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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 8 8 12 23 24 36 40 42 52 54

Florida and the Clean Water Act—Gregory M. Munson Bill Young to Lead FSAWWA in 2018 Horror on Tap in St. Petersburg! Plan on It: 2018 Florida Water Resources Conference—Holly Hanson WEF HQ Newsletter—Fidan Karimova Two Foundations for Water Research Merge Destin Water Users Inc. Has 2017 Tank of the Year Register Now for 2018 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests! Altamonte Springs Project Wins National Award JEA, City of Jacksonville, and CH2M Invite Students to Explore Engineering Careers News Beat

Technical Articles 14 New Technology for Biofilm Removal and Hydrogen Sulfide Control in Sewer Lines: Lake Nona Trial—Charles Shultz, Michael Nostro, and Daniel Weidl 28 Low-Impact Wastewater Collection System Reduces Nutrient Loads in Vero Beach—Lindsay Tucker and Rob Bolton 44 City of Port St. Lucie Asbestos Cement Pipe Bursting: A Programmatic Approach—Laney Southerly, Edward Alan Ambler, and Todd Grafenaur

Education and Training 9 10 11 19 37 41 49 58

FSWWA Membership FSAWWA Operator Scholarships FSAWWA Training Florida Water Resources Conference CEU Challenge FWPCOA Training TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Spring Short School

Columns 6 18 22 26 34 38 50 55

Process Page—Eric Gauld and Tim Ware Contractors Roundup—Mark A. Kelly FWEA Focus—Tim Harley C Factor—Scott Anaheim FWRJ Reader Profile—Marjorie J. Craig FSAWWA Speaking Out—Grace Johns Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak Let’s Talk Safety

Departments 17 59 62 66 65

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index Glossary

Volume 68

ON THE COVER: A water tank belonging to Destin Water Users Inc. is this year’s winner of the Tank of the Year competition sponsored by Tnemec Co. Inc. The tank was selected by a panel of water tank enthusiasts based on criteria such as artistic value, significance of the tank to the community, and challenges encountered during the project. For more information, see page 36. (photo: Tnemec Co. Inc.)

December 2017

Number 12

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Florida and the Clean Water Act Gregory M. Munson

“The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite.” - James Madison, Federalist No. 45

No doubt James Madison would have been amazed if he were able to look into the future and see a federal workforce employing two million people and engaged in controversial rulemakings without congressional involvement on topics as diverse as agriculture, healthcare, banking, and the environment. One of the most controversial rulemakings over the past several years, even a point of debate during the 2016 presidential election, has been defining what waters are “waters of the United States,” known often by its acronym as the WOTUS rule. The Clean Water Act applies to all U.S. waters, so the WOTUS rule would define the scope of the act, one of the country’s most ambitious and wide-ranging environmental laws. Examining the structure of the Clean Water Act, it is immediately evident that it’s designed to allow each state the flexibility necessary to address its unique circumstances. The original rule’s top-down approach, however, bypassed the states, and seized onto a legal test that was not the law but part of a fractured opinion by the U.S. Supreme Court. In April 1989, John A. Rapanos, seeking to develop the area, backfilled wetlands on his Michigan property. This portion of land included 54 acres with water-saturated soil. Although the nearest body of navigable water was 11 to 20 miles away, Rapanos had been informed by regula-


tors that this area was considered a WOTUS and could not be filled without a permit. A majority of the Court agreed that the Rapanos property was not a WOTUS, although not much else. This culminated in 12 years of criminal and civil litigation before the Court rendered the rulings against Rapanos void (Rapanos v. United States, 2006). Justice Antonin Scalia’s opinion in Rapanos v. United States stated that wetlands, lacking a hydrological and ecological connection to other navigable waters, are not within the jurisdiction of the Clean Water Act. Justice Scalia made the point that “the entire land area of the United States lies in some drainage basin,” hence, a loose interpretation of this rule would place all waters of the U.S. under federal jurisdiction. Because the justices could not agree on a legal rationale to support the ruling in favor of Rapanos, the decision left questions about the future impact of the ruling. Adding to the confusion, in his concurring opinion, Justice Anthony Kennedy introduced the “significant nexus” test for addressing the jurisdiction of wa-

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

ters, such as wetlands adjacent to traditionally navigable waters. What constituted a significant nexus was, and remains, unclear. It was, nonetheless, a cornerstone of the 2015 rule. To its credit, the Trump Administration has adopted a new approach. First, it began proceedings to repeal the 2015 WOTUS rule; second, it has recently begun crafting a replacement and announced that it will be guided by Justice Scalia’s opinion in Rapanos, recognizing the important role states play under the Clean Water Act. As this new chapter opens, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking comments from governors, states, and stakeholders. It has also launched a series of teleconferences designed as a platform to allow discussion and submittal of any suggestions. A schedule of these events, as well as registration links, are available on the EPA website at Written recommendations on the rulemaking effort may be submitted through a nonregulatory docket, EPA-HQ-OW-2017-0480, accessible by search on Florida has a vast quantity of wetlands, many of which will be affected by the scope of the rule, so we should embrace the opportunity to have a say over the Clean Water Act. Those affected by the rule, which includes anyone with wetlands on his or her property, should especially avail themselves of the opportunity. Work through trade associations can be particularly productive. A WOTUS rule that respects federalism, provides regulatory certainty, and puts some limits on federal authority, should be welcomed. Madison would want it that way. Gregory M. Munson is a shareholder with Gunster Law Firm, based in Tallahassee, and represents regulated industries in the industrial, agricultural, mining, and utility sectors in all areas of state and federal environmental law. He represents clients before Florida’s executive branch agencies, the state’s water management districts, Division of Administrative Hearings, the Florida governor and cabinet, EPA, and the Florida Legislature. S

PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the Wastewater Process Committee! Each year, the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) gives the Earle B. Phelps Award to wastewater treatment facilities in recognition for outstanding operations.

Valrico Wastewater Treatment Plant Eric Gauld and Tim Ware he Valrico Wastewater Treatment Plant, winner of the 2015 FWEA Earle B. Phelps Award, once again demonstrated its excellence in treatment by being named the award’s first runner-up for advanced treatment for 2016. The plant’s team members continue to show how it’s done in a very tight race with their neighbors in Plant City. The facility is located in eastern Hillsborough County. As a part of the county’s regional wastewater system, it is permitted to treat an annual average daily flow (AADF) of 12 mil gal per day (mgd) under its National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. As an advanced water treatment facility, it is required to meet effluent limits of 5 mg/L of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 5 mg/L of total suspended solids (TSS), 3 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN), and 1 mg/L of total phosphorus (TP). During 2016, the facility treated an average daily flow rate of 6.5 mgd and saw a maximum daily flow rate of 7.95 mgd. The plant is managed by Adam Hunsberger, who is a Florida Class A wastewater operator and one of several members of his family in the wastewater treatment business. Adam oversees a staff of nine operators who work around the clock to keep the facility running at peak performance. Originally built in 1989, the facility has undergone substantial upgrades on four separate occasions. Currently, construction to replace the existing headworks was substantially completed in 2016. Typical plant loadings and discharges for that year are listed in Table 1. The treatment process at the plant begins


with a headworks facility that includes influent screening and grit removal. As previously mentioned, the headworks at the facility are newly improved to facilitate the capture of more inorganic solids. The new structure has two mechanical bar screens, coupled with washer compactors and a manual bar screen as a bypass. It also uses two cyclone degritters. Odor control is accomplished through a biological treatment unit. The facility is an extended aeration plant, with an anaerobic zone before the aeration tank. The biological treatment includes four treatment trains with anaerobic selector tanks, followed by oxidation ditches. This treatment process provides the ability to simultaneously nitrify and denitrify in the oxidation ditches that discharge into six circular clarifiers, followed by eight deep-bed sand filters. Disinfection is accomplished through two ultraviolet disinfection channels and is backed up with sodium hypochlorite, as needed. The treated effluent can be disposed of through a variety of methods, but most of it is transferred to reclaimed water users through the county’s extensive reclaimed distribution system. A new 3-mgd AADF underground injection well system, consisting of one Class V underground injection well, was permitted and installed in 2016 as a new discharge location. The facility also has a permitted surface water discharge outfall that can be used as required. A reject water pond is also available, should there be an upset in the process. The water from the pond can be returned to the headworks to begin the process again once the situation is resolved. Biosolids generated by the facility are initially stored in waste sludge holding tanks; the waste ac-

tivated sludge is then dewatered via two centrifuges. The operation of the centrifuges is based on the electric off-peak hours to cut down on the cost of operation. The centrifuges run daily and fill seven to 10 trailers a week. The biosolids are then disposed of in one of three landfills. The facility faces several operational challenges when meeting its permit limits. The facility accepts biosolids transported by truck from several Hillsborough County School wastewater treatment facilities. Additionally, nearly all of the leachate from the Hillsborough County solid waste management landfill is discharged to the facility containing high Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) and can also have high amounts of recalcitrant nitrogen, forcing the facility to run as efficiently as possible to meet a TN limit of 3 mg/L. The facility currently operates at 51 percent capacity for flow and 80 percent capacity for influent TKN. The facility uses an onsite laboratory to run basic process control tests, such as ultraviolet transmittance (UVT), pH, ammonium hydroxide (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NOx), TSS, and others. An offsite laboratory is used for compliance testing, which is run by Hillsborough County and is fully accredited by the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC), with an approved quality assurance plan. The staff at the plant takes safety very seriously. The plant has operated for over nine years—almost 3,256 days—without a lost-time accident. The safety program consists of regular meetings covering a variety of topics, and also annual classes for first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, chlorine handling, and emergency response. Additionally, specialists in different

Table 1. Typical plant loadings and discharges for 2016.

Welcome sign.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

trades provide hands-on training for the staff. This ensures a working knowledge of the systems and equipment being used. Hillsborough County also utilizes the safety acronym S.A.F.E.R when approaching tasks (see sidebar). Previous plant operation and maintenance awards received by the plant include: S FWEA Earle B. Phelps Award (1992) S Florida Department of Environmental Protection Excellence Award (1993, 2002) S Association of Metropolitan Sewage Agencies Gold for Discharge Permit Compliance (1991, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001, and 2002) and Silver (1998, 1999, and 2003) S FWEA Earle B. Phelps Award (2014, Honorable Mention) S FWEA Earle B. Phelps Award (2015) To show the plant’s continued dedication to improvement, Rich Scheuch, facility operator, developed a plant operational plan and quarterly review to enhance treatment and increase efficiency. The purpose of the plan is to help the employees provide better wastewater treatment, learn from past mistakes, reduce the possibility of future issues, and ensure team continuity. By reviewing the treatment efficiency in 2015 and analyzing the treatment issues, the staff intends to improve daily operations to continue to provide quality treated effluent to Hillsborough County and the surrounding area. Additionally, the plan presents a road map for the team to work toward common goals, and it provides historical data as a reference for future use. With its excellent treatment history, knowledgeable staff, and exemplary safety record, the staff at the Hillsborough County Valrico Wastewater Treatment Plant continues to demonstrate a dedication to protecting our beautiful Florida environment.

Solids building.

Overlooking old headworks.

Headworks structure.

Eric Gauld is shift leader with the Valrico Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hillsborough County. Tim Ware is client manager with Arcadis in Tampa. S

Clarifier and storage tank.

Ultraviolet disinfection system. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Bill Young to Lead FSAWWA in 2018 FloridaSection On November 29, Bill Young became the 92nd chair of the Florida Section American Water Works Association at the section’s annual Fall Conference. He succeeds Grace Johns, Ph.D. Bill is a lifelong resident of St. Augustine. He grew up surfing and water skiing in the beautiful waters of St. Johns County and developed a passion for its natural resources. He is very proud of his heritage as a fifth-generation St. Augustinian, and of the fact that his in-laws, wife, and both of his children were all born in the city. Bill is a proud Florida Gator, like his father, and after completing his education in Gainesville, joined the Florida Air National Guard. He spent eight years in a combat engineering unit where he was trained in the water/wastewater career field and renewed his interest and commitment to environmental management. In 1985, he went to work with the St. Johns County Utility Dept. as a water plant operator trainee. Eventually, he obtained his Class A operator’s license from the State of Florida and was named supervisor of water treatment for the utility. During this time, he commuted to the University of North Florida (Jacksonville) where

he earned his master’s degree in public administration. Bill was appointed the county’s second director of utilities by the county commission in 1998. Over the past 20 years, he and his staff have successfully dealt with many challenges inherent in one of the country’s fastest growing counties. The foundation of their success has been environmental stewardship, financial strength, and customer service. In 1993, Bill applied for a scholarship that he read about in the Florida Water Resource Journal, and was awarded the Roy Likins Scholarship that year by Bob Claudy. As valuable as the cash award was in funding his graduate studies, the scholarship boosted Bill’s career in St. Johns County government and he began a 25-year relationship with the Florida Section. Bill led efforts to organize and establish Region II for the section, and he also chaired the Likins Scholarship Committee and held several other leadership positions. In his hometown, he is past president of the St. Augustine Rotary Club and St. Johns ARC, and serves as an adjunct professor at Flagler College. Bill is married to Kathy, a school teacher, and is the father of two wonderful children, Georgia, 17, and Liam, 12. Bill is very proud to be the first Likins Scholarship awardee to serve as chair of the Florida Section. “I have always tried to ‘pay back’

Horror on Tap in St. Petersburg!

This year, the City of St. Petersburg sponsored a Halloween pumpkin decorating contest, and this pumpkin from the city’s water resources department won “Best Horror.” Tajuanda May, the computer resources manager for the department, submitted the photo. “Designing and creating the pumpkin was a group effort,” said May, “and the team had lots of fun putting it together.” S


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the section for all that it has given me in my career, but I will never be able to,” said Bill. “The section and the association have been so beneficial to my career, and I strongly encourage everyone in the water field to get involved! You will have fun, meet great people, and enhance your career, while volunteering your time to a tremendous organization that makes our world a better place!” S

2018 Florida Water Resources Conference Holly Hanson The Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) provides a forum for knowledge-driven presentations and discussions on cuttingedge technological development, as well as practical case studies of applications of technology in the water and wastewater utilities. The FWRC also features one of the largest regional technical exhibitions in the nation, with unparalleled access to more than 350 manufacturers and service providers. A joint conference of Florida’s three major water industry organizations: Florida Section American Water Works Association, Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, and Florida Water Environment Association (Florida chapter of the Water Environment Federation), the FWRC is scheduled for April 15-18, 2018, at the Ocean Center in Daytona Beach. The conference, with a technical program, exhibits, awards luncheon, meetings, contests and competitions, and other


events, will offer something for everyone in the water and wastewater industry.

New This Year To keep the conference interesting and compelling every year, we try to provide new opportunities for attendees to learn about the industry and the environment, and to have fun! On Saturday before the conference, we’re planning an Eco Environmental River Clean Up Trip through a local waterway—possibly the Halifax or Tomoka River. This event would be led by experienced guides to paddle the river in canoes and collect floating trash. This is a golden opportunity to observe native species, such as alligators, bald eagles, osprey, and barred owls, from a safe distance as you paddle your own canoe or kayak in a lush tropical water source. Sunday night you might engage in a “Glow in the Dark” volleyball game directly in front of the Hilton in an established volleyball court. Enjoy a relaxing time before embarking on several days of your conference experience.

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Innovative Technical Program The technical program, with sessions, workshops, and discussions that integrate the brain and the brawn, will provide an understanding of, and offer solutions for, the imposing daily challenges being faced by the water sector. Recognized industry speakers, who are experts in their fields, will address the technical, managerial, regulatory, and environmental needs of today—and the future. Plant operators, chemists, engineers, managers, regulators, industrial and municipal administrators, academicians, and researchers will have an opportunity to interact with decision makers and problem solvers concerning such subjects as utility management, leadership, facility operations and maintenance, water supply, wastewater treatment, disinfection and public health, distribution and collection systems, stormwater and green infrastructure, legislative and regulatory matters, sustainability and climate change, reclamation and reuse, resources recovery, potable water, conservation and management, contractor issues, laboratory practices, biosolids

and residuals, nutrient removal, modeling/geographic information systems (GIS)/instrumentation, and much more.

Exhibit Hall: Learning and Networking Featuring more than 350 exhibitors, the FWRC is Florida’s marketplace for this multifaceted industry and provides access to the most cutting-edge technologies in the field, serves as a forum for domestic business opportunities, and promotes invaluable peer-to-peer networking. As the need for water increases, here you will find industry representatives willing to help you select the products and services you need to fill demands. Other opportunities for excellent networking include: S Operators Showcase - A great occasion to discuss both basic fundamentals and complex issues with other operators. S Young Professionals Reception - Established specifically for those just embarking on a water or wastewater career. S Contractors Council - A gathering of professional contractors to discuss common issues. S Women of Water Forum - After a phenomenally successful second endeavor at the 2017 conference, leaders will again converge to discuss the pivotal role that women play in the water industry.

