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ENGLISH SUMMARY by Agostino Pelullo



The Leader+ Community Initiative Programme, co-financed by EU, is the last step of 20002006 intervention in rural development. Its innovative method is based on an integrated approach which looks at the resources of territories as the starting point for self-centred development. General and specific objectives of the Programme have been achieved in all of the seven areas defined by regional institution; partnerships have worked in tune with local actors and regional strategic guidelines, thus giving new life to economic, environmental and social context and raising its competitiveness as well as life quality in rural areas. In this scenario the LAG Verde Irpinia – ATI overcame initial difficulties and projected itself in extraterritorial cooperation initiatives accumulating know-how, social capital and creating networks, which represent the basis for development and the best exploitation of opportunities offered by the 2007-2013 rural policies with the PSR (Rural Development Programme).

by Alfredo Bruno Leader Plus Management Authority Regione Campania

This publication represents the final action of the activities undertaken by the LAG Verde Irpinia, which is an ATI (Temporary Enterprises Association) set up in 2004 by the LAGs responsible for implementation of the Local Action Plans (PIC LEADER II 1998-2001) in the territories of Terminio-Cervialto, Alta Irpinia, Ufita, an area of 1.500 square Kms, with a population of almost 100.000 inhabitants, with nonhomogenous socio-economic characteristics. Nevertheless, I can affirm that the LAGs challenge is won, since all actions planned by the Local Action Plan have been implemented and related objectives satisfactorily achieved. Hundred per cent of budget, including private subjects percentage, has been spent, too. I would like to thank all social and institutional partners which guaranteed the LAG support and administrative competence; the Regione Campania staff (LEADER+ Management Authority) which ensured counselling, evaluation and monitoring with qualified commitment; the LAG coordinator and all the operators; those who made possible this publication which is a record of the activities and the basis for planning new initiatives aiming at rural development.

by Giovanni Maria Chieffo LAG Verde Irpinia – ATI Chairman

INTRODUCTION by Alessandra Cristina Celano This volume is the collection of considerations, analysis and also suggestions on the activities carried out by the Local Action Group Verde Irpinia for the implementation of the Local Development Plan “Terre d’Irpinia - Villaggi delle Fonti”, financed in the context of Leader Plus Campania Community Initiative and started in 2004. The Plan was based on the deep-rooted experience of local agents and their profound knowledge of socio-economic dynamics and in line with implementation of previous similar project (namely, Leader II and the Sovvenzione Globale Parchi Letterari). Actions in different fields have always been thought of as supplementary to each other and this has strengthened them, thus contributing to achievement of the common objective: the contextual enhancement of places, products, cultures, in an eco-sustainable perspective, which is the Plan main theme. The articles here published can both be read as examples of ‘good practices’ or as a new way for studying the territory in the light of achieved results, and the latter is one of the most interesting treats of Leader experience susceptible of generating further initiatives. The first half of the volume contains contributions which are a ‘reading’ of the territory from different points of view; the second one is a repertoire of ‘good practices’ and is introduced by considerations on the unique features of Leader approach in comparison to others instruments supporting local development; the third one is dedicated to those practices which spot the strong link between enhancement of specific agriculture and craftsman products, on one side, and physical, anthropological and historical characteristics of the territory, on the other. The appendix accounts for all information on actions financed by the LAG, events, training activities, meetings.

AREA COVERED BY THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN “TERRE D’IRPINIA - VILLAGGI DELLE FONTI” GEOMORFOLOGICAL, HYDROGRAFIC, NATURALISTIC-ENVIRONMENTAL TREATS by Ornella Albolino The territory, which includes almost entirely the south-eastern part of Avellino province bordering Puglia and Basilicata regions, shows very close relationships between socio-economic, artistic, cultural and environmental resources. The latter maintain their characteristics of biodiversity and it is this integrated approach which informs the nature of the plan action itself in terms of sustainable development. Irpinia represents the natural link between Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas, with its roads system dating back to ancient times. Today a net of



important highways and roads makes possible the easy connection of eastern and western coasts, as well as among all villages and towns. As a result of geological modifications, in the course of millions of years, the landscape has been modelled in mountains and hills made of different materials (from rocks to clay and limestone) from which rise important rivers (Ofanto, Sele, Calore) and watercourses, sometimes running underground. They represent the rich water storage for three Regions, towards which are conveyed along pipelines and dams. Large wood areas survive to the continuous erosion by agricultural activities, but both flora and fauna (birds like kite and pheasant or animals like wolf and otter, just to mention a few which have here their ideal habitat) are preserved thanks to the actions undertaken in the context of European Community Programmes such as Nature 2000; Habitat or CORINE which enable to protect the wildlife richness of the territory.

ARCHAEOLOGY AND TERRITORY IN THE AREA OF THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN “TERRE D’IRPINIA – VILLAGGI DELLE FONTI” by Giampiero Galasso The article provides a full account of archaeological data witnessing human presence since Prehistoric down to Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron ages with their necropolis and graveyards, like the so-called ‘grave tomb culture’ so peculiar to the scattered – unit settlements connecting Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts and massive evidence (ceramic and flintstone objects mainly); it goes on by describing the tribal structure of Samnites – Hirpini society, its flourishing economy and trading with greek colonies on tyrrhenian coast, and is enriched by information on the roman penetration in the area which left so many traces in town-walls, shrines, domus, memorial stones and decorations. It contains a detailed guide to archaeological sites falling in the area of intervention of the Local Action Group and wide bibliographic reference material.

