and their reservations; 68


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

• Notifying the tenderer – as fast as possible and with the decision of who won the tendering and why; • Deadline in DK – 15 days to respond to the advert; • Threshold limits before the project must be put up for tender according to the EU directives – national tendering below DKK 44 mln./DKK 7,4 mln. Partial work; • Minimum deadlines according to the EU directives – 37 days to respond to the advert; 40 days to submit a tender; 3. Restricted tendering without prequalification/Invited tendering • Contracting entities – the building owner, the counselors and the turnkey contractors; • Number of tenderers/applicants – the number of invited tenderers is usually between 5-20 (5-7); there must be at least one non-local tenderer; • Contact to tenderers – direct invitation to the tenderers; • Award criteria – the economically most advantageous – it shall be stated how the criteria will be weighed and if that is not possible a prioritized order must be stated; • Award criteria – the lowest tender – negotiations are not permitted and the contractor with the lowest price gets the job; • Form of bid – only in writing; • Rejection of bid – it is possible if there is a reason for it; • Annulment of the tendering – it is possible; • Attendance of tenderer – the tenderer is allowed to take part at the tender opening of the bids and to be acquainted with the amounts of the bids and their reservations; • Notifying the tenderer – as fast as possible and with the decision of who won the tendering and why; • Deadline in DK – a tender must be submitted 15 days from the tender day; • Threshold limits before the project must be put up for tender according to the EU directives – national tendering below DKK 44 mln./DKK 7,4 mln. Partial work; • Minimum deadlines according to the EU directives – 40 days to submit a tender; 4. Confidential tender • Contracting entities – the building owner, the counselors and the turnkey contractors; • Number of tenderers/applicants – max. 3 tenderers; however, it is possible to invite a 4th confidential tender if the awarding authority has reserved this right in the invitation to submit tenders and the fourth tender is invited from outside the local area; • Contact to tenderers – direct invitation to the tenderers;

69


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

• Award criteria – the economically most advantageous – it shall be stated how the criteria will be weighed and if that is not possible a prioritized order must be stated; • Award criteria – negotiations are permitted; • Form of bid – by word of mouth or written; • Rejection of bid – it is possible if there is a reason for it; • Annulment of the tendering – it is possible; • Attendance of tenderer – public opening of tenders is not required; • Notifying the tenderer – as soon as possible and with the decision of the placement of the contract; • Deadline in DK - --• Threshold limits before the project must be put up for tender according to the EU directives – only below DKK 3 mln./DKK 500,000 partial work; • Minimum deadlines according to the EU directives – --The information about tender forms has been prepared on the basis of Building, Planning and Management description document (Aarhus Technical College, 2010).

70


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

APPENDIX 3:

APPENDIX 4

1. BIM AUTHORING TOOLS

1.BIM AUTHORING TOOLS: USER

SOFTWARE

All

Solibri Model Viewer

http://www.solibri.com/

Employer

Solibri Model Checker

http://www.solibri.com/

Architect Concept Design

Project Vasari (Autodesk)

http://autodeskvasari.com/

Architect Concept Design

Ecotect analyses (Autodesk)

Architect Concept Design

Architect Concept Design

Daysim

Ecodesigner (Graphisoft)

Architect Concept Design

Radiance

Architect Concept design

Grasshopper

WEBSITE

http://usa.autodesk.com/ec otect-analysis/

http://www.daysim.com/

DESCRIPTION Free of charge software build for viewing and examination of IFC files. Software specifically intended for IFC files, checks integrity of model, with functionality like quantity take-offs and clash detection. Focused on conceptual building design using both geometric and parametric modeling. It supports performance-based design via integrated energy modeling and analysis features. Offers a wide range of simulation and building energy analysis functionality that can improve performance of existing buildings and new building designs. Validated daylighting analysis software that calculates the annual daylight availability in arbitrary buildings.

http://www.graphisoft.com/ products/ecodesigner/

Performs reliable dynamic energy evaluation of their BIM model within ArchiCAD, relying on BIM geometry analysis and accurate hour-by-hour online weather data of the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location.

http://radsite.lbl.gov/radian ce/HOME.html

Advanced lighting simulation and rendering package; calculates spectral radiance values (illuminance & color) and spectral irradiance (illuminance & color) for interior and exterior spaces considering electric lighting, daylight and interreflection.