University Students: Florida’s Future Engineers to Present

Get Involved and Support the Industry

As a forum to showcase the capabilities of students studying environmental engineering, the annual Student Design Competition will have several teams representing Florida colleges and universities presenting their synopses. Initiated in Florida, this competition has now become an international event at the annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC). Another venue for students is the Student Poster Contest, held on the exhibit floor, allowing attendees to view and discuss their projects. Intended to promote education in a variety of waterrelated projects, this is an excellent opportunity to connect with prospective employers. Winners of both events receive cash rewards and move on to the national competitions.

Utilities can enter teams to compete in the Operations Challenge or the Top Ops Competition held during the conference. Winners from these events travel to the national competitions at WEFTEC and the American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exhibition (ACE). The Best Drinking Water Contest will also take place, as well as a fundraiser for Water For People. Visit for more conference information and registration forms. The Hilton Daytona Beach, located directly on the beach and across the street from the convention center, will serve as the host hotel. Make plans now to attend this exciting conference and raise your career, your company, and the water industry to new heights! Holly Hanson is executive director of the Florida Water Resources Conference. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017



New Technology for Biofilm Removal and Hydrogen Sulfide Control in Sewer Lines: Lake Nona Trial Charles Shultz, Michael Nostro, and Daniel Weidl he wastewater division for the City of Orlando (city) was experiencing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) odor and corrosion concerns near the Narcoossee Road area, specifically at a force main discharge manhole and in the downstream gravity system. In May 2015, CloevisTM, a biofilm removal technology, was introduced to the wastewater system at Lift Station (LS) #155 for the purposes of mitigating H2S formation in the force main. As a result, the gaseous H2S production was greatly reduced, as were the foul odor and corrosion. Cloevis is an innovative process that removes the biofilm that harbors sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs). It does this by using free nitrous acid (formed in situ by adding sodium nitrite and an acidifying agent) to specifically target the ecology in force main sewer systems, resulting in sustained suppression of gaseous H2S production. While control of H2S has been achieved in wastewater collection systems with the utilization of many different technologies (primarily with oxidation, precipitation, pH adjustments, and vapor-phase systems), the process provides an alternative solution for unique situations,


such as the lack of a suitable site to house conventional chemicals and equipment, or an effective dosing location. Future process benefits to the city would include the potential for minimal chemical storage onsite, no equipment downtime excursions that permanent equipment sites experience, no long-term chemical residual downstream, no impact by sulfide loading, and minimal labor and maintenance demand. The process has two main phases: 1. The “conditioning” phase, when the ecology of the force main is changed to support the suppression of sulfides in the slime layer. 2. The “maintenance” phase, when the force main is treated at intervals in the future to provide ongoing sulfide control within established parameters. The process was developed at the University of Queensland in Australia and licensed to USP Technologies (USP) as the exclusive provider in North America. Queensland researchers conducted field tests in Australia prior to the licensing agreement and found that intermittent dosing of free nitrous acid (FNA) can

Charles Shultz, P.E., is wastewater assistant division manager with the wastewater division at City of Orlando. Michael Nostro is southeast regional program manager with USP Technologies in Grand Island and Daniel Weidl is program manager with USP Technologies in Atlanta.

achieve effective control of sulfide production in rising main sewers. One single dose for eight to 24 hours can provide lasting effectiveness up to 10 days, for an average reduction of sulfide by 80 percent. Testing also found that no biofilm adaptation to FNA was observed; instead, successive dosing may achieve better control efficiency due to repetitive weakening of the biofilms. The city’s chosen sewer line originates at LS #155 and discharges into a manhole in the median of Narcoossee Road. This system was chosen due to the following characteristics: S It has a definitive process feed point (LS #155). S It receives minimal side flows. S The force main detention time (DT) is within process parameters (although DT has not been found to be a limiting factor in most cases). S Significant sulfides are generated in the force main. S Minimal sulfides are originated from the line segment prior to the process feed point. It was decided that a trial of the new process would be done at Lake Nona, a 7,000-acre mixed-use planned community within the city limits of Orlando, southeast of Orlando International Airport. The goals of the Lake Nona trial were as follows: S Characterize the critical collection system aspects, including wastewater flow, force main diameters, chronic odor complaint areas. and visible corrosion of system appurtenances. S Determine the detailed sulfide loadings in the LS #155 force main upon discharge onto the Narcoossee Road manhole.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Determine the rate of sulfide reduction with the utilization of the process technology. S Prove the concept of the technology (as outlined herein) as an effective strategy for control of H2S odors and corrosion from LS #155 force main discharge up to and including LS #138, limiting average atmospheric H2S to a mutually-agreed-upon level of 10 parts per million (ppm). S Quantify the treatment performance, cost-effectiveness, and operational benefits of the program as a whole for the localized segment tested, and as an optimized strategy for additional H2S corrosion and odor control in the city’s wastewater collection system. S Provide the city with a comprehensive report of all findings and recommendations.

Figure 1. Biofilm Removal Technology: Chemical Dosing/ Monitoring Schematic

Results The city contracted with USP to conduct an odor control demonstration of its new technology with the specific goal to reduce H2S in a selected segment in the city’s wastewater collection system. For the purposes of this trial, the primary control point was the outfall (discharge) manhole for the flow emanating from LS #155; a secondary control point was at LS #138. Although the process has been successful in other collection systems in Australia and the western United States, the Orlando project was the first in Florida and adds to the city’s H2S control program, which features multiple technologies, including chemical as well as vapor-phase treatments. This demonstration provided the basis for the fundamental proof of concept required for determination of the level of success of the process in the Narcoossee Road system. Application Approach The treatment requires an initial conditioning phase where the biofilm that harbors the SRBs is removed, and then an ongoing maintenance phase, where treatments are repeated for a few hours every one to four weeks, depending on the rate of regeneration of H2S. It is used on force mains and can be employed either alone or in combination with other (continuous) treatments. Mechanism of Control The technology involves periodically adding an acid, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium nitrite, into the wastewater (Figure 1) and utilization of the force main scouring velocity in order to remove SRBs within the conveyance system biofilm. Since the SRBs thrive deep within the biofilm, sufficient contact time (i.e., approximately four to 24 hours of contact at pH 5) is required during treatments for successful removal.

Figure 2. City of Orlando LS #155 and LS #138 Collection System Schematic

Chemical Demands The two factors affecting chemical demand are: 1) The amount of acid required to lower the four to 24 hours of volume of wastewater flow to pH 5. The amount needed for pH depression can vary with the wastewater, but is typically in the range of 4-5 ml/L of 1 Molar HCl. 2) The frequency that treatments need to be reapplied to arrest the biofilm growth rate, which in turn depends on wastewater biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, pipe velocity, and sulfate levels. For most municipalities, frequencies range from once every two to three weeks in peak sum-

mer to once every two to five weeks in deep winter. At LS #155, FNA was formed in the wet well by metering HCl (25 percent) into the station, continuously monitoring and controlling to approximately pH 5 and adding liquid sodium nitrite (40 percent) as the station wastewater level was rising. Both chemicals were fed below the water level in the wet well while continuously mixing using a wastewater recirculating pump. As suggested in other previous trials, two 24-hour conditioning treatments were conducted at LS #155 on May 12-13, 2015, and again on May 15-16, 2015, to remove the biofilm in the Continued on page 16

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Table 1. Cloevis Chemical Dose Rates

Table 2. Description of Sampling Locations and Frequency

Table 3. Testing and Analysis Methods

Continued from page 15 downstream force main. Maintenance (recurring/intermittent) treatments were administered on May 28-29, 2015 (12 hours), June 22, 2015 (8 hours), and July 14, 2015 (12 hours), to prevent the re-establishing of the biofilm and associated H2S production. Table 4 shows that the number of days between treatments increased from two to 20 days throughout the trial, signifying the effectiveness of the process in preventing biofilm reestablishment. In order to measure the performance of the treatments at both control points, and to provide the basis for the intermittent treatment schedule, OdaLogÂŽ data loggers were placed at the Narcoossee Road and Dowden Road manholes, both before treatment began (in January and February 2015) and continuously during the trial from May 12, 2015, through July 30, 2015. Additionally, wastewater samples were collected on a weekly basis and tested for dissolved sulfide (S-), temperature (Fahrenheit), pH value, and nitrite residual. Collection System Schematic Figure 2 illustrates the collection system characteristics. Chemical Application and Durations Various treatment scenarios were tested throughout the trial based on prior applications and ongoing evaluation of this trial at the control points at Narcoossee Road and Dowden Road. Table 1 shows the range of treatment conditions evaluated. Sampling Locations Table 2 describes the sampling locations (in detail) and the testing frequency at each of the manhole locations. Data Collection and Analytical Methods In order to monitor the effectiveness of each treatment, USP conducted continuous monitoring of gaseous H2S (App-Tek OdaLog monitor/data logger) at the Narcoossee Road and Dowden Road manholes. Additionally, wastewater samples were analyzed on a weekly basis and tested for dissolved sulfide, temperature (Fahrenheit), pH value, and nitrite residual. Treatment Results

Figure 3. Compiled Vapor Hydrogen Sulfide Data Logged Measurements Throughout Cloevis Demonstration


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Hydrogen Sulfide Data Ultimately, H2S atmospheric levels measured at the control points determine the success or failure of any sulfide control process. As the process is particularly dependent on proper treatment processes and sufficient contact time

in the force main to be successful, ongoing analysis of current sulfide levels is paramount. The numbers on the graph in Figure 3 signify the average gaseous H2S level (ppm) for each day during the trial, including the day prior to the first treatment. Table 4 shows the gaseous H2S levels (ppm) during each of the baseline and treatment stages of the trial. The graph clearly illustrates the effectiveness of the technology in the Lake Nona system. The H2S levels were reduced from an average of 57 ppm to 5 ppm or less following the initial conditioning for the duration of the trial. With the treatment, peaks greater than 30 ppm usually only occur once or twice per day, generally during high-flow periods, as a result of “pass through” sulfide (produced in upstream segments not receiving the treatments). These treatments thus eliminated sustained, lengthy periods of high H2S that were routinely observed in the baseline readings, which resulted in odor complaints and system corrosion. Downstream at the Dowden Road manhole, despite septic wastewater from the Lake Nona Country Club combining with the treated flow from Narcoossee Road, sulfide levels were reduced significantly, as the baseline (untreated)

average of nearly 60 ppm and peaks approaching 150 ppm were reduced to an average of less than 30 ppm (and peaks of 50 ppm). Most of the measured sulfides in the Dowden Road manhole can be attributed to the Lake Nona Country Club flow. It must be noted that although the OdaLog sessions show significant reductions in H2S levels throughout the trial, both control points also passed the qualitative “smell test” (as determined discrete subjective tests), i.e., there was a distinct difference in the odor level at each, both with and without the manhole cover in place. Wastewater Analysis Data Aqueous sulfide levels were measured prior to the introduction of the technology to the Lake Nona system, during treatment sessions and between intermittent maintenance treatments. The relationship between aqueous and atmospheric sulfide levels in the process-treated force mains is case-specific, but overall reductions were realized at both the Narcoossee Road and Dowden Road manholes, following the conditioning treatments and for the remainder of the trial.

Conclusions Based on the data collected during the demonstration by USP, several important conclusions about the process demonstration can be reached. The 24-hour sessions on May 12-13, 2015, and May 15-16, 2015, provided sufficient base treatment, and along with the three subsequent maintenance treatments, the process proved to be successful in the Lake Nona system and continuously maintained a level of <10 ppm of H2S (average). The treatment removed 92 percent of the H2S on an average daily basis at the Narcoossee Road manhole, which therefore will also reduce corrosion. As stated previously, the number of days between treatments increased on average throughout the trial, signifying the effectiveness of the process in preventing the reestablishment of biofilm, and ultimately, sulfide production. The benefits of the process to the city include the potential for minimal chemical storage onsite, no equipment downtime excursions that permanent equipment sites experience, no longterm chemical residual downstream, and minimal labor and maintenance required. S

New Products The wet-end components of the Vanton Chem-Gard® line of horizontal, centrifugal pumps are constructed of injection-molded, homogeneous, corrosion-resistant thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. These materials are 100 percent inert to fluids across the entire pH range. Along with other nonmetallic materials that are also totally inert to acids, caustics, ultrapure fluids, chlorides, unknown waste/effluent streams, and other aggressive and abrasive chemicals, Vanton’s line of products feature a sealless, magnetically-driven design, along with a range of ANSI, self-priming, and close-coupled pumps. (

capabilities and flexibility. The upgraded user interface permits input of external data to produce consolidated fluid analysis reports that include several parameters not previously available in the MicroLab test suite. The software update presents a new, easy-to-read report format that includes additional historical trending data. The MicroLab Series also now features the MicroLab 31, MicroLab 42, and MicroLab 43 Companion Kits. The kits combine Spectro’s FDM 6001 fuel dilution meter, FerroCheck 2000 ferrous wear analyzer, and CoolCheck 2 coolant analyzer with the MicroLab 30 and 40 analyzers to offer users complete fluid analysis testing packages to meet their maintenance needs.

Spectro Scientific has announced the release of MicroLab® Version 11 Software and the introduction of new MicroLab Companion Kits. The MicroLab automated analyzer series provides complete analysis testing including chemistry, kinematic viscosity, and concentration of up to 20 wear, additive, and contamination elements, in addition to an optional particle counter. Version 11 software brings improved performance through new signal processing methods and features that provide additional

The TF-1 check valve from Tideflex Technologies has a bill formed into a curve that returns to a closed position every time, achieving the tightest possible seal for backflow operations, particularly at low-flow rates. The eccentric, flat-bottom design allows installation where the invert of the pipe is close to the floor. The stronger engineered spine provides longterm performance, while handling water weight. The check valves have low headloss and their flexibility allows them to compress around



trapped solids, providing a much better seal than flapgates. With the development of the patented curved bill, sealing capabilities are further improved because the curved bill is more flexible than the rest of the valve and will compress even more around solids. The valves offer low cracking pressure to eliminate standing water and maximize storage volume in the upstream pipe, and feature a one-piece elastomer and ply-reinforced body, similar in construction to a truck tire. As a result, the valves are not affected by rust, corrosion, or ultraviolet light. They require no maintenance and have a long life span, making them extremely cost-effective. The valves operate using line pressure and backpressure to open and close, so no outside energy source is required. (


The Bionomic Industries Series 6500 Jet Ejector Venturi Scrubber offers a multispray zone staging configuration that gives about a 50 percent boost in collection efficiency performance. It features a simple, rugged design that utilizes a high-velocity spray and scrubbing liquid flow to achieve simultaneous removal of gaseous contaminants and particulate down to .75 micron size. The high-scrubbing liquid-to-gas ratio Continued on page 18

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017



What Does the Future Hold for Water? 2018 And Beyond Mark A. Kelly

t goes without saying: water has value and importance in each of our daily lives and in the growth of our economy. While I reflect on the past 30 years of working on water and wastewater projects in Florida, I wonder what the future holds for the next five, 10, and even 30 years. We know the need for water is there. Just look at recent growth rates and the construction boom going on around the state, or look at the projections of spending needs to repair and replace our aging utility infrastructure. Recently, we were reminded of Mother Nature’s power and its toll on the citizens and resources within the state, while the latest episode with Hurricane Irma had a significant impact on our utility infrastructure. As officials debate regulations, water rights, and funding, the need to make substantial investments in utility infrastructure continues to be ignored by our elected officials. With the present utility market on the upswing and the demands on the resources needed (companies, manpower, raw materials, and supplies) to build these projects, we are reaching the boom days of 2002-2008. Utilities are finding that their budgets from prior years are being exceeded by 20 to 40 percent, with low bids that reflect the chang-


New Products Continued from page 17 design rapidly reduces the temperature of high exothermic reactive gases. It creates its own draft to eliminate the need for a fan in most cases, and gas capacity sizes from 5 through 60,000 acfm are standard. (


The new automatic potentiometric titrator HI901C from Hanna Instruments is designed with simplicity and focus in mind. The HI901C features the ability to titrate for a variety of ap-


ing market and cost escalation each construction company is experiencing. So, is there an answer for what the future holds? Well, President Trump has touted (Tweeted probably) huge investments in infrastructure, but like so many, that commitment has begun to soften. However, there is hope and solutions are available: 1. The FSAWWA Contractors Council is closing in on its ninth year as part of the Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) and is a resource to all utilities in the state. The council was created to close the loop of involvement within the section between the utilities, engineers, and manufacturers/vendors, and the contractor. The council is here to assist utilities in the state on ways to improve their systems, deliver their projects, and lower their capital costs, while meeting the quality, schedule, and safety needs of each project. 2. The use of collaborative project delivery methods by utilities has been growing over the past five years in Florida. As utilities face emergency repairs, consent decree deadlines, and budget concerns on projects, they are looking to use various collaborative delivery methods, such as best-value (BV), construction manager at risk (CMAR) and design-build (DB). By using a collaborative delivery method, the utility can control budgets, compress the schedule, and share the risk/control of a project, while minimizing project change orders and conflicts. Over the past five years, more than $1.5 billion of utility

plications, including acids, bases, redox, and selective ions. In addition to titration mode, the autotitrator also operates as a fully functional pH, redox, and ion-selective electrode (ISE) meter. The 40,000-step, piston-driven pump is capable of dosing extremely small and highly accurate volumes of reagent, helping to achieve a very precise endpoint. A dynamic dosing algorithm keeps titrations timely and accurate, making analysis more efficient. (