THE AVELLINO - ROCCHETTA SANT’ANTONIO RAILWAY In 1879 the parliamentary commission of which were part Francesco De Sanctis and other Members of Parliament elected in the constituencies of Avellino, Foggia and Potenza, won its battle for connecting the three provinces and provide the territories involved (especially Alta Irpinia) with a rail road enabling the transport of goods. Works began nine years later and ended in 1895. It was designed so as to follow the course of the rivers Calore and Ofanto, thus enabling

easy water supply to steam locomotives. As Giustino Fortunato put it, it was “the high road of the table land of Irpinia to Adriatic ports”. The original 31 stations, serving 59 villages with a population of 188,888 inhabitants, are now reduced to 15 but has never known a massive traffic. But a lot of local couriers travelled to and from the cities with goods to buy or deliver (local products such as cheese or wine were often bartered with city goods). It was also very useful for the transport of wood and the famous Aglianico wine from Taurasi area until the 1950s, when there were 8 daily trips, but in the following years it was the means of transport of so many emigrants, though it was never connected to the various industrial site created after the 1980 earthquake. Feasibility studies carried out by CRESM, University of Naples (Department of Sociology) and others in the past ten years, along with events organized in the context of the Parco Letterario and in cooperation with local and regional institutions and cultural associations (see article) have shown that a sustainable touristic enhancement of the railway is possible if an integrated approach involving all actors of regional, national and EU Programmes is put into being.

EXPERIENCES OF A TOURISTIC USE OF THE RAILWAY AVELLINO - ROCCHETTA S. ANTONIO The article describes in details two events organized in 2001 and 2007 which show how the old railway potentiality can be revalued and developed. The first one signed the beginning of the activities planned by the Project Parco Letterario Francesco De Sanctis, supported by EU with the aim of stimulating tourism and investiments; it involved 250 people who were invited to visit on old carriages the places mentioned by De Sanctis in the report of his electoral tour, ”Un Viaggio Elettorale”; on board and at any stop along the route – which for a long way runs parallel to the river Ofanto people were welcomed by a ballad-singer, an actor, a musician, a town crier, a band and guided to the villages for short visits before the final feast at Morra De Sanctis station. The DOCG wines of the area touched by the railway and local products were offered to the participants (almost one thousand). The second event, “Treni d’Irpinia” was organized by the Regione Campania (and a number of other organizations, among which GAL C.I.L.S.I. and producers associations) in the context of a wider Project, “Montagna Viva”; it had the same visitor targets as the first one, though centred mainly on Taurasi, Fiano and Greco di Tufo DOCG wines and local products tasting.

THE ROYAL SHEEP-TRACK PESCASSEROLI - CANDELA Part of the Regio Tratturo (Royal Sheep-Track) Pescasseroli – Candela is the north-east border of the area of intervention of the Local Development Plan “Terre d’Irpinia” and its offtakes cover the rest of the territory down to the river Ofanto and the Avellino - Rocchetta S. Antonio railway. In the preface to the conference proceedings “La transumanza nell’economia dell’Irpinia in età moderna” (Transumanza in the economy of Irpinia in modern age) published by the University of Salerno in 2002 after the conference held by the Parco Letterario Francesco De Sanctis, professor Diomede Ivone stresses the economic, anthropological and social value of this seasonal movement of flocks and herds from the mountainous regions of Abruzzo, Molise, Campania and Basilicata towards Puglia plains. This millenary phenomenon was a well organized mobile exodus of animals and men, lasting from 4 to 20 days, along a sort of highway (the sheep-track) which was 111.11 meters wide an 211 km long; it had a great influence on the economic, social, religious and literary history of the territories covered, up to the first half of 20th century. Other contributors in the conference underline the connections and the problems raised when, at the end of 19th century, the construction of the Avellino - Rocchetta S. Antonio railway began: the latter, which ran parallel to the river Ofanto, interfered in some points with parts of the sheep-track and questions were debated about the need for preserving the existence of the route which, in the opinion of some, was able to guarantee survival to stock activity and agriculture improvements.

THE RIVER OFANTO IN ALTA IRPINIA by Alessandra Cristina Celano, Agostino Pelullo, Paolo Saggese The river, called by the Romans Aufidus, is signed on almost all the maps: a long clear blue line that has its source in Campania, in Irpinia, between the territories of Torella dei Lombardi and Nusco; cuts across Basilicata and runs along its valley for about 170 Kms, with many affluents and an average flow that is over 10 mc/sec., before flowing into the Adriatic Sea in Puglia, between Margherita di Savoia and Barletta. In the provinces of Bari and Foggia the river represents one of the main water resources for agriculture. His catchment basin, 270 millions of cubic metres of water, large about 2700 Kmq makes the river Ofanto one of the major water-courses of Southern Italy. The river is characterized by an high biodiversity; the vegetation, from the sources to the mouth, is full of willows, poplars,



