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A GUIDE TO READ ONE’S CITY


TABLE OF CONTENT

Introduction

I. A PACE OF LIFE AND A CONNECTIVITY ALWAYS INCREASING -New technologies, tools prompting effectiveness & therefore speed of action -Sabbath Manifesto /SLOW movement to fight the new addictions. -Walking, a philosophy and how can it bring balance

II. SPEED, CITY AND POSSIBILITIES OFFERED BY THIS SETTING -Urbanisation accelerated the pace of life (Carl honoré) -Constance Rubini, ‘THE MOBILE CITY’ expo St Etienne - Guy Debord and the ‘dérive’

III. DESIGN OF THE CITY & AND OF THE STREET FAVOURING THE SPEED -The spectacle of the street. -Details of the street.

IV. CITY, SPEED AND THE HUMAN BODY -The human body in

contrast with speed

-Älys -The new flâneurs

V. THE FLANEUR NOWADAYS/ MIRRORING THE CITY -Reflect the image of the city thanks to the body -Panoplie / tools for the flâneur

Conclusion

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‘Being outside, though feeling everywhere like at home; seeing the world, being in the center of the world and remain hidden to the world.’ The flâneur’s definition by Charles Baudelaire, in Le peintre de la vie moderne, 1859

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“[Cities] are backdrops for dreams and desires (…). As individuals pass through, new connections arise while others fade away. By wearing various masks and playing different roles, people change the urban landscape through their encounters.” Petra Kempf in You are the city There is the city that has been designed by city-planners. And there is the city lived by the inhabitants. The person who walks on the street taking one’s time, with one’s head in the cloud or paying attention to details, to the situations that happen around, is a flâneur. This role allows taking a break from the streams of activities, people and connectivity. It is about putting oneself in retreat, but still being there physically. Today the context of the city rarely offers the chance to be a flâneur and to observe the constant changes.


Firstly for the pace of life we are used to, increases from year to year by the daily use of new technologies prompting us to be as efficient as we can, creating an era of instantaneity. Follows from this consequence the fact that our environment is also designed with the goal of efficiency; our cities and our streets are planned to ease fluxes so that we are able to go from a place to another without any detour. How then, is the experience of walking? Most of the time walking is synonym of slowness. But it is obvious that this act changes our relationship with time and space. What is then the result of this contrast between the body, its rhythm, the architecture and the organization of the city? Different versions of flâneurs are embodied by characters such as free runners, city hackers and street dancers …

People with the same interest and the same goal who gather into small communities. The flâneur nowadays literally reflects the city with one’s body and is reflected by the city: architects and city planners are just starting to take into account those new practices. This said, anyone can or could be a flâneur, because everyone has the ability to be present in the city, of being conscious about it. Everybody is able to wander without a goal and to record (unconsciously) the essence of the city. As everybody is a part of the essence of the city. But what tools could constitute a panoply to incite people to do it? How can one be put in the right state ofmind to enjoy the experience and find balance thanks to it? Is being a flâneur still possible nowadays?

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I. A PACE OF LIFE AND A CONNECTIVITY ALWAYS INCREASING


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Nowadays, speed has taken over everything we do. Since the industrial revolution, the pace of life has never stopped to accelerate. Larry Dossey, an American physician, created the term “time-sickness” to describe the obsessive belief that “time is getting away, that there isn’t enough of it, and that you must pedal faster and faster to keep up.” As new technologies are present in every moment of our days, our social behaviour tend to be different, we keep up the speed and we can be blinded by the screens that surround us and supply us with information (we spend half of our free time in front of a screen). A new way of protesting against this ‘infodependence’ is appearing through the ‘voluntary disconnected’. They are people who shut down their accounts on social network and stay away as much as they can from items with an internet connection.