Bionomic Industries has released its new ScrubPac Custom Skid-Mounted Scrubber Sys-

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

projects have been constructed using a collaborative delivery method in Florida. 3. The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) was passed in 2014; AWWA was instrumental in making this happen and continues to shape how it will be used. The program provides financing opportunities for both small and large infrastructure projects and is fully up and running. Details can be found at https:// 4. A public-private partnership (P3) bill (255.065) was passed by the Florida Legislature in 2013 and modified in 2016, which extends into the utility sector. This allows cities, counties, and utility authorities to work with the private sector to utilize design-build-finance (DBF), design-build-operate-finance (DBOF), and other options to complete their infrastructure needs. The Florida Department of Transportation has used this delivery method on several road projects within the state, most recently on the I-4 Ultimate project. If you’re interested in learning more about one of the topics presented here, would like the Contractors Council to provide assistance with your next project, or have suggestions on topics for our future workshops, please contact me at Mark A. Kelly is employee-owner of Garney Construction in Orlando and is chair of the FSAWWA Contractors Council. S

tem. The cost-effective, packaged system is engineered to meet the exact demands of a customer’s process emission control application. All necessary components—precirculation pumps, piping and valve networks, exchangers, instrumentation, controls, and any other essential items needed to satisfy customer application requirements—are included in the system. Typical applications include volatile organic contaminant scrubbing, nitrogen oxide, hydrogen sulfide and organo-sulfur compound removal, acid and ammonia scrubbing, halogens and amines removal, and more. ( S


It’s C hristmastime Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA

t’s Christmastime, or at least is will be by the time that you read this. Without getting into the religious significance of this time of year, it is generally accepted as a time of giving. While gold and silver can lose their luster, I encourage each of you to give something more precious than either: I ask that you give your time. Time is much more precious than gold, silver, oil, or even money because you can use your time to make money, but you can’t use money to purchase more time. Each day has only 24 hours—nobody has any more than anyone else. Everyone, from preachers to presidents, fills those hours, one after the other, until they are all filled up. Every single second is different, and once gone, can never be regained. People often say, “I don’t have the time to…” Fill in the blank with whatever you like: exercise, make dinner, volunteer, write a book, start a company, run for political office. What makes these people think that they have less time than anyone else? Of course they don’t. We all have the same 24 hours in each day and make real decisions about how we spend them. We can spend our time wisely, or worthlessly; we can squander it, or invest it; we can enjoy it, or



abuse it; we can live it, or retreat from it; but, it moves on regardless. If we chose to use it positively, then time does give us the opportunity to make changes to ourselves and to make ripples in life and make differences that spread out and have farreaching effects and consequences. And, if it’s our goal to become more successful in our profession, then we need to adopt a verified strategy that has worked with some of the most motivated up-and-coming managers in the world. We need to adopt a career-boosting strategy that works. The answer to this strategy—while it might seem simple—is to join and get active in a professional association. When I say “active,” I mean to take on a leadership role at any level. As simple as it might sound, this powerful strategy works. While it takes time, the benefits that you can reap from a leadership role are too numerous to list. So, don’t waste time before joining and don’t wait to be asked; act now, become an active member, and volunteer. While many sit on the sidelines, there are only a few who are asked to join, and even fewer who are asked to take on a leadership role. Remember that the current individuals, who are holding those roles and are looking for others to either pick up the yoke or to work beside them, are busy as well. Don’t expect them to beg you to do anything that you are unwilling to do on your own, because they know that if you don’t have time to do it correctly the first time, then when are you going to find time to correct it the second time? They also know

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

that many hands make for light work and are unlikely to turn down a willing participant. One of the most heard responses is, “I don’t have time to take on more responsibilities.” Well, the proven strategy says that you cannot afford not to become “active” in a professional association. While I might be biased, the professional association that I think that you should become an active member of is the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA). But what professional association should you join? To determine the answer to that question, you should consider these three simple statements: S If your community and the environment are as good as they could possibly be, then you don’t need to be a member of FWEA. S If you are the best individual that you could possibly be and there is nothing left for you to learn, areas where you could improve professionally, or area where you could contribute to improving your profession, then you don’t need to be a member of FWEA. S If you have the largest network of friends and resources that you will ever need, then you don’t need to be a member of FWEA. Our past president, Lisa Prieto, has the following to say: “We understand that when you sign up as a volunteer, we are not always going to get 100 percent of you, and that’s okay. Volunteering is not perfect—just like all aspects of our lives—but we do the best we can. We value the time you can give and we value your membership in our association. You are not just a number when you are part of WEF and FWEA—you are a voice. Our membership enables us to be a compelling voice in the industry: educating government officials, supporting utilities, and supporting or opposing legislation. “If you are not already a FWEA member, I encourage you to go to the FWEA website and look at the membership options, then reach out to the chapter in your area. Go through the list of committees and email the chair of a committee you are interested in. Getting more involved does not have to be a huge time commitment; assignments are flexible. If you’re already involved, invite a coworker to an event, introduce them to your colleagues, and make them feel welcome. Tell them why you love FWEA and how much it helps broaden your network, increase your passion for water, and make new friendships.” S

UNLEASHing Sustainable Development Goals Eight WEF young professionals explore global issues Fidan Karimova

his year an inaugural event, called UNLEASH (, brought together more than one thousand talents from around the world to tackle the United Nation’s sustainable development goals (SDGs). The Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) sponsored eight young water professionals, including myself, to attend the event in Denmark to represent the North American water sector. After several days of a facilitated innovation process, conceiving solutions, and testing them with leading experts and companies, I was honored to be selected to receive the Most Visionary Award. Actor Ashton Kutcher presented the award in front of thousands of attendees, which included the Princess of Denmark.


Sustainable Development Goals The SDGs originated in 2016 to continue the work of the United Nation’s millennium development goals (MDGs) that originated in 2000, with 189 countries signing on to seek their achievement by 2015. Between the two lists, the number of goals increased from eight to seventeen, adding areas that were not previously covered. The SDGs program is the largest global partnership agreement and development plan for the planet ever made, according to the UNLEASH website. The sixth goal (SDG 6) seeks to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.”

WEF’s Role and Contributions Although North American countries are not automatically associated with vulnerable

water sources, the Flint, Mich., water crisis in the United States and radioactive particles in northwestern Ontario, Canada, prove that no region is immune to water issues, and WEF was established exactly for this reason—to protect public health and the environment through increasing the awareness of the value of water. The organization supports young professionals in the water industry and encourages them to take on more proactive roles. Once in Denmark, the eight participants mixed with the other attendees and were placed in groups with people from throughout the world. For example, my team consisted of four men from Mexico, Denmark, Canada, and Brazil. We named our team OTWOH, which is a play on words: H2O reversed into O2H/OTWOH, which stands for Ocean Plastics to Heat. The team proposed an alternate source of energy at water resource recovery facilities. The proposal calls for harvesting pollutant plastics from the ocean and using them as a fuel source via the process of gasification. The idea originated with my organization, Global Water Girls (, and the UNLEASH group developed it further. The group is continuing to work on the project after the UNLEASH event and hopes the solution will eventually help the waste and energy industries.

Why Seek the Sustainable Development Goals? Water and sanitation are keys to thriving communities in promoting the growth of future healthy generations and access to a cleaner environment. The SDG 6 goal gains even more importance when taking into consideration that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water that is fecally contaminated and 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets or latrines, according to the UN. However, since 1990, 2.6 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water

sources, so progress has been made and needs to continue. To quote Leonardo Da Vinci, “Water is the driver of nature.” Once we learn to take better care of our water systems, we will be able to meet many of the other SDG goals. The UNLEASH event helped highlight, once again, that SDG 6 is at the core of all the other issues, and if properly addressed, it could help simultaneously meet many other SDGs. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Fidan Karimova is water technology collaboration manager at the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation in Alexandria, Va. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Two Foundations for Water Research Merge The boards of directors for the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF) and the Water Research Foundation (WRF) have voted unanimously to integrate the two organizations into one research foundation. Bringing the two organizations together creates a stronger, broader, more-interconnected research agenda that offers greater value to the water community. The integrated organization will be called The Water Research Foundation. Separately, the two foundations each have had a rich history of effective and impactful research supporting the water profession. Their integration is aimed at creating greater synergy and partnerships. Beginning on Jan. 1, 2018, the new organization will be led by a single board of directors comprised of the directors and leaders from the two organizations: co-chairs Chuck Murray and Kevin Shafer, and co-chief executive officers Melissa Meeker and Rob Renner. The new organization will have approximately 1,200 subscribers, 2,300 research studies, and a $700 million portfolio. “The decision to integrate these two organizations is a great victory for the water community,” said Rob Renner of WRF. “The new organization will leverage resources and funding to solve the water sector’s research needs in new and exciting ways.” Explained Melissa Meeker of WE&RF, “Harnessing the collective passion of our staffs, volunteers, and supporters to focus on research


that meets the needs of all water professionals will provide an outstanding benefit for our subscribers. We are looking forward to the challenge.” The integration represents the evolution of water research issues, the overlap between water and wastewater, and the efficiencies to be gained through a consolidated research program. The new organization will provide a unified source for research and serve as a model for collaboration across the water industry. The merger was completed with support from both the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the Water Environment Federation (WEF). “The members of AWWA envisioned and created the Water Research Foundation in December 1966 with a small budget and an

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

unwavering commitment to scientific research that protects public health,” said David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer. “The foundation’s growth into the preeminent drinking water research organization has been a source of pride for the association. “The integration between WRF and WE&RF reflects a growing recognition that water must always be understood in the context of the complete water continuum. We’re excited that the newly formed organization, The Water Research Foundation, will bring scientific research across the entire water cycle into a single repository of knowledge.” The Water Environment Federation and its members supported the original founding of the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), WE&RF’s predecessor, in 1989, showing WEF’s long-standing commitment to research and innovation. The organization has maintained a close, productive relationship with both groups, including nominating representatives to their boards. At the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference in 2017, the WEF board approved a $75,000 donation to support WE&RF research. “The integration of WE&RF and WRF is a forward-focused, positive change that will bring tremendous value to the water sector, including WEF and its members,” said Eileen O’Neill, WEF executive director. “WEF’s close partnerships with the water research community will continue and the integration of the two foundations will certainly provide new and exciting opportunities to advance our mission.” Additional information is available at and S


Getting a Good Start on Our Long-Term Goals Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

s I look back over this past year, which is my final year as FWPCOA president, the first item we wanted to focus on last January was the revitalization of Region 1 in the Florida Panhandle. With that goal in mind, our association did what it does best and took the issue head on. There are two areas that seemed to need the most work: S It’s extremely hard to get members to take the time to attend a meeting or training class. We battle with technology on training; why should someone come to a meeting or training course when they can go online at their convenience? The training provided at the meetings must improve so we can get members involved. That’s one item I will push the new president, Mike Darrow, to advance as he takes over in January. S We also need more hands-on types of training, and with the CD library in the works, we’ll be able to provide regions with better training material.


The training and attendance numbers at the monthly meetings in Region 1 are now better than in the other regions, and the lessons we learned there will help us support and improve the other regions in the coming year. It seems that every week we find new ways to make it easier to schedule training or renew one’s membership online with our improved website. The days of turning in mountains of paperwork are almost a thing of the past. There’s plenty of work to do, but we are finding the right people to step in where needed.

Computer-Based Testing and New Rulemaking The one area I feel the most disappointment in the two years I have been sitting in the president’s chair is not getting computer-based testing back on track. Hopefully, it will be back


Reigions of Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association by the summer of next year. I will keep pushing to get it moving and talking with representatives from the other water organizations to push the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to speed up the process. Speaking of FDEP, please take the time to review the following rule that has been talked about following the storms and other spills this past year: Notice of Development of Rulemaking Department: Department of Environmental Protection Division: Departmental Rule No.: 62-4.600 Purpose: The Department of Environmental Protection (department) is developing procedural rules to implement the Public Notice of Pollution Act (the Act), Section 403.077, F.S., which was passed by the Legislature and signed into law by the governor in 2017 (SB 1018 and Chapter 2017-95, Laws of Florida). The act requires owners and operators of installations to notify the department of reportable pollution releases within 24 hours of discovery. The department’s rulemaking will include the adoption of a form and directions

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

on how to electronically submit the notices to the department.

Online Institute A file ( View_Notice.asp?id=19648337) in pdf format provides a side-by-side comparison of the monthly sales and revenue for the 2017 and 2019 license renewal cycles updated for the month of October 2017. The Online Institute sales for the month are as follows: CEU courses sold: Exam review courses sold: Short courses sold: Treatment plant operator courses sold: Total:

5 0 2

$75.00 0.00 450.00

3 10

900.00 $1,425.00

There are 73 courses presently offered at the Online Institute and 191 registered students. The following is a link to the course listing: =259919

Please continue to advise your members of the availability of the FWPCOA Online Institute in your newsletters and at your membership meetings. The following is link to a flyer in pdf format that you can print and hand out or attach to your newsletters: 350483 Our association has the finest and the most reasonably priced training programs available, with dedicated instructors who have the handson experience necessary to make the training sessions more informative and valuable to those who attend. We will continue to develop new training courses and examine how existing courses are offered and presented. The implementation of online training has been very successful and we will continue to provide additional course selections. We have listened to our membership’s request to provide a wider variety of online course contact hours and many of our extended courses have been revamped to provide more choices for continuing education units. If any of you have comments or suggestions

on how the association can provide for your training needs, do not hesitate to contact me or any other officer. Contact information can be found on our website at

Board of Directors Activities Succession planning for the association continues to be a work in progress and the work completed to date has been very beneficial. Elections for the 2018 board of officers were recently held, with the following slate of officers selected: S Mike Darrow, president S Ken Enlow, vice president S Patrick Murphy, secretary-elect S Rim Bishop, secretary/treasurer S Scott Anaheim, past president As I mentioned in last month’s column, the association will hold its board meeting in Destin on January 20, and the board cordially invites all members to attend. The main topic of importance will be boosting the presence of FWPCOA in the panhandle, so bring your ideas and suggestions to the meeting for establishing a new regional executive board and training program.

Board of Directors Meeting (open to all FWPCOA members): Holiday Inn Express 1206 Malabar Road SE Palm Bay, Fla. 32907 Date and Time: Jan. 20, 2018; 9:30 a.m. - 12 noon If you have membership questions, please contact Darin Bishop, membership coordinator at or (561) 840-0340.

A Fond Farewell I’m truly thankful for being given the opportunity to serve another term as FWPCOA president and working with all of you to make your jobs easier and more rewarding, and to continue to improve our industry. I wish Mike the best of luck as your new president. I hope that all of you have a wonderful holiday season with family and friends and that each of you will be looking forward to a productive and prosperous new year. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017



Low-Impact Wastewater Collection System Reduces Nutrient Loads in Vero Beach Lindsay Tucker and Rob Bolton he city of Vero Beach (city) is located adjacent to the Indian River Lagoon along the Atlantic Coast of Florida. According to the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program, this area “is home to a rich array of plants and animals whose existence depends on the quality of water within the lagoon. More than 2,000 species of plants, 600 species of fish, 300 species of birds, and 53 threatened or endangered species inhabit the lagoon for at least some portion of their lives, and scientists have shown the lagoon to be one of the most biologically diverse estuaries in North America, with approximately 4,000 species documented” (IRLNEP, 2017). The environmental health of the lagoon is also essential to the economy of Florida’s east coast. The lagoon’s ecosystem is under increased threat from pollution. In 2013, more than 160 manatees, 300 pelicans, and 76 bottlenose dolphins in the lagoon system died of unknown causes (Gibbs, 2015). Another major die-off occurred in 2014, and others continue to this day. Inadequate wastewater treatment has been iden-


tified as one of many culprits in the degradation of the lagoon’s water quality and health. The city’s septic systems serve most of the older homes in barrier island neighborhoods, the majority of which were built under antiquated regulatory codes. Homes constructed before 1983 were likely installed with inadequate septic drainfield separation to groundwater, which is unsuitable for proper septic system performance and contaminant removal. About 900 septic systems are installed on the barrier island and 600 along open drainage systems on the mainland in the city. Nutrient discharge from various sources, including poorly designed and installed septic systems, negatively affects seagrass beds, the biological foundation of the ecosystem. Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs also distress mangroves, oyster reefs, algae, and wetlands, all of which influence lagoon and ocean fisheries, as well as habitat for birds and other wildlife. Reversing this trend was of utmost importance to the city and its constituents.

