Page 1

Peligros en Internet

Introducción La realidad que nuestra sociedad vive es que la tecnología forma parte de nuestro día a día, la gran mayoría de familias cuentan con conexión a internet, dispositivos de todo tipo (PCs, laptops, tablets, IPad, Smartphone), altas demandas de servicios cada vez mejores, en los que basamos nuestra comunicación, nuestras relaciones interpersonales e incluso temas laborales, por lo que se ha vuelto una necesidad para adultos y no solo para ellos, también para los adolescentes y hasta los niños. Las redes sociales están en nuestro día a día, en la vida cotidiana de las personas, en los teléfonos móviles es habitual el uso de alguna de las mencionadas redes sociales: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn… En éstas disponemos de gran cantidad de información personal, fotografías, videos, etc., que hacen que seamos un blanco fácil de posibles delincuentes. Estamos hablando de la nueva generación, “la generación de los nativos digitales”, que, si bien tiene muchos beneficios, también tiene riesgos, en especial para los más vulnerables, entre los riesgos, el más común es la adicción a dispositivos tecnológicos, pero existen otros riesgos que los padres deben conocer, entre ellos están el cyberbullying, el grooming y el sexting, los cuales atentan contra la intimidad, la integridad y la salud mental y física de los usuarios. Es fundamental que, como adultos y padres, se proteja a los menores, se los oriente y se evite cualquier influencia negativa en ellos.

Cyberbullying Fuente: es/ur6/%C3%ADndice.html

https://espanol.stopbullying.gov/acoso-por-internet/qu%C3%A9-

El ciberacoso es el acoso que tiene lugar en dispositivos digitales, como teléfonos celulares, computadoras y tabletas. Puede ocurrir mediante mensajes de texto, textos y aplicaciones, o bien por Internet en las redes sociales, foros o juegos donde las personas pueden ver, participar o compartir contenido. El ciberacoso incluye enviar, publicar o compartir contenido negativo, perjudicial, falso, o cruel sobre otra persona. Esto puede incluir compartir información personal o privada sobre alguien más, provocándole humillación o vergüenza. Algunos acosos por Internet pasan a ser un comportamiento ilegal o criminal. Los lugares más comunes donde ocurre el ciberacoso son:


o o o o

Redes sociales, como Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat y Twitter. SMS (servicio de mensajes cortos), también conocidos como mensajes de texto, enviados a través de dispositivos. Mensajería instantánea (a través de dispositivos, servicios de proveedores de email, aplicaciones y funciones de mensajería de las redes sociales). E-mail.

El ciberacoso tiene inquietudes únicas que pueden ser: o o

o

Persistentes: los dispositivos digitales permiten la comunicación inmediata y continua las 24 horas del día, por lo que puede ser difícil hallar alivio para los niños que sufren acoso. Permanentes: la mayoría de la información que se comparte electrónicamente es permanente y pública, si no se reporta o elimina. Una reputación en Internet negativa, incluso para los acosadores, puede tener un impacto en las admisiones a la universidad, los empleos y otras áreas de la vida. Difíciles de notar: es posible que los maestros y padres no hayan oído sobre o visto ocurrir el ciberacoso, por lo que es más difícil de reconocer.

Fuente: https://www.ditchthelabel.org/cyber-bullying-top-9-tips-on-overcoming-it/ Examples of cyberbullying include: o o o o o o o

Nasty messages online or on the mobile phone Comments on your posts or posts about you Being excluded from online groups and forums Embarrassing photos being put online without your permission Rumors and lies about you on a website Offensive chat on online gaming Fake online profiles being created with an intent to defame you

The most important thing is knowing how to deal with it. Here are the top 9 ways to deal with cyberbullying if you’re being targeted: 1. Never respond Do not reply to anything that has been said or retaliate by doing the same thing back. Saying something nasty back or posting something humiliating in revenge may make matters worse or even get you into trouble. 2. Screenshot If you can, take a screenshot of anything that you think could be cyberbullying and keep a record of it on your computer. 3. Block and report Most online platforms have this function, make sure you block and report the offending users to the appropriate social media platform.


