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RAISE EXPECTATIONS: GREAT EXPECTATIONS - MANAGING DATA DAY TO DAY By Liz Greensides Designed and Edited by TGKG

“Schools may… be very data rich. This is potentially helpful to them, but not necessarily so if they do not interpret their data well or take appropriate action as a result.” Higher Standards, Better Schools for Alli


RAISE EXPECTATIONS: GREAT EXPECTATIONS Š Copyright 2012 by Liz Greensides

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, nor be otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition being imposed on the subsequent publisher.

ISBN No. 978-0-9571839-0-2

Typeset by Greensides Associates Ltd, 1st Floor Offices, Millfields House Huddersfield Rd, Thongsbridge Holmfirth HD9 3JL

Printed by 2Mpress, Unit 22 Holme Mills Industrial Estate Britannia Road, Milnsbridge Huddersfield HD3 4QF


ABOUT THE AUTHOR Liz Greensides (M.Ed) brings to her work a wide and rich range of experiences. She was the head of two very different schools – firstly a small rural church school, and then a large inner city primary school in an area of very high social deprivation. Her work as a head teacher was highly praised by Ofsted which cited the “rapid school improvement” as being a “remarkable achievement”. Following a stint as a lead Ofsted Inspector, Liz turned to supporting school strategic development, and has worked for over ten years with leadership and teaching staff in a wide range of schools across the country, as an independent consultant and trainer. She runs conferences for GAL Education and a number of other bodies, works with a variety of schools and school clusters, and is also a national NAHT speaker and trainer. Liz has had much success in developing a straightforward but exciting approach to Creative Curriculum Design, with her work featured in an NAHT periodical. Alongside this element of provision, Liz also works with all aspects of strategic leadership – especially on the links between monitoring, self evaluation, school improvement planning and developing the quality of teaching. Liz is the author of several other popular publications for GAL Education, including: our very successful recent publication, ‘The Highway Code for Teachers’, ‘The Inside Out Curriculum: Design It, Plan It, Live It’, ‘Self Evaluation Matters’ and ‘From SEF to SIP’. She has also written several books for other educational bodies, including ‘Managing Data Day to Day’ for the NAHT, which will shortly be fully updated and re-printed through GAL Education (publications). Further details can be found on the GAL Education website: www.galeducation.com.


CONTENTS About the Author .......................................................................................................................... 5 CONTENTS..................................................................................................................................... 7 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 9 Why use this book? ............................................................................................................... 11 How to use this book …......................................................................................................... 13 THE CONTEXT SECTION ...................................................................................................... 15 Interpretation and Analysis .................................................................................................. 18 Context Tables ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Context Section: And Finally …… .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Judging Attainment on Entry ................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. THE ACHIEVEMENT SECTION .............................................................................................. 25 STEP ONE: Pinpointing Attainment ....................................................................................... 27 STEP TWO: Evaluate the Starting Points .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. STEP THREE: Evaluate Progress ............................................................................................ 28 The Achievement Judgement .................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Testing the Hypothesis.......................................................................................................... 31 Links to Provision and Leadership............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. MANAGING DATA ...................................................................................................................... 35 Five Cs to ensure effective data use ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. DATA Collection and use .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Summarising Outcomes ........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Teaching and Learning ............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Curriculum................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Care, Support and Guidance .................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Evidencing good leadership ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. SELF EVALUATION AUDIT .......................................................................................................... 37 APPENDICES ............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. The analysis of Scuttle Street RAISE......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Using the Online RAISE: A Step by Step Guide ..................................................................... 40 GLOSSARY ................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.


INTRODUCTION “The major difference between a thing that might go wrong and a thing that cannot possibly go wrong is that when a thing that can’t possibly go wrong goes wrong it usually proves impossible to repair.”


INTRODUCTION WHY USE THIS BOOK? All leaders in Primary Schools, including the Head Teacher, senior leaders, phase or subject leaders, inclusion managers, and middle and senior managers, will find strategies within this book for the effective use, management and analysis of data. A vast, dizzying, and increasing array of data arrives in schools now, from many different sources, giving ever more detailed performance data, the main aim being to enable schools to personalise provision to the level of the individual child. Data also supports leaders in tackling social and academic inequality, by identifying the need for raised standards and achievement for all children. This book aims to make performance data exciting, important and relevant for all schools, and to help leaders make the most of the different forms of data which are now available. It helps schools to use this data effectively for evaluation and analysis, leading to strategic improvement plans which are prioritised against the specific and real needs of the school, and, ultimately, to real achievement. Senior Leaders: The effective use of data is critical to improving performance, and supports raised achievement and attainment for all children and all groups of children. Ofsted requires schools to make judgements about their strengths and their areas for improvement, and to provide substantial, secure, and objective evidence to back up their evaluations. RAISE will support many of these judgements, as it contains essential information about the context of a school’s pupils, the standards which they reach, and the progress that they make. On the other hand, RAISE may indicate elements of context and outcomes which are not accurate – this book helps to identify these elements, and supports the school’s own evidential position.


