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TATTOO CULTURE: BEYOND SKIN DEEP Understanding perceptions of nonverbal means of expression and identity.

Gabriella Campagna + Stephen White 711 Methods of Contextual Research OL Fall Quarter 2015

Table of Contents

2. Design Team Bio 3. Introduction & Historical Context 4. Research Documents 5. Part 1: Design and Planning 6. Project Overview & Opportunity Statement 7. Scope & Research Questions 8. Value Proposition 9. Research Method: Interviews 10. Research Method: Observation & Cultural Probe 11. Surveys & Protocols 12. Design Matrix 13. Project Timeline 14. Part 2: Fieldwork 15. Research Encounters 16. Observations: Tattoo Parlors 17. Observations: SCAD Facilities 18. Observations: Broughton & The Park 19. Interviews: Basic to In-Depth 20. Interviews: Controlled to Organic 21. Interviews: Conversational 22. Sample: Zack Spurlock 23. Sample: Kevin, Pat, & Cory 24. Sample: Gatekeeper 25. Sample: James & Kenny 26. Sample: Front Desk Worker 27. Sample: Peter & Ben 28. Sample: Chelsea & Dylan 29. Field Guides 30. Surroundings: Anonymous Tattoo

32. Surroundings: Ghost Town Tattoo 33. Surroundings: Savannah Ink 34. Surroundings: Stranded Tattoo 35. Surroundings: Gulfstream Center for Design 36. Surroundings: Broughton Street & The Park 37. Working Wall 38. Analysis Documents 39. Ecosystem Model (Analog) 40. Ecosystem Model (Digital) 41. Era Analysis Model (Analog) 42. Era Analysis Model (Digital) 43. Mind Map Model (Analog) 44. Mind Map Model (Digital) 45. User Persona Model (Analog) 46. User Persona Model (Digital) 47. Journey Model (Analog) 48. Journey Model (Digital) 49. Positioning Model (Analog) 50. Positioning Model (Digital) 51. Affinity Map I (Analog) 52. Affinity Map II (Analog) 53. Affinity Map (Digital) 54. Synthesis Documents 55. Insight 1 56. Insight 2 57. Insight 3 58. Insight 4 59. Insight 5 60. Insight 6 61. Opportunity Map 62. Appendix 63. Works Cited

Design Team Gabriella + Stephen


Gabriella was born in San Antonio, Texas. She studied Architecture at the University of Texas at Austin and graduated in May 2015. During school, she worked as a high-end furniture design for a year and has been working for a recently funded technology company in Austin, Texas for the past nine months. Through her most recent job, she has discovered an affinity for user interface and software design. She has led the design and branding strategy with company founders and investors. Gabriella currently lives in Savannah, Georgia and is pursuing an MFA in Design Management.

Stephen was born in Atlanta but grew up in Washington, DC. He received his Bachelor of Architecture and Urban Design with minor in Architectural History from Northeastern University in 2011 before working as a contracted interior architect at National Geographic Channels in DC. He has worked in various international design firms and has experience in high-end residential and boutique mixed-use architecture, branding and graphic design, interior design, and brand strategy. Currently he lives in Savannah, Georgia where he is pursuing his Masters degree in Design Management.


INTRODUCTION | HISTORICAL CONTEXT When you see another person do you perceive them in a certain way? Do you consciously make decisions to be perceived as part of a particular group or culture? Those who have chosen tattoos as a form of expression have made the decision to visually identify themselves within a cultural identity. A person with tattoos embodies an extensive history, not only in the stories of their own tattoos, but in the history of a culture that has deep connections to major groups of people and events throughout Western history. The re-introduction of tattoos into western culture was a result of colonialism in North America. The invention of the electric tattooing machine and the rise of patriotism led to a growth in tattoos among the middle class. Whether used during times of war or for gang representation, tattoos have once again experienced a modern revival beginning with sailors in the 1970’s. This revival has bred life into the contemporary state of tattoos as an art form that is part of the mainstream. Looking to the history of tattoos not only tells a tale of aesthetic progression, but also provides the story for an entire culture and its subgroups. Because the culture of tattoos and its participants are evolving, they are representational of an extensive set of memories, psychologies, and meanings that have trend setting and driving forces behind self-expression, identity, spirituality, and social branding.

Research Documents

Part 1: Design and Planning Part 2: Fieldwork




PROJECT OVERVIEW The tattoo culture is unique in its embodiment of a nonverbal means of expression. The group is bound not only by behaviors and beliefs, but also by an intentional choice of aesthetic representation. The permanence of tattoos as a form of expression and their dominant presence in the historic and conservative city of Savannah, make this culture an ideal form of study with regard to its relationship to the individual, to itself, and to the greater context of the area’s population. Additionally, we will look to the evolution of tattoo culture in Savannah and contemporary misconceptions of tattoos by group outsiders. Through these analyses, our study will seek ways to improve upon the understanding of tattoo culture from both within and outside of the community.

OPPORTUNITY STATEMENT As we seek a greater understanding of the tattoo culture in Savannah we will learn how to recognize discrepancies between intention and perception, the impact of current social patterns on nonverbal means of expression, the power and presence of nonverbal expression as a means of defining cultures within society, and how geography, demographics, and spatial distribution relate to physical expression. These research revelations can lead to equal employment initiatives for those with tattoos, real-estate awareness for tattoo artists and shop owners looking to break ground in Savannah, and the creation of a research model focused on nonverbal methods of expression and their impact on industries that cater to said preference. These industries may vary from fashion to automobiles to service professionals. Therefore understanding the psychological rationale behind self-expression and identity through personal style or ownership is critical to marketing and corporate success.

Scope & Research Questions


SCOPE The report includes the study of tattoo culture in Savannah as it relates to historical evolution, group outsiders, local businesses, self-expression, and geography and city demographics. It does not include the direct study of other forms of artistic body modification.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS Question 1: Does the geographical layout of Savannah influence the types of tattoo demographics within each respective


Question 2: Are there patterns between perceptions about tattoo culture and meaning within the community versus outside

the community (per respective geographic area)?

Question 3: How does the psychology of tattoos relate to social branding, personal identity, and self expression? Question 4: How have historical trends of tattooing manifested themselves with the city of Savannah? Question 5: How do gatekeepers within a variety of business types either inhibit or promote the tattoo culture within the workplace?

