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JOBS Grade 8

The world of JOBS. Exploring a box full of surprises.

J obs Booklet No.

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www.jobsproject.ro Written in cooperation between the Ministry of National Education (MNE) Romania www.edu.ro and the Center for International Cooperation IPE at Zurich University of Teacher Education, Switzerland. www.phzh.ch/ipe Zurich, Bucharest, Brasov 2012

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JOBS - Booklet 3


Booklet 3 Grade 8

The world of JOBS Exploring a box full of surprises

Topic 1: What is work ?

Analysing and reflecting what “work” means

Task 1: Thinking about work and what it means to you Task 2: Different definitions of what work could be Task 3: What I know about professions Task 4: What I am told to do, what I like to do Task 5: Homework: What I do during a day in my week

Topic 2: What is your job like ?

Analysing and discussing different working conditions

Task 1: Getting an overview of all the jobs collected in class Task 2: Share your homework Task 3: Each job has its own character! Part I Task 4: Each job has its own character! Part II Task 5: Professional fields Task 6: Why do young people want to earn money ?

Topic 3: Earning money for our future

Discussing the term salary.

Task 1: The survey? Task 2: What would I use money for? Task 3: What is in a salary?

Topic 4: How expensive is life ?

Understanding and discussing standards of living.

Task 1: My bulletin board! Task 2: Income can differ highly! Task 3: Differences in income: how just are they? Task 4: How expensive is life?

Task 5: Reflection of Booklet 3

JOBS - Booklet 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work ? Analysing and reflecting what “work” means. Free time/leisure Leisure, or free time, is time spent away from business, work, and domestic things. It is also the period of time before or after necessary activities such as eating, sleeping and education.


Booklet 3 – Topic 1 - Task 1: Thinking about work and what it means to you

The task: X

25’

Work or spare time ? You think about your values and your experiences and you make decisions.

Classroom organisation: Individual work and pair work.

Procedure: 1 ) Read the introduction to the photos 2 ) Look at the photos and fill in the list: a. Give the picture an interesting title b. Decide for YOURSELF: Is it rather spare time or work on the scale 1 – 10 ( 10=max. )? c. Find nouns, verbs, adjectives that describe the activity. Think also about things you don’t see on the picture and still belong to it. d. Give your own comment ( experience, opinion, dangers, possibilities etc.  ). e. Show your result to your next neighbour in class. Find differences and similarities and find out why it is so.

Materials: - Booklet 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Practical hints Using pictures as a didactic element The suggested task uses includes pictures/photos as a medium of instruction. Different students learn in different ways. For the more visual learners in your classroom, the use of pictures to illustrate important concepts and lessons can be beneficial. Pictures can be more efficient than words, especially if you need to show how different concepts are related to one another. Apart from the suggested way there are several other ways that pictures can be used from a didactical point of view (  How to use pictures in the classroom, www.ehow.com ) : - Place pictures in a sequential order, such that they tell a story. This can be done with pictures hung on the wall or revealed as a lesson progresses. You also can line up pictures on a chalk tray to temporarily display several at once. - Project pictures using an overhead projector. This makes their presentation more dramatic and is likely to add momentum to classroom discussion. - Assign students to compile and present their own pictures or drawings that visually commu- nicate a lesson. Allow them to provide verbal commentary with each picture and to field questions about them from classmates. - Assign students to draw rough representations of each picture as it is presented. These dra- wings are not meant to showcase artistic skill but to demonstrate how each student perceived the picture. Note what students choose to include in their drawings and what they choose to leave out. - Display a picture of students ( or animals ) engaged in some sort of activity. Challenge students to imagine what happened immediately before the picture and what will happen immediately after the picture. - Assign students to draw pictures outlining important concepts. Reproducing key concepts in picture form helps students to remember those concepts.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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Introduction You know school life and you know your family life. Maybe you also know family as a part of work if your family runs a business or has got a farm. In your spare time you might have also experienced what it is like to work (helping out, babysitting, farm work etc.). A lot of young people in many countries have to work in order to support their families and to secure surviving. Already as children they are involved in economical processes and often have got little chances to receive good training and education. The pictures you choose shall help you to think about your own point of view: What do you see as spare time activity? When does serious work start?

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Picture 1

Work

My title:

1____2____3____4____5____6____7____8____9____10

Nouns

Verbs

Spare time

Adjectives

My comment:

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work ?

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Picture 2

Work

My title:

1____2____3____4____5____6____7____8____9____10

Nouns

Verbs

My comment:

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

Adjectives

Spare time


Picture 3

Work

My title:

1____2____3____4____5____6____7____8____9____10

Nouns

Verbs

Spare time

Adjectives

My comment:

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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Picture 4

Work

My title:

1____2____3____4____5____6____7____8____9____10

Nouns

Verbs

My comment:

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

Adjectives

Spare time


Picture 5

Work

My title:

1____2____3____4____5____6____7____8____9____10

Nouns

Verbs

Spare time

Adjectives

My comment:

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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Picture 6

Work

My title:

1____2____3____4____5____6____7____8____9____10

Nouns

Verbs

My comment:

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

Adjectives

Spare time


Booklet 3 – Topic 1 - Task 2: Different definitions of what work could be

X

The task: You define the term ‘work’ and you compare with others.

X

Classroom organisation: 15’

First you work alone, then in a group of four. Make sure that the seating arrangement fits your purpose.

Procedure:

1 ) You try to find a good definition of ‘work’. 2 ) You get together with 3 other classmates. You read it aloud to each other and you find a common definition by taking out the best parts from each other. 3 ) You present your definition to the class.