reeds, elders, oaks and elms. A great variety of animals finds here their natural habitat: otter, badger, fox, weasel, stone-marten, polecat, tortoise, lizard, snake, frog, cat-fish, carp, mullet, sturgeon and trouts, particularly in its affluents. From the sources to the mouth, the river crosses the territory of 51 communes, 17 of which belonging to Avellino province, 23 to Potenza, 7 to Foggia, 4 to Bari. It is a territory particularly rich of archaeological remains, architectonic beauty and landscapes. Also remarkable is the great quantity of castles along and near the river. The same is for archaeological sites The ancient elephant remains of Atella, the necropolis of Iron Age, the fosses graves culture named facies di Oliveto-Cairano and, up to the sources, the necropolis of San Cataldo, are only some of the testimonies of the civilization of this territory; it is the sole East-West passage from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian Sea, well known to Pirro’s Armies and Carthaginian Annibale. Against archaeological Conza sets a naturalistic oasis of great importance, placed downhill and managed by WWF. A dam on the Ofanto has originated a wide artificial lake of about 1000 hectares and a flourishing vegetation and fauna, including more than 100 species of birds. The Ofanto Valley is crossed by the ancient and scenic Avellino - Rocchetta Sant’Antonio railway, also named Ofantina railway, strongly wanted by Francesco De Sanctis. It became operative in 1895 but unfortunately today is almost fallen into disuse. Since ancient times, a lot of authors have written and related about the river Ofanto: from Orazio to Virgilio, from Lucano to Silio Italico, from Polibio to Strabone, from Tito Livio to Plinio il Vecchio. Nevertheless the river will always be indissolubly connected to Orazio’s name who reminds it as “violens”, “acer”, “sonans”, a symbol of the archaic, flourishing and pure land. At the end of the nineteenth century the river and its valley, along with Ofantina railway, have been described by Giustino Fortunato. Orazio named the river: tauriformis, and the zealous etymologists turned it into the bone of contention. Someone would consider that it’s so marked out for the bull’s bellow roaring around its quick stream. Some other thinks that the Oratian word would find its real meaning in the ancient habit to paint rivers’ simulacrum with bull’s horns, to show the devastating fury of the water and whirlpool’s mysteries. A third point of view, which seems to be the right one, gives a greek etymology to the word “Aufidus”: aute fides (sine fide, vel infidus) because of the perilous and unsteady way offered by its riverside. Another one, strongly influenced by orientalism, goes back to Hebraic terms Opan od Ofan

(wheel) because of the so many water mills along the river! Virgilio, describing the battle of Canne, touches on the great quantity of water considering that it would be enough for both Rome and Carthago’s Armies. (XXI,26). Aufidus omnis utrisque castris affluens aditum aquatoribus clabat. In the description of the atrocious battle, he stresses the wideness of the river in which 45.000 Romans died with the chief consul Paolo Emilio, 80 senators, 30 lords and 2.700 horses!

WATER-MILLS ON ALTO OFANTO by Alessandra Cristina Celano Since ancient times along the river Ofanto there have been water-mills, symbols of a past culture, which CRESM Campania studied in 1990. The article is a summary of the study concerning those situated in the higher part of the river, with a horizontal wheel exploiting the strong water flow to move the millstones. Most of them date back to 17th-19th centuries and some are still in good conditions. This made possible the restoration of that one in Morra De Sanctis through a project financed by the Local Action Plan “Terre d’Irpinia” in 2001 in the context of Leader II activities, so as to become part of the Leader touristic network. The article also gives detailed technical information on the water draining canal, the wheel and the millstones and others mill component thus saving the memory of this important type of industrial archaeology.

BELOW THE MOUNTAINS IN THE MIDDLE OF ITALY… A LITERARY JOURNEY IN TERRA DI MEZZO by Paolo Saggese The essay is a detailed collection of the feelings expressed by so many writers, poets and visitors who travelled through or live in the so-called Terra di mezzo, the land which is in the middle: of Italian mountains, between the Campania felix and Puglia table-land, the Lucani and Samnites mounts; among other ones. It is a mater and cruel mother land, stirring up love and hate; the land of poverty but also the land of vigorous waters, deep green, peacefulness, silence, light, wind, snow and unbounded horizons: a fascinating land, for it is full of passion and hard work, of real life. With this set of sensations, the author invites the reader/visitor to approach the territory of Irpinia suggesting different ways in: from East (the passage to infinity), as did Francesco De Sanctis during his electoral journey, or the famous Latin scholar Antonio La Penna, or writers as Vittorio Sermonti, Franco Arminio, Marco Ciriello, or the Italianist at Harvard University Dante Della Terza, all praising the