Other Leaders: Generally, when leaders begin to look at data, they also begin to look at progress and standards, and the whole standards agenda becomes more real – it becomes a shared language in schools, and part of the ethos of leadership. In particular, schools can come to a much clearer picture of the school’s strengths and weaknesses, supporting a much more strategic and transformational view of school improvement. Classroom Teachers: The use of data in the classroom can have a positive impact on learning outcomes, helping to identify underachieving pupils and highlighting areas of weakness in teaching and learning. Effective data analysis simplifies the process of setting targets, and supports effective Assessment for Learning. Whole School Benefits: In 2006 the DfESii stressed that “Central to personalised learning is schools’ use of data to provide structured feedback to pupils and their parents on progress.”iii In a surveyiv, about 30% of heads who responded indicated that the use of data improved pupil learning to a “great extent”, and a further 60% felt that learning improved to “some extent” following data analysis.

“Data only becomes effective if it stimulates questions about the actual learning that is taking place, and how it can be developed further.” DfES Report


HOW TO USE THIS BOOK … When writing this book I have aimed for simplicity above all things. Strategies to analyse the main report are right at the beginning, to give quick and easy access to school leaders and teachers. The Glossary of Terms (also known as Background Information for Anoraks) is very relevant, and has been put right at the back, to make it easier to find when analysing a table. Any term which is more fully explained within the Glossary will be shown in Green Bold Italic font. In the first few chapters there are clear explanations to support the interpretation and analysis of each of the RAISE graphs, charts, and tables, so that colleagues can begin their analysis right from the start. The Context section is dealt with first, in order of the RAISE tables, whereas the Achievement section takes the most logical path in order to get the statistical evidence to make the achievement judgement. Through the use of this book schools will gain strategies for using data to:  RAISE achievement for individual children  RAISE achievement for groups of children  RAISE achievement in different subjects  RAISE achievement for the school Schools will gain a better understanding of how to:  Understand the raw statistical, contextualised and formatted data  Ask informed questions about the answers  Set the most appropriate targets for your school  Prioritise strategies for improvement based on analysis

I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect has asked us to forgo their use Galileo


THE CONTEXT SECTION “Fear not the path of truth because of the lack of people walking on it.”


RAISE Expectations: Great Expectations


The Context Section

THE CONTEXT SECTION “Our schools should be engines of social mobility, helping children to overcome the accidents of birth and background to achieve much more than they may ever have imagined. But, at the moment, our schools system does not close gaps, it widens them. Children from poorer homes start behind their wealthier contemporaries when they arrive at school and during their educational journey they fall further and further back. The achievement gap between rich and poor widens at the beginning of primary school, gets worse by GCSE and is a yawning gulf by the time (far too few) sit A levels and apply to university.� The 2010 White Paperv:


RAISE Expectations: Great Expectations

INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS The Context of the school is one of the most important considerations when analysing data. It should help to indicate what barriers children face to their learning and achievement, and what aids will support them in their progress.

Use FORM 1: NOTES COLLATION to highlight the main features, issues and strengths which are flagged up during your analysis. Emerging Features For example … weighting towards girls Emerging Aids to Achievement For example … Low Mobility

Write in here which section is being used: e.g. Context Section

Emerging Barriers to Achievement For example … High levels of social deprivation Impact on the School

Next Steps

The Context Section of RAISE should be used to evidence the contextual circumstances of the school, to compare what the data is saying, to what the school knows to be true and to analyse, explain and evidence any differences between the two. For example, the data may indicate that: Pages missing from here


NUMBER ON ROLL:

What to Look For: This includes all the children in the school, including those in the Early Years Foundation Stage. Schools which lose children to other settings at the end of the EYFS – or at any other age, for example a significant number who leave for private education – may find that this can significantly skew the data, making the school appear to be in more positive circumstances, contextually, than is actually the case. Key Questions: Q

If there is a falling trend, is this due to external factors, or the way our provision is perceived from outside?

Q

If significant numbers of children leave or arrive at certain times, what difference does this make to the school, contextually? How can we evidence the impact of this?

Q

Does high mobility have any impact on the overall ethos or learning culture of the school?

Q

How is mobility impacting on our overall attainment and progress? How can we evidence this?


% GIRLS:

What to Look For: This bar shows the gender balance in the school overall. Most schools are fairly evenly weighted between the genders, but some cohorts may be in significant imbalance - check the next RAISE page for further information. Nationally, girls attain better than boys at both KS1 and KS2 – but boys progress better than girls in KS2. Key Questions: Q

Are there any significant gender imbalances in different cohorts?