A graphical algorithm editor http://www.grasshopper3d.c tightly integrated with Rhinoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 3om/ D modeling tools.

71


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

Architect Concept Design

Architect Concept Design Architect Concept, Detail design Architect Concept, Detail design Envelope Designers (Façade, Balconies design) Civil and structural engineers

November 15, 2012

http://usa.autodesk.com/3d s-max/

Provides powerful, integrated 3D modeling, animation, and rendering tools that enable artists and designers to focus more energy on creative, rather than technical challenges.

http://www.graphisoft.com/

Leading software intended specifically for architects with add-ons available for building services, sustainability, and facility management.

Revit Architecture (Autodesk)

http://usa.autodesk.com/rev it/architectural-designsoftware/

Develops higher-quality, more accurate architectural designs. Specifically built to support Building Information Modeling workflows.

Bentley

http://www.bentley.com/en US/Products/Building+Analys is+and+Design/

Integrating design, analysis, fabrication, and construction in multiple disciplines through all phases of work with changes happening every day is critical for success.

Vectorworks (Nemetschek Vectorworks)

http://www.nemetschek.net /

Leading software intended specifically for architects. One of the advantages over other popular software applications is it affordability.

Tekla

http://www.tekla.com/dk/so lutions/Pages/Default.aspx

Provides highly detailed structural models.

3DS Max Architecture (Autodesk)

ArchiCAD (Graphisoft)

http://usa.autodesk.com/ad sk/ servlet/pc/index?siteID= 123112&id=6861034 http://www.vicosoftware.co m/

Building services

Revit (Autodesk Revit MEP)

Leading mechanical, electrical and plumbing software and the well-known Autodesk brand.

Contractor

Vico

Contractor

Navisworks (Autodesk)

http://usa.autodesk.com/na visworks/

Advanced software tool for 5D design.

Contractor

Sigma

http://sigmaestimates.com/

Providing cost estimates.

Advanced software tool for 5D design.

Table 2 – BIM authoring tools

Those and many other BIM authoring tools are available on the market today. They all possess certain advantages and disadvantages, but their use is mainly defined by the customs in each and every country. The table has been prepared on the basis of the knowledge I have gained at BIM Camp 2011, BIM Camp 2012, BIM Finland Conference, World’s Best BIM Practices Conference in 72


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

combination with my own experience with some of these tools and information extracted by Building Information Modeling â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interoperability Issues (Pniewski, 2011).

2.EXCHANGE FORMATS: 2. EXCHANGE DATA FORMATS ISO (International Organization for Standardization) As described by the International Organization for Standardization (2012) ISO is a nongovernmental organization comprised of national standard institutes, being the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest developer and publisher of international standards. Since founding it in 1947, ISO members from 163 countries had developed over 18 000 international standards. ISO objective is to make products and services, particularly their development, manufacturing and supply, more efficient, safer and cleaner. ISO standards also promote innovation, share technology and practices, provide safeguard to costumers, facilitate trade between countries, and provide governments with basis for legislation. ISO standards are voluntary, but often they may become a market requirement. STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Products) STEP, also known as ISO 10303, is an international standard capable of describing product data independently from particular system and throughout the lifecycle of a product, from design to manufacturing, using it, and the disposal. STEP contributes to a neutral file exchange used as a base for storing and sharing product database. STEP has led to improvements in CAD (Computer Aided Design) and its model development practices and overall product data quality. It has been also instrumental in fostering collaboration and communication within supply chain teams. Since its beginnings in 1984 STEP is being continuously developed, used in various industries including AEC, aerospace, automotive and shipbuilding. CIS/2 (CIMSteel Integration Standards) According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (2010) CIMSteel Integration Standards is the product model and electronic data exchange format specifically intended for structural steel information. CIMSteel stands for the Computer Integrated Manufacturing of Constructional Steelwork, which integration standard covers the complete flow of information from design, through manufacturing, to site erection. CIS/2 is a truly international effort, endorsed by the American Institute of Steel Construction in 1998 after it was developed by the Steel Construction Institute in the UK, and further developed by Georgia Institute of Technology in the US as a format for data exchange between software applications used for steel design, analyses, engineering, fabrication and construction. CIS/2 is not an executable software application, but a format of files that are imported or exported in a steel-related CAD or BIM software. 73


