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special edition

revolution 19801982 john lennon assassination

rubik erno and the rubiks cube

diana and charles the royal wedding

michael jackson thriller

mtv launch

and

neville brody the graphic design superstar

was john lennons murderer mark chapman a cia hitman?/ one of the most popular toys of the 20th century: rubiks cube/ 600,000 people filled the street in london/ did the video kill the radio star?/ the best selling album of all time


revolution


3.

Neville Brody

5.

John Lennon assassination

11.

Erno Rubik, the inventor of rubik’s cube

13.

Royal WeddingDiana and Charles

17.

MTV launch in the USA

21.

Michael JacksonThriller release

23.

Resources


neville brody 3

N

B

eville rody is perhaps the best known graphic designer of his generation. He studied graphic design at the London College of Printing and first made his way into the public eye through his record cover designs and his involvement in the British independent music scene in the early 1980s. As the Art Director of Fetish he began experimenting with the beginnings of a new visual language that consisted of a mixture of visual and architectural elements. Later he was able to put these ideas into practice and to set new precedents through the innovative styling of The Face magazine (1981-1986). It was his work on magazines that firmly established his reputation as one of the world’s leading graphic designers. In particular, his artistic contribution to The Face completely revolutionised the way in which designers and readers approach the medium. Though Brody rejected all commercialisation of his graphic style, his unique designs soon became much-imitated models for magazines, advertising and consumer-oriented graphics of the eighties. Brody also won much public acclaim through his highly innovative ideas on incorporating and combining typefaces into design. Later on he took this a step further and began designing his own typefaces, thus opening the way for the advent of digital type design. His pioneering spirit in the area of typography manifests itself today in such projects as FUSE, a regularly published collection of experimental typefaces and posters which challenges the boundaries between typography and graphic design. While working for Arena (1987-1990) he embarked on a completely opposite course, using minimalist, nondecorative typography for a time before returning to his expressive visual style which he now began propagating with the aid of computers. In 1987 he founded The Studio in London, and his unusual computer-generated designs received a great deal of recognition, especially abroad. His work has been commissioned by such ma jor organisations as Berlin’s Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Greenpeace, Japanese companies Men’s Bigi and Parco, the Dutch Postal Service, the German cable channel Premiere and Austria’s ORF TV channel.Today, Neville Brody’s work focuses largely on electronic communications design. At the same time, he continues to create his unique and striking digital typefaces. His contributions to the world of graphic design and digital typography are absolutely invaluable. Often referred to as a “star typographer”, Brody has designed a number of very well-known typfaces


neville brody studied graphic design at the london college of printing

revolution 4


1980


"lennon had to die"

lennon

assassination

"this was no robbery"

the spokesman said, adding that mr lennon was probably shot by a "deranged" person.

john lennon shot dead Former Beatle John Lennon has been shot dead by an unknown gunman who opened fire outside the musician’s New York apartment. The 40-year-old was shot several times as he entered the Dakota, his luxury apartment building on Manhattan’s Upper West Side, opposite Central Park, at 2300 local time. He was rushed in a police car to St Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital Center, where he died. His wife, Yoko Ono, who is understood to have witnessed the attack, was with him.

revolution 6


1980

decem 8 new york

Was john lennons m er mark chapman

?

a cia hitman

For

many baby- booers whose formative years coincided with the Swinging Sixties, a mild Monday in early December 1980 will always be remembered as the day the music died. In New York, the enigmatic, charismatic - and frankly often loony - ex-Beatle John Lennon staggered into the entrance hall of the Dakota, the exclusive parkside mansion block that had been his home for nearly eight years. The cassettes of a new song the 40-year-old had just recorded, called Walking On Thin Ice, clattered to the floor as he collapsed - blood flowing from four gunshot wounds.Lennon had been heading home late from work and was hoping to catch his five-year-old son, Sean, before he went to bed. He and Yoko Ono, his wife and musical collaborator, had been dropped by their white limousine on the pavement outside the building rather than driving through the gates and into the builing’s secure courtyard. Yoko hurried on ahead, nodding blankly at a stranger in the shadows — there were always fans and hangers-on lurking