unusual beauty of landscapes, nature and places; from North-East (where is the land of the Dorélike nature) best described by Mario Soldati on his escape from Nazi troops with Dino de Laurentis towards Torella di Lombardi, where were the latter’s relatives; it is the Orazio’s way, stirring up similar feelings about Trevico (Ettore Scola’s birthplace); about which wrote Ugo Piscopo in his historic-literary guidebook or Emilia Bersabea Cirillo, or Soldati, again, recalling love and death events having as protagonist Carlo Gesualdo, the prince of madrigals; the way chosen by the ‘Grand tour’ english travellers Berkeley, Swinburne and Lear searching for an uncontaminated, wild, myth-full world: a trip which is also a journey of soul; from North (the way to lost Arcadia) about which the words of Giustino Fortunato, praising with a Leopardi-like tone the interminable views from Irpinia mountains to Vulture, are evoked along with Guido Piovene, Carlo Muscetta and Maria Teresa Di Lascia. They are the mountains which probably inspired Sannazzaro’s l’Arcadia and generated plenty of poets: Agostino Astrominica, Alfonso Attilio Faia, Giuseppe Iuliano, Pasquale Saggese, Aurelio Benevento, from Nusco to Montella and Cassano, to the springs of the river Ofanto; from South ( the passage on Ungaretti’s traces) in the land of water and steep rocks. The famous poet, coming from the Gargano along the river Ofanto, wrote a poem about Calitri, which stood and still is on an unstable cliff. The names of journalists like Gad Lerner and Paolo Rumiz, or poets (Alfonso Nannariello and Carmelo Capobianco) are mentioned among those who described the fascinating, unique features of the land washed by the river Ofanto, whose link with Orazio is so strict (see article) as well as Vinicio Capossela’s songs (the famous songwriter and singer’s origins are between Andretta and Calitri). The last part of the essay suggests a night journey, guided by Ugo Piscopo and Pasquale Martiniello’s hints and cannot avoid reminding that this is also the land of the struggle for land, of emigration, of recurrent earthquakes. So much has been written on the matter, but are worth remembering the names of Rocco Scotellaro, Salvatore Quasimodo, Alfonso Gatto, Manlio Rossi-Doria, Vega de Martini, Giovanni Russo, Camilla Cederna, Pasquale Stiso, Giuseppe Saggese, Giuseppe Tedeschi, Nicola Arminio, Giuseppe Pisano, Agostino Minichiello, Nicola Prebenda, Romualdo Malandino, Claudia Iandolo…together with others already mentioned. Two more cues complete the suggested journey through this part of Irpinia: the dreadful small lake with sulphurous waters known as Mefite, mentioned by Virgilio in Book VII of Eneid as the Hell entrance; the Abbey of Goleto, the Sanctuary of S. Gerardo Maiella, the Monastery of S. Francesco a Folloni: the Shrines which are part of the varied beauty of this land.



SHRINES AND MONASTERIES IN THE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN TERRITORY by Frate Agnello Stoia Shrines are the places of cultural heritage witnessing with their stones past and present faith and devotion. They are spread by dozens in the territory of Irpinia, in towns as well as in the countryside, on peaks and rock spurs and in valleys. Whether very famous or less known, these holy places have been venerated for centuries by the people of Irpinia and are strictly bound to apparitions and deeply-rooted archaic worship. Among them are worth mentioning: the Monastery of san Francesco a Folloni, near Montella. According to the legend, It was built by two friars accompanying the Saint from Assisi on the way to san Michele’s cellar on the Gargano; the Abbey of Goleto, near Sant’ Angelo dei Lombardi. Founded by San Guglielmo da Vercelli in the XII century, it is one of the most important monumental complexes of southern Italy: it is rich in testimonies, history and art, starting with the Febronia tower, dated back to 1152, to the XVIII century Chiesa Grande built by the architect Domenico Antonio Vaccaro and the Chapel of San Luca, a jewel of gothic art; the Sanctuary of Santa Felicita, near Rocca San Felice, where the worship of the pagan goddess Mefite was replaced by the Christian devotion for the roman martyr Felicita; the Shrine of Santa Maria del Piano (Lioni) dedicated to Marian cult; the Sanctuary of San Gerardo Maiella (Materdomini) built in a wonderful environmental set, close to the source of the river Sele.

LOCAL DEVELOPMENT AND PARTICIPATION: THE LEADER APPROACH by Dario Cacace, INEA (National Institute for Agrarian Economy) researcher During the past two decades policies concerning social and economic development have regarded with a gradually increasing interest the local dimension of their planning and implementation. A debate has arisen about the need for conceiving a kind of intervention able to counterbalance global challenges with social and economic equilibrium among territories. New planning instruments have flourished which have in common a shared upward idea, along with integration and enhancement of local resources. Once terms belonging to few pioneers, they are now the language of all those working for local development. The so-called ‘bottom-up’ approach and local partnerships are important means for facilitating involvement of all social and institutional actors in decision-making processes, thus enlarging democratic participation and governance of local system. The Community Initiative Leader has summoned up all of these innovative

features since its coming into being in 1991; has reinforced its pedagogical and experimental function with time, becoming a reiterative method; its effects may sometimes seem not in line with expectations - though they cannot be valued only by quantity means – but have surely contributed to the growing of competence in rural areas, the exchange of good practices and planning skills helping local stakeholders to suggest innovative solutions to complex problems.

FROM PARCO LETTERARIO TO LEADER, TO FOREIGN STUDENTS VISIT AND ARTISTS IN-RESIDENCE PROJECTS by Agostino Pelullo The first part of the article accounts for the various events organized in the context of the Parco Letterario Francesco De Sanctis in the years 2001-02 and the staff considerations on both the experience carried out and future perspectives: their promotional nature and the on-going definition as a touristic product. It must be pointed out that all the activities were planned so as to be integrated and mutually reinforcing with those implemented through the Community Initiative