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

IFD (International Framework for Dictionaries) IFD is the mechanism or standard developed by ISO, allowing for creation of multilingual dictionaries or anthologies. It provides flexibility by allowing for the link between the model and the various databases used within the project. IDM (Information Delivery Manual) IDM is another recent development that captures and integrates BIM business and provides for the business process detailed specifications. It describes the process undertaken within design and construction and provides information required for execution of such process. The IDM overall intent is to provide a basis for reliable information exchange among the project stakeholders. XML (Extensible Markup Language) XML is a standard for data representation which was created in 1998 with the W3C initiative to form a markup language representing data for use and consumption regardless of the platform. The idea of XML is to mark up a document in such a way that it could be understood across all working boundaries. This is instrumented by adding descriptive text to the items contained in the document so another application can make a meaning of it. The means of creating and presenting markup in XML are relatively easy, which contributes to gaining its popularity. IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) and ifcXML The previously mentioned standards have influenced, or were influenced by IFC and ifcXML, the solutions specifically intended for the AEC industry, including building planning, design, construction and management. It relies on ISO-STEP EXPRESS language and concepts for its definition, with a few minor restrictions on the language. As it is the only internationally recognized neutral exchange format for object-based model data makes IFC is possible to exchange model data between different proprietary software systems. IFC is, so to say "interpret the language" that enables architects and engineers to import data from each other's discipline models or merge them into a common model for such consistency checks. It is also IFC, which enables the contractor to retrieve data from the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s complemented building models directly into his own cost accounting. It also gives the operator the ability to download operation relevant data from the construction project into its object-oriented facilities management system. Most 3D CAD systems now have a translator from / to IFC built into their import / export function - or attached as an add-on solution where the translator is an independent function.

74


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Other common exchange formats in AEC applications: JPG, GIF, TIF, BMP, PIC, PNG, RAW, TGA, RLE (Image/raster formats) Raster formats vary in terms of compactness, number of possible colors per pixel, some compress with some data loss. DXF, DWG, AI, CGM, EMF, IGS, WMF, DGN (2D vector formats) Vector formats vary regarding compactness, line widths and pattern control, color, layering and types of curves supported. 3DS, WRL, STL, IGS, SAT, DXF, DWG, OBJ, DGN, PDF(3D), XGL, DWF, U3D, IPT, PTS (3D Surface and Shape formats) 3D surface and shape formats vary according to the types of surfaces and edges represented, whether they represent surfaces and/or solids, any material properties of the shape (color, image bitmap, texture map) or viewpoint information. STP, EXP, CIS/2 (3D Object Exchange formats) Product date model formats represent geometry according to the 2D or 3D types represented. They also carry object properties and relations between objects. RWQ, X, GOF, FACT (Game formats) Game file formats vary according to the types of surfaces, whether they carry hierarchical structure, types of material properties, texture and bump map parameters, animation and skinning. SHP, SHX, DBF, DEM, NED (GIS formats) Geographical information system formats. aecXML, Obix, AEX, bcXML, AGCxml (XML formats) XML schemas developed for the exchange of building data. They vary according to the information exchanged and the workflows supported. The information about the different types of formats have been extracted and combined from Building Information Modeling â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interoperability Issues (Pniewski, 2011) and the BIM Handbook (Eastman, 2008).

75


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

APPENDIX 4:

APPENDIX 5

BIPS AND CUNECO’S PROJECTS

BIPS AND CUNECO’S PROJECTS: AUTHOR

PROJECT

DESCRIPTION

Responsibilities BIPS F102 (Liability)

1. Fixed specification of the project responsibilities 2. Responsibilities recommended to be set in the beginning of the project 3. Manuals and lists of determining responsibilities

Archiving Starting point is BIPS F102 + F104 (Electronic filing)

1. Determining the responsible party for filing 2. Establishing of special storage and retrieval system and the file format 3. Establishment of search system

BIPS

BIM – working Starting point is bips, bips website

1. Implementation of BIM and use of digital tools 2. Online accessible information and tools for 3D and BIM working Development of common digital structures and standards of language, concepts, exchange formats and methods, incl. BIM working

building SMAR/B IPS

BuildingSMART Denmark participating through bips in the buildingSMART cooperation and it is thus a member of the international buildingSMART organization.