Q

What impact might this have on attainment and progress in different subjects?

Q

How high are our expectations for the different genders in the school, and is this reflected in lessons and in group tracking data?

Q

How well do our boys progress in KS2 in relation to boys nationally?

Q

Does the gender balance affect any other contextual factor? (For example, in areas with high male domination, a high percentage of boys can have a greater impact than in other schools.)


TABLE 1.1.2: BASIC CHARACTERISTICS BY NATIONAL CURRICULUM YEAR GROUP This table shows some key indicators for the school, broken down by National Curriculum Year Group. Much of the information in Table 1.1.1 is repeated, but in a different format.

What to Look For: All the children in the PLASC are included, from the very youngest pre compulsory age groups. This means that sometimes the percentages might differ from other published figures, and also from the figures in Table 1.1.1. Use this table to identify demographic change within the school and different cohorts and to give a clear overview of the differences between cohorts across the school. Highlight the potentially vulnerable cohorts by identifying which columns and rows have the highest number of negative contextual factors. By its very nature, RAISE will always be one year out of date – by the time it is published, each cohort will be at least a school year group above this. This information, however, can still be very useful, especially in schools with mixed catchments, with high mobility, and with significant differences in groups of children. For example, the percentage of children with


SEN might be very close to the national, overall, but one cohort may well be above this – which could have possible implications on progress, standards, and apparent consistency of results. It is really useful, from the outset, to renumber the cohorts for easy reference. The Cohort Profile (see Form 5 overleaf) can be a very powerful tool for identifying vulnerable year groups throughout the school. When filled in annually, the Cohort Profile gives a snapshot of the demographic make-up of the school. In this way it indicates variations from the norm – the school as a whole may be close to national figures, but one year group be way off that. It is also very useful as a transition document. If a school has high mobility, the Profile can illustrate the impact of mobility on the school demographics. In this case, it should be filled in for each cohort, year by year, building up into a record of how the cohort changes, and the likely impact this might have on progress. Key Questions: Q

How does the demographic make-up of the school differ in each cohort?

Q

What are the implications for the school, in terms of provision, resources etc.?

Q

If inward mobility is high, what is the demographic shift for each cohort, and what is the impact of this shift on school, progress, and standards?

“Don’t ever take a fence down until you know the reason it was put up”. G K Chesterton


TABLE 2.1.3: SCHOOL LEVEL EXCLUSIONS BY PUPIL GROUPS Similar to Table 2.1.1 but again broken down into pupil groups. Each of the tables 2.1.1 – 2.1.3 will be used to prepare for an inspection, and as part of the judgement of Behaviour and Safety.

TABLE 3.1.1: THE PRIOR ATTAINMENT OF PUPILS AT KS2

What to Look For: These tables, and the graphs which follow, show the attainment profile for the cohorts now in KS2, as determined by their attainment at the end of KS1, broken down by year group.


This data is matched to any child who took KS1 SATs, whether at your school or not. However, data can not be... Text missing from here


THE ACHIEVEMENT SECTION “Sometimes you have to wait until the evening to see how glorious the day has been.”


THE ACHIEVEMENT SECTION Achievement is the relationship between the progress children make, and the progress children could potentially make, when taking the quality of provision – and to some extent the child’s contextual circumstances – into account. When analysing the achievement that children make, we need to know the starting points and outcomes in each core subject for:  Every child  Each group of children  Each cohort of children  Each key stage

STEP ONE: PINPOINTING ATTAINMENT What level of attainment do children reach when they leave the school? (For most schools this will be by the end of KS2, but Infant or First Schools should use the relevant tables for KS1, as indicated on the next page.) The Attainment Charts and Tables of the RAISE Report show the standards that children have reached this year and over the past few years. They support comparisons between school standards and national standards, overall standards in core subjects and attainment between different contextual groups. These are the least complex section of the RAISE report. The tables are not necessarily analysed in the same order within this publication as they are in RAISE, but any differences are made clear.


Note: There is little etymological difference in standards and attainment. However, many people use the former to show attainment at the end of Key Stages, when comparing with national. In this publication the two... Text missing from here

Pages and Sections missing expectations for all children. See the Context Section for more information about making this judgement, using Table 3.1.1 for attainment on entry into KS2. Most schools now have very good tracking systems which effectively track individuals and groups, and the best of these track progress using Average Points Scores as well as sublevels. It can be useful, however, to track progress from starting points using broad descriptors, in a Continuous Cohort Record.