Leader II (Local Action Plan “Terre d’Irpinia”) since the actor in charge of management (CRESM Campania) was the same. The implementation of LEADER Plus activities was obviously permeated by the same method and leading theme: the contextual enhancement of places and local resources, both material and immaterial ones. This is the scenario in which were organized the Foreign student visit which saw the participation of 20 students from Krakow and Warsaw universities and, later on, the Artists in-residence Project involving the band 24 Grana. The former was organized in cooperation with the Councillorship for Culture of the local municipality (Bisaccia) and conceived as a chance for offering a ‘taste’ of the territory and, at the same time, for testing the touristic reception capacity, besides its repeatable nature, in line with Leader approach. The target group of visitors was defined on the basis of the growing interest towards Italian language and literature abroad which traditional institutions are unable to satisfy. The visit was centred on three seminars on literature themes with scholars from Rome and Naples universities; visits to the ‘must’ of Local Development Plan area (Conza della Campania archaeological roman site, Ceramic Museum and old town in Cal-



itri, Rocca S. Felice Mefite…); local products tasting, including guided preparation of typical Sunday local dishes. Accomodation was provided within the Albergo Diffuso (see article) in Bisaccia. The visit was also the occasion for putting into practice the ideas of European integration and cohesion, so crucial after EU enlargement, so as to seek for true common roots. The other event followed the one organized by the LAG in Montemarano with audio-visual artists (see article) and consisted in offering hospitality to a band looking for a quiet place for their new album rehearsals. The Literary Café in Bisaccia Castle was chosen for the aim; accommodation offered in the Albergo Diffuso, again and the band did a wonderful job, probably permeated by the magic atmosphere of the place. It mustn’t be without reason if, soon after, they decided to come back and choose the Castle and the old town as the set for two album clips. One thing leads to another, and soon new ideas arise such as the agreement on replying the experience or a new Project designed by LAG C.I.L.S.I. aimed at setting up a Network for Sustainable Youth Tourism already submitted for financing to Regione Campania. The project involves the local administration and the Tourist Office, of course.

NOTES ON THE ALBERGO DIFFUSO AND TOURIST OFFICES NETWORK by Alessandra Cristina Celano The Albergo Diffuso in Bisaccia (19 apartments spread in the old town narrow streets with a total number of 52 accomodation facilities) was conceived in the project Parco Letterario Francesco De Sanctis and later financed by the Patto Territoriale della Baronia, a national initiative for supporting tourism. It gave the chance of both preserving an architectonic heritage often regarded as having ‘minor’ value and providing an unusual type of accommodation for tourists. The Albergo Diffuso enabled the LAG to experiment the ‘Artists in-residence’ and ‘Foreign students visit’ Projects (see article). Also belonging to the public estate (whose characteristics are described in details in the second half of the article) and placed between the Castle and the Cathedral, is the other apartment designed for Tourist Office. Its restoration was financed by the LAG and is now part of the network including the others offices in Calitri, Conza della Campania and Lacedonia, as well as cultural associations.

THE AGENCY FOR NETWORK IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT by Renato Celano (A.G.I.Re chairman) The Agency was set up in the context of the Local Development Plan “Terre d’Irpinia – Villaggi delle Fonti” in cooperation with the various

social and institutional actors. Its mission is the involvement of cultural, environmental and economic organizations in the process of enhancement of local resources by means of the socalled bottom-up approach and the researchaction method, enabling involvement of population in the definition of the local development strategies. Studies, training, spreading of information, support to the creation of network partnerships are examples of the type of work carried out by the Agency Agents of Development. Actions already undertaken have led to the outset of networks in the field of artistic craftwork, quality products, cultural tourism and events. A laboratory for audio-visual productions supported by experts of communication is among its most important achievements and strongly contributes to the success of the Plan main theme: the contextual enhancement of places, products, cultures, in an eco-sustainable perspective.

MEDIATERRE FILM COMMISSION by Anna Manuela Ebreo Media Terre is one of the networks set up by A.G.I.Re. with the aim of enhancing the territory as a film and TV set and is the Film Commission of Irpinia, the part of Campania region situated halfway between Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coasts. The area has always been considered as having unique and attractive landscape beauty, with its old villages, archaeological sites, architectonic



features which may be ideal location for film setting. The network partners are the local municipalities which have already been involved in projects aiming at enhancement of the territory resources. And, together with A.G.I.Re., allowed the training of filmmakers and other skilled professionals able to cover all the steps of audiovideo production. Through the Film Commission the link between territory and artistic creation can become stronger, and the multimedia and cinema languages be the ‘messenger’ of the territory itself.

CINECITTA’ IN THE MOUNTAINS CINEMA IN IRPINIA FROM MEMORY TO PROJECT by Paolo Speranza The article is a complete account of the cinema history in Irpinia from the beginning (the early 1900s) till today. The films inspired by earthquakes, which so often struck Irpinia, and emigration along with the film festival “Laceno d’oro” associated the land to so many important names of the so-called ‘seventh art’: from Amedeo Nazzari to Ettore Scola (born in Trevico, the peak of Irpinia); from Fellini, Pasolini, Zavattini and Lizzani (who were involved in the “Laceno d’oro”) to Wertmuller and Sergio Leone (whose father was born in Torella dei Lombardi where a festival dedicated to the world –famous director is held every year). An interesting flourishing of cinema clubs, local film makers and scholars studies in recent years are the distinc-