Value Proposition


VALUE PROPOSITION For designers and distributors of goods or services marketed towards personal expression who are looking for a deeper and more revealing understanding behind why potential consumers choose particular means of nonverbal expression over others, our study provides critical examples of cultural expression through visual cues and an adaptable method for studying the psychology behind cultural delineation via personal style. We do this by interviewing and observing both members of society within the tattoo culture and those outside of it in order to more deeply understand the culture in relation to overall context and purpose. This will reveal both the internal and external psychology behind nonverbal expression. Unlike a superficial study of existing perceptions about tattoo culture and style in general, our study will dive deeper into the community to gain stronger meanings behind decisions of permanent artistic self-expression rather than focusing only on the visual result as an art form alone. This will allow our research to be applicable to any form of nonverbal self-expression industry.

Research Method Interviews


PRIMARY RESEARCH METHODS | INTERVIEWS We will be conducting interviews with people who have received tattoos, own tattoo shops, and are tattoo artists in order to gain trigger insights behind why people decide to get tattoos. We will also be interviewing non-tattooed people to look for positive and negative perceptions of the tattooed community and why they exist. Through these first-person interviews we will gain a comprehensive understanding of the reasoning, values, and perceptions between the tattooed and non-tattooed community as related to nonverbal means of self-expression and identity. (see appendix)

1 Tattoo Shop Owners & Tattoo Artists

2 Tattoo Community Members

3 Non-Tattoo Community Members

4 Business Owners

Research Method Observation & Cultural Probe


PRIMARY RESEARCH METHODS | OBSERVATION SHADOWING In order to understand how the tattoo culture operates within its defined space of tattoo parlors, we will shadow both tattoo artists and those getting tattoos. This will help us to gain a better understanding of the tattoo parlor culture, as well as enlighten the nature of the relationship between the tattoo artist and the person getting the tattoo. (see appendix)

PARTICIPATION As a member of the tattooed community, Stephen has decided to participate in the research by getting a tattoo. He will get his tattoo from an artist with whom he has no prior relationship, and the tattoo will be received during the time of our study. After using our research to remove preconceived notions of what being part of the community means to him, Stephen plans to reinsert himself into the group with a new understanding of how the psychology of nonverbal means of expression is viewed by other unknowing participants. He will be actively participating in the process and discussing these perceptions and implications with his tattoo artist during his tattoo appointment. (see appendix)

PRIMARY RESEARCH METHODS | UNIQUE METHOD INTERACTIVE SURVEY Instead of asking tattoo community members basic background questions, we decided to create an interactive pin-up board that would allow community members to get engaged in our project while simultaneously answering many of our questions. These include whether the member is male or female (indicated by blue and pink markers), what the tattoo is (written on a pinup slip of paper, and where the tattoo is physically located on the body (indicated by pinned location on life-size print out).

Surveys & Protocols


SURVEYS & PROTOCOLS SURVEYS The survey portion will be a preliminary screening that will help us hone in on key participants of study. Because of Savannah’s extensive list of tattoo parlors and patrons, the intention is to gain a general understanding during the primary research phase followed by more detailed research on key participants. These surveys will be largely focused on demographic centered questions.

PROTOCOLS Protocol forms will be given to tattoo shop owners and their respective artists to ensure that participants are aware of the nature and intentions of our study and to provide warning that copyright of artwork (etc.) will be given credit and not compromised. Additionally, all participants will be required to give either verbal or written consent after being informed of our study and will be reassured of their anonymity.





Data Type


Does the geographical layout of Savannah influence the types of tattoo demographics within each respective area?

relationship of geography to the types of tattoos and types of people getting tattooed in each respective area

to see how geography and demographics inform social perceptions and choices of selfexpression

qualitative and quantitative

1. Downtown 2. Midtown interviews, observation, shop owners and tattoo initial project to photographs, 3. Ogelthorpe Mall Area surveys artists be completed recorder, video first

Are there patterns between perceptions about tattoo culture and meaning within the community versus outside the community (per respective geographic area)?

compare positive and negative perceptions of the tattooed community from both inside and outside individuals

to identify discrepancies between qualitative the perceptions of those inside the community versus those outside

Downtown vs Midtown vs Ogelthorpe Mall



How does the psychology of tattoos relate to social branding, personal identity, and self-expression?

discover reasons behind why people get tattoos

to grasp the underlying purpose of choosing to use tattoos as nonverbal means of self expression

tattoo parlors, SCAD campus, around town

interviews, video, drawing

tattoo artists and course long individuals interviewed

recorder, camera, paper/pens

How have historical trends of tattooing manifested themselves with the city of Savannah?

to apply the timeline of tattooing and its historical implications to the evolution of tattoo culture in Savannah

in order to understand the current quantitative and state of tattoo culture in qualitative Savannah, we must understand its history and development both locally and within a larger context

secondary research sources and tattoo parlors

internet, library, tattoo artist interviews

scholarly articles and tattoo artists

initial stages

articles, internet, computer

How do gatekeepers within a variety of business types either inhibit or promote the tattoo culture within the workplace?

to distinguish level of acceptance of tattoo culture within various professions

quantitative to identify real-world consequences of using tattoos as a form of expression which will help identify ways in which we can improve or change negative perceptions uncovered by the study

via phone or business visits

phone call or in-person industry research in interview (e.g: "do you Savannah ask employees to cover tattoos at work?")


pen and paper


Research Methods

Access/ Gatekeepers Timeline

course long


photographs, recorder







• complete ideation of topics (10 total) • narrow down concepts and conduct initial research (3-5 total) • final topic selection (with partner)

• complete project matrix • complete design brief • gain approval of initial participants (tattoo shop owners & artists) • initial research and preliminary survey of prospective participants (general population) o specific activities will include graphic surveys, public tattoo pin-up boards around Savannah • continuation of extensive contextual and secondary research • initial analysis and synthesis of findings

• iterative research o discovery and focus of primary participants (tattoo shop owners & artists) o discovery and focus of primary participants (community and non-community members) • analysis and synthesis of data collected • collation of materials and finalization of report

Part 2: Fieldwork


Research Encounters


WHAT DID AND DID NOT WORK The in-person interviews with the tattoo artists was the most successful part of our project because of the variety of backgrounds and experience level they had. Some artists had been in the business for 20+ years, while others had only been tattooing for one year. They each had different apprenticeships, styles of tattooing, likes and dislikes, and perceptions about the community, their clients, and the direction that it is moving due to trends, outside perceptions, and media presence. Our original cultural probe was, at first, the most unsuccessful part of our project and we ended up deviating from our initial plan once it became apparent that the data was not useful to us. Our first cultural probe was to have people draw a sketch of their tattoo while describing its back story, their thoughts on the tattoo community, and tattoos in general today. However, most people less interested in providing such deep information to us (as random strangers), yet were still very interested in participating in the overall project. We ended up restructuring our cultural probe so that participants could interact with the project at a personal level of their own volition. This proved to be very successful - some people were happy to simply tell us where their tattoo was on their body and what it was, and others let us interview them more deeply on the street and/or via e-mail. So we were able to collect both raw numerical data as well as deeper rooted, contextual data simultaneously.