4. Talk about it. You may not feel it at the time, but cyberbullying affects you in many different ways. You are not alone. Talking to somebody about bullying not only helps you seek support but it documents evidence and will take a huge weight from your shoulders. 5. How serious is it? Assess how serious the cyberbullying is. If it is light name calling from somebody that you don’t know, it may just be easier to just report and block that user. 6. Report it. If you are experiencing cyberbullying from somebody you go to school or college with, report it to a teacher. If somebody is threatening you, giving out your personal information or making you fear for your safety, contact the Police or an adult as soon as you can. 7. Be private. We recommend that you keep your social media privacy settings high and do not connect with anybody who you do not know offline. You wouldn’t talk to random people on the street, so why do it online? People may not always be who they say they are and you could be putting you and those that you care about the most at risk. 8. Talk to them. Sometimes it may be appropriate to request that a teacher or responsible adult hosts a mediation between you and the person who is bullying you online, if they go to the same school or college as you. A mediation can be scary but is often incredibly powerful. It is essentially a face-to-face conversation between you and the person bullying you in a controlled, equal environment. This is a proactive and effective way to deal with online bullying. 9. Sympathise. Always remember that happy and secure people do not bully others. People who bully are going through a difficult time themselves and will often need a lot of help and support.


Fuente: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/01/technology/instagram-bully-filter.html In March, the model and actress Amber Rose called out cyberbullies for saying her 5-year-old son was gay after she posted videos on Instagram of him opening a gift from the singer Taylor Swift. It is not only children who are targeted. In November, Drew Barrymore was attacked after she posed with a starfish in a photograph to promote a new lipstick. “It hurt me,” she wrote in a follow-up post, which was liked 484,238 times. Instagram, like other social media sites including Twitter and YouTube, has become an easy place to shame or offend, something the company acknowledged last year. Mr. Systrom addressed it in a blog post then, saying, “Many of you have told us that toxic comments discourage you from enjoying Instagram and expressing yourself freely.” Instagram is using a machine-learning algorithm to detect offenders. Called DeepText, it was built by Facebook, which owns Instagram, and uses artificial intelligence to review words for context and meaning, much as the human brain determines how words are used. (Facebook is holding its annual F8 developer conference this week.) Initially, Instagram had a team of people review and rate comments, sorting them into different categories: bullying, racism or sexual harassment. “What we are concentrating on is building the tools so people can control their experience on Instagram,” said Karina Newton, head for public policy at Instagram. “Those will improve over time.” Instagram’s users are expected to follow the site’s guidelines, which include being respectful to other community members and not posting photographs of naked bodies. The company has also embarked on a “kindness” campaign, hosting events to promote inclusion and diversity. “It’s been our goal to make it a safe place for self-expression and to foster kindness within the community,” Mr. Systrom said. “This update is just the next step in our mission to deliver on that promise.”


Grooming Fuente: http://redpapaz.org/prasi/index.php/2013-05-18-11-54-41/como-se-puede-identificarque-alguien-esta-usando-el-grooming El grooming o seducción en red se refiere a las acciones por medio de las cuales una persona busca una relación engañosa en Internet con un niño, niña o adolescente con el propósito de conocerlo y volverlo más vulnerable a contactos y abusos sexuales. Se reconoce porque tiene las siguientes características: o o o o o

Implica el uso de una variedad de técnicas de seducción, manipulación y control. Se usa con una persona que, por su edad o situación personal, es vulnerable. Tiene como fin ganarse la confianza del niño, niña o adolescente. Busca naturalizar o normalizar la actividad sexual que se realiza con menores de 18 años. El propósito es facilitar, propiciar y mantener el abuso sexual o la explotación de menores de 18 años.