tive treat of Irpinia. As the cinema reviewer Camillo Marino (who made the small village Cairano the natural set for the neo-realistic film La donnaccia in 1963) thought, it is now possible to pave a new road for cinema in Irpinia. It can offer this land the chance to sustain economic and cultural growth. It is the background in which the efforts of the LAG C.I.L.S.I. to link cinema and territory enhancement are set. The idea of creating the film commission of rural areas Mediaterrae (see article) able to strengthen that link and allowing multimedia and cinema languages be the ‘messangers’ of the territory is derived from this fertile heritage. The ground was prepared through: the previous laboratories for audiovisual training and production and the training activity for digital filmmakers (the latter involved the participation of artists such as David Riondino, Raffaele Rago and the argentinian director Fernando Solanas); the event “Irpinia as cinema set. ‘Documenting’ the land, the places, the taste”, promoted by A.G.I.Re. in 2006, during which short films by the trained young filmmakers were projected: Il grande dimenticato (on the quality of life of elder people in Alta Irpinia small villages), Ofanto (a tour from sprig to outlet of the river Ofanto), Bisaccia-Lacedonia. Narratori e cannaroni, on music by Enzo Avitabile, Taurasi: la terra, l’uomo, il vino, Voci tra le leggende (a memory tour between superstion and anthropology) and the documentary Carmasciano: una terra, un sapore, through Valle d’Ansanto tastes and history; the event held in Trevico inside the Ettore Scola Palace on the theme “Arts: past and present”; the production of the dvd from the film La donnaccia, with a guided visit to the its location, Cairano and the short 41 anni dopo; the event “Cinema and territory” in the context of the 2006 edition of the “Borsa Verde dei territori rurali europei”. On this basis the LAG activity can further contribute to link past and present, local and international experiences, draining memory and myth in a new creative and socio-culturally committed time.

the same values level. It is the kind of philosophy orienting A.G. I. Re. Network and which generated the project Mediaterrae Vol.1, in which 18 musicians and visual artists from different countries (Canada, USA, Germany, Ukraine, Romany, Sweden and Italy) faced and confronted traditions and suggestions of Irpinia, the Carnival in Montemarano and its sound-track, especially; audio and video documented the results of this prolific intercourse through a DVD which was ‘tasted’ at the Carlo Gesualdo Theatre (Mediaterrae Night event) and distributed with the magazine Blow-Up: seven different points of view on the territory, its folklore, its landscapes where heritage from tradition and contemporary creativeness meet and compare themselves. It is in this way that the territory does not become a ‘product’ but a ‘medium’, instead whose audience is intriguingly searching for a consume act as a process of identity self-definition.



The article is concerned with important themes, such as the ‘glocal’ approach for strengthening and making more competitive rural territories; the methods and strategies for enabling correct revaluation of strongly connotative features as cultural identity, life quality, ‘live’ relationship with past heritage which need new languages and tools to be fully expressed; the territorial ‘mark’ which places producer and consumer on

MONTEMARANO: A TERRITORY SHOP-WINDOW by Alessandra Aufiero The article deals with one the three territory shop-windows set up in the context of the Local Development Plan “Terre D’Irpinia - Villaggi delle Fonti“: the one concerning Carnival and Tarantella, an ethno-musical museum collecting evidence of a unique cultural heritage. The local municipality restored and equipped some rooms with LAG financing and destined them to exhibitions of musical instruments which were accurately catalogued so as to enable the visitor to have detailed construction technique information and historical data on cards accurately prepared by the local cultural association Hyrpus Doctus. Photos and audio-video material is also available for use in the museum. The action is connected to the ‘Degusteria’ (the place cofinanced by the LAG for wine and local products tasting). The article also contains notes on the magic and ritual significance of Carnival and its close link with the tarantella.

Strategies and objectives adopted by the Local Action Group are based on the attempt to connect inter-enterprises and cross-sectorial actions along with the creation of unusual links among cultural, natural and production resources. One of the best examples of such an action implementation is the one carried out in Calitri, where three caves, among many others of which the old



town is rich, have been restored and designed for traditional cheese seasoning. The caves have stone walls and ceiling, calcareous stone floor and an average height of 4 mt. Length may vary from 15 to 30 mt. After information activity among producers and following sectorial studies in the field of milk working undertaken in cooperation with research centres, all technical factors contributing to ideal cheese ageing have been considered in order to ensure the final product quality. At the same time, another cave was fitted for working and seasoning of salami by a small local enterprise. A third action was concerned with the setting up of a tasting point of local products. The name of the latter, “La Gatta Cenerentola” is derived from the famous fairy tale (Cinderella) which, according to Roberto De Simone, has a Calitri – based version. The three actions best show the implementation of the Local Development Plan objectives and of its leading theme. The network involving the different actors was taken in charge by A.G.I.Re. (see article). The consolidation of the local and extraterritorial networks, both material and immaterial, is the LAG mission for the near future in the context of the European Union cohesion policies.

CALITRI CAVERNS by Vinicio Capossela The tufa caverns excavated in the steep rock of the village are the other face of the steps warren, the village third dimension, depth. They often are an appendix of ground houses whose door leans on the alley. Perhaps the houses are also small caverns with a vault ceiling. Shelter and cover, for human beings and animals. While outside in the dark the bogey-men1 mystery is rising, inside is the masonry cooker2 refuge. Each house, like a little Bethlehem, has got its own manger. Grandpa Vincenzo, my grandfather, was used to come in the kitchen with the mule and then with the Three-wheeledcar, when progress came, passing through the bedroom and down the three steps leading to the bowels of the earth. Sleeping in the small cage above, among seeds sacks, hearing the animals’ breathing and their ruminating in that earth cave, was like sleeping in viscera. A womb, and the animal within, like a Chagall painting. Outside in the abandoned night, only the drinking-fountains leaking, you fear for the apparition of the Cupa creature3. In the mythical village where one’s floor is the other’s ceiling, under the foggy fortress, or between the white lime and the blue sky adorned with swallows, among the steps, glimpsed behind wood gates and guarded by mocking threatening human stone mascarons, large caverns crack. They are the dens of mystery, as a