Observations Field Sites


The preliminary data was collected via interviews at shops both downtown and in midtown Savannah. These interviews were conducted with tattoo artists, shop owners, and clients who were in the shops at the time we interviewed. Some clients allowed us to participate and document their experience, while others simply answered questions and conversed casually with us about the topic in general.

TATTOO PARLORS Our initial research was conducted at tattoo parlors around the Savannah area. We came to the shops without contacting them prior or setting up formal interviews in order to maintain a level of casualness with the artists. For the most part, the artists and shop owners were enthusiastic to meet with us and at least one artist was available to speak with us at each location.

Observations Field Sites


Our second set of hard data came from our cultural probe and visual surveys. We printed full-size outlines of the human body and stood at major locations in downtown, around Forsyth Park, and at Gulfstream. The experience at each location was very different as our interaction level with participants varied.

SCAD FACILITIES At SCAD, our cultural probe worked very differently since we were not always physically present at the boards to talk to participants. That being said, over two hundred people posted on our boards at their own free will. We left both a blue, pink, and black pen in order to designate what gender the participant was, and a short set of directions on what to do. We constantly checked the boards throughout the day and noticed that at any given time, chances were that people would pin to the board as soon as they noticed it. When we were present with the boards, people willingly spoke with us about the project and gave us their perceptions and insights.

Observations Field Sites


BROUGHTON & THE PARK As people passed by our boards while we stood on Broughton and at the Park, we asked them if they had any tattoos. We had a sketched a diagram of potential outcomes the probe could flow through, and used the sketch to ask participants relevant questions. This allowed us to not only collect numerical data, but gather quotes, thoughts, and perceptions from participants both in and outside the tattooed community.

Interviews Basic to In-Depth


We started each interview with general questions about the interviewees background and experience. As the interview continued, we honed in on specific ideological questions that we felt the interviewee hinted at, or seemed passionate about.

BASIC QUESTION RESPONSES “I did yeah, I have a painting degree from USC in South Carolina.”

-Zack Spurlock, Anonymous Tattoo

“I started tattooing right when right I finished college, and that was in 2001.”

-Zack Spurlock, Anonymous Tattoo

“No no. I opened this in 2009. So I guess I started tattooing around 2004 as an apprentice at California Tattoo.”

-James Lemons, Stranded Tattoo

“No no, I went to school for computer aided design and exploded mechanical engineering.”

-James Lemons, Stranded Tattoo

IN-DEPTH QUESTION RESPONSES “But it was really really secretive. You didn’t tell anyone anything. You kept your mouth shut. You didn’t put anything on your feed or your profile or your website which you didn’t have! It was super super tight-lipped. And that is one of things that really had supreme allure to me. Cus the first time I...cus when you see it disappear it kind of loses some of the flavor but I mean things will go wherever they go.” -Zack Spurlock, Anonymous Tattoo “But the real reason we try to rework people’s ideas when they walk in is to try to attach some type of personal identity or personal memory or something specific and positive to their image. I mean, you have to carry this for the rest of your life. If you’re getting tattooed by someone and it’s a gorgeous tattoo but the guy’s an asshole while he’s tattooing you, that’s always going to be part of your story. So it’s really finding something that has a tie to that person you’re tattooing, someone’s actual identity, not just something based off pop culture or hot trends. Those tattoos are great, they can look really good, and be exceptionally executed, but can have nothing to do with you 10 years from now.” -James Lemons, Stranded Tattoo

Interviews Controlled to Organic


We allowed the participants to have control. Because of the nature of the communities attitude, we wanted to make sure that deeper sentiments were expressed fully to us. We tailored our questions to allow participants to speak very freely. So while the first 25% of the interview was mostly probing questions asked by us as researchers, the remainder was guided solely by the participants who instigated and directed the body of the interview.



Q: Just to start, a few background questions, when did you start tattooing?

Q: That’s interesting. Can you tell me more about the shows?

A: I started tattooing right when right I finished college, and that was in 2001.

A: Those shows are a joke.

Q: Okay so you’ve been at this for a while. A: A little bit, yeah. Q: Did you have a lot of tattoos before you got into the art of it? A: I did, yeah. That’s how I think I got into it. The guy who apprenticed me just sort of saw that I was super into it already and had a ton of tattoos and that was kind of my foot in the door. -Zack Spurlock, Anonymous Tattoo

Q: (laughs) That’s the response we’re getting. A: In the same sentence though, if I got to be on the show, and win $100,000 and have everybody know who I am and be booked out for the next two years, I’ll drop whatever kind of standards I’ve got and do it. There’s no reason not to get paid. Q: Yeah that’s an interesting thing to think about... the monetary part of it. A: Yeah. It’s easy for us to say all that shit while we’re not on the show but if we could get famous and get that kind of money, why wouldn’t we? -Cory, The Butcher

Interviews Conversational


We kept the interviews very casual. The attitudes of our participants was very casual across the board. After asking basic questions upfront, the rest of the interview remained conversationalist by nature and we used our list of questions only as guidelines to ensure that the details we were give covered the major points of our study. We even interviewed some artists during their smoke break before tattooing a client. This way, our interviews kept pace with their daily activities.