Materials: - Booklets 2 and 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Reminder Quality may differ: good or bad? Students solve tasks in different ways and therefore will receive different types of products on different quality levels. At first sight, this might be a bad thing as it makes grading and evaluating more complex and comparing results more difficult. At second sight, this shows you where your students are at in their life skills competence levels. So, you should view these visible products as a good thing and evaluate them using an individual/criteria-oriented benchmark. Especially for this task you will find very different types of products. Try to respect all levels of definitions that you get from the students. In case you feel that you have to make sure that especially weak students improve their language skills you might want to practice some form of differentiation by grouping them in mixed ability groups.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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My definition of ‘work’: ( Possible start of my definition: A work is, when…. Work means, that… Having a work means…)

Our group definition:

Members of my group:

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Booklet 3 – Topic 1 - Task 3: What I know about professions

The task: X X 40’

Do a brainstorming about everything you already know about different professions. In pair work you work on your interests again and find the ones that match the two of you.

Classroom organisation: Sit in pairs. Later on presenting in class.

Procedure: 1 ) In booklet 2 you have already worked about interests. On the following page you can see the fields of interests again. Take out booklet 2 again ( topic 1, task 2 ) and read carefully what you wrote down as your speficic interests and leave the open booklet next to you. 2 ) What could be small jobs you would like to do? 3 ) What does your classmate who you work with like to do ? Does it match your interests? 4 ) Draw small pictures for jobs that would match you and your classmate. 5 ) Prepare two activities in miming ( gestures ) to show to your colleagues. They have to guess the activities.

Materials: - Booklets 2 and 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Practical hints Using games as a didactic element The given task includes also a game at the end ( miming game ). Playing games in class does not only fulfil the function of having fun together but also contributes to a didactical concept. Games are usually a part of students‘ lives, no matter what their grade level is. Students play games throughout the day on their computers, the Internet, and their cell phones. One of the few places they don‘t regularly play games is in their classrooms. Although some teachers use games as a part of their instructional repertoire, most teachers do not, and those who do include them may not be using them to their potential. Games can contribute to an improvement of academic achievement in certain areas when applied in a wise way. Studies show that – on average – using academic games that are connected to the content of the lesson, can raise the students’ achievement up to 20 % in a subject. For the JOBS lesson games can help reinforce the content and the goals that the lessons wants to fulfil. The miming game suggested in this task reinforces the interests of the individual student as well as the ability to switch perspectives when presenting the interest of his/her colleague through miming. Make sure that you grant enough time at the end of the lesson for playing the miming game. Games can often become subject of being left behind or cut down because of not enough time left. This should not happen.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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Fields of interests ( repetition of booklet 2 )

1 Nature

2 Sports

3 Household, Cooking

4 Arts and Design 5 Decorating, Repairing, 6 Technical tinkering, Producing Experimenting

7 Buying, Selling, Collecting things

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8 Reading, Getting informed

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

9 Working with people


Find at least 3 activities for yourself and make small sketches of them. Fill in this table. Sketch of the activity I can do…

Because these are the competences I have…

Finish this sentence: Out of these activities I feel that __________________ matches most to me because…

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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Booklet 3 – Topic 1 - Task 4: What I am told to do, what I like to do

X

The task: You analyse your daily work and describe how you think about it.

Classroom organisation: You work individually.

25’

Procedure:

1 ) Stick a photo of yourself in the middle of the work sheet or draw yourself. Look at the toolbox at the tool nr. 8 “Mind maps“. 2 ) Around your picture you write down activities and tasks that others tell you to do and that you do voluntarily. 3 ) Indicate the difference by a different writing or different colour. Add sketches to the writing.

Materials: - Your notes - Goals of the yearly programme JOBS (  following pages ) - Template for a short presentation - Toolbox nr. 11 “Planning and giving presentations” - Toolbox nr. 8 “Mind maps“

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Reminder Creating an atmosphere of trust and respect Various tasks in the JOBS programme are closely related to the students’ individual person. Exposing oneself can be a delicate thing to do. Make sure you do not force the students to any actions that you yourself would not do. In order to reinforce this being-on-eye-levelness JOBS suggests using your person as the teacher as the model for different tasks every now and again (e.g. mindmap, model interview etc.). Therefore, it is a question of creating an atmosphere that makes this possible. Most of the tasks involve working with other colleagues. Students will need an atmosphere characterised by trust and respect in order to speak and work freely about their personal issues. It is your task as the teacher to create and promote this atmosphere by avoiding competitive structures among the students but facilitating co-operative behaviours.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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What family members, teachers etc. ask me to do: What I do without being told:

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Booklet 3 – Topic 1 - Task 5: What I do during a day in my week

X

The task: You try to write a protocol of one day in your ‘work’-week.

Classroom organisation: homework

Individual work.

Procedure: 1 ) 2 ) 3 ) 4 )

You choose a day you will analyse. Describe the work you do during this day. List them on the worksheet in the booklet. Write your comment ( You know by now: a comment is often a short reflection and it cannot be right or wrong. It gives you the place to think. ).

Materials: - Slips of paper ( keep it environmentally friendly and use the back of eg. old photocopies etc. )

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?


Reminder Watch diversity! Depending on the region, town or area your school is located in the population of students might be very heterogeneous. When tackling the different topics of JOBS and when talking about the different perspectives of the students’ individual futures it is important that you bear in mind their different backgrounds. Talking about individual talents, skills and interests will probably turn out differently in a class that consists of many students from low socio-economic backgrounds or ethnic minorities because of their limited experiences due to fewer past possibilities. For the suggested task this will be visible when the students come back with their homework. Make sure that when you comment on it or use it for your assessment of the students you bear this in mind!