Polifemo in Calitri. Calitri is the village giving us all a trip, like Ithaca with Ulysses. That’ s why they are caverns, dens for dairy baskets, for cheesemongers where hanging caciocavalli4 spheres stay seasoning, as if brooding, like so many moons in the dim light. It’s the underworld of the coriaceous village which, with true Calitri people’s dog hearted5 attitude, is dug in hard work and art. It is this attitude which accounts for its care for majolica, lace and embroidery. Because they have a Greek strain, as the name itself, to well done things, anyhow, and beauty. And also the hirpina mountain wildness and a certain Byzantine pitching about matters. And the old village, a house cake, this sort of Escher painting, a crossed perspective of arches and steps, stands still on cement, on chit-chat lime kneaded at wind. Now that silence has got it, this house tangle, silence has given it eternity as a present. It’s a silence echoing tales. Any of those small doors is a wasp nest buzzing tales which can stun you, like fresh must. But you need to have a keen ear, or be born there and have rested along those small walls, to be able to hear it. Because the mystery has been accurately hidden among empty houses and caves; because, as the old saying goes, the covered dish won’t let flies shit6. 1 In the italian version, “Pumminale” is the dialect

word for the man who, according to popular belief, was born on Christmas night, thus offending Jesus. He was therefore condemned to wander at night crying in an inhuman way. 2 “Fornacelle” in the text, dialect word indicating an important piece of furniture in the typical traditional house used for heating and preparing meals. 3 It refers to the popular tale about the story of a countryman who, on the way back home from the fields, heard baby whimpers coming from a bush in a place close to the village called Cupa. He took her in his arms but she was increasingly heavy, with horrible aspect and mockingly laughing. For children, it is a frightening character. 4 Cheese in rounded form usually seasoned in couple hanging on rods, as if riding a horse. 5 “Cuoredicane” in italian. Probably chosen by the author for rhyming with “calitrano” (people from Calitri). 6 Metaphor of the care for preserving tradition.

CARMASCIANO, A CHEESE UNDER VALLE D’ANSANTO SKY by Alessandra Cristina Celano In midst of Italy, well known to fame, There lies a lake (Amsanctus is the name) Below the lofty mounts: on either side Thick forests the forbidden entrance hide. Full in the center of the sacred wood An arm arises of the Stygian flood, Which, breaking from beneath with bellowing sound, Whirls the black waves and rattling stones around. Here Pluto pants for breath from out his cell, And opens wide the grinning jaws of hell. To this infernal lake the Fury flies; Here hides her hated head, and frees the lab’ring skies. (Virgil, Eneid, translated by John Dryden) Valle d’Ansanto has been described not only by Virgil but also by all those who have written about Irpinia: poets and scientists, archaeologists and geologists, historians and travellers. Henry Swinburne, an english traveller that was in Italy between 1777 and 1780, wrote in his book Travels in the Two Sicilies a very detailed description of the Mefite area in similar words. The area covers the territories of the towns of Rocca San Felice, Frigento, Torella dei Lombardi and Villamaina, in Avellino province, in the eastern part of Campania. The ‘lake’ is the Mefite, or Mofeta, a name that stands both for the paravolcanic phenomenon and the ancient pagan divinity – adored by the Oscans and the Samnites as the “dea mater” goddess of life and death – later replaced by the Christian cult of Santa Felicita and nowadays still the patron saint of Rocca San Felice. This little town is situated at the foot of a stone eminence where, during the Norman domination, a defensive fortress (in Italian “Rocca”) from which the town takes its name was built. Within the sacred area a votive deposit has been found, including several valuable objects now in the Hirpin Museum of Avellino: many small terracotta statues, an amber necklace and a certain number of so-called “xoana”, a particular kind of votive statue made of wood. Here from time immemorial sheep are fed from the rich pastures of these lands, and from time immemorial man turns milk into cheese, pecorino Carmasciano, especially, which takes its name from the land that lays between the towns of Rocca San Felice, Guardia Lombardi, Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi, Frigento and is made with the milk of the “laticauda” (i.e. “with a broad tail”) sheep. It’s a firm cheese that matures for a period from three to six months; it’s mild when young, and becomes firmer and sharper with age. It has a tough and rough dark