“Right, right. So you know you didn’t what ink to buy, what machines to buy. So I got a little bit of this secretive thing, which I still like, but the first time I asked for an apprenticeship I said, “Will you teach me how to tattoo?” and the guy looked me in the face and said ‘Fuck off.’” (laughs)

-Zack Spurlock, Anonymous Tattoo

“Yeah it’s totally open now, like cat’s out of the bag (laughs). But I’m not gonna sail it down the river. I’ll keep the aspect that I learned in my apprenticeship and I’ll still be nice to customers without being rude if they ask…” -Zack Spurlock, Anonymous Tattoo

“ I mean, tattoos are badass! You can take your earrings out but you can’t take your tattoos off. But, for me, when I started getting tattoos I was attracted to it at a really early age. I did a stick and poke tattoo on myself when I was like 13. Which got covered up eons ago.” -James Lemons, Stranded Tattoo

“One thing that is very important about tattooing is that we are going to smoke a cigarette before we get started.” -Cory, The Butcher

Sample Profiles of Interview Participants


We came with several lists of questions, broken down by topic and grouped depending on the interview was directed towards. In some cases we were interviewing multiple artists at the same time, artists and clients simultaneous, and other times one artist or one client at a time. It is important to maintain the anonymity of the participants with whom we conducted personal interviews with, so first names will be used for community members we interviewed, and artist interviews will be grouped by parlor. Anonymous Tattoo (Zack): Artist has a painting degree from University of South Carolina. Has been tattooing for eleven years total, at Anonymous Tattoo for approximately two years. Through the participation section of our project, we got to know Zack more extensively than some of our other participants. He is very open-minded when it comes to social issues, and showed a lot of interested in the deeper sides of our report. Zack takes a lot of pride in the way he began tattooing, his professional development, and carries memories of his experience through his extensive collection of tattoo machines.

Zack Spurlock, Anonymous Tattoo

Sample Profiles of Interview Participants


The Butcher (Cory, Pat): Artist One has been tattooing for twenty+ years and is a partial owner of The Butcher. His preference is to do neo-traditional and neo-american style tattoos. Artist Two did not specify the length of time he has been tattooing, but has done most of his tattooing at The Butcher. He also trained Artist Three. Artist three is the newest tattooist at The Butcher. He has been working at the shop for one and a half years but was an apprentice at California tattoo in Southside prior to working at the Butcher under Artist Two.

Kevin & Pat, The Butcher

Cory, The Butcher

Sample Profiles of Interview Participants


Black Orchid (Front Desk): The shop is also an art gallery space and is affiliated with other local artists and business. They have a lot of media presence and will be interviewed by MTV in the near future. Due to the business of the shop the time we approached it, we were unable to find time to reschedule meetings with the artists. The woman at the front desk (also one of the owners) was persistent with getting in touch via e-mail, but was unable to commit times for the artists.

Gatekeeper not pictured, Black Orchid

Sample Profiles of Interview Participants


Stranded Tattoo Studio (James, Kenny): Artist does not have a background or degree in art. His past experience is in engineering and he got started in tattooing late at the age of 30. He has been tattooing for eleven years and has owned Stranded Tattoo since 2009. He’s attitude is positive and upbeat, and he enjoys the connections he makes with clients and finds it important to become part of their tattoo story.

Artists not pictured, Stranded Tattoo Studio

Sample Profiles of Interview Participants


Ghost Town Tattoo (Front Desk): The shop has been in Savannah for several years but recently came under new ownership a year ago. The man at the front desk was not a tattoo artist himself, but knew a lot about the history and development of tattoos in America. He grew up surrounded by tattooed people and lived out west in California where he discovered a different aesthetic style. He did his first stick and poke tattoo on himself at fourteen.

Various artists, Ghost Town Tattoo

Sample Profiles of Interview Participants


Savannah Ink (Peter, Ben): Ben Kelly has been working at Savannah Ink for several years. He likes realist style tattoos and is influenced by pseudo-realism, and mechanical style tattoos. He also will be leaving Savannah Ink to open his own shop called Red Ocean Tattoo in Savannah. Artist Two is the owner of Savannah Ink and has been tattooing for over twenty years. He began tattooing in Germany and is initially self taught. Through many years of experience he has no preference in the style of tattoos he likes to do, but has a very well rounded portfolio.

Artists not pictured, Savannah Ink

Sample Profiles of Interview Participants


Gulfstream Center for Design (Chelsea): Chelsea is a Masters student in Industrial Design at SCAD. She participated in the cultural probe section of our research methods and wrote her e-mail on the board for further contact. Gulfstream Center for Design (Dylan): A SCAD student in Design Management and Industrial Design, Dylan was very enthusiastic about his participation in our study. Growing up around tattoos, Dylan is not a newbie when it comes to the art of body ink. His father and grandfather were both military, and expressed their brotherhood through their tattoos. Similarly, his father had many friends who rode motorcycles, so his first tattoo at 18 was not surprising.

Dylan, Gulfstream Center for Design

Field Guides Forms, Checklists, Protocols, Scripts, & Questionnaires INTERVIEW QUESTIONS by user group

INTERACTIVE SURVEY unique method CONSENT FORM (gained all verbal consent)


Surroundings Anonymous Tattoo 9 E Bay St, Savannah, GA 31401


A curved stairwell sweeps up from the entrance door on Bay street and into a loft space that used to be an apartment. High ceilings, transoms and tall exterior windows let in lots of natural light to the shops open floor plan. Flash tattoos drawn by the tattoo artists are framed on all the walls, and each tattooists personal artwork is displayed in their designated area. The artists talk to one another and their clients from across the shop, and rock music plays a soundtrack that fits the overall vibe of the parlor.

Surroundings The Butcher 19 E Bay St, Savannah, GA 31401


The front waiting area and art gallery at the Butcher is visible from the sidewalk on Bay Street. The front desk displays cards and fliers for other businesses and people affiliated with the shop. A short hardwood floor hallway leads to two tattooing rooms shared by the four artists, as well as the office, which houses working desks and light tables.

Surroundings Ghost Town Tattoo 35 Montgomery St, Savannah, GA 31401


Located at the heart of City Market, Ghost Town Tattoo has loud signage on the street and is very noticeable from major intersections. The shop is small and shows lots of flash tattoos on the walls with an extensive library of book about tattoo history and style typologies. The artist’s work in close quarters and seem constantly busy as a handful of people came in and out of the shop while rang constantly with people booking appointments.

Surroundings Savannah Ink 119 Jefferson St, Savannah, GA 31401


Savannah Ink is located just off of Broughton Street close to Martin Luther King Boulevard. The shop feels very homey and has a lot of Buddhist sculptures and watercolor paintings in the waiting area. There is no front desk, but the shop’s floor plan caters well to this. The central artery is flanked by three rooms for each tattoo artists to practice in. Each artist has their own personal artwork displayed on the walls of their stations.