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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Total hours:

My comments: ( I am surprised by the fact that.., I have learned about me, that… etc. )

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Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

Viewed as “spare time”

Viewed as “work”

Activity What?

Did it voluntarily

Time: from when till when ?

Did not like

Weekday and Date:

Liked very much

A day in my life.


Individual notes:

1 ) How much free time do you have in a week?

2 ) What are you doing during the free time?

3 ) How much time do you work in a week?

4 ) What is for you the difference between work and free time?

Booklet 3 - Topic 1: What is work?

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like ? Analysing and discussing different work conditions. Working conditions Working conditions refers to the working environment and aspects of an employee’s terms and conditions of employment. This covers such matters as: the organisation of work and work activities; training, skills and employability; health, safety and well-being; and working time and work-life balance.


Booklet 3 – Topic 2 - Task 1: Getting an overview of all the jobs collected in class

The task: X

You compare different definitions of work.

X

Classroom organisation:

15’

First in the last week’s group, then in a semi-circle in front of the blackboard (  with or without chairs ).

Procedure: 1 ) Write your groups definition of work (  last week’s task 2 ) on a slip of paper and put it up the blackboard next to the others or write it directly on the blackboard. 2 ) Read all the definitions and discuss in front of the blackboard the differences. a. Are there elements you find in many definitions ? Which ones? b. Do you find something that is only in one or few? c. What makes your own definition special? 3 ) Find in the dictionary the definition of “work”. 4 ) Compare your definition with the one from the dictionary.

Materials: - Slips of paper - Adhesive tape for the blackboard - Booklet 3 - Dictionary

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Practical hints Plenary discussions When leading a plenary discussion in front of the blackboard or in a circle of students there are different possibilities to do this, but also different risks of things that could go wrong. Possibilities: - The teacher leads the entire discussion, calls students, collects answers and compares results, groups word cards etc. - The teacher delegates a part of the discussion/moderation to students who take over the role for certain aspects. In the suggested task this could be: joint elements in all definitions, isolated elements only in a few definitions, special definitions. - The teacher fully delegates the moderation to a student who acts as a teacher. This is recom mended when the class has practised this kind of thing already and when the student is secure enough to take up a lead like this. Risks: - When the teacher leads he/she talks too much and there is no discussion, the students have no room for their impressions and thoughts. - The teacher directs the students into a direction they cannot follow anymore. The students are lost on the way. The class gets quieter and quieter because they have stopped understanding. - When the role is given to the students the other students start to not taking the discussion seriously anymore. Chaos prevails. It should be the teacher again who reminds everybody of the assigned role of the student.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

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Booklet 3 – Topic 2 - Task 2: Share your homework

The task: X

You understand how an interview works and apply quality criteria on it.

X 15’/ 15’

Classroom organisation: You work in the last weeks’ groups.

Procedure: 1 ) In your group you present to each other your homework ‘The programme of my working day’. 2 ) Points to be discussed: a. What elements could be looked more as work and what more as hobby or leisure ? b. What is surprising to you when you hear the others day-description? 3 ) Prepare a short 3 minute presentation (  tool 11 ) of your groups’ discussions (  Who will present ?Support him/her to be pre pared. ) 4 ) Be prepared for the presentation in front of the whole class.

Materials: - Last weeks’ homework: ‘The programme of my working day.’ - Toolbox nr. 11 “Planning and giving presentations“

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Practical hints Presentations in class Presentations in class can function perfectly but can also be a very big challenge for the group and for the tetacher. The few criteria presented here can help to make presentations more effective: - When a group presents, every member should have an active role (  the preparation should also be done like this ) - Visual aids should be used - After each presentation the teacher should give some comment, be it a feedback or a content comment. - There should be room for the other students to ask questions. - It is sometimes helpful if the other students are given a task while listening to the presentation (  e.g. taking notes, summarising, writing down key words, finding questions etc. ) so they have to Pay attention - The teacher should remain in the room and should also listen to the presentation. Having the students present something is not the time for the teacher to correct some work, do some more planning etc.! - Personal feedback should be given in a very careful way. When giving feedback after a presen- tation in front of the whole class it is important to point out very concrete things that for ex ample were good about the presentation. Or some very concrete points that were missing etc - The optimal way of using presentations in class would be if also the other students can give feedback along discussed criteria after each presentation to their colleagues. This way the at tention span will be prolonged.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

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Booklet 3 – Topic 2 - Task 3: Each job has its own character! Part I

X

The task: You learn about aspects that make different professions comparable.

Classroom organisation: Individual work.

35’

Procedure:

1 ) You go through the list ‘aspects of jobs’ from the next page. Fill in what you know about the different terms. Ask somebody if you don’t know (  first a colleague, then if necessary the teacher ). 2 ) Compare your results with the results of a colleague or even two if there is enough time left. 3 ) Make corrections if necessary.

Materials: - Booklet 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Reminder Individual coaching The students in the JOBS programme are already capable of working on their own and should be able to understand written instructions or work together with colleagues. Nevertheless, your task as the teacher will be to provide individual support to those who need it. In the course of the JOBS school year your role will develop more and more into being a coach and spend less time as a lecturer. The suggested task is one example where you can practise this role. For sure, some of your students will have questions about the different terms that they might have heard but don’t know exactly what they mean. You can either put yourself into the role of the coach walking around and answering individual questions or you can assign this role also to a student who has already fulfilled the task. Make sure to not always choose the same students as the role models. They will become stigmatised and less popular among the others when always being in that role.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

39


Do you know these terms?