The international buildingSMART organization develops and maintains standards for the digitalization of the building. In Denmark buildingSMART: 1. Focuses on support for implementation of BIM 2. Supports the use of IFC format incl. Data model (IFC), Processes (IDM), Dictionary 3. Offers manuals via bips

BIPS

BIPS

76


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

1. 2. BIPS

Building Models Starting point is Bips C102 (building models)

3.

1.

BIPS

BIPS

BIPS

Property data Starting point is bips F103 (object structure)

2. 3.

A digital building model can contain the entire building or just part of the overall building. BIPS provides instructions on: The main structure of the building models Distinguishing between common models and subject-specific models Descriptions about building BIM models and Targeted digital collaboration 2. Distinguishing between common models and subject-specific models 3. Descriptions about building BIM models and targeted digital collaboration Setting strict guidelines for quality data in object-oriented building models Specific instructions for establishing property data Instructions for attribute data based on the Danish classification system DBK

Formats Starting point is Bips C102 (format)

1. Fixing of agreement on formats for the project 2. The main structure of bips based on proprietary and neutral formats 3. Specific instructions for exchange formats 4. Use of open formats (IFC)

ICT Agreement Starting point os Bips F102 (ICT specification)

1. Establishment of ICT agreement at the project start 2. Establishment of ICT oriented responsibilities 3. Focus on communication and technical specification 4. Instructions and manuals for ICT agreement

77


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

BIPS

Information levels Starting point is Bips C102 (information levels)

November 15, 2012

1. Fixing of agreement about the level of information for the given project 2. Focus on levels of information for digital models, particularly 3D models and BIM 3. Detailed templates for building information level

BIPS/ Det digitale byggeri/ Cuneco

Classification Starting point is DBK 2006 (classification)

1. Classification system DBK 2. A system based on the standard ISO 12006-2 3. National tables for classification (special building for objectoriented building models) DBK is currently being reviewed and developed for CCS (new classification system)

BIPS

Quality vontrol Starting point is Bips C102 (control)

1. Quality control of BIM-related topics (control of data extraction from models)

BIPS

Naming files Starting point is Bips C212 (naming of CAD files)

1. Identical main structure for naming files for bips and BH90 2. Rules and principles of coding and naming of files

BIPS

Object structure Starting point is Bips F103 (object structure)

1. Bips and BH90 based on object-like structures 2. Determining the object structure used in a given project 3. Referring to national system

78


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

BIPS

BIPS

November 15, 2012

Technical specification Starting point is bips F102 (technical specification)

1. Determining the requirements and responsibilities relating to digital systems (at project start) 2. Focusing on structure, formats and procedures 3. Providing comprehensive instructions for structuring technical information

Exchanging files Starting point is bips C102 (exchange)

1. The main structure for exchange appears the same for bips and BH90 2. Containing examples and instructions for accountability for the exchange (special focus on modeling and BIM) 3. Referring to the use of open Exchange formats (especially IFC)

Table 3 – bips and Cuneco’s projects

The table has been prepared with the help of the research Byggevejledninger – Mapning af danske og svenske vejledninger målrettet digitale byggeprocesser (Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, 2012) and the websites of bips (http://bips.dk/) and BuildingSMART Denmark (http://bips.dk/v%C3%A6rkt%C3%B8jsomr%C3%A5de/buildingsmart).

79


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

APPENDIX 5: INTEGRATION OF BIM AT AART ARCHITECTS: AART Architects is a high-performance team of 58 architects, designers and construction managers who work with the community as a value creating element. With offices in Denmark and Norway and several first prize projects in international architecture competitions, AART is one of the trend-setting practices in Scandinavia.

Jens Henrik Birkmose Chief Operating Officer

Christoffer Nielsen BIM manager, Constructing Architect Interview (09/11/2012) G.: Do you use any form of BIM at the office? C.: Yes, we do â&#x2DC;ş G.: Looking at the diagram (on p. 25) where would you place/how would you define the level of integration of BIM at AART? What % of the projects at the office is made as BIM projects and to what extent is BIM applied? Do you have projects done completely in 2D (with AutoCAD for example)? Give examples if so. C.: It depends very much on the project. Some projects are in phase 1, others in phase 2 or 3. There is currently only one project completely drawn in 2D (in phase 0.) Otherwise, BIM is applied in all projects to a certain extent, but it depends on what you understand when you say BIM. Is it the 3D model or the whole process? It again depends on the type of project. G.: What % of these projects is required from an external party/authority to be done with BIM (i.e. projects covered by the State Client Requirements or BIM required by the 80