Surroundings Stranded Tattoo 131 Drayton St, Savannah, GA 31401


Stranded has a level of opulence to it. Romantic, baroque, sofas are immediately visible when you enter the shop as are the only two tattoo beds at the opposite end from the waiting area. Trinkets and artifacts from Star Wars, Pez, and world travels are spread across the shop in glass cases, and personal artwork is framed across the walls. The shop has an expensive quality to it, but the energy is very friendly and welcoming.

Surroundings Gulfstream 3116 Montgomery St, Savannah, GA 31405


Gulfstream is an industrial building that is constantly filled with movement, voices, and the sounds of machines buzzing. Students are running in and out rushing up and down the main artery of the building. There are student projects sprinkled throughout the building ranging from lighting designs, car and scooter mock-ups, and furniture.

Surroundings Broughton Street & Downtown


The ambiance at Broughton Street & Forsyth park was upbeat and moderately paced. People were on their lunch breaks, touring with a beer in their hand, shopping, or exercising. It was sunny outside and everyone seemed to be enjoying the weather, casual conversation, and relaxing regardless of the activity they were doing.

obtained from

Working Wall





Analysis Documents MODELS After initial research had been conducted, we began to organize the information into various model types. These models helped us develop an comprehensive structure to the data received and formulate insights based on connects we had uncovered. The analog stages of the model were especially helpful in the development process of data organization as we were able to constantly switch information between categories to question discoveries as they were made.


Ecosystem Digital



Group 3 | Tattoo Culture: Beyond Skin Deep Stephen White & Gabi Campagna




positive perception
















negative perception



tattoos MASS MEDIA






product posession






STYLES Military Bio-mechanical Religious/Cultural Watercolor Tribal New Age Traditional Neo-American Realism

LOCATION ON BODY Upper/Low Back Calves/Shins Ankle Thighs Hands Fingers Feet Bicep Tricep Forearm Face Butt Shoulders

Era Analysis Digital

The first professional tattoo artist, Martin Hildebrandt, recorded in Boston, MA. He mainly tattooed American Civil war soldiers.

6000 BC

(Neolithic Times)

1775 - 1783


The first version of the tattoo machine is developed by Samuel O’Reilly.


(Post American Revolution)

Tattoos were used to identify seamen who were traveling in and out of border controls after the American Revolution however, tattoos were not otherwise popular.

Tattooing and tattoo culture has been globally present from thousands of years. The technology, methods, meanings and perceptions have changed over time due to a variety of influences and development both inside and outside the culture.

1940 - 1945 (Holocaust)

(Class & Status)

1876 Oldest tattoo on human skin on the upper lip of a Chinchorro culture mummy from South America.

Tattoos become more mainstream, especially in fashion and music, and are seen more prominent in both sexes, all socio-economic classes, and multiple age groups.

Tattoos marked wealth and economic status in Europe. Tattoos were both expensive and painful. Only wealthy members of society were seen with them.


(Tattoo Renaissance)

1890 1900 Tattoos were used as a prisoner identification system in concentration camps during the Holocaust, especially at Auschwitz.

The tattoo renaissance begins! Lyle Tuttle, Cliff Raven, Don Ed Hardy and others lead tattooing to a new level of recognition.


1980 2000s


(Pop Culture) (Media)

Janis Joplin gets two tattoos, a wristlet and a heart, by Lyle Tuttle. This is a major movement via a celebrity change agent. Tattoos are viewed as normal as opposed to deviant.



???? Mattel releases Tattoo Barbie.

The “Freaks & Flash” exhibit debut’s in Chicago. The exhibit featured artwork from the heyday of tattooing.

Tattooing begins to appear prominently in media. Shows like “Inked”, “LA Ink”, and “Miami” ink boost celebrity artists and trends in tattooing.

Mind Map Digital

44 Client Wants


Group 3 | Tattoo Culture: Beyond Skin Deep Stephen White Sanitization






Bone & Feather

Personal History

Finding Yourself

Formal Training


Artistic Background







Health & Code


Instagram Pinterest

Icons Change Agents




LA Ink

Print Radio





Ink Master




Miami Ink

Personal Style

Type of Tattoo


TV Shows




Ink Mag

Negative Addiction



1 or 2


Neo-Traditional & American

Technology Traditions International

Ancient Cultures Culture Secrecy


Flash Entertainment

Fashion Pop-Culture


Stencil Stamp

Doesn’t make/define a person


Tattooed People


Distinct Style




Tattoo Mag




Military Navy




Tattoo Machine

Stick & Poke


Client Wants



Always improving


Client Relationships

Artists Style

Business Practices




Location Artistic Watercolor Realism Work of Art

Europe Asia



Savannah Age


User Persona Analog


INSIGHTS 1. Although no two users are exactly alike, users can be grouped based not only on their individual characteristics, but on their relationships with other users. Comparison is key. 2. User groups help design managers properly communicate to their target market by understanding that every target market is heterogeneous to a degree. 3. The users make the community. The design manager cannot fully understand a community without analyzing those that make up the base.

User Persona Digital

User Personas Relation to Community User Goals Within the Community User Actions & Activities in Community User Quotes & Anecdotes Connections to Other Users





Tattoo Artists

Tattoo Community

Non-Tattoo Community


Local Businesses

direct integral necessary fundamental gatekeepers

necessary mass visual agents receivers advocacy

outsiders perception positive negative control group

professionalism promoters forbiders determinants

make money improve craft artistic expression ultimate user recognition

visual identity community acceptance differentiation personal history sentimental

fan against community potential member

deterrent second party external force

consulting business machine operators creators physical application

peer-to-peer customer base visual seekers payers promoters

enable disable third party judge none

blocking agent cultural threat

“We require employees to cover their tattoos at work.”

“I’m just here now for the love of what I’m doing.”

“If you don’t have a tattoo in 2015 you’re weird!”

“Never! I like people the way they were born!”

Tattoo parlors are a local business

Tattoo community members need tattoo artists to provide a service

Non-tattoo members have the potential to join the tattoo community

Businesses either discourage or promote tattoo members

Journey Map Analog


INSIGHTS 1. Users are often not static within their respective communities. The movement of the user through the community is crucial to its stability, characteristics, and makeup. 2. Understanding how the user moves through the community highlights their relationships with other community members. The user interacts with community leaders, experts, and outsiders. 3. The user journey goes hand in hand with the user persona. Each user has a role and an interaction in the community to facilitate interactions and growth.