Employment:

Self-employment:

Job position:

Full-time work:

Part-time work:

Reputation:

Status:

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Booklet 3 – Topic 2 - Task 4: Each job has its own character! Part II

X

The task: You learn about aspects that make different professions comparable and assign jobs to them.

Classroom organisation: 15’ Individual work.

Procedure:

1 ) You go through the list ‘aspects of jobs’ from the next page. 2 ) Be sure you have understood well. Otherwise you ask (  first different classmates if necessary, then the teacher ). Use the knowledge you have collected in the previous task. 3 ) You find examples of existing professions for all the aspects.

Materials: - Tool 6: “Carrying out interviews and surveys” - Template for a questionnaire

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Practical hints Working with additional material In the task described the students have to work on their own on the given questions. Make sure that for this task the students really use their collection of interests and possible jobs of booklet 2. It is part of this exercise to also use additional material and to value what they have produced prior to this exercise. Thus, the JOBS booklets will also get an added value for the students. They should not throw them away once they have worked through one booklet. Remind them that in the course of the whole JOBS programme they will once in a while have to take out a past booklet or a piece of their work out of a past booklet again.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

43


Aspects of jobs: A job is characterized by a number of things. Find examples of jobs and professions! a ) Employment or self-employment: Do you work for a company or do you own your own business? Employment

Self-employment

b ) Job position: Do you fulfil tasks as a worker or do you delegate tasks to other people ? Are you responsible for a certain field ? Are you somebody’s boss? Rather boss which delegates.

Rather worker which fulfils.

c ) Working hours: Do you work full-time or less ? Do you work only in winter/only in summer ? Do you work in shifts ? Full-time Part-time

d ) Salary: How are you paid for your work ? Is it a “good” salary ? Or do you think that people in this job should earn more ? Can a person live on this money ? Rather high salary

Rather modest salary

e ) Reputation and status: Are you proud that you have this job ? Do people in this job get a “good” reputation for it ? Is this job of high status in society? Rather high status

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

Rather low status


Booklet 3 – Topic 2 - Task 5: Professional fields

X

The task:

X

You can explain professional fields and you have assigned jobs to these fields.

X

Classroom organisation:

30’

Work in pairs.

Procedure: 1 ) You go through the worksheet ‘professional fields’. 2 ) Tear or cut little slips of paper ( use as much as possible the backside of used copy paper etc. ) and collect as many jobs for all the fields as possible by writing each on one slip. Think also about the fact, that there might be a male or/and a female expression for the job. 3 ) Together with your teacher you will bring all your proposals into the class discussion. Proposal: all the seven fields are writ- ten on pieces of paper and lay on the floor. You sit around the circle on your chairs and you assign your proposals to the seven fields and discuss the results. 4 ) After this exercise you copy the class result into your booklet by underlining the proposals that came from the work in your pair.

Materials: - Slips of paper - Booklet 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Reminder Communicating goals Every booklet, every day and every task in the JOBS programme include descriptions of goals that should be reached by task-based learning. When explaining a task and giving oral instructions to the students it will still be very important to communicate the objectives. Only then will students understand why they are doing what they are doing. Use this task to practise communicating goals especially! Try to explain to the students why they have to fulfil the given assignment and what for.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

47


Example:

r e t i a w ss/ e r t i a w es: Servic

Services:

administrato r Services:

t n a t n u o c c bank a

Social w ork:

youth worker ies l i m a f g n u f yo o g n i l e s n u co : Social work

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


An often used way of describing a job is by looking at the work itself. The following list gives a rough overview of seven professional fields. This is not the only classification system. But it is one that can be easily understood.

Services All the examples your class has collected ( yours especially marked ):

Industrie All the examples your class has collected ( yours especially marked ):

Education All the examples your class has collected ( yours especially marked ):

Health All the examples your class has collected ( yours especially marked ):

50

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Crafts All the examples your class has collected ( yours especially marked ):

Public Management All the examples your class has collected ( yours especially marked ):

Social work All the examples your class has collected ( yours especially marked ):

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

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Booklet 3 – Topic 2 - Task 6: Why do young people want to earn money ?

X

The task: You take notes to describe your own thoughts about working for money as student.

Homework

Classroom organisation: You start in school and finish the task as homework ( research work ).

Procedure: 1 ) Take notes or make a drawing that represent your thoughts 2 ) This means: think

Materials: - Toolbox - Booklet - Internet - Books - Newspapers - Coloured pens

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Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Reminder Orientation towards reality JOBS is a programme that links school with the business world. JOBS’ core aspect is establishing contact to a local business/company. Within the JOBS booklet work students are asked about their personal perspectives and visions for their professional career. Depending on the region your school is located in opportunities or perspectives can be limited due to a weak economy or a focus of the local market on only one professional field. Be careful when encouraging the students to fantasize about their dream jobs or their preferred careers not in a sense of destroying dreams but in a sense of not deceiving them from reality. This does not only account for taking up a job or qualifying for a profession in their future but also for taking up a student job. Make sure you bear this in mind when talking about the students’ opinions and visions.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?

53


A lot of young people earn money in the afternoons or evenings or take up temporary jobs during holidays. You might have made this experience yourself. There are several reasons why young people want to earn money. Think about the reasons why young people want to earn money even if they still go to school. First, make a brainstorming yourself. Watch out for different ideas. Use the space below for a collection of key words, for a drawing, for a comic.