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

client/the contractor, etc.)? Do you use BIM at all when it is not required by an external party? C.: Both. The big hospital projects for example are covered by the state client requirements. Other projects that are financed by the government are also covered by these requirements. Smaller private projects are usually not demanded as BIM projects. However, clients want their 3D model as part of the whole package, but then they usually use it themselves, because any extra information required in it means extra time and money as well. All projects are developed to the extent required from the contracting authority. We don’t do more when we are not paid for it of course, because it ends up in losses for the company. For example we are usually not asked to do quantity take off, even though we need to insert all the information in the model. Usually the engineers do that and I don’t understand why don’t we just “press the button” and extract the quantities since we have inserted the information. So, the engineers usually do the final estimates and get paid for it. On the other hand, if we consider the 3D model drawn in Revit as BIM, then we use BIM in every project (except for the only one drawn in 2D at the moment). G.: Following the previous question: Are these projects (BIM projects) mainly private or public projects? What kind of contract form is usually chosen for public and private BIM projects? When are these projects usually tendered? Is an early collaboration between the different disciplines established? C: Usually the big projects (like the hospital projects for example) are designed by several companies that are forming a partnership (both architectural and engineering companies). And then the projects are tendered later, after the Detail 2 phase, so we prepare also the execution drawings. Therefore, there is no collaboration with the constructors during the design process. For smaller projects we are usually called directly by the contractor. So then, of course the collaboration with constructors is established more or less from the beginning. J.: I would say that about 70-80% is public projects. But there are also private projects, like the Pakhus for example that are required to be done with BIM. G.: How do you define the scope of responsibilities in relation to IT for BIM projects (in both private and public projects)?/Who defines the scope of responsibilities? Do you use a standard form of ICT agreement (i.e. the one of bips)? J: We use the standard bips ICT agreement with its 4 sub agreements and we transform it to fit a certain project. But there is one problem we face with that. It is in relation to responsibilities for the quantities of the project. In the past the quantities take off used to 81


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

be responsibility of the contractor; the consultant was designing everything, but the contractor was calculating the quantities, therefore, they were his own responsibility and risk. And if there were mistakes, he was paying for them. Now, with the use of BIM this has changed, since we are inserting all the information in the model. So it is the other way around. And now mistakes are the risk of the consultant. So it represents a challenge to define that in the agreement… there is no statement in relation to that… G.: What happens then with the 3D model (when talking about the hospital projects again) after choosing a contractor? C.: It depends. Of course I would prefer that we keep it, because then we have control over the design. If we sell it to them, they can make some changes and then ask us back to work on it… and once they have changed it we don’t have a full control over it anymore. Besides, it also depends on the agreement we have signed… Selling the model usually means also transferring of responsibilities… If I was on their side (the constructors’ side) I would have of course preferred to buy the model, but from our perspective I would prefer to keep it and only give them the right to use it. G.: There are different levels of BIM depending on the level of information required: 1. Conceptual level (building program and compliance, green BIM, etc.), Do you apply any Green BIM methods during the conceptual design? Do you use tools like Ecotect, Vasari, etc.? 2. Design and analyses of the building (solutions and methods of interoperability) 3. BIM in construction-level information (construction documentation and drawings) 4. Design and construction integration (4D, 5D, etc.). At which level do you find biggest application at the moment at AART? Why? C.: We have 4 research teams in the office and the Green team is dealing exactly with all these analyses during the conceptual design. However, I don’t know what tools exactly they are using. Furthermore, we have talked with Asbjørn Levring (a consultant from the Teknologisk Institut) to come to the office in the next months and present Ecotect, Vasari and maybe some other tools. I have also made some simple sun analyses on Revit in the past, but the rest is done by the architects downstairs… J.: There is also a plan for next spring to participate in a competition together with Asbjørn applying all these tools (Ecotect, Vasari, etc.). We have currently applied for some special funds that are usually given for projects with high sustainability goals and use of BIM that will cover Asbjørn’s work. The plan is that he also makes some internal courses for our employees. C.: We do use BIM during the schematic design and the detailed phases. We work on 3D until we fix the main geometry and then we extract all the views and detail them to the