In response to that kind of need, Hugo Eccles and Afshin Mehin created a Social Bomb that «forces everyone to take a break by covertly cutting off all forms of technology.” They advise to use it in cinemas, weddings... The concept was designed for the Slow Tech exhibition which was taking place in London (September 2011). A ‘Slow’ trend is born, regarding the pace of life, along with associations like the Society for the Deceleration of Time, or Sabbath Manifesto, which is a creative project designed to slow down lives (open to everybody, not for Jews only). Their action is based on a list of 10 principles to observe on Saturday. They developed for example an application to block your telephone automatically on Saturdays, along with a sleeping bag to put the item out of sight.


Because Flâner requires a slow, methodical pace, in the 19th century, flâneurs in Paris would take out their tortoise on the pavement, to walk with it, to show that they were taking the time to enjoy themselves. In his book ‘ In praise of slowness’, Carl Honoré talks about finding our inner tortoise, to find the ideal, personal pace we should live at. An easy answer to reach that goal, accessible to all, is going down in the street and start walking while opening one’s eyes. This statement has been made already by numerous artists, architects and other thinkers since the 60’s: the Fluxus movement, the International Situationist, the Stalker Laboratory, the contemporary artist Francis Älys... In ‘MARCHER, une philosophie’ [Walking, a philosophy] Fréderic Gros analyses the process of walking, and how it has always been something close to a spiritual exercise.

Many great thinkers use to walk as part of their writing: Kant, Nietzsche, Thoreau... To walk implies a personal experience, slowness and sometimes, solitude. Walking changes the relationship with time and space. While walking, we become more conscious of our space. Walking allows the installation of the landscape IN the body. The landscape impregnates the body. You do not come back with only images in your head, but more bundles of sensations that influenced your body.’ This is what makes it a reaction to our society: you experience and remember more than you look at images and screens. Because of the rhythm when you walk, the landscape also changes very slowly. This is when you start to think and focus and details. Balance can be found.

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!"#

Avoid technology.

!$#

Connect with loved ones.

!%#

Nurture your health.

!&#

Get outside.

!'#

Avoid commerce.

!(#

Light candles.

!)#

Drink wine.

!*#

Eat bread.

!+#

Find silence.

"!#

Give back.


II. SPEED, CITY AND POSSIBILITIES OFFERED BY THIS SETTING


‘Urbanization, another feature of the industrial era, helped quicken the pace. Cities have always attracted energetic and dynamic people, but urban life itself acts as a giant particle accelerator. When people move to the city, they start to do everything faster. As industrialization and urbanization spread, the nineteenth century brought an endless parade of inventions designed to help people travel, work and communicate more swiftly.’[Carl Honoré, In praise of slowness] Among this parade of inventions, the GPS (along with it the geolocation) must be the device that changed the most our relationship with space. It has changed our way to go around the city. Indeed, we can now go from a point A to a point B quite directly. But quite often it can blind us since we are not conscious anymore about the route we take to reach a location. Which leads to situations where people can not describe where is a location, even if they happened to go there several times.

The GPS has also influenced the changing of status of the map. The normal ordinary, physical (static) maps are coming back to the category of art. An extreme situation is depicted by Michel Houellebecq in La carte et le territoire (Flammarion,2010) : Jeff is creating a series of artworks, that are close-up photographs of old Michelin map, that is to say, on e of the most ordinary item you can find. The focus is made on extremely rural areas, with names that are representing the heritage of France. And those artworks are sold millions of Euros. Constance Rubini, said at the time of the Design biennale in Saint Etienne for the exhibition “La ville mobile” 2011, from which she was the General curator: “The city is the place of so many changes, novelties: it is a place where designers can still intervene, they can accompany upheavals.

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During ‘les 30 Glorieuses’, the city was thought and structured for the car, which was the queen of the city. Nowadays it is the contrary. At least in western countries there is this priority: put back the pedestrian at the heart of the city. So that it is not only a place that rhymes with obligation and work, but also where one can spend time and have fun. Today, our luxury is to find again slowness, calm, to be able to enjoy the city: wander about, stroll around and not only being part of the circulation, which is an obligation when you work.”

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Walking as an equivalent action to questioning. Questioning the context of dense cities, more particularly the way they are planned.