Journey Map Digital


Journey Map: Tattoo “User� Pre-Engagement

Decision Steps


users (tattoo receivers) members of peer-to-peer network tattoo artists




Positioning Map Analog


INSIGHTS 1. Although it is hard to place complex entities into distinct categories, it is easier to compare them to one another. This is useful for a variety of comparisons when the entities are multi-faceted. 2. Comparing several components of a community helps to form visual patterns and mappings that can bring about results in the same way that mathematical graphs do. 3. Positioning can help groups locate sources for possible change and improvement within the community based on its comparison to other groups.

Positioning Map Digital


Tattoo Culture Positioning Map CUSTOM



Stranded Tattoo Anonymous Tattoo Savannah Ink The Butcher California Tattoo Southside Custom Tattoo


Ghost Town Tattoo Resurrection Ink

Affinity Map I Analog


Affinity Map II Analog

INSIGHTS 1. Many common themes are expressed across different layers such as personal memories, importance of values and beliefs, and religion. These themes are some of the major drivers behind why people get tattoos. 2. Trends hold both positive and negative connotations. Sometimes trends push the level and types of tattoos that artists are capable, other times they are viewed as putting unrealistic expectations on artists, opportunities for copyright infringement, and less personal, less unique, and less meaningful methods of self-expression. 3. In 2015 positive perceptions of tattooing outweighs the negative perceptions. Tattoos are recognized by people of all ages and gender, and those motifs cross multiple, dominant themes in the culture.


Affinity Map Digital



degree of involvement with community




Traditional/Neo-Traditional Distinct Style Popular/Common

Detailed Linework



Distinct Style Iconography Realism Quotes


Works of Art Photo Realism Reproduction Expensive



Musical Influences

Positive Values Beliefs

Sadness Death Important Day Lessons Learned Childhood




Self Identity


Parents have one Relationships Grandparents have one Sibling Bonding Wedding




Holocaust Purity

HISTORY Technology Military

Body Identification Sailors Traditional/Neo-Traditional Distinct Style Popular/Common



Celebrity Change Agents Circus/Sideshow Biker Gangs Music Community

Self Promotion Logo Fitting in Music Fashion Personal Style


Parents don’t allow Family doesn’t approve Disowned


Creative Industry Tattoo Artist Easily Covered Permitted by Employer

Location on body

Expensive Free/Poor Quality $1.65B Industry


Not worth it Time Consuming

Painful Drug Use Alcohol Use


Beards Covered in tattoos Some Tattoos Sleeve 1 or 2 Bad ass


Change in values Cover Ups Commitment Regret


Growing in popularity Weird if you don’t have one in 2015 More about quality More sophisticated art pieces


Know who they are Don’t care about what people think Job doesn’t matter


Not Allowed Hidden vs. Obvious


Hippies Musicians Festivals Religion Gangs Military

Jail Murder Gangs


Trashy “Tramp Stamp” Common

Bone & Feather Stick & Poke Tattoo Machine Flash


Tramp Stamp Defy Society Rule breakers Anarchists



Too old Too young


Older Age More popular now Trends Wrinkles/Sag Used to be secretive

“Home” Memories Geography Adventure

Religion Quotes Art/Creativity


Defy Authority Defy Society Rule breakers Anarchists

Bands Musical Abilities Lyrics Love of Music


New Age Popular w/ Clients Misconception of Cost Time Consuming Unpopular w/ Artists

Internet Facebook Instagram Twitter Radio Websites TV Shows



Group 3 | Tattoo Culture: Beyond Skin Deep Stephen White

Low Back


Hidden vs. Obvious Wrist Sleeve Half Sleeve


Easy to Hide Very Painful Path Followed


Core Value Easy to Hide Not Painful Popular Location


Can’t be hidden Text/Words Not all Shops Tattoo


Popular Location Easy to Hide Not Painful

Synthesis Documents



I N S IG HT 1 13aa

Regulate the presentation and perception of tattoo culture in social media and television media. There is an opportunity to...

Properly convey the rigor of the tattoo industry. Educate and inform the general public about tattoo culture. Discourage stereotypes within the tattoo industry. Highlight the high level of skill and ability of tattoo artists.

How might we....

Convince television and media outlets to portray the industry honestly. Eliminate inauthentic and copy-written tattoo artwork. Communicate the actual amount of time it takes to do tattoo artwork (often manipulated by TV shows). Discourage tattoo community from copying tattoo work they see in the media (encourage a personal connection).


media is mainly concerned with profitability power of mass exposure manipulation of the culture


Design Scenario 1:

Social media and mass media channels have the ability to exponentially increase exposure on a topic. However, it is important to maintain some control over this tool. All designers need to be sure that their work is being displayed properly and honestly through the media.

Design Scenario 2:

The prevalance of the Internet has led to copywrite issues in all fields, especially in the creative and visual fields. Users are able to copy or manipulate the work of another artist without giving proper credit or compensation.

Design Scenario 3:

Social media is a great way for an artist or designer to get their work out to the general public and create a brand. Utilizing this tool properly is the key to media success as it relates to creative fields.

“Those shows are a joke...In the same sentence though, if I got to be on the show, and win $100,000 and have everybody know who I am and be booked out for the next two years, I’ll drop whatever kind of standards I’ve got and do it. There’s no reason not to get paid.”

-The Butcher

“There’s a duality involved with that. Because it does give people a lot more exposure to good artwork and they understand the capabilities of what they can get more so than just the stamp and stencil kinda stuff people typically walk-in for. So the dual edge really comes in and that is gonna be the responsibility of the tattoo community on the professional side to say, ‘Hey, I’m not gonna copy that guy’s artwork. I can draw something for you that’s got same style, or same elements, but do something that’s still one-off’ and the duality of that is that you have a lot of unscrupulous people in the industry that have no problem copying someone else’s original artwork. So I think it [social media/internet] is a good and a bad thing.” -Stranded Tattoo


I N S IG HT 2 26aa

Enforce the continuation of high-quality and safe tattooing practices to ensure the welfare of clients. There is an opportunity to...

Keep tattoo clients safe from harm as they seek out a personal means of expression. Perpetuate a high level of professionalism and safety within the practice of tattooing. Discourage any unsafe or improper practices. Position health and safety as top priorities for any type of body manipulation.

How might we....