yellow rind and occasional tiny holes. The colour depends on how long it is aged, and ranges from straw-coloured to golden yellow; flavour is of hay and dry fruits. Some old usage linked to the production and the transformation of milk have been kept until recent years, such as the use of particular tools and implements; some of them are not in use anymore, but the memory of them still remains, like for instance the catarina: a very peculiar tool used in the so-called “turnation”, an archaic kind of partnership. The breeders of the same land gave, in turns, their milk to only one of them that provided to make the cheese, and in order to measure the milk produced by every breeder they used the catarina, a stick with notches as a measure unit. To preserve the memory of all that, the name of “Catarina d’oro” (“Golden catarina”) a prize for the best cheese was organized by the Regione Campania together with the national association “Formaggi sotto il cielo” (“Cheeses under the sky”) and with the national organization of cheese tasters. As Rocca San Felice, also Guardia Lombardi is placed on an eminence overlooking a large territory, from Baronia to Formicoso, from Valle dell’Ofanto to Valle d’Ansanto. Valle d’Ansanto has always had an important part not only in the production of pecorino Carmasciano, but also in both the shepherds’ and the flocks’ life. In fact, people come to cure skin diseases and rheumatic pains, but also sheep scabies, thanks to the therapeutic properties of sulphureous waters. All over the lake, moreover, the shepherds can find the “macra”, a particular kind of yellow clay that turns red with cooking, used for marking the flocks of sheep. Nowadays Valle d’Ansanto waters are still used for therapeutic purpose, with two sulphuric-carbonic spring spas of a thermal complex already well-known in the 18th century, the Terme di San Teodoro di Villamaina, in Contrada Bagni, at three kilometers from the town, which is open from May through October.

FOOD CULTURE: THE MASTER OF FOOD® PROJECT IN IRPINIA by Giustino Catalano, person in charge for the project The Course described in the article was conceived as a strategic action in order to strengthen, among restaurant owners and other people working in the field, the awareness of food culture. It consisted of 83 lessons followed by a final stage held at the most prestigious institutions (Università di Scienze Gastronomiche and the Banca del Vino in Pollenzo) directed by Carlo

Petrini, Slow Food International Chairman. In line with Slow Food method, the lessons focussed on historical-cultural, sensorial, taste and smell aspects as well as biodiversity and local products; they were sustained by practical work and regarded wine, spirits, beer, meat, cereals, pasta, rice, sweets, chocolate, honey, marmalades, cheeses, mushrooms and truffles, fruit, vegetables, oil, fish, salami, spices and herbs, vinegar, coffe and tea. Recipes and techniques, seen in their relation to tradition and innovation were also explored, so as to understand global changing and its impact on food culture.

TRAINING FOR WOMEN-ORIENTED RURAL DEVELOPMENT NUSCO ARTE: AN ENTERPRISE FOR WOMEN by Simona Cristiano, INEA Consultant The article accounts for the training activity carried out by the LAG Verde Irpinia aiming at enhancement of traditional craftsmanship (needle-work and lace); support and advice for the creation of women enterprises and integration with the others development actions: saving an art form at risk of abandonment and link it to touristic activities. The course provided 600 hours training lessons in almost 4 months; technical and legal aspects were at the its centre, though the core was the traditional craft skill and marketing also was a very important matter. At the end of the training period, 5 women decided to constitute a cultural-artistic association (Nusco Arte) which is now trying to go on by relations with schools and bigger fashion firms. Difficulties arose, obviously, due to women role in family running, but the association is now an important starting point both for LAG and municipality efforts in the direction of tourism development (Touring Club ‘Bandiera Arancione project, for example).

THE CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN CALITRI by Michele Di Maio, Legambiente Campania The article is concerned with the description of another action undertaken by the Local Action Group in cooperation with the environmental Association Legambiente. The Centre is set in an area of special environmental interest and great naturalistic value, rich of flora (turkey oak, maple, beech, holly) and fauna (wolf, hare, pheasant, wild boar, falcon). It is provided with a system of renewable energy by photovoltaic means and contains a laboratory for water analysis. Like all centres spread on the national territory, it enables schools to experiment environmental education and receive qualified support in the design of projects; it provides training activities for both teachers and students as well as for other institutions; it acts as data bank and documentation in the field; it offers nature-oriented guided visits to the territory and summer schools; it is linked to the Legambiente Regional Net for Environmental Education and represents one the means for supporting sustainable local development.

TERRITORY AND TOURISTIC SERVICES QUALITY: A PATTERN FOR THE LDP “VERDE IRPINIA – VILLAGGI DELLE FONTI” AREA DEVELOPED BY TOURING CLUB ITALIANO by Isabella Andrighetti The action was carried out in cooperation with A.G.I.Re. and, after definition of the context, led to the starting up of a shared route with local municipalities towards the quality certification represented by the Bandiera Arancione: the touristic-environmental quality mark



assigned to those villages situated in the internal part of Italy which are able to show excellent welcome services and care for historical, environmental and cultural resources. The steps along the route ( collection of candidatures, onthe-spot investigation and design of improvement plans, checking) were defined by the TCI Territorial Analysis Pattern) and led to the creation of a network of 12 municipalities which are willing to go on towards the assignment of the mark through continuous improvement of required qualifications.


ENHANCEMENT OF THE PASTORAL AND MOVING HERDS BREEDING SYSTEM OF NON-STABLING CATTLE IN SOUTHERN ITALY: CULTURE, NATURE, TOURISM AND PRODUCTION. by Serafino Celano – LAG Verde Irpinia The project was promoted by three Local Action Groups from Campania to whom later joined others LAGs from Basilicata, Puglia and Calabria. Research and contact steps were followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement in which the aim of the project was defined: enhancement of both touristic and economic resources of the mountainous southern Italy territory. The total budget was 500 thousand euros. The key for success was seen in the cultural heritage of this ancient breeding system whose icon is the slim white cow moving in the homologous context of southern Apennine. On the basis of this shared ground and roots, the LAGs converged on the idea of enhancement (also through a trade mark) of both milk derived products and meat which implies a better use of public lands and involvement of local municipalities and associations in a network relationship.


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