• Guy Debord- Forgetting about the reasons and the goals which influence one’s orientation within the city. ‘One or several individuals practicing ‘the derive’ renounce, for a short or long duration, to the reasons of moving and acting they usually react to. They renounce to their relations, works, leisure, to let themselves go along with the solicitations of the terrain and to the encounters that correspond to it. The proportion of randomness here is less determinant than one would think: from the point of view of the ‘derive’; there is a psychogeographical relief of the cities, with constant fluxes, fixed spots, and swirls that make the entrance or the exit from a site difficult.’


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Wanting to ignite a ‘derive’ in my neighbourhood, I therefore tried to set a conducive environment. I created a path, which consisted in marked trees and poles on 2 specific streets, associated with directional arrows. Already the first step, of setting the path made me feel/see another version of the street: I had to climb halfway up the trees to put the mark in an inaccessible spot and became conscious about their height and about the ecosystems they shelter: mainly composed of sparrows, ants and spiders.

I tried to provide a context in which people would be distracted from the original goal that led them out of their house. I set up a blog to be able to see by counting the visitors if the experiment was functioning. It worked on a small percentage of people (it was organised on a Sunday). The mind set is capital. Only people with a favourable field would respond to it.


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Fransiscus Sonniustraat, Eindhoven, 10/10/11 09:00

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Along with this action, I have started a personal experiment which consists in experiencing time passing without wearing a watch during one week.(I am used to wear a watch every day for years). My goal was to comprehend time differently than setting limits and periods thanks to my watch.


Some observations: -I realize I can tell what time it is by feeling how long I biked, or by where I am in Eindhoven, in comparison with my starting point. Anyway the sun tells me when it is 5 o’clock by disappearing.

-Usually I use my watch (time) as an excuse to stop doing somethinand start something else. Now there are fewer barriers: I stop doing something when I feel I do not want to go on with it.

-I rely on non-mobile clocks: my alarm clock at home and a computer at school. I know when I leave and also when I arrive, IF I check the time again. -I went to read on the side of the canal, to enjoy the last hours of sun. I could count the time in pages. I stayed until the sun went down behind a building, and not because I had planned to stay a specific amount of time. The other reason why I left is physical: it was too cold to stay outside.

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I then decided to make an experiment with a sundial, to challenge my relationship with time. Because for a sundial to work, you need to find a spot which is clear from shadow, people... you need to find the right time, since it has to be sunny and also you need to be able to wait and see the time changing on the sundial, which is obviously slow; as slow as the revolution of the sun around the planet. (still in progress since the sun was not my ally these past weeks).


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III. THE DESIGN OF THE CITY AND THE STREET IN FAVOUR OF SPEED


• The street belongs to all of us, François Asher ‘The design of the streets but also the design of the cities (for it is largely the street that makes the city) became increasingly dominated by systems for organizing transport, and more specifically by the goal of maximizing traffic. The paradigm underpinning the structure of cities was that of fluid mechanics. The trunk roads with their capacity to carry large flows led into secondary and tertiary offshoots which distributed people and commodities to their final destinations. In fact the networks largely followed the same tracks at different levels. This was how the planning of cities and streets came to be dominated by flows and networks. We are seeing a return to a vision of the city in which urbanity, that is to say the match between a place and its uses, is generated by mixtures, by variety, by the unexpected, by the spectacle of a composite street. Pedestrians are no longer interested in just doing the shopping.

They want to hang out, to dream, to watch the theatre of the street, with the sense not of being in the street, but of being the street. The vision has deep roots in the history of the city, which is the place par excellence for the encounter with the ‘other’, that is to say with people, ideas, objects, situations… The city should offer the resource of difference, open the way to serendipity (the finding of the unlooked for).’ Walking while reading the city, paying attention to the details • Yoko Ono, City Pieces -Walking with a goal In opposite to La Derive, which dictates to not set any goals but to let events and imagination carry you along, Yoko Ono in City Pieces gives 10 golden rules to re-read and rediscover one’s city, such as ‘Imagine painting all the buildings in the city the colour of light.’ (City Piece n°V).