7

outside the Dakota for a glimpse of their hero. Her husband trudged behind and had taken three or four strides when a voice called out: ‘Mr Lennon?’ The star slowed and then turned to look. Instantly, he registered that he’d seen this man a few times lately — and, earlier that day, had even autographed an LP cover for him. But now the stranger had a different purpose. He was down on one knee in a combat stance, a .38 revolver clasped in his hands. Five shots rang out and four dum-dum bullets, specially adapted to cause maximum physical damage, slammed into Lennon’s back, side and shoulder. The musician got as far as the lobby before blurting out: ‘I’m shot! I’m shot!’ He was dead on arrival at hospital a quarter of an hour later. Meanwhile, the killer, pudgy 25-year-old Mark Chapman, stood quietly at the scene. On the ground lay the smoking gun he had let fall from his hands, beside Lennon’s blood-stained glasses. Leaning nonchalantly against the wall of the Dakota, Chapman then began flicking through a copy of Catcher In The Rye, J.D. Salinger’s famous novel of adolescent alienation, whose central character was

apparently the inspiration for what he had just done. When the cops arrived, he made no attempt to escape. As his hands were cuffed and he was bundled into a squad car, he explained: ‘I acted alone.’ At precinct headquarters, he told detectives:

‘Lennon had to die.’

To a world shocked by Lennon’s violent and seemingly pointless death, it became clear that Chapman was a delusional nerd. He took drugs and was psychologically disturbed. Bullied at school, he sought refuge in an imaginary world where he exercised power over other people.A rootless adult who never settled into a proper job, he found solace for his empty life in the music of The Beatles. A loner himself, he identified with the reclusive side of Lennon’s insecure, mixed-up personality. But revelations of Lennon’s vast wealth and burgeoning business empire turned Chapman’s hero-worship on its head. He felt betrayed, personally insulted. He stalked and shot his erstwhile hero out of a weird sense of retribution — coupled with a desire to be famous for something. So the story went. But, with the 30th anniversary of Lennon’s death next week, a theory has resurfaced that challenges this long-held


b er urderconventional view. Though seemingly far-fetched, if true it would startle and appal the millions of fans who still idolise Lennon.In a new book, author Phil Strongman claims that Chapman was a stooge. Lennon’s real assassin was the CIA — at the behest of Right-wing fanatics in the American political establishment.He gets to this controversial conclusion by contesting many of the socalled ‘facts’ about the case — including the basic asumption that Chapman was a Beatles and Lennon fan. Strongman writes that, until the weekend before the killing: ‘Chapman, the supposed Lennon “obsessive” and “fan of fans”, did not own one Lennon single, book or album. Not one. Some “fan”, some “obsession”.’ He dismisses the often-made claim that Chapman had 14 hours of tapes of Lennon’s songs in his rucksack on the day of the shooting. ‘They have never been photographed or produced for the simple reason that they do not exist.’ So Chapman wasn’t just a celebrity stalker who went too far. Nor, says Stronman, did he kill Lennon for 15minutes of fame. ‘If he was an attention-seeker, then why did he turn down the chance of what would have been the trial of the century? By pleading guilty, Chapman missed all of this attention he was supposedly seeking. Why?’ It is the killer’s calmness after the shooting that Strongman sees as the

key to what really happened, providing evidence for his theory that Lennon’s death was a state-conspiracy. If Chapman looked like a zombie, as he hung around after the killing and waited for the police, it was because that was exactly what he was. Chapman, he suggests, had been recruited by the CIA and trained by them during his travels round the world, when he mysteriously pitched up in unlikely places for a boy from Georgia. How strange, for example, that Chapman should visit Beirut at a time when the Lebanese capital was a hive of CIA activity — and was said to be home to one of the agency’s top-secret assassination training camps. Another camp was supposedly in Hawaii, where Chapman lived for a number of years. And who funded the penniless young man’s round-the-world trip in 1975, which took in Japan, the UK, India, Nepal, Korea, Vietnam and China? Money never seemed to be a problem for Chapman, but no one has ever explained where it came from. The distinct possibility remains, in Strongman’s opinion, that the secret service was his paymaster. And somewhere along the line his mind was infiltrated. With Chapman, the CIA could have drawn on its long experience of using mind-controlling drugs and techniques such as hypnosis to produce assassins who would eliminate troublemakers, and ‘patsies’, the fall