Verdades con respecto al proceso de grooming: o o o

Se usa para evitar que el niño/a revele a otras personas lo que está ocurriendo, no sólo busca facilitar el acceso a la víctima sino crear un contexto propicio para el abuso No siempre implica a una persona adulta y a un menor de 18 años, también puede presentarse entre pares, es decir, entre personas de la misma edad Las personas abusadoras sexuales en línea pueden ser hombres o mujeres

El grooming no solo se usa para facilitar el primer contacto sexual, también es usado para mantener la situación de abuso. En este sentido, el grooming es usado como parte del proceso de mantener silenciada a la víctima.


Los abusadores específicos se aprovechan de la curiosidad que tienen los niños, niñas y adolescentes en las relaciones amorosas y en los temas sexuales, se ganan la confianza de sus víctimas y logran que hablen con ellos de esos temas. Al ser sus confidentes y hablar con ellos cosas íntimas que no hablan con otras personas, hacen que inclusive se distancien de sus padres y amigos.

Sexting Fuente: http://www.pgjeslp.gob.mx/index.php/22-general/386-sexting El Sexting es el acto de enviar fotografías y/o mensajes explícitos de contenido erótico o sexual desde un dispositivo móvil o teléfono celular. Desafortunadamente los desnudos y semidesnudos de algunas personas que abundan en el internet, juegan un rol de influencia muy grande en mentes jóvenes, que aún no aprenden a calcular las consecuencias que pueda tener la publicación de fotografías de este tipo.


Un adolescente que practica el Sexting corre varios riesgos que pueden enfermarlo, aislarlo y poner en riesgo su seguridad: o o o o o o o o

Acoso Escolar Extorsiones y humillaciones Crisis de Ansiedad Depresión Deserción escolar y bajo rendimiento escolar Problemas alimenticios Problemas con el sueño Suicidio

Riesgo ¿Por qué adolescentes, jóvenes y niños hacen Sexting? Una o un adolescente se toma fotografías con contenido erótico para luego enviarlas a sus amigos, desconocidos o pareja por: o o o o o

Presión social: tener baja autoestima y creer que así va a ser aceptados por un grupo social determinado. Exhibirse: Para atraer, llamar la atención de una o más personas. Es su manera de “ser popular” o ganar reputación social. Coquetear: Buscando atraer a la persona que le gusta. Por compromiso: Para mandar una señal de confianza hacia un amigo o pareja, por temor a perderlo. Ingenuidad: Porque no miden los alcances de tomarse y enviar fotografías de este tipo, sólo cuando ya es muy tarde.


Fuente: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/12/well/family/teens-are-sexting-now-what.html Our lives these days are intertwined with our digital devices, for good or for ill. That includes adolescent romantic and sexual relationships of all kinds — happy, tragic, mutual, one-sided, healthy, and abusive. And experts say that rather than being shocked to find that kids are sexting, we should instead be talking about it from an early age, just as we should about other aspects of their developing sense of their sexual identities. “It’s becoming a normative component of teen sexual behavior and development,” said Sheri Madigan, a psychologist who was first author of a large study on digital sexual activity published at the end of February in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. “The average age of first cellphone ownership is 10.3,” said Dr. Madigan, who holds the Canada research chair in Determinants of Child Development at the Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute in Calgary. Her advice to parents is to start talking about sexting — as with so many topics — younger than you think you need to. She suggested that for younger children, the conversations could be simple and could be put in the context of other absolute rules. “Let them know not to get into a car with a stranger, let them know that text messages and emails and online communications should never include anyone with no clothes,” she said. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show decreasing rates of sexual activity among high school students over the period from 2005 to 2015, with the prevalence of having ever had sexual intercourse down from 46.8 percent to 41.2 percent overall (there were larger decreases among black and Hispanic students). But if early sexual activity is decreasing, though still highly prevalent, digital sexual activity is probably — and not surprisingly — becoming more common. In the new study, researchers looked at data from 39 studies of people under 18 sending and receiving sexually explicit images, videos and messages. Taken together, the studies included data on more than 110,000 kids (they ranged from 11.9 to 17 in age, with a mean of 15.16). These studies included kids of very different ages and asked — and answered — very different questions, a challenge the researchers acknowledged as they pulled together the information on this relatively new and probably rapidly changing set of behaviors. Still, they offered prevalence data from this big group: 14.8 percent had sent sexts, 27.4 percent had received them, 12 percent had forwarded a sext without consent, and 8.4 percent had had it happen to them.