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I have then experienced a walk through the city with a unique rule that I obtained through an initiative called ‘Do-it-yourself soundwalk’ (Stephanie Loveless and Brady Marks). The website generates new associations of walking guidelines for each visitor. My walk would be guided by the traffic lights: passing by a red light, I would have to turn right in the next street, passing by a green light I would have to go left. This way of being orientated through Eindhoven, I ended up visiting streets I had never been to before, demonstrating the concept of serendipity to be true.


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Jorislaan, Eindhoven , 25/10/11, 15:00


• Ellen Harvey- Calling the eye on details and everyday life items. Acting Her New York Beautification project consists in small romantic oval landscapes in oils painted directly over graffiti sites without permission throughout New York City from 1999 – 2001. It is an ‘institutional critique» that attempts to make visible the desires implicit in particular situations.

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Ney-York Beautification Project


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I have installed on a bridge a message to the passers-by. The message is contained in a bloc of ice. Through it, one can read: “It is cold, I know, but it won’t last forever� (which is true about the climatic conditions and about the message in itself (melting)). I wanted to simulate the city addressing the pedestrians and see if there would be a reaction: at least a questioning time, at best an urge to answer, to act. Seeing this message, some people would slow down, and even sometimes stop on their way to the city center.


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First day of cold, Eindhoven, 12/11/11 10:10


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Voorterweg, Eindhoven, 12/11/11, 21:04

I wanted to achieve the same goal with ‘a door where there is no door’, raising people’s curiosity about their immediate surrounding by adding/changing an element, and wait for the reaction.


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• Gordon Matta Clark- Cutting out to reveal He made «building cuts,» a series of works in abandoned buildings in which he variously removed sections of floors, ceilings, and walls in the 70’s. The cuts work on many levels, creating a sense of physical and visual instability, opening up unexpected views. They sensitize the viewer to the world around them, to the structural and social glue that holds disparate elements together.

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Snow spot cuts out a neutral zone, which, by contrast highlights and reveals the surrounding. The portion of the wall is covered with fake snow my perception of the weather is materialized


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Stratumseind, Eindhoven 23/11/11 12:25


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Gaining height

My research field being Eindhoven, I decided to go in the opposite direction of the main characteristic of the city which is shallow height. Therefore I gained some height to observe from above. My first landing was at 70 metres, in the point of one of the bell towers of Saint Catharina church. The distance between you and the ground really puts you in the position of the observer. You look at your fellows on the street and you see them like they are ants. You feel like you are outside from the circuit of the city.


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St Catharina Church, Eindhoven 08/11/11 12:15


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70 metres high, point of St Catharina, Eindhoven. 08/12/11, 12:22. Windy day


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The second and highest landing was at the 23rd floor of the Vesteda tower: 85 metres from the ground. From up there I had a sensation of isolation. Indeed there is no direct neighbour, absolutely no vis-Ă -vis. It is just me, the birds and the clouds. Indeed, (though it was not true) I felt like I was at the same level as the clouds, which gives a certain impression of power. I was with the elements, influencing the events happening at ground level.


was there the day before

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85 metres from the ground 23rd floor, Vesteda Toren, Eindhoven. 09/12/11, 11:15


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My request to the inhabitants of the tower to have access to their flat and view (that was put in the letterboxes)


IV. CITY, SPEED AND HUMAN BODY

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Philippe Vasset & Stalker : Going where you should not go

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Philippe Vasset is a writer and an investigator who decided to meet with the white zones that one can find on city maps. He set in his research field in Paris. He reveals that maps are not the reflection of the landscape reality and that we actually do not know everything about the city we live in. (‘Zones Blanches’, Un livre blanc, 2007). «Maybe the zone is a very complex system of tolls... I have no idea what goes on here in the absence of man. But as soon as someone arrives everything goes haywire... the zone is exactly how we created it ourselves, like the state of our spirits... but what is happening, that does not depend on the zone, that depends on us.» (Stalker diA. Tarkovskij, 1979).