82


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

level required in 2D. For most of the projects we use Solibri Model Checker for quality control and detection of clashes… We don’t prepare any 4D or 5D… I would love to do it, but we unfortunately don’t do it. Usually the contractors do that… G.: What other (BIM authoring) tools do you use in the office? C.: Mainly Revit, Solibri… I have also tried Sigma and I would love to use it more in the future. Some people still use AutoCAD… For conceptual design they use Rhino, SketchUp… Photoshop for visualizations, etc. As I mentioned there are plans to use Ecotect and Vasari in the near future… G.: Do you tend to reuse the model from the initial phases in the scheme design and detail phases or you usually start the schematic design by drawing a new model? C.: We usually start the schematic design by drawing a new model, since in the conceptual design they use Rhino or other non-BIM tools. However, we (the BIM team) are trying to push Revit also in the initial phases even though some architects are not very happy with the way the model looks in Revit compared to other programs… (laughing) J.: The problem is that the competition model contains the information needed for the competition itself and that’s the difficult part in reusing the model from the conceptual design. On the other hand for some competitions there is a requirement to deliver also an IFC model. So once in a project we actually did both. We had our competition model but in parallel with that there was a person working for about 2 weeks on a Revit model as well in order to deliver the IFC model. However, in the future we will try to use Revit more in the conceptual design. G.: Have you experienced a full BIM integration (spreading from earliest conceptual stages, through design, construction and operational life of the building)? Give examples if so. C.: No. As I already said we use mostly Rhino in the conceptual design. Then the 4D and 5D (if made) are usually prepared by the contractor and then the follow up we usually transfer to small local companies… So, they handle the operation and maintenance activities. J.: Not yet, but in some of the projects we have now we are required to maintain the model throughout the construction and operation of the building. G.: What kind of interoperability methods have you experienced: 1. Within the same software vendor’s product, or 2. Using software from various vendors and exchanging data using industry supported standards (IFC) or both? 83


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

C.: We use mainly Revit inside the office but for quality control and collaboration with other disciplines we use Solibri. We have tried before SimpleBIM and CADQ, but now only Solibri. G.: Do you have a BIM manual at the company? C.: No, but we are currently discussing that in the BIM team. But it will take time since we need to figure out a template for it… J.: In the past all companies had this CAD manual. And that one has to be transformed into BIM manual now. We are planning to do that, but it will take a while. G.: Do you have a common website in the office for sharing data, knowledge and experience in relation to ICT/BIM? C.: For AART we don’t have, but for example for the hospital in Gødstrup we have such thing. J.: That’s a really good idea… G.: What classification system do you use? Does it support BIM-based processes? C.: It depends on the project…but normally I prefer SfB, because the DKB doesn’t work properly. For Gødstrup we are hoping to use CCS and we are actually helping bips and Cuneco to develop and finish it… G.: Do you face challenges in establishing collaboration with other disciplines? What and why? C.: Sometimes yes, because the engineers tend to work slow… they are usually few steps behind us and we are all the time asking them to finish different things. G.: Have you experienced working in BIM project with partners (engineers, contractors, etc.) that have no experience with BIM at all? C.: No, actually most of the engineers we have worked with are good at BIM. They have 1 or 2 experienced employees in the office that help the others and it works pretty well… But for us it is much more difficult to have 3 specialists that have to help everybody else since we have many more different things to do… J.: They usually have the skills, but I think the problems comes from the fact that normally the architects get the bigger % of the payment in the early phases and less in the detail phases. For the engineers it is the other way around. They get about 35% during the initial phases and the 65% left during the detail phases. In the traditional design process they were usually a step behind. The architects were working on something and then they were 84


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

sending it to the engineers for a feedback. Now, with the use of BIM a more parallel process is required, but since the architects tend to do many changes during the initial phases and the engineers still get the bigger % during the detail phases, they still tend to be a step behind. G.: Have you experienced challenges with partners when working on international projects? J.: Not really so far, because most of our projects outside Denmark are mainly in Norway or Sweden. And both countries are more or less at the same level as us… But yes… it is probably going to be a challenge in the future with some other projects we have… G.: Do you face challenges in relation to project phases and activities (since BIM operates with 7 levels of information instead)? • • • • • • •

“Requirements model” – it contains the client’s requirements and constraints, other regulations, the terrain and the building site, etc.; Visualization of solutions – it contains volumes and spatial models; Decisions model – containing the functional properties and the building’s physical solutions; Authority project – elaborated to a level that can be presented to the authorities for a building approval; Supply project – representing the basis for procurement, costing and production planning; Execution project – serving as a production basis for the constructors; “As built” model – as built documentation made for the operator;