Elizabeth K. Englander, the director of the Massachusetts Aggression Reduction Center and a professor of psychology at Bridgewater State University, who was a co-author of an accompanying commentary, said that often sexting reflects adolescent curiosity about nudity and bodies and is an activity for “kids who are sort of interested in sexuality but might not be ready for actual sex.” Dr. Megan Moreno, a pediatrician who is vice chair of digital health at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, said: “My main message would be for parents to step back for a minute from the alarmist nature of the word ‘sexting’ and think about developmentally appropriate foolish romantic things teenagers do.” Parents might, for example, think about the risky things they did themselves when they were younger, and when they discuss it with their teenagers, “try to view sexting through that lens: here is something that might feel like a normal thing to do and a normal thing to ask, and other people are doing it, but it’s a risky thing for you to do and if you find yourself in that situation we can talk about it.” As kids get older, the parenting guide by Dr. Moreno in the journal suggests, conversations can — and should — become more direct. Let kids tell you what they know, what they think, what they’re seeing, what they’re feeling. It’s part of talking about safety, online and offline, and part of talking about social behavior, friendships and romantic relationships and how people treat others and want to be treated. For teenagers themselves, there is a thorough handbook available from Common Sense Media, which will walk a kid through the scarier scenarios. By focusing on those possible but worst case scenarios, parents are not necessarily addressing the much more common problems: About 13 percent of sexters report bad experiences, and another 7 to 8 percent mixed experiences; the negatives are for the most part emotional. So those conversations should include the “what if” scenarios: What if you feel pressured to send a sext and you don’t want to, what are the right strategies? Who would you turn to, how could you get help and advice? The most upsetting statistic to come out of these studies is that one in nine teenagers report forwarding sexts without consent. Those are the scenarios parents worry about most; images end up in someone else’s hands, or made public. The sender’s trust has been violated, and there can be legal implications. It’s worth talking about it. “Kids who report discussing sexting with their parents are less likely to sext and less likely to have a traumatic outcome if they do sext,” Dr. Englander said. Studies have


shown that one of the most effective messages from adults is to say, “Once you send a photo you can never control it again. That does seem to strike more of a chord with kids.” When teenagers are pestered or threatened or coerced, when there are major power or age differentials, she said, those are “big red flags.” We know only a little about the behavioral profiles of kids who are sexting; the ones who are doing it consensually are likely to be risk takers, but they are not more likely to be kids with mental health issues, Dr. Madigan said. We also know that nonconsensual sexting leads to significant stress, leaving teenagers in the same kind of distress they may feel after being sexually harassed or assaulted.

Conclusiones El uso de las TICs debe ser limitado, controlado por parte de los padres hacia los hijos, pues ya vimos que el uso de internet y de teléfonos celulares son los medios por los cuales se dan estos actos degradantes, LA PREVENCION ES LA HERRAMIENTA MAS EFICAZ. No solo es limitar, sino enseñarles el correcto uso de las tecnologías hasta que ellos estén preparados para hacer uso de ellas solos y responsablemente. Desarrollar una relación sana y cercana entre padre e hijo, donde la confianza se cultive y se practique.

Problemas en la red  

Aproximaciones a los principales problemas en la red a los que se enfrentan los menores de edad.

Problemas en la red  

Aproximaciones a los principales problemas en la red a los que se enfrentan los menores de edad.

Advertisement