• The group makes from walking the main act of a urbanistic reflection. They visit what they call ‘urban amnesias’. Their walk through those territories highlights the physical and collective experience of the data capture about a territory. They are encouraging to discover the forbidden and forgotten landscape. Revealing the presence of a place thanks to a human presence is the goal both for Philippe Vasset and the Stalker Laboratory from Rome.


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I have experienced a walk on a patch of grass in the middle of a highway node. Typically the place that is not designed to accommodate visitors: in other words it is a non-place. There is no access per se, just a slope over which it is possible to climb, yet at your own risk. When I reached the place, I became really aware of my humaneness. Indeed while I was exploring this area, groping my way along the dense and wet grass; cars would erupt in 4 different directions and on 4 different levels around me, already disappearing after a few seconds

The storm water-tank in the middle of the site would give a strange feeling of nature, stillness, peacefulness‌ Strangely enough, what I would feel most threatened about while being there would be the fact that I was alone. Not the speed (because I felt isolated from the speed and the machines). Even if dozens of car are passing by, I did not feel the presence of human beings seating in the cars.


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Highway node, Meubelplein, Eindhoven 23/11/11 13:50


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Highway node, Meubelplein, Eindhoven 23/11/11 13:50


Walking to highlight the experience of the human body within the city Walking and leaving a mark of the presence of a wanderer, as an attempt to communicate the practice. • path

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Francis Älys –Marking one’s

‘If walking has become so central in art and politics, it is due to the way in which it goes against the grain of the social, physical and political activity. While industrial means of transport threaten to make our limbs and our senses obsolete (confining daily life to an oscillation between jobs, media indulgence, and shopping) walking persist in defining human life as a matter of territorial activity. However, it would be entirely mistaken to subsume this remaining space of freedom into a flat or homogenous practice. The way in which walking interlocks with living and thinking actually opens up a polemical field of alternatives. I want to highlight those alternative moments that oppose the rationale of city planning and the understanding of modernization as social engineering’.

Three of his works were especially marking to me: Sometimes Making Something Leads to Nothing (Mexico, 1997), the Loser/the Winner, Stockholm 1998, and The Leak, Paris, 2002. The three works are ephemeral actions, showing the presence and more precisely the moves of the body within the city, making us conscious of the moving, conscious of the obstacles we deal with by walking in a city. Leaving a trace materialises the moves, because the tools Francis Älys uses are in direct relation with the body: either it is a block of ice that he needs to push with his whole body, making use of each part of his body, (and at the same time this contact and the friction with the city) contributes to make the tool disappear; or it is a thread unravelling the sweater that he wears throughout the city.


Älys, with The Leak stroll, draws in blue his ramblings on the ground, allowing other wanderers to break away from the fluxes of circulation to follow his trace throughout the city (which leads to a contemporary art exhibition). That witnesses see Älys’s actions or that they follow his traces, it can become something that they will pass on at their turn. He leaves traces which disturb the order of things, initiate immaterial circulation moves.

This is what a flâneur can do. Stop the passer-by’s sight, and spark off a questioning about his/her own pedestrian trips, his/her own uses or representation of public space.

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Sometimes Making Something Leads to Nothing

the Loser/the Winner

The Leak


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What can I use then to mark my path, to record my moves? Fingertips: bodily contact with the city, children game. +chalk car: vibrations, body moves, orientation track


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Hobo Code

Graffiti is writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface in a public place. Graffiti is about marking one’s territory and expressing oneself. Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures. The style still hovers between the domain of art and protest. It records someone’s (or a group’s) presence. Within a city, it could be traced back, and reconstitute someone’s presence. Just like, on a bigger scale, in Europe we can find GR (Grandes randonnées) codes, and signs punctuating pilgrimage routes. In the United States, the community of Hobos have also their own code to point out specific and useful spots to other members of the community,

since most of the time they wander on their own. Among those well known practices of leaving one’s mark on the city, new ones appear: Knitters gangs try to give back to the city a sense of home, of comfort, by wrapping up tree trunks and urban furniture with their colourful knitting. City hackers’ collectives join forces to adapt the city by slightly modifying it so that it corresponds more closely to the people of a neighbourhood.