Reward those who utilize safe tattooing methods. Penalize those who put their clients at risk. Bring awareness to those interested in getting a tattoo so that they know the proper questions to ask. Convey that tattooing is body manipulation and must involve safety constraints.

Considerations safety before all else

proper information must be made easily accessible


Design Scenario 1:

Any design practice requires ethics and professionalism. From the methods of manufacturing to the ingredients used in the creation of products, the safety and well-being of the consumer should always remain a top priority.

Design Scenario 2:

Properly educating the consumer is primarily the role of those creating products and services. Providing accessible information, warnings, and directions keep the consumer from adopting harmful practices.

Design Scenario 3:

Although investing in safe procedures can incur both time and cost, it will pay off in the long run through customer satisfaction, safety, and loyalty. Additionally, it will preserve the validity of the design practice involved.

“Do not start tattooing at home--that’s an automatic red flag to anybody you may be potentially applying for cus the respect for the industry is very, very high on the list of priorities when you’re trying to get a job.”

-Stranded Tattoo


I N S IG HT 3 3a

Prestige of tattooing as a profession and technical craft. There is an opportunity... show that trends in tattoos function the same way that trends in other creative industries do. They reflect consumer driven change through wants and needs. prove that tattoos are becoming significant “works of art”, displaying equal levels of sophistication and skill as other creatives in similar industries. Many shops are opening collaborative art galleries to let other artists explore the craft too. use trends in tattoos (watercolor, detailed religious iconography, and bio-mechanical, etc ) to track the popularity of significant values and meaning of tattooed people through expression and interpretation of art.

How might we...

...find ways to equate tattooing as a profession to other creative industries such as fashion design, painting, sculpture, illustration, and the like? the ideas between meaningful, tasteful religious and cultural tattoos and their relationship to religion, history, etc through collaboration with other artistic venues such as galleries, museums, etc? ...track trends in tattooing as a self-expression tactic to promote positive values across other related communities and industries? “I don’t practice Hinduism. I’m not even religious. But the meaning behind some religious symbolism feels incredibly powerful to me. Religion can still house beautiful imagery and meaning to people without them following it.”

3b Design Scenario 1: Designers must collaborate with other creative industries to promote all artistic expression as equal careers and businesses within the professional world.

Design Scenario 2:

Designers should research how trends often start in one creative industry, and are picked up and reflected across other creative industries due to their impact on one another.

Design Scenario 3:

Design managers should look at self-expression of an individuals core beliefs as method to accelerate the spread of common values across a community. These positive messages are reinforced through visible, open forms of communication across all artistic fields.


I N S IG HT 4 4a

Influence and repetition of the history of tattoo culture and meaning.

There is an opportunity... look towards the history of tattoo culture to eliminate previous connotations of tattooing as related to jail-time, gangs, and anarchism. This also means looking at the practice of tattoos as no longer being cheaply done in dark alleys because today “good tattoos are not cheap and cheap tattoos are not good.” promote healthy practices of tattooing through obviating the display of health code documents in shops, and promoting training courses to artists and apprentices through incentives. stress the importance of practicing and receiving tattoos under rigid protocol by treating tattooing as other medical industrials which use invasive procedures, dangerous tools, hypodermic needles, and mindful practices of germs, disease, and sterility.

How might we...

...use the meaning of tattoos during prior historical moments in tattoo culture to re-frame the way people view tattoos and their relationship to status and health today? ...look at the trends in the history of tattoo technologies to promote the need of healthy, sterile, tattoos done in accordance with health codes, proper technique, and higher skill level? incentive programs to encourage the promotion of educated practices on health codes, health practices, sterility, and the like within the tattoo shop environments?

“If you don’t have a tattoo in 2015, you’re kind of weird.” “I have a skunk tattoo from 1952. It’s probably older than you are and I was drunk when I got it. That’s just how things were back then!”

4b Design Scenario 1:

History will forever be a driver in the artistic community as a whole. It is imperative for designers to look towards history to predict trends, anticipate negative reactions, and improve our capabilities to ensure safe, healthy, practices to be followed by professionals and the public alike.

Design Scenario 2:

Designers should express the importance of accountability in the protection of the client, non-disclosure, and legalities as well as the way in which these differ from project to project.

Design Scenario 3:

Designer managers should promote consistency in practices and protocol across all their projects to ensure each project and client is receiving the same recognition in practice and equality of attention.


I N S IG HT 5 52aa

Preserve the traditionalism of the tattoo culture master/apprentice relationship.


Design Scenario 1:

All professional and craftsman degrees require a specified sequence of training and knowledge acquisition. Not only does this ensure a high quality of output, but it also enforces professionalism and respect for the industry itself.

Design Scenario 2:

There is an opportunity to...

Continue the respect and proper training for new tattoo artists entering the field. Maintain a level of traditionalism and established hierarchy within the community. Enforce professionalism and proper training. Elevate the level of skill and quality of craftsmanship in the tattoo industry.

How might we....

Educate those interested in tattooing about the proper methods of acquiring tattoo knowledge. Help tattoo mentors continue the proper methods of teaching in a master/apprentice relationship. Inform the general public about the intensity and rigor of becoming a tattoo artist. Disuade those who are disingenuous and unqualified.


lack of understanding due to cultural secrecy resistance within the community lack of professionalism among Millennials in general

Professionalism needs to be in place on both the part of the industry and those looking to enter the industry. All potential designers and artists should provide a proper portfolio, resume, and awareness of the industry in which they are seeking to work.

Design Scenario 3:

Several industries maintain a high level of secrecy and prevalence for initiation-style hiring. This can make it difficult for outsiders to become part of the inner circle. All industries should offer credible and accessible information to potential hires in order to recruit the best talent available.

“But it was really really secretive. You didn’t tell anyone anything. You kept your mouth shut. You didn’t put anything on your feed or your profile or your website which you didn’t have! It was super super tight-lipped. And that is one of things that really had supreme allure to me.” -Anonymous Tattoo

“Yeah. I was illustration at SCAD. And I worked at one shop and asked everyone to apprentice me. No one wanted to do it. Went to another shop, no one wanted to apprentice me, no one would.” -The Butcher

“Well yeah, one of the biggest pet peeves now...I don’t know, I’m kinda old school. When I went out and looked for a job, I went out and went for a job...had a resume ready and things like that. People walk in now and they’re like “are you guys hiring” and they have no resume.” -Stranded Tattoo


I N S IG HT 6 61aa

Encourage an involved and advisory relationship between tattoo artist and tattoo client.