guys on whom such killings could be blamed. Strongman claims: ‘Catcher In The Rye was part of Chapman’s hypnotic programming, a trigger that could be “fired” at him by a few simple keywords [via] a cassette tape message, telex or telegram or even a mere telephone call. ’It’s certainly true that conspiracy theorists have long suspected both the Americans and their communist foes of using such techniques to activate ‘sleeper’ assassins — as fictionalised in the film The Manchurian Candidate. The author is uncertain whether Chapman fell into the category of unwitting killer or unwitting accomplice. But his deep suspicion is that Chapman did not act alone — any more, he says, than Lee Harvey Oswald did in the murder of JFK in Dallas or Sirhan Sirhan in Bobby Kennedy’s death. He even doubts if Chapman fired the fatal shots. ‘The bullets slapped into Lennon’s body so closely together that pathologists later had trouble marking out the different entry points. If all of these shots came from Chapman, it was a miraculous piece of shooting. ‘In fact, if any of them came from him it was miraculous because Chapman was standing on Lennon’s right and, as the autopsy report and death certificate later made clear, all Lennon’s wounds were in the left side of his body.’ There had to be another shooter involved, Strongman insists. He suggests that a CIA plant who worked at the Dakota building was the real killer.

"i felt that by killing him i would become somebody and, instead of that, i became a murderer and murderers are not somebodies."

revolution 8


What

increases his suspicion is the cursory nature of the police investigation after Chapman’s arrest.‘His bizarre post-killing calm was not questioned, his behaviour was not checked with a drugs test, his “programmed” state [a word used about him by more than one police officer] was not investigated, his previous movements were not thoroughly looked into. ‘Put simply, the authorities’ investigation, or lack or it, into the assassination was shockingly slack and beggars belief.’It had to be, he concludes, that the FBI were conspiring with the CIA to cover up the reality — that shadowy figures in the American establishment ordered Lennon’s assassination. But why was Lennon on their hit list? He had, it seems, rattled the cages of America’s powerful Right wing, first with his opposition to the Vietnam War and then with his campaign of pacifism. It is here that those of us who.

"put simply

He wrote songs, he played the guitar, he had some funny ideas. He made us laugh. He was irreverent. But he wasn’t about to bring down capitalism. He was doing much too well out of it himself for that. Grumbling to an aide one day about soaring business expenses, he was reminded: ‘Imagine no possessions, John.’ Lennon shot back: ‘It’s only a bloody song!’ Still, the fact that some of the files relating to secret service investigations into Lennon’s activities remain closed continue to fuel suspicions of a cover-up. Strongman writes: ‘I am as convinced as any human being can be that elements of both the FBI and CIA were undoubtedly behind a coverup in December 1980. They were also deeply involved in the killing itself.’ Meanwhile, Chapman — crazy stalker or robot assassin — lives on. Strangely, if Strongman’s theory is true, he has managed to survive three decades in one of America’s most violent prisons despite the dangerous information he must still possess. He remains in Attica, 30 years into his life

sentence and well beyond the 20-year minimum decreed by the judge who sentenced him. When asked by a parole board in 2006 to explain why he murdered Lennon, Chapman said: ‘The result would be that I would be famous . . . I would receive a tremendous amount of attention, which I did receive.’ this year, he told another parole board that back in 1980 he had a long list of potential targets, which included Liz Taylor, chat-show host Johnnie Carson and Paul McCartney.‘They were famous, that was it,’ he said, and by killing them he would achieve ‘instant notoriety’. He hit on Lennon, he explained, only because the Dakota was easy to get at. ‘I felt that by killing him I would become somebody and, instead of that, I became a murderer, and murderers are not somebodies. Instead of taking my life I took somebody else’s, which was unfortunate.’ In 2006, his fourth application for release — opposed as it has always been by Yoko Ono — was refused, as it was again in 2008 and once more this year. He is eligible to try again in 2012.

Erlier

"his bizarre post-killing calmwas not questioned..."

the authorities' investigation, or lack of it, into the assassinationwas shockinglyslack 9


john lennon was shot four times in the back by mark chapmanwho had asked the former beatle for his autograph only hours before he laid inwait and killedbbc him. home news

beggars + belief."

revolution 10


a small cube that obsessed the world

erno rubik, hungarian inventor of rubiks cube


it seemed like such a simple puzzle

and yet the Rubik’s Cube mesmerized millions of people with its complexity. The Rubik’s Cube became one of the most popular toys of the twentieth century and an icon of the 1980s. Dates: First created in 1974; Released to world market in 1980. It seemed simple enough. You would pick up the Ru-

gliders and his mother was an artist and a poetess) to become both a sculptor and an architect. Fascinated with the concept of space, Rubik spent his free time -- while working as a professor at the Academy of Applied Arts and Design in Budapest -- designing puzzles that would make his students think in new ways