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Goal: Could people, within the realm of the city, with the same interest and the same behaviour have a specific, coded language? Would they want to communicate and share about an experience which is somehow personal but above all solitary?


have a have seat a seat

have a have look a look behindbehind

take a take a look inside look inside

don’t go there //

//

54 it is around it is around the the corner corner and it isand it is worth itworth it

interesting interesting building building

climb up climb andup and look around look around

nice view nicefrom view from where where you stand you stand

tasty food tasty food here here

look atlook the hidden at the hidden part ofpart the iceberg of the iceberg

this is funny this is funny

just a few just a few steps further steps further


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V. MIRRORING THE CITY/THE FLANEUR NOWADAYS


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The movement as an image of the city Because the city gives sometime matter to the mind to create stories, the flâneur feeds on what he sees; he is like a sponge of his surroundings. He is therefore able of reflecting the period he lives in. Even though today the flâneur would rather tend to act. He reads his city, explore it, immerses himself in it, understands it, knows it therefore he replies to it, thanks to his body.

A dialogue is established between him and other people like him, through the medium of the city. With his role, he communicates. Taking the role of the flâneur is a conscious effort to be mindful of our built world. Flâner is a dedication to slowing down, using one’s feet and eyes and ears and nose and hands.


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“Skaters’ representational mode is not that of writing, drawing or theorising, but of performing –of speaking their meanings and critiques of the city through their urban actions. Here in the movement of the body across urban space, and in its direct interaction with the modern architecture of the city, lies the central critique of skateboarding – a rejection of the values of the spatiotemporal modes of living in the contemporary capitalist city.” ( Borden) The same message is expressed by free runners and Parkour movement: they are not seeing the city as most people do. They see it as a field of opportunities. For example, within an assemblage of architectural volumes, they calculate the shortest route that could lead them to the top. They therefore discover accesses to uncommon viewpoints. Denis Darzacq immortalizes on film the free runner’s cousins: street dancers.

In his series ‘La chute’ he opposes two realities. On one side, the decor of a city with a generic architecture, soulless and on the other side, the overproud power of bodies which refuses silence. The models are young people from working-class towns, who are daring enough to challenge the law of gravity and weightlessness. In this idea of capturing the energy or the movement relative to a place, the artist Nicolas Floc’h traded the carpet from a dance lesson room against new ones. He mounted the used material onto frames, transforming them into huge black monochromes. But when you look carefully enough, a complex pattern animates the surface: the traces of the dancers. This is just like a black box that would have recorded thousands of gestures within a space.


Free runner

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Denis Darzaq, ‘La chute’

Nicolas Floc’h


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窶連ir de Paris, Marcel Duchamp 1919


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Capturing the atmosphere The last ready-made from Marcel Duchamp is precisely about capturing the complex situation of a city. It is entitled Air de Paris and was realised in 1919. It consists in a pharmaceutical phial, in which he pretended having captured 50 cm3 of air from Paris. By ‘the air of Paris’, he meant the atmosphere of the city, with the events that were taking place at that time.

He was exiled during this period, in the Unites states, which is one of the reasons that made him want to try to capture such a complex thing, to take with him. Therefore I asked myself how it would be possible to capture the air of the city I live in.


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I first initiated a recording of the fl창nerie of other people. Observing their behaviour within a square. I tried to communicate the atmosphere at this moment by an ongoing drawing, like a frieze.


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Recording of a ‘flânerie’ in Eindhoven, 04/12/11 12:02


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I tried then to obtain something more physically related to the air and made a piece of clothing/jewellery that would evolve and change through the act of ‘flâner’. Indeed the idea is that the object, in the shape of a collar, is worn on top of a coat and is made from copper. Therefore the more time is spent outside, the more it influences the piece’s state.

It becomes an indicator. It also reflects the weather in a more instantaneous way: with the sun the red metal sends back red sparkles to the city. The color is altered by the weather and the air properties of the city.


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AND THEN...