C.: Yes, we face challenges… we use the traditional phases… But that’s a really good idea… J.: There is a need and in many cases a requirement to change the working process to BIM process, but there have been no changes to the project phases, so that’s why we use the old once. G.: What advantages and disadvantages do you find in the use of BIM processes and tools in your daily work? (in relation to design, collaboration with colleges and other parties, follow up on time schedules, etc.)? Have you experienced more accurate and faster working process with BIM? Do you see it as a tool improving the collaboration inside and outside the office? Are the results better than with the traditional methods? C.: Yes, it is much easier to visualize the things and explain them to others… it is also much faster by showing a 3D instead of looking into façade and a plan for example and then try to imagine how the 3D looks. I also think we should have more meetings showing

85


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

everything on a big screen and explaining what is going on in a project. Besides, it is much easier to show and explain to the client what your ideas are… I think the design and the solutions have improved thanks to BIM, but the process hasn’t become faster. J.: We haven’t got any profit and I don’t think we will ever have a profit thanks to the use of BIM. That’s because the requirements of the clients have increased a lot. We have to fulfill these requirements by doing the old things in a smarter and faster way… especially in the time of crisis when we don’t get extra fee or time to do that… And if we want to survive as a company we have to use BIM in order to fulfill all these requirements stated by the Government or the clients. We at AART want to form part of all kinds of projects, so BIM is a tool of achieving it… However, I believe the clients are the only people that benefit from BIM, since they get work of better quality for the same price and time. G.: Was it/is it a challenge to replace the 2D CAD environment with 3D and to establish servers? Does/did the result of using BIM authoring tools pay off the extra expenses for acquiring licenses and establishing servers? Who pays for tools like Solibri Model Checker that establish the collaboration between parties in projects where different vendor’s products are used? C.: Yes, we face many challenges with the servers since we don’t have an IT support team, but one person dealing with all problems. When we are 10 people working on the same model it gets really slow. That also affects the overall time schedule. For example for Gødstrup we have spent between 50 and 100 hours in crashes for 1 week. I believe that if we have an IT support team it will be much easier…. The problems are not going to be less for sure, but they will be solved much faster at least… J.: To replace the software tools and to update the hardware meant many extra expenses… About the servers, they are usually working pretty well. But for example in the Gødstrup hospital project, as Christoffer said, there were many problems. They established a common server with the people sitting in Copenhagen and in theory everything was perfect and it was supposed to work perfectly. But in reality odd things happen all the time…. So, when there are 30 people sitting and looking in the air since they are not able to work because of the system, it is of course a big problem… Except for that, I think one person is quiet enough to handle the rest of the issues occurring in the daily work. G.: Do you face challenges in convincing the senior staff in the benefits of BIM and with composition of staff in the different design phases?

86


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

C.: No. They see pretty well the benefits of BIM, but experience difficulties… mainly with the software… However, more or less everybody is able to draw in Revit, they are not super users, but know how to work on it. Once we also made an internal course and I think it was really helpful…. I don’t know why we are not doing it more often… we can also demonstrate different things using the work that we need for a certain project, so it is not going to be wasted time… J.: I would say it is 50/50… Some want to learn, other just have to… However, I think our level is pretty good for the current situation and compared to many others… G.: Do you think that the software tools are not advanced enough to allow a full and efficient implementation of BIM? C.: I think they (the software tools) are getting much better compared to the past few years. For example Revit 2013 is much better… it has some problems but compared to older versions it has improved a lot… G.: Does BIM help or make worse the situation when deadlines are approaching? (finishing both 2D and 3D materials for example) C.: I think that if you plan the project well it will be ok… But in projects where too many changes in the model have been required the things get out of control if you don’t know how to deal with them correctly. For example, if you need to put a wall and you draw a new one instead of editing an old one, then the visibility graphics are not going to be preserved and it will be visible everywhere… and then you will have to fix that… But if you do it the right way there will be no problem… So everything has to be well planned… J.: In general no, but there have been problems with several projects. G.: Do you experience better quality control when using BIM? (by low level correction, etc.) C.: Yes it is a lot better… I think the projects are also better, because you are kind of building in advance and you can detect the errors while designing… G.: Have you experienced less working hours/manpower needed when BIM is implemented? Has that brought any profit to the company? C.: No! (laughing) We use the same amount of hours… However, I think we get better projects (both design and construction projects). J.: No… As I said, I don’t think we will ever get there…