Figure 1. Typical street in Vero Beach.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lindsay Tucker, P.E., is a sales engineer–southeast region, for Orenco Systems Inc. in Daphne, Ala. Rob Bolton, P.E., is the director of water and sewer at City of Vero Beach.

Preliminary Evaluation As with any infrastructure project, financial considerations were paramount. Cost was the primary obstacle to effectively launching a new wastewater management system in the city. The four main cost considerations were: S Capital costs S Operations and maintenance (O&M) costs S Social costs S Availability costs Until proven otherwise by affordability and implementation challenges, gravity sewers (because of their perceived lower O&M costs) were the initial preference for the city project. In 2004, through voluntary assessment projects, around 60 additional homes were connected to the city’s gravity sewer network. At the time, costs ranged from $6,200 to nearly $20,000 per gravity sewer connection. In 2007, the city attempted to expand the gravity sewer network on a more extensive basis than before into more sensitive areas around the lagoon; however, this project was eventually suspended due to lackluster support from the community and the fact that the proposed state funding stream supporting the planned expansion needed approval from the public. Due to the disruptions caused by the expansion in 2004—as well as the high costs involved—only 14 percent of the residents supported the project. This was far below the required 60 percent level of community support required. Concerns about social costs, or indirect construction costs, were critical to the city’s decision-making process. Disruption to vehicular traffic, road and pavement damage, potential damage to adjacent utilities, air pollution, risks to pedestrian safety, higher tendency for citizen complaints, and increased environmental impact were all major considerations.

Stately live oak trees form a canopy throughout much of the narrow streets and densely populated neighborhoods in the city. Due to past experiences, the construction impact of gravity sewers, which require large-diameter (8-in. minimum) pipe, installed at a constant slope, often with the aid of major lift stations (USEPA, 2002, 1), generated tremendous alarm among the city’s residents. Any sewer project that jeopardized the health or life of the community’s live oak trees was not an option. The ability to implement a sewer solution without requiring mandatory connections was also vital. To effectively launch the sewer project, the city needed an affordable option that didn’t require each household to connect to the new sewer. It needed a solution that allowed residents with properly functioning onsite systems to opt out of the city sewer project initially, while requiring future connection if the onsite systems failed. Because of the construction impact and high costs of mainlines, the city embarked on a research initiative to identify gravity sewer alternatives. The nearby City of Palm Bay, along with other General Development Corporation communities in Florida, had implemented effluent sewer systems in the 1970s and 1980s. After quickly reaching a dead-end with the gravity sewer option, effluent sewers, a type of pressure sewer, were thoroughly investigated. Information was solicited from other communities utilizing this technology, as well as from manufacturers in the industry.

Figure 2. Overview of a typical effluent sewer collection system.

Effluent Sewer Technology Effluent sewers (also known as septic tank effluent pumping, or STEP systems) for residential applications usually consist of an on-lot portion and a right-of-way (ROW) portion. Typically, the on-lot components are a short (10-30 ft) building sewer, a 1,000-gal tank, a pump package with a 1/8-in. mesh filter, and a 1-in.-diameter service lateral that connects to the ROW portion of the system. The on-lot tanks provide the following: S Passive anaerobic digestion S Solids separation and removal (excellent primary clarification) S Reserve storage for 24-48 hours (minimizing the need for after-hours service calls) S Surge capacity for daily flow modulation to the wastewater treatment facility S Long-term sludge digestion (Crites and Tchnobanoglous, 1988, 317) The right-of-way portion consists of smalldiameter, low-pressure force mains (typically 2 to 4 in. in diameter, depending on population,

Figure 3. Effluent sewer septic tank effluent pumping package.

distance, and static head) that are shallowly buried, in the right of way adjacent to the road surface, and following the contour of the land. This eliminates the manholes and lift stations common to gravity sewers (USEPA, 2002, 1). Figure 2 illustrates an overview of an effluent sewer collection system, and Figure 3 illustrates typical on-lot STEP components. Unlike other collection systems, effluent sewers modulate flows at the source. At the same time, they capture and digest over two-thirds of gross solids, grease, and oils, producing effluent that is primary-clarified, treated, and finescreened before it is conveyed to the wastewater facility (Crites and Tchobanoglous, 1998, 183). Table 1 lists the wastewater characteristics for various types of collection systems. With the high groundwater prevalent

throughout the coastal community, a pressure sewer provides distinct benefits. Mainlines are watertight and largely resistant to infiltration. Effluent sewers experience minimal infiltration and inflow (I&I) throughout the collection system because service laterals and mainlines are pressurized, mains are shallowly buried, and manholes are eliminated. As reported in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) manual, Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems, “At this time, thousands of flow measurements have been made on pressure sewer systems with wide demographic spread. The result of these measurements has corroborated findings of the earlier studies: that flows are typically 40-60 gal/capita/day, with little weekly or seasonal variation” (USEPA, 1991, 41). Continued on page 30

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Continued from page 29

Capital Cost Estimates Expanding the existing gravity sewer in the city would have been unreasonably expensive; the streets are narrow, the area is plagued with high groundwater, and the terrain is very flat. The gravity sewer design required deep excavations, elaborate and costly dewatering infrastructure, numerous manholes, and extensive road replacement. It was estimated that extending the gravity sewer to critical areas of unsewered residents would cost around $22.5 million; in contrast, the effluent sewer was estimated to cost around $11 million (Chart 1).

Operation and Maintenance Cost Estimates Due to a sewer system’s anticipated lifespan of 30 or more years, its O&M costs are generally more important than up-front capital costs.

Long-term costs of collection systems can overshadow up-front capital costs (USEPA, 1978, 12), and historical gravity sewer expenditures and personal experience to extrapolate gravity sewer O&M costs were referenced. The city owns and operates an existing gravity sewer system, which includes 123 mi of gravity sewer lines, 48 mi of force mains, 118 electrical panels, 236 lift stations, and 2,660 manholes. A monthly O&M cost for the city’s existing gravity sewer system was estimated at $13.99 per connection, per month. This included the solids-handling cost of the wastewater treatment process. To calculate O&M estimates for the effluent sewer, real-world operational data was collected from existing effluent sewers to specifically look for systems that had been operational for more than 30 years. The estimated monthly O&M cost, which conservatively included tank pump-outs every eight years, was $12.91 per connection, per month, for properties utilizing existing septic tanks, and $15.26 per connection, per month, for properties in-

Table 1. Typical wastewater loading rates for effluent sewer, grinder sewer, and gravity sewer.

stalling completely new systems. This evaluation included full replacement or rehabilitation of all components based on individual component life cycles over a 75-year time frame (monthly costs were updated in December 2016). With reasonably similar O&M costs between gravity sewers and effluent sewers, and considering the significantly lower capital costs associated with effluent sewers, it was concluded that the overall long-term cost of ownership for effluent sewers was a fraction of gravity sewer costs.

Social Cost Considerations As mentioned, many residents were sensitive to how the installation of the sewer system would impact established oak trees, landscaping, and roads. The city’s prior experience with gravity sewers had been negative, which resulted in widespread opposition, as roads had been destroyed, traffic had been disrupted, and trees and landscapes had been altered. The gravity sewer construction process had been highly intrusive and unanimously unwelcome. The principal advantage of effluent sewers is the ability to convey primary-treated effluent through small-diameter mainlines that are shallowly buried and follow the contour of the land, much like a water distribution system. With an effluent sewer, all of the mainlines are installed using trenchless construction, where pipes are pulled through bores and can be easily navigated around existing utilities. Also, the time required to install the effluent sewer was estimated at less than one-eighth of the time required for a gravity sewer.

Availability Cost Estimates

Chart 1. Capital cost of gravity sewer versus effluent sewer.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The original gravity sewer proposal—the aforementioned $22.5 million gravity sewer expansion—was highly controversial, especially considering the requirement that everyone had to connect to it. Gravity sewers almost always require mandatory connections, which is due to a municipality’s need for cash flow to retire the debt associated with the high cost of installing the necessary infrastructure, including large-diameter mainlines, manholes, and lift stations. While some residents supported new sewers, dissent was rampant among those whose onsite systems were functioning properly. Other residents were opposed to the expected disruption during installation, and still others were concerned about the cost. To successfully launch a sewer system, a nonmandatory approach was critical. Effluent sewers provide options by enabling nonmandatory connections, a pivotal

tool for eliciting political support for sewer projects. The city provided incentives for connections, but residents with properly performing onsite systems were not required to connect. The city developed an inspection process to monitor the performance of the existing septic systems, where all existing septic systems that do not connect to the effluent sewer system are inspected every five years. If the city determines, based on established criteria, that the existing system is deficient, the homeowner is required to connect to the effluent sewer system in accordance with state law. Costs of effluent sewers are segmented into two main categories: on-lot and ROW. The majority of effluent sewer system costs, usually about 90 percent of the total, are associated with the onlot equipment; conversely, only 10 percent of the costs are related to the mainlines. The term “availability cost” was coined, which is defined as the cost of the effluent mainlines, excluding the onlot components. This availability cost, or the cost to make sewer service available to the residents, was estimated at $885,000 for the effluent sewer, but nearly $18 million for the gravity sewer (Chart 2). The low availability cost of the effluent sewer facilitated nonmandatory connections, allowing properly functioning onsite systems to remain in service until determined otherwise.

Figure 4. Gravity sewer main excavation.

Funding To construct the effluent mainlines and service laterals, the St. Johns River Water Management District, a branch of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, issued two cost-share agreements totaling approximately $493,000. The cost-share agreements provided 33 percent of the funding for the effluent mainlines ($885,000) and 26 percent of the funding for the individual lateral taps ($750,000), and immediately provided sewer availability to the residents. The majority of the homes in the city will be equipped with an on-lot 1,000-gal tank and a 500-gal STEP package, plus a service lateral estimated to cost a total of about $7,500 per connection, after incentives. The costs of the on-lot equipment are privately funded; incentives are designed to encourage residents to connect by not charging for the ROW costs and providing credits for wastewater impact fees. For all residents who sign up within the first 12 months of sewer availability, the city designed a “STEP Up and Save” program that offers a $2,290 credit. Continued on page 32

Figure 5. Directional drilling of 2-in. main.

Figure 6. 2-in. main installed. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Continued from page 31 The credit offsets the wastewater impact fee that is normally required for new sewer customers. The second incentive for residents to connect is a wastewater utility extension credit of $1,100. This credit is available only to homeowners who pay in full for their equipment at the time of the application. Costs are lower for homes with a recently constructed onsite system that may include components that are adaptable to the effluent sewer system. If the city, through a series of inspections, declares the existing tank to be watertight and structurally sound, the tank will be retained and the total cost of construction at the home would be reduced to about $6,000. In this case, the existing tank is followed by a 500-gal STEP package, plus a service lateral.

system is six months old or 30 years old. This inability to differentiate based on the type of system triggers automatic dissent and public opposition and can delay or halt projects. Within each sewer service zone, the city’s interactive map lists properties that are eligible to connect to the effluent sewer mains (Figure 7); sites that have already connected to the effluent sewer are shown in green. For redundancy purposes, mainly to provide uninterrupted service during hurricane events, some sites have the option of keeping their existing drainfield in service, to enable discharge in the event of an extended power outage. The properties with drainfields that have been left in place are shown as dark green parcels (Figure 8).

Effluent Sewer Service Areas

Approximately 93,000 lin ft of 2-in.-diameter effluent mainlines needed to be installed within the service areas. The city started installing effluent mainlines in March 2015, and in March 2017, had effluent mains available to 1,189 of the 1,550 lots that were on septic systems. During this time, 86 homes connected because of failed septic systems, new construction, or remodeling of existing homes. The city has a list of 43 additional households with homeowners who want to connect. In May 2017, the city launched its formal “Sign Up and Save” program by sending letters to residents that will start the one-year clock. The city expects a lot of interest from residents since the savings will be approximately 33 percent of the total cost.

Neighborhoods were prioritized for STEP installation based on the age of the homes and other factors, including depth to groundwater, soil conditions, proximity to surface water, and lot size. Because of the use of small-diameter mainlines and a low availability cost, an effluent sewer allowed the city to deliberately cherry-pick the critical areas that would result in the greatest elimination of nutrient loading into the lagoon ecosystem. In contrast, gravity sewers, because of the inherently high costs associated with mainline construction, prohibit the winnowing out of properly functioning onsite systems. Gravity systems indiscriminately require residents with all types of onsite systems to connect, whether the


Chart 2. Availability cost of gravity sewer versus effluent sewer.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The majority of the residences will use a 1,000-gal tank, along with a 500-gal pump tank equipped with an Orenco STEP package. Commercial and multiresidential applications will use larger tanks and duplex pump packages. For quality control and consistency purposes, all contractors undergo a certification process to become eligible to install STEP packages within the city. Installer trainings occur twice a year, all in coordination with the equipment manufacturer. Residents are encouraged to navigate the installation process by using the city’s cell phone application, available for download from iTunes or Android. The mobile app provides an overview of the project, answers to frequently asked questions, diagrams, homeowner guides, area maps, a list of certified installers, installation photos, and links to important documents.

Operation and Maintenance The city owns and operates the entire effluent sewer system, including the on-lot tanks and associated equipment, through a utility easement. Monthly costs for residents include a base fee of $19.89/month per home, plus a usage charge of $3.59 per 1,000 gal of wastewater. The maximum monthly user charge is set at $55.79. The O&M requirements for effluent sewer systems are relatively simple, and despite an anticipated 1,550 connections, will likely not require full-time oversight. The on-lot equipment is specifically designed to allow infrequent maintenance activities, typically one site visit every three to five years. The pumps are the most important mechanical component of the system and are designed to last more than 25 years. These pumps are high-head effluent pumps that only convey filtered and clarified effluent, and customarily operate just 10 to 20 minutes per day. Unlike low-pressure sewers that require discharge to a gravity sewer system or a repump system, effluent sewers (with their high-head pumps) allow the city to connect the effluent mains directly to its force main network. The high-head pump is equipped with a flow controller plate that operates the pump at 8 gal per minute (gpm) at 150 ft of head. The city installed the first STEP system on April 4, 2015, and currently has 86 connections. Over the last two years, the city has had nine trouble calls; six of the calls were immediately after installation and were a result of loose electrical connections or improper float settings, two were pump issues, and one was a customer who disconnected the power supply to the STEP system.

On Oct. 6, 2016, Hurricane Matthew hit the east coast of Florida, including Vero Beach. The city experienced a power outage for three days, but did not get any calls for backups of the STEP system. Unlike low-pressure grinder systems that have small collection basins (usually 50 to 80 gal), the city’s STEP system was designed with a minimum of 200 gal of capacity at each residence to allow for a three- to four-day power outage. In addition, the city required an electrical panel equipped with an emergency generator receptacle (115 volts) at each address. Since the Orenco STEP pump is a 115-volt, ½horsepower unit, any 2,500-watt generator will power the STEP pump.

Conclusion At full build-out, an estimated 1,550 homes will connect to the effluent sewer system. By diverting up to 300,000 gal per day (gpd) of wastewater from the lagoon to the wastewater treatment facility, water quality in the lagoon is expected to improve. Through the use of smalldiameter mainlines and by designing and implementing a nonmandatory connection approach, the city was able to obtain public support for the project. The low availability cost of the effluent sewer system enabled the city to install the mains for a fraction of what gravity sewers would have cost. The small-diameter mainlines allowed trenchless construction, a nonintrusive approach that preserved roads, landscapes, and old oak trees. Today, Vero Beach is completing the expansion of sewer availability to critical areas, and residents are pleased with the flexible options, as well as the progress toward cleaning up the lagoon.

Figure 7. Effluent sewer septic tank effluent pumping system areas in Vero Beach.

References • Crites, Ronald, and Tchobanoglous, George. Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998. • Gibbs, Steven. “Sewage Pollution a Culprit in Indian River Lagoon.” Informed Infrastructure. Feb. 21, 2015. • “Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program – Home,” IRLNEP, • Metcalf & Eddy Inc. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. Fourth edition. New York City: McGraw-Hill, 2003. • Public Health Service. “Studies on Household Sewage Disposal Systems.” Washington, D.C.: Public Health Service, 1967. • Alternative Wastewater Collection Systems.

Figure 8. Septic tank effluent pumping system availability in Vero Beach.

Washington, D.C.: USEPA, 1991. • “Analysis of Operations and Maintenance Costs for Municipal Wastewater Systems.” Denver, Colo.: USEPA, 1978. • “Collection Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Sewers, Conventional Gravity.” Washington, D.C.: USEPA, September 2002. (document locator 832F02007).

• Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems. Washington, D.C.: USEPA, 1980. • Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. Washington, D.C.: USEPA, 2002. • Winneberger, John H. T. Septic Tank Systems: A Consultant’s Toolkit, Volumes 1 and 2. Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science, 1984. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


FWRJ READER PROFILE neering from the University of South Florida in Tampa. My undergraduate degree has actually lent itself to aquifer storage and recovery programs, water resources, and anything with hydrology, hydrogeology, and hydraulics, and my master’s degree focused on water and wastewater treatment, air pollution, and solid and hazardous waste.