Why do young people/students want to earn money?

54

Booklet 3 - Topic 2: What is your job like?


Booklet 3 - Topic 3: What a salary is good for! What is a salary? A salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee. A salary may be specified in an employment contract. A salary is contrasted with piece wages, where each job, hour or other unit is paid separately, rather than on a periodic basis.


Booklet 3 – Topic 3 - Task 1: The survey

The task: X

You will know more about if and how your school mates earn money and what for.

Classroom organisation: 60‘

You work in small groups of three maximum four.

Procedure: 1 ) 2 ) 3 ) 4 ) 5 ) 6 )

Read the description carefully and prepare yourself. Use for your preparation tool 6 thinking of the six steps menti- oned in there: - goal - preparation - questions - conducting the interview - evaluation - presentation Test your interview in your own group. Ask each other the different questions and see what possible answers could be. Divide the roles. They also might change from interview to interview. If you can and want to, take pictures with a digital camera. Find a form in which you want to write a report about the results. You can integrate the pictures into the report if you like.

Materials: - Toolbox 6 - Booklet - A digital camera if needed or possible

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Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future


Practical hints Using collected data and writing reports In most cases it is rather easy getting students to collect data through quantitative or qualitative surveys. Students also enjoy this way of collecting information as a change to work with written material. It is the bigger challenge to get the students to use the data in a meaningful way and to produce some kind of presentation, report or evaluation. It is recommended to give some hints to students who are not used to this kind of work. Using the toolbox is one way of doing it. As a teacher you can read the tool nr. 6 “carrying out interviews and surveys“  together with your students and explain step by step what the instructions mean. For writing a report or making a presentation there are also other ways of instructing the students. - Illustrating the given answers with drawings on a poster - Illustrating the given answers with photos on a poster - Adding quantitative elements to the qualitative survey: Counting how many of their colle agues gave which statements ( if there were many re-occurring ones ). - Recording a short radio or tv input ( with their cell phones or with a camera if available ) - Writing a blog about the survey - Writing a short article for a newspaper - Writing a letter to the head teacher informing about the students’ opinions, attitudes etc. My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future

59


Description Make a small qualitative survey in your school. Take notes ( you can add them afterwards into the folder ). Make short interviews with at least five school mates. 1 ) 2 ) 3 ) 4 ) 5 )

When do you earn money? How do you do it? When did you start doing it? What do you use the money for? Maybe some additional question/s

Overview of all different answers to the first question: When do you earn money?

Overview of all different answers to the second question: How do you do it. What job/s?

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Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future


Overview of all different answers to the third question: When did you start doing it ? Who helped you finding the job?

Overview of all different answers to the forth question: What do you use your money for?

Overview of all different answers to additional questions:

Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future

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Booklet 3 – Topic 3 - Task 2: What would I use money for ?

X

The task: You think about your own way of spending money.

X X

Classroom organisation:

45’

You work on your own.

Procedure:

1 ) You carefully read the short description. 2 ) Before you start writing, you do some thinking. Maybe you take some notes first, or you start with a short discussion with a classmate. Or you make a mind map, or you just sit for a mo- ment and think about what you want to write. 3 ) Take a good moment’s time for it. It can be a nice essay at the end! If you need more space than given in the booklet, add just more empty sheets!

Materials: - Booklet 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future


Practical hints Assessing students’ achievement A lot of material that is produced by the students in the JOBS programme is focused on language and language skills. This accounts especially for free writing products such as essays, articles and reports. It is the goal of the JOBS programme to focus on the content as a first step for assessment, however, in a written product language and expression skills are reflected very much and also influence the quality of the product. For assessment of these kinds of students’ products it is recommended to look at the results from two different points of view: - Individual norm - Criterial norm When a teacher grades or assesses a student’s achievement from the individual point of view he/she takes into account the student’s performance and achievement in a longitudinal perspective. This means that the teacher compares the products and results that the student has shown in the past, in the course of this year, this semester, this month etc. to the result presented now. The progress made will strongly influence the grade. No comparison to other students’ achievement is made. When a teacher grades or assesses a student’s performance from the criterial point of view he/ she takes in to account the student’s performance and achievement in comparison to the given goal of the lesson, the sequence, the topic etc. This means that the teacher compares the products and results that the student has shown only from the perspective whether the given goal has been reached, to what extent, to what extent not. No comparison to other students’ achievement is made. My preparation notes

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Description:

Think about your present situation. Why do you want to earn money now ? If you don’t have a job in the afternoons, evenings or holidays, if you had one: What would you use your money for ? Take sheet of paper, title it:

“With the money that I earn myself I want to …”

Try not to please anybody with your ideas. Try to be honest with yourself. But also start a thinking process about your plans, ideas and about your future.

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Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future


Booklet 3 – Topic 3 - Task 3: What is in a salary?

XX X XX 60’

The task: You will start understanding, what a salary is for and what elements it consists of.

Classroom organisation: First you work by yourself, then your share your results with a partner and then in a discussion moderated by the teacher.

Procedure:

1 ) You read the short information block on the next page. 2 ) Try to explain the elements of a salary by answering the questi- ons on the next pages. 3 ) Sit together with a partner and discuss your findings. Try to close gaps if you could not answer a question. 4 ) Be prepared for the class discussion conducted by the teacher.