87


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

G.: Are you planning to fully implement BIM in all aspects of the company? (cost, time, performance budgets, configuration of libraries for detailing and other design information to facilitate the transfer of specialized staff knowledge to corporate knowledge, etc.) If yes, how are you planning to do it? Are you going to assign a BIM team responsible for establishing BIM at all different aspects of the company and educating the rest of the staff? Are you planning to create a BIM manual/website, remove non-related software, etc. How do you see the future of BIM in general and at AART? C.: We have formed that BIM team… we are trying to push BIM authoring tools in the conceptual design in order to reuse the work instead of wasting time in doing the same thing all over again… We are also going to try Ecotect, Vasari and other tools soon. We would like to organize more internal courses for educating all employees as well. We need to do something in order to save time. We have the best projects here at AART, but we use too much time. G.: Do you think most of these challenges derive from the transition phase between oldprocesses and full BIM implementation? C.: No… I don’t think so… I don’t think all the problems derive from the use of new tools and partly old methods. But we need to change the methods as well… we make 3D models, but still send 2D drawings to the clients… J.: I believe yes… Because we are still supposed to deliver the same outcome (of higher quality), but we have to get to it in a different way than before. So it is the same result but the process has changed… And that requires knowledge and experience… G.: How helpful do you see the government’s actions in relation to implementation of BIM? How helpful do you see bips work? C.: They are doing something and that’s great… However, there are some things like the new classification system for example. I don’t understand why they are trying to do something that has already been done by others… we can just take a system from another country that has been proven to work well… why do we need to have a Danish one if others have already invented it… J.: In bips there is probably a guy from the government, from the regions, the municipalities, the architects association, etc. They are preparing all the standard documents, but how do we get that down to the desks? We use them/buy them… but there is a gap in between them and their actual use…. How do we apply that in our work? When we are required by the government or the clients we probably take them and read them, but there is still a gap in between…. 88


Galina Aleksandrova Slavova

November 15, 2012

Conclusion: AART Architects is one of the trend leading architectural companies in Denmark. They are up to date concerning all new methods and issues in relation to BIM. As Jens Henrik Birkmose mentions above, they want to and they do form part of all kinds of projects. This is not an easy task in today’s competitive architectural design in Scandinavia and all over the world. However, striving for best quality and highly sustainable solutions they find the need to apply BIM in their everyday work in order to achieve it. As we understood, they face some difficulties, but see BIM as the only solution and tool for fulfilling the high demands set by the Government and the clients. It will take years to adapt to and find out the best BIM processes, to gain enough knowledge and experience and finally take full advantage of BIM. Nevertheless, they are in the right way of doing so. As mentioned earlier in the report, the best implementation can be done by the help of an assigned BIM team at the company that takes care of all aspects. This is what is happening at AART: they have already assigned this team that helps out the other employees; they organize different internal courses (or are planning to do so); they are working on a BIM manual, probably they will consider making a website as an easy search tool for all employees as well; they are furthermore trying to push the use of BIM authoring tools in the conceptual design phases which will ensure reuse of the model throughout the entire design process; the integration of Ecotect and Vasari in the conceptual design phases will ensure efficient Green BIM methods and sustainable solutions for all projects; on the other hand the employees are step by step improving their skills and knowledge in relation to BIM by attending internal courses, being part of BIM projects, learning from their own mistakes and others’ knowledge; besides that, AART is part of bigger scale activities, like the development of the new classification system; they are up to date with the software tools and use different interoperability methods that help them improve their projects. Even though the results are not that obvious yet and many challenges form part of their daily work, they are working on the implementation of BIM and that will sooner or later pay off the efforts. What represents a bigger problem is that AART Architects is one of the leading and most competitive companies in Denmark. Most of these companies are on the same level of integrating BIM, see the need of it and will sooner or later get there. However, there are multiple small companies that are far away from that level and since they are anyway not competitive enough they don’t see the need of applying new methods and they don’t put much effort in doing so. Most of these companies deal with small private projects. Due to that together with the lack of knowledge of private clients concerning BIM, the integration in the private sector might take much longer than in the public sector.

89


The Integration of BIM in the Architectural Design Methodology in Denmark