same fascinated reaction, he realized he might have a fun toy puzzle on his hands. Rubik’s Cubes instantaneously became an international sensation. Everyone wanted one. It appealed to youngsters as well as adults. There was something obsessive about the little cube. A Rubik’s Cube had six sides, with each side a

bik’s Cube and turn it a few times. The goal was to make each side a solid color, as it was when you first took it out of the box. After a couple of hours, you realized you were mesmerized by the puzzle and yet no closer to solving it. This exact situation hap in 1980 as the Rubik’s Cube pened to millions of people

about three-dimensional geometry. In the spring of 1974, just shy of his 30th birthday, Rubik envisioned a small cube, with each side constructed of moveable squares. By the fall of 1974, his friends had helped him create the first wooden model of his idea. At first, Rubik just enjoyed watching how the squares moved as

a different color (traditionally blue, green, orange, red, white, and yellow). Each side of a traditional Rubik’s Cube consisted of nine squares, in a three by three grid pattern. Of the 54 squares on the cube, 48 of them could move (the centers on each side were stationary). Rubik’s Cubes were simple, elegant, and surprisingly

became an obsession around the world. Ernö Rubik is the one to praise or to blame, depending on how frustrated you got with the Rubik’s Cube. Ernö Rubik was born on July 13, 1944 in Budapest, Hungary. Rubik combined the divergent talents of his parents (his father was an engineer who designed

he turned one section and then another. However, when he attempted to put the colors back again, he ran into difficulty. Oddly entranced by the challenge, Rubik spent a month turning the cube this way and that way until he finally realigned the colors. When he handed other people the cube and they too had the

difficult to solve. By 1982, more than 100 million Rubik’s Cubes had been sold and most had yet to be solved. During the height of its popularity, The Cubes could be found everywhere. To date, more than 300 million Rubik’s Cubes have been sold, making it one of the most popular toys of the 20th century.

revolution 12


he roya wedding 1981

Charles Diana

+

marry Crowd of 600,000 people filled the streets of London to catch a glimpse of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer on their wedding day. The couple were married at St Paul’s Cathedral before an invited congregation of 3,500 and an estimated global TV audience of 750 million - making it the most popular programme ever broadcast. Britons enjoyed a national holiday to mark the occasion.

29 july

1981


many camped out overnight on the streets of london including david cameron,who was 14 at the time - to get the best vantage point on the route from buckingham palace to the cathedral.

revolution 14


Lady Diana

15

After a brief private signing ceremony the Prince and Princess of Wales walked back down the aisle to the refrain of Elgar’s Pomp and Circumstance. The newlyweds took the opentopped state landau to Buckingham Palace where they emerged on the balcony at 1310 BST to give the crowds the kiss they had been longing to see. Afterwards Charles and Diana retired from the public gaze to enjoy toasts and a wedding breakfast with 120 family guests. A “just married” sign attached to the landau by Princes Andrew and Edward raised smiles as the married couple were driven over Westminster Bridge to get the train to Romsey in Hampshire to begin their honeymoon.

she wore an emanuel designed ivory taffeta and antique lace gown with a 25ft (7.62m) train.

20, arrived almost on time for the 1120 BST ceremony after making the journey from Clarence House in the Glass Coach with her father, Earl Spencer. She made the three-and-a-half minute walk up the red-carpeted aisle with the sumptuous 25 ft (7.62 m) train of her Emmanuel designed, ivory taffeta and antique lace gown flowing behind her. Archbishop of Canterbury Dr Robert Runcie led the traditional Church of England service, but he was assisted by clergymen from many denominations. The bride’s nerves showed briefly when she mixed up the Prince’s names calling him Philip Charles Arthur George, rather than Charles Philip. Charles, 32, in the full dress uniform of a naval commander, slightly muddled his vows too, referring to “thy goods” rather than “my worldly goods”. rather than “my worldly goods”.

crow of 60 peopll stree


w ds 0 ,000 lle filled the ts of london

16


8 19 1 1 august M

On this day in 1981, TV: M u s i c Te l e v i s i o n goes on the air for the first time ever, with the words (spoken by one of MTV’s creators, John Lack): “Ladies and gentlemen, rock and roll.” The Buggles’ “Video Killed the Radio Star” was the first music video to air on the new cable television channel, which initially was available only to households in parts of New Jersey. MTV went on to revolutionize the music industry and become an influential source of pop culture and entertainment in the United States and other parts of the world, including Europe, Asia and Latin America, which all have MTV-branded channels.