Design Scenario 1:

Designers need to properly engage with their potential consumers, regardless of industry type. The facilitation of a relationship between producer and consumer will lead to brand loyalty and the creation of products and services that best meet the needs of consumers.

Design Scenario 2:

There is an opportunity to...

Create a meaningful and purposeful relationship during the tattoo process. Facilitate the creation of tattoos that have actual relevance to the individual client. Add a layer of experience to the aesthetic process of tattooing. Maintain lasting bonds between the artist user group and the client user group in order to strengthen the culture.

How might we....

Convince tattoo artists to be involved in their clients’ experience. Convince tattoo clients to consult with their artist. Encourage an exchange between artist and client beyond monetary exchange.


attitude of “right to not service”

client hesitation/lack of trust artists’ lack of incentive

There is often resistance on both the side of the designer and side of the consumer to trust one another. In order for trust to take place, commonalities must be found. This can take place through interviews and focus groups conducted through design research.

Design Scenario 3:

Designers and service providers often play the role of consultants. When hired by clients, they must guide their clients in the right direction in order to achieve a desired result.

“So finding out some of their story, finding out where the actual idea of the tattoo comes from, that way you can illustrate it in such a way that they dynamic fits the mood they are trying to convey with the piece.” -Stranded Tattoo

“I just try to go where the person wants to go.” -Anonymous Tattoo

“It’s like any consulting job. Someone’s gotta be the heart breaker cus sometimes you’re like ‘that’s a terrible idea!’” -Stranded Tattoo

Opportunity Map Opportunity: Legal Contract.

- a legal set of guidelines for TV shows about tattoo culture that require the proper portrayal of tattooing. - annotations about the actual time spent on a tattoo - copyright in fringement laws for all media, including social media. - penalization via legal fees




Social Media TV Media

Safe Practices



History and Pop Culture

History shows us the change in perceptions and popularity of tattoos Pop culture influences the normalcy of tattoos as a niche in artistic self expression.

Opportunity: Branding Kit

- a branding kit including an advertisement style project card - a link to a blog/website - a coffee table book to be sold at stores that both the tattoo community and non-tattoo community frequent

- a project card with a short information blurb - link to an informational website with video, blog, infographics, data - used to explain the diversity within that tattoo community - used to negate negative perceptions between tattoos and professionalism

Ensure safe, sterile practices at shops through positive recognition and incentives. Promote healthy methods of tattooing and safety in body modification.

Properly convey the tattoo industry. Educate and inform the general public about tattoo culture.


Opportunity: Project Card

Opportunity: Rating Decals

- A,B,C rating decals with a short blurb to be placed on street front windows - grades will be based on compliance with safety precautions - updated annually to ensure proper protocol

Master Apprentice Relationship

Enforce professionalism and proper training. Elevate the level of skill and quality of craftsmanship in the tattoo industry.

Opportunity: Career Mapping

- a map showing the path and time required for becoming a tattoo artist - proof of time necessary for training and the outline the duties during apprenticeship versus full-time tattooing - used to reduce the misperception and facilitate understanding

Support self-expression in the workplace. Reduce the perception that tattoos dictate a low level of professionalism, work ethic, or drive to succeed.


Changing Business Perception



Client Artist Relationship

Create a meaningful relationship during the tattoo process. Facilitate the creation of tattoos that have actual relevance to the individual client.

Opportunity: New Protocol

- promote a practice for tattoo customers and artists to sit and converse about the meaning and method prior to receiving the tattoo - ensure the best result for both client and artist - define the artist as both a facilitator and expert consultant



A : artists and shop owners TC : tattoo community B : business owners

Interview Question Examples • When did you start tattooing? (A) • What was the process like to become a tattoo artist? (A) • What is your personal aesthetic? (A) • How does tattooing in Savannah compare to tattooing in other locations? (A) • What do you see happening with the tattoo culture in the future? (A, TC) • What do you find appealing about tattoos? (TC) • Do you require employees to cover their tattoos in the workplace? (B) Field Guides for Observation • Observation needs to be active shadowing • We want to walk through a day in the life of tattoo artists and those receiving tattoos within the parlor space • Observation includes note-taking, photography, sketching, and asking questions (upon approval of those being observed) • Goal is to understand tattoo culture in a daily and practical sense by gaining insights about firsthand details rather than just an overhead view • Always have sketchpad, recorder, and camera during all observation sessions for recording data • Use same observation methods at different tattoo parlors in order to use ourselves as the constant and the individual parlors as the independent variables Field Guides for Participation • Participation will take place during an isolated event (Stephen will receive a tattoo during our research time-frame) • Purpose of participation is to re-insert oneself into a culture with pre-conceived notions removed • Secondary purpose is to gain rapport and trust with the artists and tat too community members • This act of participation will add physical, emotional, and tactile (the tattoo itself) layers to our research study

Design Tools for Cultural Probe • Since tattoos are an artistic form of expression, we want to mirror this artistry in respondents explanations of their tattoos • Through the use of drawing or descriptive words, we want those with tattoos who are being interviewed to portray their tattoo experience in a poetic and nontraditional way • Provide pen and paper for respondents • Do not give specific instructions; simply allow the respondent to express their tattoo experience with the paper and pen in the way they see most fitting

Works Cited


Cawley, L. People always say the same thing about tattoos - BBC News. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from Dadlez, E. (2015). Ink, Art and Expression: Philosophical Questions about Tattoos. Philosophy Compass, 739-753. Deter-Wolf, A., Robitaille, B., Krutak, L., & Galliot, S. (2015). The world’s oldest tattoos. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 19-24. Friedman, A. The Cook Myth: Common Tattoo History Debunked. (2014, April 5). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from Karim, D. (n.d.). Tattoo Psychology: Art or Self Destruction? Modern-Day Social Branding. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from Kelly, J. Why do people go back for more and more tattoos? - BBC News. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from Suzdaltsev, J. A Psychologist Explains Why People Get Bad Tattoos | VICE | United States. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from T. A. EDISON (1877). US196747 A. US Patent Office.

Profile for Gabriella Campagna

Tattoo Culture IDUS 711  

This process book is about the Tattoo Culture in Savannah, Georgia. Our study addressed both the historical and the experiential aspect of t...

Tattoo Culture IDUS 711  

This process book is about the Tattoo Culture in Savannah, Georgia. Our study addressed both the historical and the experiential aspect of t...