69 From slowing down when walking on the street, one can see the possibilities offered by the city. The body is the first tool to be conscious and to record the experience of a city. With this project, my goal is to encourage people to explore and engage with their local surroundings. To call people’s attention to interesting details they may never have noticed, or perhaps have just forgotten about. I would like to help people engage more deeply in everyday places, encouraging them to activate their senses. (The moment/project might be ephemeral but could leave a lasting impression.)

Today, wanderers are ‘flâneurs’ who are unaware of it. By still living with one’s time, how can one avoid from times to times being swept away by a flow of information and physical circulation? Should we, metaphorically, all have our own path, just like the bikes, the cars and the buses have their own? How would the image of a city look like if we were not using official maps anymore, but a collection of the experiences of the inhabitants of the place?


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GLOSSARY


-serendipity : Serendipity means a «happy zebra» or «pleasant surprise»; specifically, the accident of finding something good or useful without looking for it. In the simplest of words, it means a «happy accident» or a «pleasant surprise». The first noted use of «serendipity» in the English language was by Horace Walpole (1717–1792). In a letter to Horace Mann (dated 28 January 1754) he said he formed it from the Persian fairy tale The Three Princes of Serendip, whose heroes «were always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things they were not in quest of». -dérive : In psychogeography, a dérive is an unplanned journey through a landscape, usually urban, where an individual travels where the subtle aesthetic contours of the surrounding architecture and geography subconsciously direct them with the ultimate goal of encountering an entirely new and authentic experience. Situationist theorist Guy Debord defines the dérive as «a mode of experimental behavior linked to the conditions of urban society: a technique of rapid passage through varied ambiances.» He also notes that «the term also designates a specific uninterrupted period of dériving.»The term is literally translated into English as drift.

-psychogeography : Psychogeography was defined in 1955 by Guy Debord as «the study of the precise laws and specific effects of the geographical environment, consciously organized or not, on the emotions and behavior of individuals.» Another definition is «a whole toy box full of playful, inventive strategies for exploring cities...just about anything that takes pedestrians off their predictable paths and jolts them into a new awareness of the urban landscape.» -le flâneur : the term flâneur comes from the French masculine noun flâneur— which has the basic meanings of «stroller», «lounger», «saunterer», «loafer»—which itself comes from the French verb flâner, which means «to stroll». Charles Baudelaire developed a derived meaning of flâneur—that of «a person who walks the city in order to experience it». Flâneur is not limited to someone committing the physical act of peripatetic stroll in the Baudelairian sense, but can also include a «complete philosophical way of living and thinking.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY


-Gaston Bachelard. (1957) The poetics of space - Charles Baudelaire.(1869) Le spleen de paris - Francesco Careri. (2006) Walkscapes - Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1948) The world of perception Seven lectures commissioned by the French National radio at the end of 1948, first published in 2004 - Guy Debord .(1956) La Théorie de la Dérive (parue dans les Lèvres Nues) - Christian Nold. (2009) Emotional cartography: technologies of the self -Simon Pope. (2009) Essays: Shape of Locative media Walking, art practice & regeneration -Saskia Sassen (2006) Public Interventions, The shifting meaning of urban condition, in Open Magazine n°11: Hybrid Space -Giuliana Bruno (2002) Atlas of emotion, journeys in art, architecture and film -François Ascher & Mireille Apel-Muller. (2007) The street belongs to all of us -Carl Honoré. (2004) In praise of slowness -Susan Maushart. (2011) The winter of our disconnect -Zigmunt Bauman. (2005/2006) Liquid life/times -Iain Borden (2001) Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body. -Fredéric Gros. (2009) Marcher, une philosophie

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-Michel de Certeau. (1980)The practice of Everyday life (L’invention du quotidien. Vol. 1, Arts de faire) - Phil Hubbard. (2006) City -Petra Kempf. (2009) You are the city, Observation, Organization and Transformation of Urban Settings -Articles from The New-York Times (US) and Le Monde (France)

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Gabrielle SallĂŠ-Osselin

A GUIDE TO READ ONE'S CITY (first version)  

Research part