In MTV’s early days, its programming consisted of basic music videos that were introduced by VJs (video jockeys) and provided for free by record companies. As the record industry recognized M V’s value as a promotional vehicle, money was invested in making creative, cutting-edge videos. Some directors, including Spike Jonze (Being John Malkovich, Three Kings) and Michel Gondry (Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind), worked on music videos before segueing into feature films. In the 1980s, MTV was instrumental in promoting the careers of performers such as Madonna, Michael Jackson, Prince and Duran Duran, whose videos played in heavy rotation.

T

By the late 1980s, MTV started airing non-video programming, geared toward teenagers and young adults. Its popular reality series The Real World launched in 1992 and was followed by such highly rated shows as The Osbournes, Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica, Laguna Beach, My Super Sweet 16 and The Hills. MTV also debuted animated series including Beavis and Butthead and Celebrity Deathmatch, as well as documentaries, news, game shows and public service campaigns on topics ranging from voting rights to safe sex. MT developed a reputation for pushing cultural boundaries and taste; the airing of Madonna’s 1989 “Like a Prayer” video is just one famous example. In 1984, the channel launched the MTV Music Video Awards, which were followed in 1992 by the MTV Movie Awards. Today, MTV’s music-video programming is largely confined to one show, Total Request Live.

V

"video killed the radio star" 17 revolution


videodidnotkilltheradiost ar

the birth of the dedicated music channel did mark a watershed in the history of pop and a change in the relationship between popstars, audiences and record companies.

"the creation of mtv and the emphasis on videos removed the need to see the artist performing," says stephen armstrong, a music writer for the face and arena.


simon Warner,

lecturer in

19 revolution


pop music:

"mtv was born partly out a backlash by the music industry in an attempt to boost sales"

20


michael jackson

thriller

release

new album

21

released

30 november

1982


1982

1982

michael jackson thriller album released

michael jacksons legendary thriller album was released on nov. 30, 1982. thriller includes jackson’s hit singles “thriller,” “billie jean,” “the girl is mine,” and “beat it.” the epic zombie dance music video for “thriller” did not debut until the following year on dec. 2, 1983. thriller is the best-selling album of all time, with over 100 million copies sold worldwide since the 1982 release.

revolution 22


http://designhistory2013.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/portrait.jpg http://designhistory2013.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/portrait.jpg http://www.johnlennon.com/ http://blogs.villagevoice.com/runninscared/jlennface.jpg http://indervilla.com/john-lennon-classic-wallpapers/john-lennon-black-and- white-hd/#sthash.UAyXi5Gn.dpbs http://www.geeksofdoom.com/GoD/img/2012/10/2012-10-08-john_lennon_2- 533x353.jpg http://www.theplace2.ru/archive/john_lennon/img/093.jpg http://m.cdn.blog.hu/ma/mafot/image/rubik.jpg http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/07/01/article- 2352235-00033C2900000C1D-323_634x421.jpg https://pulpcapsule.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/charles-and-diana-portrait. jpg http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-YY9NYycOkiE/TboII99B54I/AAAAAAAABeo/ cr3eTQvHaiA/s1600/Princess-Diana-Wedding.jpg http://kentuckyfriedwrestling.com/theword2/wp-content/uploads/mtv.jpg http://i4.photobucket.com/albums/y130/CrazyCarla/1980s/mtvHall_Oates. jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-qjAlhaOjmwE/TjbY2wyiuDI/AAAAAAAAK1Y/Vq8Ue BJF8WY/s640/mtv.jpg http://images5.fanpop.com/image/photos/27700000/john-lennon-60s- music-27747967-950-1075.jpg http://n4bb.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/michael-jackson-thriller-source.jpg http://www.fontshop.com/fonts/designer/neville_brody/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/8/news id_2536000/2536321.stm http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1335479/Was-John-Lennons-mur derer-Mark-Chapman-CIA-hitman-Thirty-years-theres-extraor dinary-new-theory.html http://history1900s.about.com/od/1980s/a/rubikscube.htm http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/29/news id_2494000/2494949.stm http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/prince_charles_and_lady_diana_spen cers_wedding http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mtv-launches http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1465495.stm http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/extras/2011/11/30/nov-30-michael-jacksons- thriller-album-1982-clinton-signs-brady-bill-1993/ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mtv-launches http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1465495.stm

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gabriella renka id: ren13408449

designer timeline graphic and media design

lcc project1 03/12/2013


Revolution