Materials: - Toolbox - Booklet 3 - Maybe Internet - Maybe books - Maybe newspapers

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Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future


Practical hints Knowledge of the teacher For topics that deal with a lot of complex information that also the students have to acquire it is especially important that the teacher has got a lot of knowledge about the topic himself/herself. Studies show that teachers who show a high competence in the subject or the topic they teach have a strong influence also on the students’ performance in this topic. Therefore, it is recommended to the teacher to gather some more information about a topic if he/she does not feel too comfortable with the content himself/herself. This does not mean that a teacher has to read thousands of books about economy or other related sciences but a good knowledge about the topic presented can also be gathered on the internet for example. For dealing with the age group of teenagers it is extremely important to show and present good competence in the subject that you teach. There might always be students in the class that are highly interested and informed already or even gifted in a certain learning area.

My preparation notes

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Information What a salary contains: Information: If you earn money, you receive a “salary”. Normally, people who work receive a salary at the end of the month. In certain professional fields it is common to pay people for the amount of hours they worked. Other forms of payment are: - To pay people for the number of pieces they produced (  piece rate wages ) - To pay people additionally for the profit the company makes in case the company is well off (  commission ) - To pay people in natural goods instead of money (  wages in kind ) The amount that a person earns at the end of the month is written in a contract. This contract is signed by the employer and the employee. But: At the end of the month, when the person receives his/her salary, it is less than in the con tract. Why? You will find out about the pay check in the following exercise.

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Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future


On a pay-slip you normally find the following terms written:

Payroll accounting ( 2011 )*: RON Basis/Number Inclusion Deduction Total Basic salary 780.00 Additional allowances: Children and family allowance 2 children 100.00 100.00 Night allowance 4 nights 80.00 80.00 Gross salary 960.00 Contribution: ( 137) Retirement pension insurance ( 10.5% ) ** 830.00 87.00 Health insurance ( 5.5% ) 830.00 46.00 Unemployment ( 0.5% ) 830.00 4.00 Taxes 16% 823.00 132.00 Net salary 691.00 * The table is just illustrating the components of a salary ** Children and family allowances do not count as reference salary. Therefore, also no deductions are made for it. The reference salary is the basic salary ( 780 ) plus the night allowance ( 80 ).

What are the deductions for that are mentioned in the payroll? Why retirement pension insurance:

Why health insurance:

Why unemployment insurance:

Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future

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Why taxes:

Can you explain the differences between taxes and the above mentioned deductions?

Differences the way I understand it

In the followed class discussion the teacher might want to hear your results. Be prepared to present them!

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Booklet 3 - Topic 3: Earning money for our future


Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life? Understanding and discussing standards of living and how to handle money What is a standard of living? Standard of living is generally measured by standards such as real (  i.e. inflation adjusted ) income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth, inequality and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods ( such as number of refrigerators per 1000 people ), or measures of health such as life expectancy. It is the ease by which people living in a time or place are able to satisfy their needs and/or wants.


Booklet 3 – Topic 4 - Task 1: My bulletin board!

X

The task: You become clearer about how you think about the topic of money.

Classroom organisation: 30’

Individual work.

Procedure:

1 ) Look at the bulletin board on the next page. 2 ) When you read the quotes on the bulletin board make sure, you understand the consequences of the positions behind all of them. 3 ) Chose some that match you and write them into the empty bulletin board next page. Write now your own ways of thinking about money.

Materials: - Booklet 3

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?


Reminder Task-based-learning is quite simple In JOBS students learn via task-based-learning. Task-based means that the students work on the task, not the teacher. This means that the booklets are designed in a way that students solve problems that lead to something useful and meaningful. In the process of solving these tasks they will explore many ways to the solution. This way the students will acquire the necessary competences and skills. Therefore, working on a task itself already means that the students learn something. And, it is your task as the teacher to make this possible. Try to give students the freedom for trying out different ways to solving the problem: then task-based learning will be quite simple! Bear also in mind the following hint: Five minutes is the limit JOBS is based on focussing on the students and their activity during the lessons. In order to leave enough space for this task-based learning it is necessary that you watch your speaking time. Make sure you do not exceed the limit of 5 minutes when giving instructions to the students!

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

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Look at the following bulletin board. You can see a lot of different slips representing different opinions about money. Which ones would you pick and stick on your own bulletin board ? Copy them and write them on the empty clipboard next page.

I often talk about money at home. I know what my parents earn.

I often talk about money with my friends. I know how much money they get every month.

I think I don’t get enough money from my parents every month. I would need more.

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

As a boss of a company I would openly tell all workers what they and others earn

At home we never talk about money. I don’t know how much my parents earn. As a boss of a company I would never tell my workers how much their colleagues earn.

I never talk about money with my friends. It is somehow uncomfortable. I think I get enough money every month from my parents. Most of the time I can manage.


Create your own bulletin board and also indicate why you chose the different post-its. You also have space to choose your own statement for a post-it. This is my own bulletin-board: If you have real post-its, use those. If you don’t, please use this template:

Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

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Booklet 3 – Topic 4 - Task 2: Income can differ highly!

The task: Find out more about your own values of work.

X X

Classroom organisation:

20’

You set up the room for group work ( tables of four ).

Procedure:

1 ) You sit in groups of four. 2 ) You cut or tear two sheets in small pieces ( 16 per sheet ). 3 ) You write all the professions you see on next page, each on one piece. 4 ) Now you shift the pieces around so you find a groups solution ( discuss differences, don’t give up your own position too fast ) for a list: who earns most, who earns least for the moment in your country ? But attention: the result only represents the statistics. This might not reflect the exact situation in life! 5 ) Visit other groups to share and compare. In the next task you will find the statistics of Romania. And please!!! Don’t look up the following page. Don’t spoil the game! It is not about winning or loosing, it is about thinking and discussing, guessing and comparing!