Marjorie (Marjie) G. Craig, P.E. City of Delray Beach Work title and years of service. I am the utilities department director for the City of Delray Beach, and started in midAugust 2017 right before Hurricane Irma. I served in the emergency operations center as the public works branch director, and got to see how dedicated, knowledgeable, and solutionoriented our team is in a short amount of time. They are amazing public servants. My prior service was as utilities director for the Polk County Board of County Commissioners (county) in Winter Haven, which was hard to leave because of the support of the county leadership and elected officials, the Polk Regional Water Cooperative (cooperative), the capable staff, and the bond I felt with the utility/public works/ environmental leadership of the 14 cities in the cooperative. So far I’ve really enjoyed the path my career has taken, having served city and county governments, a regulatory agency, and as an engineering consultant. God and others willing, I plan to stay here in Delray Beach, and can’t wait to see what we can get accomplished! What does your job entail? I’m responsible for water, wastewater, reclaimed water services, and stormwater pumping for the 66,000 citizens of Delray Beach. We have about 30 surficial aquifer wells treated by a 26-mgd lime softening water treatment plant, a 24-mgd wastewater plant co-owned by the City of Boynton Beach, over 1000 fire hydrants, distribution and collection piping, lift stations and pumping stations, and an elevated water tower. We are planning on developing lower Floridan aquifer wells and upgrading our water treatment plant in the future, and are expanding our reclaimed water system.

What do you like best about your job? The ability to serve the citizens, serve my staff, and make a positive difference in the organization and the community. Of course, I like to see the progress of a project or program from concept to implementation, and am always looking for ways to improve processes and optimize resources to improve efficiency and effectiveness. I have a passion for utilities. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m actively involved in the Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) as the co-chair of the Likins Scholarship Committee; the chair of the Florida 2040 Committee; member of the Utility Council; and a mentor to two wonderful young professionals, Shelby Hughes and Barika Poole. I’m also a member of the Florida Water Environment Association Management Committee and Utility Council, as well as the Florida Stormwater Association, American Society of Civil Engineers, and Florida Engineering Society. How have the organizations helped your career? These incredible organizations have helped me in many tangible and intangible ways: technical information; access to a network of industry professionals, at all levels and length of service, willing to share information and solutions; mentorship, whether being mentored or the opportunity to mentor others; ability to provide input on regulatory issues and draft legislation that greatly affect our industry; training; and the ability to give back through volunteer opportunities, such as the Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest and Model Water Tower Competition events, among others.

What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of science degree in petroleum engineering from Texas A&M University at College Station, and a master’s degree in civil engi-


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Pirate play!

What do you like best about the industry? What I like best about the industry is that it is evolving into a much more diverse group of professionals, beyond what it was 20 years ago. There is a presence of a diversity of backgrounds, college or technical majors, career paths, and vendors and products, as well as a diversity of people that creates an invigorating environment that promotes both personal and professional growth. The FSAWWA is in the process of diversifying its outreach to potential applicants for the Likins Scholarship beyond the traditional environmental/civil engineering students. The industry already has, and needs, people in the area of public health, communications, science, and others, to continue to evolve. Diversity has been shown to lead to better solutions and I can see that the industry is poised to leverage that opportunity. What do you do when you’re not working? I like photography, scuba diving, reading, and pestering my kids. My daughter is a Gator and works as an environmental engineer for a consulting firm, and my son is a Seminole and is in his first year of residency in emergency surgery at Miami Mt. Sinai Hospital. My mother taught me to give back to my community and professional organizations and I believe I’ve passed that on to my children. I’ve served on the boards of many community organizations through the years, such as Junior League, YMCA, and the Gale Environmental Academy; been a Cub Scout leader; and volunteered for food drives and more. I like spending time with my Gator husband, who is my best friend; a very patient man who is the information technology director for the Town of Jupiter. We recently joined a krewe in Tampa and will enjoy being pirates for the Gasparilla, the Knight, and the St. Patrick’s Day parades starting in January. “Aaarrrhhh” you ready for the new year, and have any New Year’s S resolutions to get involved?! It’s worth it!

Craig was a judge for the Region IV Model Water Tower Competition.

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Destin Water Users Inc. Has 2017 Water Tank of the Year The municipal water tank belonging to Destin Water Users Inc. is this year’s winner of the Tank of the Year competition sponsored by Tnemec Co. Inc., a provider of high-performance coatings. The legged water tank was selected by a panel of water tank enthusiasts based on criteria such as artistic value, significance of the tank to the community, and challenges encountered during the project.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

“The Destin water tank reflects the tranquility and beauty of the coastal resort town in the Florida Panhandle,” explained Doug Hansen, director–water tank market, for Tnemec. “The tank’s exterior was repainted this year using an advanced fluoropolymer coating system that provides unsurpassed color and gloss retention.” Other water tanks among the top 12 finalists for 2017 are in Gaffney, S.C.; St. Cloud, Minn.; Eden Prairie, Minn.; Wasaga Beach, Ontario, Canada; Sunnyvale, Calif.; Port Arthur, Texas; Wichita, Kan.; Coopertown, Tenn.; Auburndale, Fla.; Lisle, Ill.; and Paxton, Ill. The Gaffney, S.C., “Peachoid” water tank received the largest number of online votes this year to make it the winner of the People’s Choice category. Resembling a giant peach, the Gaffney water tank garnered more than 2,400 votes. “This is the 12th anniversary of the competition, which recognizes the most impressive coatings projects in the water tank industry,” Hansen added. “Nearly 300 water tanks were nominated this year from across the United States and Canada. This year’s finalists represent several different types of water tanks, including legged designs, composite constructions, a ground storage tank, and pedestal style in various shapes and sizes.” The Tank of the Year will be featured as the month of January in Tnemec’s 2018 water tank calendar. All finalists and nominations will be included in the following months of the calendar. S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Distribution and Collection. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

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City of Port St. Lucie Asbestos Cement Pipe Bursting: A Programmatic Approach

Low-Impact Wastewater Collection System Reduces Nutrient Loads in Vero Beach

Laney Southerley, Edward Ambler, and Todd Grafenaur

Lindsay Tucker and Rob Bolton

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW)

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. Utility providers performing asbestos cement pipe bursting must acknowledge that less than _______ lin ft of remaining fragments will be disturbed during future maintenance. a. 60 b. 160 c. 260 d. 360

1. The primary deficiency with the pre-1983 septic systems as cited in this article is a. undersized tanks. b. undersized drain fields. c. drain field inverts are too high. d. insufficient drain field separation to groundwater.

2. Which of the following was not specifically identified as a contributing factor to the catastrophic loss of water in the 2014 University of California at Los Angeles water main break? a. Water hammer b. Pipeline age c. Nonlocatable valves d. Inoperable valves

2. Unlike other collection systems, effluent sewers a. require no pumping. b. are odor-free. c. are not screened. d. provide primary clarification.

3. To date, the City of Port St. Lucie has replaced 4 mi of asbestos cement pipe with _____________ pipe. a. ductile iron b. polyvinyl chloride c. cast iron d. high-density polyethylene 4. The authors indicate that pipe bursting requires _____ less excavation than traditional open-cut construction. a. 50 percent b. 65 percent c. 75 percent d. 85 percent 5. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection has determined that ______________ pipe bursting does not require a permit to increase the diameter of replacement pipe up to two sizes larger than existing pipe. a. gravity sewer b. sewer force main c. prechlorinated water main d. raw water main

3. The time required to install effluent sewers is estimated to be __________ the time required to install gravity sewer. a. roughly the same as b. slightly greater than c. less than one-eighth d. less than one-half 4. For which of the following constituents is the loading rate for effluent sewer considered to be greater than for gravity sewer? a. Total suspended solids b. Chemical oxygen demand c. Biochemical oxygen demand d. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 5. Under which of the following conditions is an owner required to connect to the Vero Beach effluent sewer system? a. Pipeline within road right of way immediately in front of residence b. Onsite septic system not performing properly c. Onsite septic system constructed prior to 1983 d. Upon the sale or conveyance of any property adjacent to existing effluent main Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017



A Year to Remember Grace Johns Chair, FSAWWA

s chair of Florida Section AWWA for 2017, I have been very impressed with the talent, diligence, honesty, and diversity of our members and volunteers who worked together to make a better Florida and a better world through better water. This, my last Speaking Out column, provides some quick facts about what we did in 2017.


Events and Training The FSAWWA’s 2,400 members can be proud of their accomplishments this year, with 137 event-days focused on training, outreach, legislation, fundraising, and/or networking. Overall, 2.6 event-days were held each week somewhere in Florida, and 60 percent of these were training events. In January, we were the host section for the AWWA/WEF Utility Management Conference and Young Professionals Summit that attracted 1,073 participants and set the record for attendance at this event. In September, AWWA partnered with the Florida Section in the planning and delivery of the AWWA Customer Service Seminar and the AWWA Effective Utility Management Seminar in Orlando, which attracted 60 participants. By popular demand, we are partnering again with AWWA to bring the two seminars to Orlando in mid-December. Our annual state conference, held in partnership with FWEA and FWPCOA, was very successful, with 350 exhibitors and over 3,300 participants. For the sixth year, FSAWWA was technical cosponsor of the 2017 ISA Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium held in August. As I write this column, we are busy preparing for the FSAWWA Fall Conference, with 170 exhibitors and over 1,000 people registered as of November 1.


Legislative Issues and Utility Relations

Education, Conservation, and Committee Reorganization

We successfully communicated our legislative priorities to our Florida elected officials and members of the United States Senate and House of Representatives in January at our Tallahassee Fly-In and in March at the AWWA DC Water Matters!®-Fly In, respectively. We worked with state regulators on proposed water utility regulations. As I write this column, our Utility Council is getting ready for its Tallahassee Fly-In in November to focus our state senators and representatives on water utility issues for the 2018 legislative session. To remind our local governments and utilities about the importance of AWWA to the provision of water services, our current and past section and region chairs and our chair-elect presented awards to the governing boards of nine Florida water utilities.

The section provided funding and utility support as a proud partner of Heritage High School’s Academy of Environmental Water Technology in Palm Bay and the St. Johns Technical High School’s Academy of Coastal and Water Resources in St. Augustine. This past summer, FSAWWA provided $36,000 in Likins scholarships to nine Florida college students. For the 19th year, FSAWWA led the effort for the state of Florida to declare April as Water Conservation Month. We also formed a new Customer Service Committee, and changed the name of our Administrative Council to Member Engagement and Development Council and reorganized the committees under it.

Strength of the Regions Our 12 regions were active in hosting relevant and interesting training events and, as usual, provided creative ways to raise over $100,000 for the Roy Likins Scholarship Fund and Water For People. This year, all 12 of our regions participated and chose a regional winner for our Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest through activities ranging from dinner banquets to luncheon events. The City of North Miami was chosen as Florida champion during the statewide competition held at the Florida Water Resources Conference. With the help of our regions, FSAWWA was very active in student outreach this year. Seven of our regions held Model Water Tower Competitions for middle school and high school students. Through the initiative of our regions, 26 Florida utilities participated in the FSAWWA Drop Savers poster contest, where over 100 posters created by students in grades 1 through 12 were submitted for the statewide competition.

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Commitment of Our Members and Staff This summary of our accomplishments does not reflect the personal and professional growth of our active members and volunteers. They, like me, are very fortunate to interact with the greater water community to learn and grow and be stronger together than we could be alone. None of this would be possible without our large membership, our hard-working volunteers, and our generous sponsors. Our section staff works diligently year-round to keep this volunteer organization working effectively—and legally. Without our dedicated staff members, Peggy Guingona, executive director; Casey Cumiskey, membership specialist; Donna Metherall, training coordinator; and Jenny Arguello, administrative assistant, we would not be the section that we are today. I have been blessed to serve as chair of this great Florida Section and I will continue to serve the section in the years to come. On November 29, Bill Young, director of St. Johns County Utilities, will take my place as section chair during our Fall Conference annual business lunch and awards ceremony. I know he will be an excellent leader and I wish for him the fun, the pride, and the satisfaction that I have had this past year. S

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for 2018 Florida Water Resources Conference Contests! Participants are encouraged to sing up for the Operations Challenge and Top Ops Competition, which will be held at the Florida Water Resources Conference on April 15-18, 2018, at the Ocean Center in Daytona Beach.

Operations Challenge Treatment plant operators from across Florida will compete in the 29th annual Operations Challenge. Participants will be timed in five separate operational competitions to determine the state’s representative for the national Operations Challenge at WEFTEC 2018. The Operations Challenge promotes team building, leadership, education, and pride within a utility. Any utility that didn’t have a team in the 2017 contest is especially encouraged to participate in next year’s event. For information and entry forms, contact Chris Fasnacht, Operations Challenge chair, at 407-709-7372 or

Top Ops Competition The annual statewide Top Ops contest will also be held at the 2018 conference. Top Ops is the “College Bowl” of the water industry. Teams of one, two, or three water operators or laboratory personnel from the FSAWWA regions compete against each other in a fast-paced question-and-answer tournament at the conference. A moderator poses a wide range of technical questions and math problems, and the team scoring the most points in the final round is awarded the Florida Section AWWA Top Ops championship. The winning team will earn a trip to ACE18 in Las Vegas, to compete with teams from other American Water Works Association sections in the national Top Ops contest. Utilities throughout the state are encouraged to enter. Teams do not have to consist of employees of the same utility, and multiple utilities can sponsor a team. No video, audio, or digital recordings will be allowed during the competition. For registration forms and the 2018 rules, contact Chris Wetz, Top Ops Committee chair, at or 727-215-3514, or visit S


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FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! December 4-8 ......Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ................Deltona ..............$350/380 11-13 ......Backflow Repair ........................................Deltona ..............$275/305 11-13 ......Backflow Repair* ......................................St Petersburg ......$275/305

UPCOMING 2018 CLASSES January 8-11 ......Backflow Tester ..........................................Deltona ..............$375/405 8-11 ......Backflow Tester*........................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405 15-19 ......Water Distribution Level 3 ......................Deltona ..............$225/255 15-19 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..............Deltona ..............$225/255 26 ......Backflow Tester Recert*** ......................Deltona ..............$85/115 29-Feb. 12 ......Wastewater Collection C, B** ................Miami/Dade ......$225/255

February 5-9 ......Wastewater Collection C ..........................Deltona ..............$225/255 12-14 ......Backflow Repair ........................................Deltona ..............$275/305 16 ......Backflow Tester Recert*** ......................Deltona ..............$85/115 19-23 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....Deltona ..............$350/380

March 12-16 ......Spring State Short School ........................Ft Pierce 26-29 ......Backflow Tester*........................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405 Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;˘ December 2017


Altamonte Springs Project Wins National Award The City of Altamonte Springs’ pureALTA project was named the 2017 WateReuse Innovative Project of the Year at the 32nd Annual WateReuse Symposium held in Phoenix, Ariz. This event is the nation’s preeminent conference on water reuse. The award itself recognizes new and innovative solutions for expanding the use of recycled water and the creation of future models that advocate the implementation of water reclamation across the United States. “Diversifying our community’s water portfolio was one of the city’s main motivations in creating pureALTA,” said Ed Torres, director of public works and utilities. “This project could help us meet the future water needs of our residents, while also becoming a model for other utilities across the country and around the world.” The pureALTA pilot project takes reclaimed water and treats it to meet or exceed all drinking water quality standards, without using expensive, energy-consuming reverse osmosis. The city built a unique network of four advanced water treatment processes: S Ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration S Ultrafiltration S Granular activated carbon filtration S Ultraviolet light with advanced oxidation process This system of water purification has produced outstanding results during the testing phase, as it treats approximately 28,000 gal of water each day. The purified water is returned to the city’s reclaimed water system, where it’s used for irrigation. Based on the final results of the pilot project, the city could build a full-scale system with the potential to create 300,000 to 500,000 gal of purified water daily, which is about 5 percent of its future daily water demand—without drawing it from the aquifer.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

A grant provided by the St. Johns River Water Management District helped to launch the project. “We may be a smaller city, but our philosophy has always been to think outside the box when it comes to meeting the needs of our residents and conserving our natural resources,” said Frank Martz, city manager. “We are extremely proud of the hard work and committed efforts from our city staff and honored to accept this prestigious award.” Martz added that the city has hosted several visitors from other cities and water agencies looking for ways to adapt similar systems for their own communities. The testing phase will continue through October 2018. The pureALTA project is just the latest in the city’s efforts to develop innovative projects to expand its water portfolio. Its A-FIRST (Altamonte Springs-FDOT Integrated Reuse and Stormwater Treatment) project is a stormwater management initiative that generates as much as 4.5 mil gal of reclaimed water daily, which is approximately 1.6 bil gal of alternative water supply annually. The project utilizes runoff as a water resource instead of just filling up retention ponds without using the water. The city also developed Project APRICOT (A Prototype Realistic Innovative Community of Today), which delivers reclaimed water to almost every property in the city for lawn, landscaping, and other nondrinking purposes, rather than using drinking water. The project, which began in the 1980s, was one of the first of its kind and is still in use today. For more information, go to http://www. Alta S

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City of Port St. Lucie Asbestos Cement Pipe Bursting: A Programmatic Approach Laney Southerly, Edward Alan Ambler, and Todd Grafenaur he City of Port St. Lucie (city) has been proactively replacing its potable water distribution system for several years. Prior to 2014, the city utilized traditional open-cut construction methods to replace the existing potable water distribution system; however, the city sought innovative methods to replace the infrastructure with less detriment to the environment and its customers. The city’s staff evaluated the trenchless technology method of pipe bursting and moved forward with comparing the economics of pipe bursting versus traditional open-cut construction. The staff was very satisfied with the use of pipe bursting and continued to build a programmatic approach to continue replacing its potable water distribution system. The city just completed its fourth phase of pipe bursting projects and has worked to develop a clear path to complying with the regulations surrounding the pipe bursting of asbestos cement (AC) pipe.