STEP THREE: EVALUATE PROGRESS The Attainment Chart opposite (Form 9) allows schools to check the progress of each cohort from their absolute start in school to the final KS2 SATs, no matter what criteria is being used. It can be used for overall attainment, or for each subject; it can be used for the cohort as a whole, or for groups of children to compare the progress of different contextual groups. To show progress, the percentage weighting should shift to the right of the table over time. Infant schools should use this chart alongside school only data, as the RAISE charts following are not applicable to KS1. Differences in types of data RAISE demonstrates progress made through KS2 by a range of different types of progress – the glossary at the back gives a breakdown of each type of progress, what it means, and how it may be used. Use the following charts to help you to keep track of each element. You may need to fill one in for each relevant group within school. Not all tables are suitable for these comparisons. Form 8: Comparative Progress for (e.g.) Whole School, combined subjects


TABLE:

VA: 5.1.1

Predicted L4: 5.1.4

Predicted L5: 5.1.5

Expected English: 5.2.1

Expected Maths: 5.4.1

NATIONAL:

100.0

55%

8%

83%

82%

SCHOOL:

104.3

95%

32%

100%

100%

DIFFERENCE

+4.3

+40%

+24%

+17%

+18%


Task: Check whether enough children make VA progress to L4 and to L5 in combined subjects, when compared with schools nationally; the above table only indicates overall progress, and not to the levels reached. Q

Does the confidence interval help you to change any initial hypotheses? For example, if the school is plotted in Quadrant 1, with confidence intervals which cross into Quadrants 2 and 4, what evidence have you got which would place the school at the more positive ends of the intervals?

Q

Table 5.1.2 and Chart 5.1.3 show how progress information can be compared to attainment information to allow schools to make a full and clear judgement on achievement. Has the progress been good enough to take the school to high enough levels of attainment?

Q

Is high attainment masking lower progress?

Text missing


TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS Low levels of achievement are usually linked to either the quality of teaching within the school, the child’s contextual circumstances, or to temporal contextual circumstances for the school itself. The first hypothesis from Ofsted – which should also be the school’s first question – will be that low achievement is linked to the quality of teaching; if this is evaluated as 'good', then other barriers to learning will be considered and weighed. For example, if attendance is the main barrier to learning, leading to underachievement, does this stem from the fact that children are bored at school, so not motivated to attend, or are home circumstances the limiting factor? Similarly with poor behaviour – is this because of mundane teaching, or pitch which is too low, or is it emotional issues coming from home?

Some factors which may limit achievement:

THE QUALITY OF TEACHING

SCHOOL CONTEXTUAL

CHILD CONTEXTUAL

Delivery of lessons

Death of a child/staff member

Poor health

Low expectations

Fire/flood/theft

Summer birthday

Poor quality assessment

New building

Premature birth

Inaccurate assessment

Amalgamation

Experiential deprivation

Planning which does not meet

Ofsted category status

Parental expectations /

the needs of all children

Change of leadership

aspirations/skills

Class relationships

High levels of teacher absence

Socio economic disadvantage

Lack of accountability

National or international events

Left handed

Poor marking or verbal

impacting on a school group

Large family/overcrowding

feedback


MANAGING DATA

“Get the facts first

then you can distort them as much as you please.”


MANAGING DATA All schools receive a vast array of different kinds of data, not only that derived from the school, but also that which comes from external sources. If schools do not have a manageable system for handling this data, they will be in danger of being overwhelmed by the mass of forms, graphs, tables, charts, and raw data. A filtering system for data begins to sort this out:


SELF EVALUATION AUDIT

“ Change? Change?

Why do we need change? Things are quite bad enough as they are.”


SELF EVALUATION AUDIT The Self Evaluation Audit tables on the following few pages are to give schools some indication of a baseline, and to stimulate discussion amongst leaders. Where are we now, in terms of the effectiveness of the use of our data? What should we be aiming for? What more (or less!) should we be doing? Text and tables missing


APPENDIX TWO USING THE ONLINE RAISE: A STEP BY STEP GUIDE The Online elements of RAISE allow schools to drill down deeper into the data. For example, the RAISE summary may indicate that Boys are underachieving when compared to Girls, but what if all the boys are SEN and all the girls entered as high prior attainers? RAISEOnline allows and encourages you to pose and answer such questions. Step One: Login Open the RAISEonline website: https://www.raiseonline.org to get the Login page:

Your Username will be your school’s URN, sometimes followed by SADMIN, and the password will be a jumble of letters, numbers and symbols. You will need to login under SADMIN if you want to make certain administrative changes, including changing the password to something which you can remember more easily. Remember you have only 3 Login attempts before you are temporarily locked out of the RAISE site. On this Login page you will also be able to access the Library which gives lots of useful background information about how RAISE works, and also view any Latest News from the RAISE team. The rest of this section is missing Gloassary section also in publication


RAISE Expectations: GREAT Expectations  

Use RAISE data to raise great expectations

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