Materials: - Booklet 3 - ( one sided used ) sheets of paper - Scissors if possible

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?


Reminder The art of waiting How long do you wait when you have asked a question ? And how long do you wait, before you ( or somebody else ) react to the answer ? These two waiting situations are very well researched and give a clear message: Teachers normally don’t wait at all or too shortly. Teachers who take their time, and give time to students, produce more answers, from more students, longer answers, and the best of all: better, profounder, more varied answers, and addressed not only to the teacher! Of course waiting is not just a technique, but an art. When you trust in the students, when you are quite sure that the students will say something substantial, when you are curious how they will answer, the message will go through – students can read teachers very well. So waiting is an art, not only in the question-answer-dialogue with the class, but also when students are working individually, or in groups. Wait before you interfere, better watch what happens, otherwise the students get used to external help instead of thinking and working.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

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Profession

chanic e m r Ca

Teacher

Comput er

Engineer

Program mer

nist Hotel receptio

aid Chamberm

hter Firefig

Accountan t

se Auxiliary nur

Furniture fin is

Bus driver

her

Miner

Baker

Airline Pilo t

Carpenter

ndant Flight atte

Prof essio nal n u

rse

erson Salesp

Dentist

Postman

Garment Cut

ter

ysician h P l a r e n e G sor s e f Pro

Office cler k

apist Physiother 80

Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

r Wood grinde


Booklet 3   Topic 4 - Task 3: Differences in income: how just are they?

The task: X

You learn about different income levels in your country and you start thinking about reasons.

X

Classroom organisation: You keep working in the groups.

Procedure:

1 ) You now look up the statistics printed on the following page. 2 ) You might look it up in the internet, because it could have changed slightly in the meanwhile. 3 ) Compare it with your own list: a. What are the surprising differences? b. Where do your results match? 4 ) Now think about reasons by choosing one profession from the upper part and one from the lower part of the list. 5 ) Use the form in your booklet as a support.

Materials: - Booklet 3 - Maybe internet

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?


Practical hints Using internet resources The numbers presented in this task have been taken from an internet resource that covers the world salaries. However, data from the internet becomes out of date fast. Therefore, whenever dealing with numbers or data taken from online resources it is recommended to run a quick checkup whether the numbers or the data in general is still valid. Especially when dealing with issues such as income, salaries or percentages this will change in the course of the economic growth of a country. The internet resource www.worldsalaries.org is easy to consult also for a fast look-up. Watch diversity When dealing with delicate issues in class such as income or monthly household amounts it can become quite unpleasant for students coming from very poor backgrounds or even from families with a high ratio of unemployment when their personal family situation is addressed in class. It is your task as the teacher to take care of such discussions if they arise and help prevent any kind of mobbing or bullying. It might help to leave out personal or family situations at all in this respect and purely focus on the content presented in the table. You might want to offer individual question time for students who have some questions. Or you might want to deal with issues like that in small groups. This does not mean that questions that address fairness in payment or equality between men and women in class – on the contrary! But questions and discussions like that should not take place on the backs of any individual student or a group of underprivileged students.

My preparation notes

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Here you can find the average salaries of people in different jobs in Romania. How does it match your own guesses ? What is surprising for you ? From your point of view: what makes the differences so huge ? Choose two examples, one from the top part of the list, one from the lower part. What makes the differences so high ? Is there a reason that can be explained ? Is it justified ? Is it just ? Attention! This is again not a question of right or wrong. There can be many different positions and opinions! Stand for your positions, but listen to the others! You might think your position through once more. Matrix from: www.worldsalaries.org

JOB

Monthly salary (  Lei )

Airline Pilot 5’784 Computer Programmer 2’820 Accountant 2’570 Profesor 2’168 Flight attendant

1’906

Miner 1’891 General Physician 1’771 Engineer 1’505 Teacher 1’244 Professional nurse 1’105 Dentist 1’032 Physiotherapist 915 Office clerk 896 Bus driver 883 Garment Cutter 878 Wood grinder 720 Car mechanic 714 Carpenter 629 Auxiliary nurse 627 Furniture finisher 584 Postman 559 Hotel receptionist 551 Baker 545 Firefighter 525 Salesperson 519 Chambermaid 511

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?


Key questions Describe the importance of this job for society. What would happen without it? What is the education needed to full fill this job? Describe the status this job has in your society?

Job 1

Job 2

As far as you know: is it rather a male or a female job ? Take the higher income as 100% and calculate how many percent less the second job earns.

Give your personal opinion:

Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

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Booklet 3 – Topic 4 - Task 4: How expensive is life?

X

The task: You will know what the basic costs of living are.

X Homework

Classroom organisation: You start working in school and then do the research as homework for next week.

Procedure:

1 ) Use your imagination: Imagine having a job. You live alone in a small flat. Estimate how much you think you will have to pay every month. Fill in the sheet with your estimated amounts ( Matrix A ). 2 ) As a second step you collect all information in real life. Go into a shop, or ask people outside and try to find the approxi- mate real numbers. Fill in a second sheet ( Matrix B ). 3 ) What do you notice ? Are you surprised ? Would you have ex- pected something different ? What ? What do you think ?

Materials: - Toolbox - Booklet 3 - Internet - Newspapers

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?