Background The city provides water, wastewater, and reclaimed water service to the vibrant Treasure Coast community. The city’s utility service area is comprised of approximately 132 sq mi, including most of the city limits and some unin-

Figure 1. Utility Congestion


corporated areas of St. Lucie County. The utility system, as of February 2017, is comprised of approximately 70,500 active water connections and 50,000 active wastewater connections. The existing potable water system consists of three water treatment facilities, four water storage and repump stations, and 1,201 mi of transmission and distribution infrastructure. Between 2012 and 2013, the city replaced 249,165 lin ft of AC pipe through traditional open-cut construction; however, the city recognized the trenchless technology method of pipe bursting as a suitable method to replace its existing potable water distribution system. In 2014, the city bid a traditional open-cut construction project and allowed pipe bursting to be bid as an alternate to directly compare the economics of the two replacement methods. The bid for pipe bursting was less than 1.5 percent more costly than the lowest open cut-construction bid, but city staff recognized the social and environmental benefits of using pipe bursting versus traditional open-cut construction and convinced city management that pipe bursting should be awarded the bid.

Benefits of Pipe Bursting Many studies have already recognized the benefits of utilizing pipe bursting (or other trenchless technology methods) versus traditional open-cut construction methods, especially in developed urban or suburban areas for pipeline rehabilitation. The Florida Department

Figure 2. Minimized Excavation

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Laney Southerly, P.E., is engineering manager with City of Port St. Lucie. Edward Alan Ambler, P.E., LEED AP, is vice president with AM Trenchless in Lake Mary. Todd Grafenaur is educational director with Murphy Pipeline Contractors in Jacksonville.

of Environmental Protection (FDEP) approved prechlorinated potable water main pipe bursting as an in-place pipe rehabilitation method that does not require a permit to increase the diameter of the replacement pipe up to two sizes larger (Ambler, et. al, 2014). Often, design costs are dramatically reduced for pipe bursting projects over traditional opencut replacement projects because the pipeline is occupying the same location as the original. Pipe bursting projects can often be designed and bid from geographic information system (GIS) drawings or as-built drawings, or openly negotiated with a qualified pipe bursting contractor. Utilization of the existing pipe location reduces infrastructure congestion (Figure 1) of existing rights of way. Third-party utility relocation is also made irrelevant by using pipe bursting (Ambler, et. al, 2014.) Less excavation and removal of unsuitable material is required during pipe bursting projects versus traditional open-cut excavation projects. With successful preliminary planning, excavations for a pipe bursting project can be executed as “surgical excavations,” subsequently avoiding major above ground and established landscape or other high-cost restoration items. Pipe bursting only excavates entrance and exit pits, pits for service connections, and other pipe connections, which dramatically reduces the amount of excavation (Figure 2) required over a traditional open-cut construction project (Ambler, et. al, 2014). Studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have proven that pipe bursting reduces greenhouse gas emissions over traditional open-cut between 75 and 90 percent. Less construction equipment is necessary on the project, and therefore, carbon dioxide emissions are also reduced. Since the overall construction schedule is shorter, the construction

equipment is on the project site for less time, thus further reducing emissions. The EPA published a document about the potential for reducing greenhouse gases in the construction sector that states that water and sewer line construction is the third largest in the United States for greenhouse gas emission intensity (EPA, 2009).

National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants The city, in conjunction with contractors, regulators, and other municipalities, has developed a working procedure in Florida to support pipe bursting of AC pipe while meeting the requirements of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). There are significant technical publications available to date that further discuss the applicability of NESHAP and the established regulatory requirements. This procedure complies with each element of NESHAP, which are briefly described (Ambler, et. al, 2012). File a Notice to EPA or Its Designee (61.145(b)) A notification form, FDEP form 62257.900(1), is required to be submitted 10 days prior to execution of the project. Provide for Emission Control During Renovation and Disposal (61.145(c))/61.150) Qualified pipe bursting contractors are intimately familiar with safe handling practices and procedures that are proven to suppress the potential release for asbestos fibers during rehablitation. Municipalities can often require the provision of a Negative Exposure Assessment (NEA) by potential pipe bursting contractors that illustrates safe handling procedures are ensured. Comply with Inactive/Active Waste Disposal Site Requirements (61.151/61.154) The NESHAP provides for disposing of regulated asbestos-containing material (RACM) on the site of the demolition or renovation work, or the RACM can be disposed of at a waste disposal site. Currently, for pipe bursting projects, regulators interpret NESHAP such that the work site is considered a waste disposal site. It is recommended that 2 ft of cover is maintained above the remaining AC pipe fragments, as that provision would meet the NESHAP requirements for adequate land barrier between the general public and the remaining AC pipe fragments. Comply With Inactive Waste Disposal Site Deed Notation and Alternative (61.151(e)) The NESHAP requires that a notation to the deed of a facility property be recorded within

Figure 3. Example Resolution

60 days of a waste disposal site becoming inactive. A site is deemed inactive when disposal of RACM is completed. Applying this to pipe bursting projects means a site is deemed inactive when the project is completed. The notation is to contain the following information (Ambler, et. al, 2012): 1. The land has been used for the disposal of asbestos-containing waste material. 2. The survey plot and record of the location and quantity of asbestos-containing waste disposed of within the disposal site required in Sec. 61.154(f) have been filed with the administrator. 3. The site is subject to 40 CFR part 61, subpart M. Recent NEA studies conducted on projects in Florida clearly indicate there is no risk of asbestos exposure to workers performing the pipe rehabilitation. Some regulators, utility providers, and engineers still have concerns that the remaining pipe fragments will be excavated and expose others to the risk of asbestos inhalation, but future excavation of the fragments of AC pipe that remain buried would typically be limited to utility crossings. Subsequently, the remaining fragments of AC pipe would closely surround the new replacement pipeline and excavators would likely stop digging once the replacement pipe was discovered (Ambler, et. al, 2014). Occasionally, other utility companies may be required to perform excavation in the vicinity of the remaining fragments of AC pipe at specific areas where their installed utility crosses the location of the rehabilitated water main. Utility companies do not typically install parallel facilities in close proximity to water mains, so these areas of future excavation will be limited to small segments where the utilities potentially cross. These locations would typically be a smaller excavation pit, thus exposing a small amount of the remaining AC fragments. The NESHAP main-

tains a provision that if less than 260 lin ft of AC pipe is encountered, it can be removed as regular construction debris. It is highly unlikely that other utility companies will encounter more than 260 lin ft of remaining AC fragments during construction of utility crossings and thus not encountering enough AC pipe fragments to be hazardous to their workers (Ambler, et. al, 2014). Much of the existing AC pipe is located within an existing public right of way that abuts residential lots. Another potential risk is exposure to the general public by private individuals excavating the remaining fragments of AC pipe. Potable water distribution pipe generally maintains a depth of 2 ft or greater. A property owner excavating, for instance, to plant a new tree, would not typically excavate deeper than 2 ft or wider than 5 ft in diameter. Typically, homeowners do not excavate within the road right of way, and in the city, they have to receive permission to do so. The amount of remaining AC pipe fragments exposed would still fall under the 260lin-ft category that can be removed as regular construction debris (Ambler, et. al, 2014). Utility providers performing AC pipe bursting must acknowledge the future handling requirements for the AC pipe fragments in the event that the pipe replacing the AC pipe requires maintenance or replacement. Emergency repair procedures performed on newer pipe will typically disturb less than 260 lin ft of the remaining AC pipe fragments, and the risk is clearly mitigated; however, if the utility provider chooses to replace the replacement pipe, it must appropriately handle the remaining AC pipe fragments (Ambler, et. al, 2014).

Tracking Areas of Remaining Asbestos Cement Pipe Fragments Although guidance and direction were formally sought from EPA in Washington, D.C., concerning memorialization of remaining fragContinued on page 46

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Continued from page 45 ments of AC pipe after performing pipe bursting, no official written guidance has been provided. A working process has been developed and approved by FDEP within the state of Florida, which was detailed previously. This process has been proven in the city, and also Boynton Beach, Sunrise, Casselberry, Altamonte Springs, Tamarac, Lake Wales, Hillsborough Beach, North Miami Beach, St. Augustine, and many other municipalities throughout the state, as well as Jacksonville Electric Authority. In particular, the city has worked internally with its legal department and engineering management to develop a mechanism to track the remaining fragments of AC pipe after performing pipe bursting. The city has drafted a resolution that successfully memorializes the locations of remaining AC pipe fragments in accordance with NESHAP. The resolution language is straight forward and succinct and combines with as-built documentation and right-of-way maps to illustrate the locations of the AC pipe fragments that

remain after performing pipe bursting. The city adopted this resolution after the completion of a successful AC pipe bursting project that also includes documentation of the required NESHAP notification form submitted 10 days prior to beginning the project. An example of the language of the adopted resolution is shown as Figure 3 and an example of the recorded right-of-way maps is included as Figure 4.

Proactive Rehabilitation Program It became apparent to city management that its crews spent significant time responding to AC water main breaks. These breaks can be costly and disruptive, affecting residentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; quality of life and leaving them with a negative impression of the public utility and city operations. Most municipalities that have been maintaining aging infrastructure for decades simply absorb the effort and costs required to repair the water main breaks when they occur; seldom do many municipalities make the efforts required to track

Figure 4. Example Right-of-Way Map


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the costs and determine the cost/benefit of proactively rehabilitating the existing pipe line versus continuing to repair emergency breaks. The costs of the emergency breaks on larger systems can grow quickly and exponentially. The city was aware of the increasing costs of emergency repairs and quickly moved to implement a pipe bursting program to rehabilitate its existing potable water main system. For the purpose of relevant comparison, various cost scenarios for an escalating level of water main failure impacts were prepared. Two lesser-cost failure scenarios that many utilities often encounter were evaluated for their social, environmental, and economic impacts, and a third scenario was reviewed from available technical literature for the potential for a much more catastrophic failure. The failure scenarios are presented here. Scenario 1 The first water main failure scenario is of a more routine nature. The failure of the AC pipe in question is more of a small section circumferential failure that is often detected as a growing leak from the distribution system. Initially, a small two-person crew would be dispatched to the site to evaluate the full extent of the required repair work. Initial evaluation of the failure by the crew indicated that the water main in the area required decommissioning, excavation to the failed pipeline, installation of mechanical adapters, and a replacement of a 4-lin-ft pipe section. The crew that responded to the initial work order was able to isolate the section of water main relatively easily by locating existing valves that were still operational. The isolated section of the water main only affected four water customers, so social impact was relatively minimal; also, the water loss from the leak was minimal, so no efforts were made to quantify the water lost. No direct environmental damage was observed that was not easily restored by the crew; therefore, the cost evaluation for the first scenario was primarily limited to man-hour, equipment, and material costs. The economic analysis of the water main failure is provided in Table 1. It is useful to note that the actual replaced section of existing pipeline was limited to approximately 4 lin ft of AC pipe and the cost per lin ft of replacement was $506.25. When the replaced amount is compared to a proactive approach to replacing the existing pipeline, it is easily observed that emergency replacement is simply not cost-effective when compared to a proactive replacement program. Scenario 2 The second water main failure scenario is less of a routine nature. The AC pipe in ques-

Table 1. Scenario 1: Economic Analysis of Water Main Failure

Table 2. Scenario 2: Economic Analysis of Water Main Failure

Figure 5. 30-in. Steel Pipe Failure at University of California at Los Angeles

tion is a larger and more substantial water main failure. A full length of AC pipe failed and isolation valves were not as readily available to shut down the water during the failure. This scenario required 10 service workers, four service trucks, a backhoe, a vacuum truck, and a loader. There were more-significant environmental and social impacts here, and efforts were made to quantify them. Economic analysis of the water main failure is provided in Table 2. It is useful to note that the actual replaced section of existing pipeline was limited to approximately 15 lin ft of AC pipe and the cost of replacement was $3,470 per lin ft. When the replaced amount is compared to a proactive approach to replacing the existing pipeline, it is easily observed that emergency replacement is simply not cost-effective when compared to a proactive replacement program. Luckily, the city had not experienced AC pipe failures that could be considered catastrophic; however, the potential for this to occur was not decreasing. The existing AC potable water mains were deteriorating at a higher rate and are now more likely to fail more catastrophically. A literature review was conducted in an attempt to analyze the potential social, environmental, and economic costs of larger-diameter water main failure in order to ascertain the potential outcome of large diameter failure within the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s system. Multiple catastrophic

failure scenarios were evaluated, but a recent failure of a 30-in. steel potable water main (Figure 5) was evaluated as a potential worst-case scenario for the city (Piratla, 2015). The 30-in. steel potable water failure that was analyzed was a 2014 pipe failure that occurred on the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) campus. This water main failure attracted national news coverage and caused significant environmental, social, and economic damage. The failed potable water main was 93 years old, far beyond the predicted service life of AC pipe. The crews that responded to the break required four hours to shut the water off to the section of pipe due to inoperable and nonlocatable valves. In addition to the utility crews, over 160 firefighters responded to the water main break to search over 200 cars that were in nearby basement parking garages that had flooded, as there was concern that people may have been trapped in some of the cars (Piratla, 2015). The social impact of the water main failure was enormous, including flooding that occurred in a historical basketball court (Figure 6). It was estimated that almost 75,000 gal per minute (gpm) of water loss occurred, for a total of approximately 48 mil gal (MG) of treated water released during the break. Evaluation of the economics of this scenario for potable water main failure was provided for lost treated water, cost, time

to repair and return to service, travel delay for the surrounding public, supply outage and substitution costs, potential health risk, and property damage, and is shown in Table 3 (Piratla, 2015). Scenario 3 Unfortunately, additional crew time, restoration, and social and environmental costs were not available to directly present the third catastrophic failure scenario in the same format as the first two scenarios; however, it was assumed that only 75 lin ft of the existing 30-in. steel main were replaced, and therefore, the cost per lin ft of replacement was $481,333. When the replaced amount is compared to a proactive approach to replacing the existing pipeline, it is easily observed that emergency replacement is simply not cost-effective when compared to a proactive replacement program. The city recognized the immediate need to dramatically increase its water main rehabilitation program and continued implementation through pipe bursting with a proven successful contractor.

Conclusion The city has switched from traditional open-cut construction to embrace the trenchless technology method of pipe bursting with great success. It has worked to develop a stanContinued on page 48

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Table 3. Economic Analysis of Water Main Failure at University of California at Los Angeles

Figure 6. Historic Pauley’s Pavilion Court

Continued from page 47 dard process for complying with regulations that govern pipe bursting of AC pipe for others within the state of Florida to adopt. The city has recognized the social, environmental, and economical benefits of pipe bursting and has taken steps to build a recurring program for potable water distribution pipe replacement.


References • EPA (2009). Potential for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Construction Sector. • Edward Ambler, Bill Thomas, and John Matthews (2014). “Casselberry Asbestos Cement Pipe. • Bursting Project: Moving Forward By Leav-

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ing It Behind.” Proceedings, No-Dig, Orlando, Fla., April, Paper MM-T4-05. • Kalyan R. Piratla, Sreeganesh R. Yerri, Sepideh Yazdekhasti, Jinsung Cho, Dan Koo, and John C. Matthews, 2015. “Empirical Analysis of Water Main Failure Consequences.” International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering and Construction. S

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Test Yourself Questions About Wastewater Collection Systems Operations and Management Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-604 Collection Systems and Transmission Facilities, collection/transmission systems include a. gravity sewer mains and force mains only. b. sewers, pipelines, conduits, pumping stations, force mains, and all other facilities used for collection and transmission of wastewater to a treatment plant. c. reclaimed water and wastewater piping systems to and from the treatment plant. d. the entire network of water, sewer, and reclaimed pipes in a utility’s service area. 2. A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program to enhance the performance of sanitary sewer collection systems with the intent of reducing sanitary sewer overflows and preserving the substantial investment in infrastructure that collection systems represent is called CMOM, which stands for a. capacity assurance, management, operations, and maintenance. b. collection system maintenance, operation, and management. c. critical mandatory operations and maintenance. d. critical maintenance and operational management. 3. Per FAC 62-604 Collection System and Transmission Facilities, pump stations that receive flow from one or more pump stations through a force main, or pump stations discharging through pipes 12 in. or larger, must have a. a minimum of three pumps. b. a connection to a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for continuous monitoring. c. an in-place emergency generator. d. dedicated odor control facilities. 4. The introduction of groundwater to a sanitary sewer system through cracks, pipe joints, manholes, or other system defects is called a. groundwater contamination. b. infiltration. c. inflow. d. sanitary sewer overflow.