Reminder Orientation towards reality JOBS is a programme that links school with the business world. JOBS’ core aspect is establishing contact to a local business/company. Within the JOBS booklet work students are asked about their personal perspectives and visions for their professional career. Depending on the region your school is located in opportunities or perspectives can be limited due to a weak economy or a focus of the local market on only one professional field. Be careful when encouraging the students to fantasize about their dream jobs or their preferred careers not in a sense of destroying dreams but in a sense of not deceiving them from reality. The given task also points into this direction. It aims at an estimation of the students at first in order to give room for individual ideas and visions. But it also takes into account real life situations and circumstances of living. It is important that the students really try to get information from outside of their home, be it in shops, information offices, internet resources etc. It is important that they go through this learning process themselves and do not get the answers presented to them by e.g. their parents, relatives or their teachers. They have to find out themselves how much life costs. Only by taking these steps they can go through the necessary process of task-based-learning.

My preparation notes

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Matrix A: Estimate

Item Estimate Rent For a 1-2 room flat ( including water, heating, electricity etc. ) Insurances Accidents, other Radio and Television Clothes Average for summer and winter clothes, sporting clothes, underwear Household Average for summer and winter clothes, sporting clothes, underwear Food Breakfast Lunch Dinner Weekends Savings ( saving book, bank account etc. ) Saving for holidays Education and Entertainment CDs, DVDs, disco, movies, concerts, parties, restaurant, sweeties, magazines, subscriptions, presents etc. Telephone and mobile phone Public transport Car Tax, insurance, petrol, repairs Clubs Fitness club, music club etc. TOTAL 88

Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

_______ Ron x 30 days _______ Ron x 30 days _______ Ron x 30 days TOTAL: _______ Ron


Matrix B: Real costs

Item Estimate Rent For a 1-2 room flat ( including water, heating, electricity etc. ) Insurances Accidents, other Radio and Television Clothes Average for summer and winter clothes, sporting clothes, underwear Household Average for summer and winter clothes, sporting clothes, underwear Food Breakfast Lunch Dinner

_______ Ron x 30 days _______ Ron x 30 days _______ Ron x 30 days TOTAL: _______ Ron

Weekends Savings ( saving book, bank account etc. ) Saving for holidays Education and Entertainment CDs, DVDs, disco, movies, concerts, parties, restaurant, sweeties, magazines, subscriptions, presents etc. Telephone and mobile phone Public transport Car Tax, insurance, petrol, repairs Clubs Fitness club, music club etc. TOTAL Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

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Booklet 3 – Topic 4 - Task 5: Reflection of Booklet 3

The task: X You become aware of what you have worked on in the past month.

X 30’

Classroom organisation: During the first phase you are at your desk. During the second phase the whole class sits in a circle.

Procedure: 1 ) You are at the end of Booklet 3 and it is time again to look back. 2 ) The questionnaire “Questions for the evaluation” on the next page will help you reflect on the work you have done so far. Go through the questions on your own and try to be as concrete as possible. 3 ) After you have finished with the questionnaire, put your chairs in a circle. You will talk about your findings in class and discuss various points. Your teacher chairs the discussion. 4 ) At the end, your teacher will collect all your questionnaires to get a better impression of how the work with Booklet 3 went.

Materials: - The whole booklet - Notes in your notebook - Cards for the presentation - Questionnaire “Questions for the evaluation” on the next page

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?


Practical hints The idea of sharing After the students have written individually, there comes a phase of sharing the experiences und reflexions in class. “Sharing” means to be interested in others, knowing what they did, how they did it, what they think, what their reasons are – as well as explaining oneself, the actions and reasons, the opinions and experiences. Chairing a discussion, or a sharing You have already practised this competence at the end of prior booklets, and now you have this chance again. Probably these criteria of a good ‘chairing’ will help you with this task: - The students speak more than you do. - The students also ask questions, not only you. - When you ask a question or give a prompt, more than one or two students answer. - The students start questions and answers among themselves at least once. - The sharing stays focussed: You ( or a student ) compare, summarize, bring the sharing back to the point, … - Personal, lively: You ( or a student ) ask for the opposite, for a personal opinion from several students, for a concrete example, what they would do outside school, … - You take and give enough time, so only three or four themes are covered within a 15-minute- sequence. Writing feedbacks Remember, you react primarily to some points you are interested in: What the student did well, where she/he surprised you, what the main point was in your eyes. Then you can add one question where you want to hear more, or one concrete tip how the student could act differently next time.

My preparation notes

Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

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Questions for the evaluation You will be thinking and writing short texts about two themes: a ) contentwise, what you learnt, and b ) you as a learner, how you learnt. You find a series of questions, but you don’t have to answer them all! Probably you first make a list, or a mindmap before starting writing in this booklet?

Content: “The world of JOBS” - What have you learnt about the world of JOBS? - Which fact impressed you most ? Why? - Which person impressed you most ? Why? - Write a statement about what has become important to you. - What has surprised you? - What are you happy about? - Where do you see problems?

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Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?


You as a learner - What have you learnt about the different work methods? - Which method can you handle well, which needs further practice? - Which situations during JOBS-lessons were the best for your learning? - Which task in this booklet was the easiest, which the most fruitful for you? - What helps you most in further learning situations? - What has surprised you? - What are you happy about? - Where do you see problems?

Feedback from the teacher:

Date and signature of the teacher: Booklet 3 - Topic 4: How expensive is life?

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The didactical elements of JOBS

1. Task-based-learning

2. From lecturer to facilitator

3. The art of waiting

4. Real time learning

5. Co-operative Learning

6. Differentiation and individual levels of quality

7. Goal-orientation

8. Formative Assessment

9. Creating an atmosphere of trust and respect

10. Diversity and heterogeneity

11. Orientation towards reality


Jobs grade 8 booklet 3 teacher 2013