5. Per FAC 62-604 Collection System and Transmission Facilities, new pumping stations shall be designed and located on the site so as to minimize the adverse effects resulting from a. noise, heat, and vibration. b. odors, noise, and lighting. c. sanitary sewer overflows. d. trucks pulling in and out of the driveway. 6. Per FAC 62-604 Collection System and Transmission Facilities, all new collection/transmission systems and modifications of existing systems for which construction permits are required by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) shall be designed to be located no closer than how far from a public drinking water supply well? a. 10 ft b. 75 ft c. 100 ft d. 200 ft 7. Per FAC 62-604 Collection System and Transmission Facilities, new pumping stations shall be enclosed with a fence or otherwise designed with appropriate features that discourage the entry of animals and unauthorized persons. An unobstructed sign made of durable weather-resistant material shall be posted at a location visible to the public. What information must be on the sign? a. A phone number for a point of contact in case of emergency. b. The phone number for the local FDEP office. c. The phone number for the State Warning Point. d. Warning for high voltage. 8. Per FAC 62-604 Collection System and Transmission Facilities, copies of record drawings and the operation and maintenance manual for the collection/transmission facilities shall be available a. at a site within the boundaries of the district office or delegated local program permitting the collection/transmission system. b. at each pumping station, in a marked cabinet next to the entrance door. c. at the nearest wastewater treatment facility in a specially marked cabinet. d. online through a central server.

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

9. Per FAC 62-604 Collection System and Transmission Facilities, unauthorized releases or spills of wastewater from the collection/transmission system in excess of 1,000 gal per incident shall be reported a. orally to the State Warning Point as soon as practical, but no later than 24 hours from the time that the owner/operator becomes aware of the circumstances, followed by a written submission within five days. b. orally to the department within five days from the time that the owner/operator of the collection/transmission system becomes aware of the circumstances. c. orally to the State Warning Point within five days from the time that the owner/operator becomes aware of the circumstances. d. in writing within 24 hours from the time that the owner/operator becomes aware of the circumstances. 10. Routine, scheduled activities performed before equipment failure to extend equipment life, reduce maintenance costs, and increase reliability is a. corrective maintenance. b. emergency maintenance. c. predictive maintenance. d. preventive maintenance. Answers on page 66 References used for this quiz: • Wastewater Collection Systems Management, MOP 7, Water Environment Federation. • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-604 Collection System and Transmission Facilities. • Optimizing Operation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation of Sanitary Sewer Collection Systems, U.S. EPA.

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to

Middle school students visit the CH2M Jacksonville office to learn more about STEM careers.

JEA, City of Jacksonville, and CH2M Invite Students to Explore Engineering Careers In October, Duval County Middle School students took a field trip to CH2M’s Jacksonville office and JEA’s Main Street Water Treatment Plant (plant) to learn more about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Students learned about the science and engineering behind Jacksonville’s drinking water, and how it is treated and delivered to the city’s homes and businesses. Following a safety presentation by Pilar Doran, CH2M area lead, and a brief STEM video from Jacque Hinman, CH2M chief executive officer, John Pappas, City of Jacksonville (COJ) public works director, welcomed the stu-

dents and spoke about the public works department. He asked the students how they got to the CH2M office, pointing out they had to travel on a road, and roads fall under the jurisdiction of public works. Pappas also explained that utilities, such as JEA, have to work with the public works department because utilities typically run along the roads’ right of way and public works designs and maintains those roads. Samuel Newby, COJ council member, and Dr. John Gaffney, from the COJ mayor’s office, also welcomed the students and encouraged them to study hard and consider pursuing STEM careers.

CH2M employees use an aquifer model to show the students where water comes from in Florida.


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Hai Vu, JEA manager of water plants engineering and construction, then told the students how important engineers and scientists are to the utility and the community. He gave the students a pop quiz and asked them to guess how many gallons of water JEA produced on Monday, October 23. The winner received a prize at the plant (the answer was 108 mil gal). Hai spoke to the students about the water, sewer, and electricity services JEA provides to the community. “As engineers, we serve the people in our communities,” said Hai. “Being able to engage the youth here and get them interested about a future career as an engineer is very fulfilling.”

Hai Vu quizzes the students on JEA’s daily water production.

The students “virtually” tour a water treatment plant using virtual reality goggles.

John Pappas welcomes the students and asks them questions to explain the services his team provides for the city.

At CH2M’s office, engineers, architects, scientists, and technicians then described their roles in the design and construction of water treatment plants. Groundwater engineers demonstrated using a cross-sectional well model, showing where the water comes from and how it gets pumped out of the ground and into the students’ homes. The students “virtually” toured a water treatment plant using virtual reality goggles, and they also saw how CH2M engineers use computer programs to simulate different scenarios to determine the best design options to meet the requirements of their clients. Using a hands-on demonstration, Mike Dykes, CH2M vice president, showed students how to measure water in a monitoring well, and how to collect and calculate the appropriate data for their clients. Students left with a CH2M swag bag that included their own virtual reality goggles, and instructions and website links.

“Our JEA, City of Jacksonville, CH2M partnership is an opportunity for us to give back to our community and get students excited about pursuing a STEM career.” Mike Dykes, CH2M vice president

At JEA’s plant, the students were given a safety briefing and then toured the facility, including a newly constructed production well, sodium hypochorite system, ozone system, and pump room, where they compared the original steam-driven Allis-Chalmers pump built in the 1890s to the current high-service pumps. Students also conducted a hands-on laboratory analysis.

JEA employees show students the original steam-driven pump built in the 1890s.

The students learned about “Big Jim,” originally an 1890 steam whistle, now powered by compressed air, which sounds off daily at 7 a.m., 12 noon, 1 p.m., and 5 p.m. Big Jim also announced the arrival of electricity in 1895, warned residents of the Great Fire of 1901, ushered in each new year, and signaled important events, such as the end of the two world wars. For more information on how to host a similar STEM event in your community, please contact Karen Smittle at S

Students conduct hands-on analysis at the JEA laboratory. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


News Beat Joseph Viciere, P.E., BCEE, has joined the Tampa office of McKim & Creed Inc. as the southeast regional technical director. In this role, he will review and oversee plant designs, process operations, and disinfection systems, and evaluates system design and performance for municipalities and industries. Viciere has 36 years of experience in the water and wastewater industry. He has been a consulting engineer in environmental development for USAID, lead practitioner for water and wastewater for CDM Smith, engineering manager for Pasco County Utilities, college professor, chemist analyst for a geological and mining research project, university research laboratory manager, and industrial process manager. McKim & Creed has expanded its mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection (MEP) services into Florida, and leading this expansion is Scott Czubkowski, P.E., LEED AP, who joined the company as a senior project engineer in Jacksonville. For nearly 30 years, Czubkowski has developed and managed design-build business segments and energy solution offerings. He is skilled at providing independent system analysis, facility audits, commissioning, and owner's representation services. Czubkowski is a member of the American Healthcare Association and is licensed in Florida as a professional engineer, general contractor, mold assessor and remedia-

tor, and mechanical contractor. He has a master’s degree in project management from the Keller Graduate School in Miami and, most recently, served as the director of energy services with Kerney & Associates in Fort Lauderdale. Other recent additions to McKim & Creed include: S Wayne Guido Sr. is a subsurface utility engineering (SUE) project manager. With nearly 30 years of industry experience, he is a Utility Training Academy (UTA)certified utility locator, and has successfully managed large-scale projects for departments of transportation, energy providers, cable and communications companies, and private industries. S Vivian Hong, EIT, is an environmental engineering intern specializing in wastewater treatment plants and remediation systems. She earned a graduate degree in civil engineering, with a focus in water/wastewater treatment, from the University of South Florida. S Pratika Patil is a senior designer specializing in pipeline rehabilitation. As an environmental engineering graduate student at the University of South Florida, she created crash-typing databases of pedestrian and bike

crashes within the state of Florida for the Center for Urban Transportation Research. S Raymond Thorn is an engineering application manager. He has 30 years of information technology experience within the architecture, engineering, and construction industry, and is a graduate of Florida Technical College with a degree in information techology management. S Laurie Vieth is another senior designer. She brings more than 29 years of experience in designing and permitting water, sewer, and natural gas pipeline projects, as well as phone and power lines, for various municipalities and private utilities.


The WateReuse Association has announced the appointment of five new members to its board of directors to help lead the organization in advancing laws, regulations, funding, and public acceptance for water recycling: S Jon Freedman, vice president of global partnerships and government affairs for General Electric's global water business unit. S B. Narayanan, chief executive officer of Carollo Engineers. S Karan Pallansch, chief executive officer of Alexandria Renew Enterprises in Virginia. S Paul Steinbrecher, director of permitting and regulatory conformance for JEA in Florida. S Norma Camacho, interim chief executive officer of Santa Clara Valley (Calif.) Water District. More than 30 talented, highly regarded water industry leaders were nominated to the board, resulting in a large pool of qualified candidates and a very competitive selection process. “The association had an overwhelming response to the call for nominations,” said Guy Carpenter of Carollo Engineers, who is board president. “We were very intentional about selecting and appointing new directors who represent the diversity and geography of water reuse across the country, and who have the ability to help us implement the five-year legislative action agenda we created last year.”


The Florida Department of Environmental Protection Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) and Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) programs recently committed nearly $200 million in low-interest loans and grants for 45 statewide clean water Continued on page 56


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Keeping Chemical Deliveries Safe ne of the most potentially dangerous activities at a water or wastewater plant is the delivery of hazardous chemicals. Injuries can occur when a chemical is delivered to the wrong container or the chemical is spilled. Serious injury can result when incompatible toxic chemicals are inadvertently mixed during delivery. Safe chemical receiving and unloading procedures, practices, and management controls should be documented and practiced to ensure the safe delivery of chemicals to utility facilities. While the supplier and shipper are responsible for ensuring that the chemical load is properly identified, placarded, and transported, it is up to the staff of the receiving facility to ensure the flowing: S The chemical is what was ordered. S The chemical is offloaded safely to the proper place. S Personnel are trained to handle the material correctly.



In addition, facility security protocols should be used to verify in advance who will be delivering the chemicals and in what manner. A chain of custody should always be maintained between the manufacturer and the purchaser. It’s even common for some utilities to require background checks on the chemical delivery drivers for their specific utility. While every chemical has specific safety precautions that must be taken when inspecting and handling occurs, which are spelled out in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Safety Data Sheets (SDS), the following general procedures should be followed during the delivery and acceptance of any chemical: 1. Schedule the delivery so the proper personnel are onsite when the chemical is delivered and the facility is ready to receive the delivery.

2. Confirm the identity of the delivery driver; verify he or she is who the supplier had scheduled to make the delivery and that the vehicle or cargo container is the same transport container that is listed on the manifest. 3. Verify the contents of the container. Read the placard, the bill of lading, and the SDS, and do any testing necessary. The American Water Works Association chemical standard states, “Each product shall be identified as to product, grade, net weight, name and address of the manufacturer, and brand name. Packages or containers shall show a lot number and identification of manufacturer. All markings on packaged, containerized, or bulk shipments shall conform to applicable laws and regulations, including requirements established by OSHA. Bulk quantities of product should be sealed with a uniquely numbered tamper-evident seal.” 4. Wear any and all required personal protective equipment. 5. Inspect transferring hoses, valves, and recipient containers for damage, plugging, or wear, and replace as necessary. 6. Have a trained attendant oversee the unloading of cargo tanks. This person must be alert and note the following:

There is a clear view of the cargo tank. Be within 25 feet of the tank. Be aware of the hazards. Know the procedures to follow in an emergency. S Be authorized to move the cargo tank and be able to do so if necessary. 7. Inspect the actual container or pipe that the product should be loaded into and/or through, and be sure the receptacle is clear of all potential contaminants. 8. Unhook all loading/unloading connections before coupling, uncoupling, or moving a chemical cargo tank. Always chock trailers and semitrailers to prevent motion after the trailers are dropped. 9. Unless the engine must run a pump for product transfer, turn if off when loading or unloading. 10. Ground tanks correctly before filling them with flammable materials through an open filling hole. Ground the tank before opening the filling hole, and maintain the ground until the filling hole is closed. 11. Close all manholes and valves before moving a tank carrying hazardous materials. It does not matter how small the amount in the tank or how short the distance—manholes and valves must be closed. 12. Keep liquid discharge valves on a compressed gas tank closed except when loading and unloading. 13. Ensure that any necessary lockout/tagout procedures are followed. 14. Know what to do in the event of a spill or chemical release, or individual exposure to a chemical. For more information, go to the American Chemistry Society website at rtationSafety or the U.S. Chemical Safety Board website at S

The 2017 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2017 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set. Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Continued from page 54 and drinking water projects. Both funding programs include grants and loans for planning, designing, and constructing water systems. "We are pleased to allocate funds for vital projects such as upgrades to wastewater, stormwater, and drinking water treatment facilities, and rehabilitation of aging infrastructure," said Trina Vielhauer, director of the Division of Water Restoration Assistance. "Approximately $100 million is still available in loans and grants for interested communities with eligible clean water and drinking water projects." Approximately $138 million in CWSRFs is allocated for various clean water projects around the state, including Apopka, Bowling Green, Bradenton, Branford, Cape Coral, Clay County Utility Authority, Clewiston, Daytona Beach, El Portal, Florida Governmental Utility Authority (Chuluota), Fort Myers Beach, Gateway Service Community Development District in Fort Myers, Lake Wales, Longwood, Mulberry, Orlando, Parker, Polk City, Sarasota, St. Johns County, St. Petersburg, Tavares, Umatilla, Walton/Okaloosa/Santa Rosa Regional Utility Authority, and Wauchula. Eligible projects include wastewater, stormwater, reclaimed water, and certain energy projects. Examples of these CWSRF projects include: Clay County Utility Authority will be awarded a $14.1 million loan for Phase I of the construction of new wastewater processes at the existing 0.65-mgd Mid-Clay wastewater treatment facility, which will ultimately increase capacity by 3 mgd. El Portal, in Miami-Dade County, will be awarded more than $600,000 for design and planning loans for two projects. The first project is to design a central collection system for the Village of El Portal to connect approximately 800 homes currently served by septic systems to Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Authority's centralized collection system. The second project is the development of a master stormwater plan to improve water quality in West Little River, which flows into Biscayne Bay, as well as help address flooding issues. An accompanying small community wastewater grant will cover $348,000 of the design loan. Fort Myers Beach will be awarded a $5.5 million loan for the installation and rehabilitation of a stormwater management system. This project will improve water quality in Estero Bay by providing treatment ponds to capture and treat stormwater prior to discharging to the bay. Approximately $52 million in funds is allocated for various drinking water projects around the state, including Big Bend Water Authority, Bonifay, Bowling Green, Cape Coral, Charlotte County, Dade City, Davenport, Destin Water Users Inc., Dunedin, Jackson County, Jennings, Lake Worth, Lemon


December 2017 â&#x20AC;˘ Florida Water Resources Journal

Bluff Water Association, North Miami, Palatka, Polk Regional Water Cooperative, Sanford, and Springfield. Eligible projects include drinking water, water supply, and certain reclaimed water projects. Examples of these DWSRF projects include: Destin Water Users Inc. will be awarded a $2.3 million construction loan for the construction of new water storage tanks in the western and northeastern portions of the utility’s service area, as well as replacement of one of its older supply wells. The upgraded storage capacity of 1.25 mgd will help the utility meet its finished water storage needs. Jennings will be awarded over $200,000 for a construction loan to rehabilitate the existing elevated storage tank to correct public health and safety issues noted by the department’s permitting office. Polk Regional Water Cooperative will be awarded a $11.5 million loan for planning the future water supply of Polk County through the Polk Regional Water Cooperative, which includes the communities of Auburndale, Bartow, Winter Haven, Mulberry, Lakeland, Haines City, and others. Planning activities include development of a deep well lower Floridan wellfield, preliminary design of water treatment plant for brackish water treatment and pipelines to convey water, and strategic planning of surface water storage areas and aquifer recharge sites. A benefit for projects funded by the DWSRF loan programs is that a significant portion of the loans do not need to be repaid by small and financially disadvantaged communities, helping them accomplish vital projects to provide clean drinking water and improve natural resources. More than $13 million of the total loan amounts for 2017-18 projects requires no repayment. For this fiscal year, approximately $100 million remains for eligible CWSRF and DWSRF projects, to be obligated at future public listing meetings held quarterly. Approximately $39 million of these remaining funds may be obligated as a portion of loans that requires no repayment for qualifying financially disadvantaged communities. The state's CWSRF and DWSRF programs combined have awarded more than $5 billion in funding since their inception. The programs are funded by federal grants, state matching funds, loan repayments, and interest earnings. S

Please send any newsworthy items for this column to Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association

FWPCOA STATE SHORT SCHOOL March 12 - 16, 2018 Indian River State College - Main Campus – FORT PIERCE –

COURSES Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester ..........................$375/$405

Stormwater Management C, B & A ..............................$325/$325

Backflow Prevention Assembly Repairer ......................$275/$305

Utility Customer Relations I, II & III................................$260/$290

Backflow Tester Recertification ......................................$85/$115

Utilities Maintenance III & II ..........................................$225/$255

Basic Electrical and Instrumentation ............................$225/$255

Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A .....$325/$325

Facility Management Module I......................................$275/$305

Water Distribution System Operator Level 3, 2 & 1......$325/$325

Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B & A ........................$225/$255 (Abbreviated Course) ................................................$125/$155

Wastewater Process Control ........................................$225/$255 Wastewater Troubleshooting ........................................$225/$255

For further information on the school, including course registration forms and hotels, visit:

SCHEDULE CHECK-IN: March 11, 2018 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. CLASSES: Monday – Thursday........8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friday........8:00 a.m. to noon

FREE BBQ P Monday, March 12, 4:30 p.m. P

For more information call the

FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 58

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Tank Engineering And Management

Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983





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Showcase Your Company in the Engineering or Equipment & Services Directory Contact Mike Delaney at


CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

P osi ti ons Ava i l a b l e CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: • • • • •

Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee Solid Waste Worker I, II & III Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III Public Service Worker II - Stormwater

Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.


VISIT OUR WEBSITE AT: WWW.CASSELBERRY.ORG Job Title: Utility Project Coordinator Hiring Range: $40,901.00 - $51,126 We offer a competitive compensation package and affordable health benefits. The City of Casselberry is an Equal Opportunity Employer. For additional information regarding responsibilities or qualifications and to apply, please visit our website. DFW

Field Service Technician Hydra-Service (S) Inc. is a leader in the Water and Wastewater Industry and is looking to add a field service technician to our team. The ideal candidate will have a minimum of 3 years’ experience in trouble shooting controls, hydraulics and mechanical issues at lift stations or water/waste water treatment facilities. The candidate must also live in or be willing to re-locate to the greater Tampa Bay area. A clean driving record is required. We offer an excellent compensation and benefits package. Compensation will vary based on experience. Hydra Service (S) Inc. is a drug-free work place and an equal opportunity employer. If you are interested please send a Resume to

Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.

U.S. Submergent Technologies Sales Representative U.S. Submergent Technologies (USST) is the premier service provider for restoring the capacity of wet infrastructure. Headquartered in Florida, USST is seeking to add a qualified Salesperson to its team. This Salesperson will be primarily responsible for sales of USST services via direct phone calls, email and other personal contacts, as well as maintaining positive customer relations, in a specific area of Florida. Additional information is available at and resumes may be submitted to

CITY OF CLEARWATER Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator

Reiss Engineering, Inc. Looking for an opportunity to make a difference ? Looking for a dynamic team environmentwhere you can manage and lead projects to success? Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to contribute and make a difference for our people, our clients, and our community! Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. To see open positions and submit a resume to join our team, visit

University of Florida Wastewater Treatment Plant Supervisor Florida Class A Wastewater Operator License and valid Florida Class E Driver's License required. Duties include: Directs and manages the operations personnel that operate the Water Reclamation Facility and auxiliary equipment. Develops and conducts training for operational staff when required. Ensure the Wastewater Treatment Plant is operated in a safe and effective manner while maintaining facility discharge compliance. To apply, visit 503406/treatment-plant-supervisor. If an accommodation due to a disability is needed, call (352) 392-2HRS or (800) 955-8771 (TDD). Equal Opportunity Employer.

City of Winter Haven, FL Utility Services Director The ideal candidate must have a bachelor's degree with 7 to 9 years of progressively responsible experience in a supervisory and managerial capacity. A Master's degree is preferred. The salary range is $76,400 to $126,110 DOQE. Apply online at

Capital Projects Manager Utilities CIP Polk County BoCC is now hiring for a Capital Projects Manager at their Utilities Division. If you are a Civil or Environmental Engineer and are looking for a career change, please apply by clicking the link below: Job Link: Location: Winter Haven, FL 33880 Work Schedule: Monday - Friday 8am - 5pm Compensation: $66,830.40 - $100,328.54 (Exempt) Commensurate with Experience Please feel free to also forward your resume to or apply direct out on the website @

$42,032.73-$64,180.15 Annually. Job Description: Specialized work of a skilled nature involving supervisory responsibilities in the operation & maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant, sludge handling facility, equipment, & grounds. Duties include supervision of subordinate operators, mechanics, & trainees engaged in the maintenance and operation of a wastewater treatment plant & sludge handling. The employee is expected to exercise independent judgment & initiative in solving routine maintenance & operating problems & serves as Lead Operator. Work is reviewed by observing plant facilities & through reports. Minimum Qualifications: High School graduation, High School Equivalency Diploma, or G.E.D. Certificate; supplemented by courses in bacteriology and chemistry, must possess & maintain current Class "A" Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Experience & training at the prescribed level as defined under current applicable laws & regulations. Any equivalent combination of education, training, & experience. SUBMIT APPLICATIONS AT:

Marion County Board of County Commissioners Utilities Instrumentation Technician $45,884.80 - $73,049.60 Highly skilled technical work in the installation, modification, maintenance and repair of, motor controls, instrumentation, telemetry, lift station controls and other control systems. Calibration of instrument at Water and Wastewater Treatment and Collection systems. Knowledge of SCADA with 4-20 MA. apply at:

Career Opportunity

Operator B and C for Wastewater Treatment Plant Toho Water Authority This is your opportunity to work for the largest provider of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services in Osceola County. A fast-growing organization, Toho Water Authority is expanding to approximately 95,000 customers in Kissimmee, Poinciana and unincorporated areas of Osceola County. You can be assured there will be no shortage of interesting and challenging projects on the horizon! As an Operator, you will be expected, among other specific job duties, to have the ability to do the following: • maintain compliance and operations of Wastewater Treatment Plants; • conduct facility inspections, perform maintenance on equipment, and ensure normal operations; • evaluate water systems; and • fulfill recordkeeping, documentation, and reporting requirements. Candidates are required to hold the following certifications: Class “B or C” Wastewater Operators License, and Valid Class E Florida Driver’s License. Toho Water Authority offers a highly competitive compensation package, including tuition reimbursement, on site employee clinic, generous paid leave time, and retirement 401a match. If you are a driven professional, highly organized, and looking for a career opportunity at a growing Water Authority, then visit the TWA webpage today and learn how you can join our team! Visit to review the full job description and submit an employment application for consideration.

City of Coral Springs is accepting online applications/resumes for the following openings. Please visit the City’s web site at and submit your online application.

GIS Analyst City of Avon Park Salary $50,000. Visit:

ENGINEERING INSPECTOR $39,000 - $59,000 + excellent benefits Associates degree in Civil Engineer or Construction Manager and three year experience in Public Works construction inspection; FDEP Stormwater, Erosion and Sedimentation Control Inspector (or ability to obtain in 6 months); OSHA 10-hours Construction Safety and Health Certificate; MOT Intermediate or Advance level; equivalent combination of education, experience and certification acceptable. WATER PLANT OPERATOR $35,000 – 454,000 + excellent benefits One or two years responsible experience in utilities operations preferred; must have Florida Class “C” Water Operator’s license; high school graduation or GED; valid Florida’ driver’s license. EOE/M/F/D/V

Asst. City Manager – Public Services

Senior Engineer Career opportunity for a licensed, experienced Professional Engineer (PE) with asset portfolio responsibilities to provide project management and team leadership for City transportation, stormwater and sanitary sewer utility engineering projects. This position will have a strong focus on pavement design, evaluating pavement condition assessments and providing life cycle management recommendations to City officials. For more information, a full job description and application instructions, please go to:

This is a highly responsible administrative and managerial position that directs the streets and drainage, solid waste/recycling, water, water treatment, wastewater, wastewater treatment, storm water, environmental services, and cemetery divisions for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Minimum of a Bachelor’s Degree in Public Administration, Business Administration, Business Management or related field. • Six (6) years of progressively responsible experience in a municipal, county, or state level, of which four (4) have been in a leadership capacity or an equivalent combination of education and experience. • Valid Florida driver’s license with an acceptable driving record. • Considerable knowledge of municipal public works planning, design, and administration. • Knowledge of civil engineering desired. • Ability to plan, direct, supervises, coordinate, organize, and inspect public services and engineering plans, programs, and activities. • Ability to prepare written technical reports, estimates, and construction and cost records. • Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with subordinates superiors, city and governmental officials and the general public. • Ability to prepare, develop, and present public services plans and programs to the public, City Commission, civic organizations, and other public and private groups.

Director of Infrastructure City of Avon Park Salary $80,000. Visit:


December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Utility Compliance/Efficiency Manager $78,836 - $110,929/yr.

Utilities Electrician $51,283 - $72,160/yr.

Utilities Storm Water Foreman $46,515 - $65,451/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $38,267 - 53,847/yr.; $40,182 - $56,539/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

City of Groveland Class C Wastewater Operator The City of Groveland is hiring a Class "C" Wastewater Operator. Salary Range $30,400-$46,717 DOQ. Please visit for application and job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP

Water Operator C $33,498 to $47,178.67 Annually (DOQ) Position Function: Under the direction of the Water Superintendent and/or Lead Operator, performs duties necessary to support the Water Division to ensure the proper operation and maintenance of the water treatment systems and equipment within the appropriate Federal and State regulatory guidelines.

Water Operator Trainee $22,880 to 32,223 Annually (DOQ) Position Function: Under the direction of the Water Superintendent and/or Lead Operator, performs duties necessary to support the Water Division to ensure the proper operation and maintenance of the water treatment systems and equipment. Position is classified as an Operator in Training and is responsible to accomplish licensure requirements commensurate with position within 12 – 18 months of hire. *For more information please visit

Wastewater Operator C $33,498 to $47,178.67 Annually (DOQ) Position Function: Under the direction of the Wastewater Superintendent and/or Lead Operator, performs duties necessary to support the Wastewater Division to ensure the proper operation and maintenance of the wastewater treatment systems and equipment within the appropriate Federal and State regulatory guidelines.

Wastewater Operator Trainee $22,880 to 32,223 Annually (DOQ) Position Function: Under the direction of the Wastewater Superintendent and/or Lead Operator, performs duties necessary to support the Wastewater Division to ensure the proper operation the wastewater treatment systems and equipment. Position is classified as an Operator in Training and is responsible to accomplish licensure requirements commensurate with position within 12 – 18 months of hire. *For more information please visit

Pos i ti o ns Wa nt e d ANDERSON, MAI – Passed C Wastewater exam and needs in plant hours. Prefers Miami, Homestead or Mirimar areas but is willing to relocate. Contact at 13900 SW 1st Ave, Miami, Fl 33168. 305-207-9784


The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Glossary of Common Terms in This Publication ASR ................aquifer storage and recovery AWT ................advanced water treatment AWWT ............advanced wastewater treatment AWWA ............American Water Works Association BOD ................5-day biochemical oxygen demand BODx ..............BOD test based on other than 5 days CBOD ..............5-day carbonaceous BOD COD ................chemical oxygen demand cfm ..................cubic feet per minute cfs....................cubic feet per second CWA ................Clean Water Act DEP ................Fla. Dept. of Environmental Protection EIS ..................Environmental Impact Statement EPA ................U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FAC..................Florida Administrative Code fps ..................feet per second FSAWWA ........Florida Section of AWWA FWEA ..............Florida Water Environment Association FWPCOA ........Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association GIS ..................Geographic Information System gpcd ................gallons per capita per day gpd ................gallons per day gpm ................gallons per minute hp ....................horsepower I/I ....................Infiltration/Inflow mgd ................million gallons per day mg/L ................milligrams per liter MLSS ..............mixed liquor suspended solids MLTSS ............mixed liquor total suspended solids NPDES ............Nat. Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NTU ................nephelometric turbidity units ORP ................oxidation reduction potential POTW..............public-owned treatment works ppm per million ppb per billion PSC ................Public Service Commission psi....................pounds per square inch PVC ................polyvinyl chloride RO ..................reverse osmosis SCADA ............supervisory control and data acquisition SJRWMD ........St. Johns River Water Mangement Dist. SFWMD ..........South Florida Water Management Dist. SRWMD ..........Suwannee River Water Management District SSO ................sanitary sewer overflow SWFWMD ........Southwest Fla. Water Management Dist. TDS dissolved solids TMDL maximum daily load TOC organic carbon suspended solids USGS ..............United States Geological Survey WEF ................Water Environment Federation WRF ................water reclamation facility WTP ................water treatment plant WWTP ............wastewater treatment plant Florida Water Resources Journal • December 2017


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 50

Editorial Calendar January ......Wastewater Treatment February ....Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ........Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ............Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ............Operations and Utilities Management June............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ........Disinfection; Water Quality September ..Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ......New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ..Water Treatment December ..Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index

1. B) sewers, pipelines, conduits, pumping stations, force mains, and all other facilities used for collection and transmission of wastewater to a treatment plant. Per FAC 62-604.200 Definitions: “Collection/transmission systems” means sewers, pipelines, conduits, pumping stations, force mains, and all other facilities used for collection and transmission of wastewater from individual service connections to facilities intended for the purpose of providing treatment prior to release to the environment.”

2. A) capacity assurance, management, operations, and maintenance. Per Optimizing Operation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation of Sanitary Sewer Collection Systems, Chapter 2: “CMOM . . . EPA has been working for a number of years on regulatory changes to enhance the performance of sanitary sewer collection systems with the intent of reducing sanitary sewer overflows and preserving the substantial investment in infrastructure that collection systems represent.”

3. C) an in-place emergency generator. Per FAC 62-604.400(2)(a)1. Design/Performance Considerations: “Pump stations that receive flow from one or more pump stations through a force main or pump stations discharging through pipes 12 in. or larger shall provide for uninterrupted pumping capabilities, including an in-place emergency generator.”

4. B) infiltration. Per Wastewater Collection Systems Management, MOP 7 – Table 1.1 Glossary of Terms: “Infiltration – The introduction of groundwater to a sanitary sewer system through cracks, pipe joints, manholes or other system defects.”

5. B) odors, noise, and lighting. Blue Planet ................................................67 CEU Challenge ..........................................37 CH2M Hill ..................................................54 Crom ..........................................................56 Data Flow ..................................................35 FSAWWA Membership ................................9 FSAWWA Operator Scholarships ..............10 FSAWWA Training......................................11 FWRC Conference ................................19-21 Florida Aquastore......................................57 FWPCOA State Short School ....................58 FWPCOA Training ......................................41 Hudson Pump ............................................43 Hydro International ....................................5 Lakeside ....................................................50 Orenco Systems ........................................27 Professional Piping ..................................25 Pure Tech ..................................................39 Stacon ........................................................2 UF Treeo ....................................................49 Xylem ........................................................68


Per FAC 62-604.400(2)(c) Design/Performance Considerations: “New pumping stations shall be designed and located on the site so as to minimize adverse effects resulting from odors, noise, and lighting. The permittee shall give reasonable assurance that the facility shall not cause odor, noise, or lighting in such amounts or at such levels that they adversely affect neighboring residents, in commercial or residential areas, so as to be potentially harmful or injurious to human health or welfare or unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life or property, including outdoor recreation. Reasonable assurance may be based on such means as aeration, landscaping, treatment of vented gases, buffer zones owned or under the control of the permittee, chemical additions, prechlorination, ozonation, innovative structural design, or other similar techniques and methods as may be required.”

6. C) 100 ft Per FAC 62-604.400(1)(c) Design/Performance Considerations: “Except as provided in subsection 62-604.400(3), F.A.C., to be located no closer than 100 ft from a public drinking water supply well and no closer than 75 ft from a private drinking water supply well unless

December 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the applicant provides documentation accompanying the permit application showing that another alternative will result in an equivalent level of reliability and public health protection.”

7. A) A phone number for a point of contact in case of emergency. Per FAC 62-604.400(2)(d) Design/Performance Considerations: “New pumping stations shall be enclosed with a fence or otherwise designed with appropriate features that discourage the entry of animals and unauthorized persons. An unobstructed sign made of durable weather resistant material shall be posted at a location visible to the public with a telephone number for a point of contact in case of emergency.”

8. A) at a site within the boundaries of the district office or delegated local program permitting the collection/transmission system. Per FAC 62-604.400.500(4) Operation and Maintenance: “Copies of record drawings and the operation and maintenance manual shall be available at a site within the boundaries of the district office or delegated local program permitting the collection/transmission system, for use by operation and maintenance personnel and for inspection by department personnel.”

9. A) orally to the State Warning Point as soon as practical, but no later than 24 hours from the time that the owner/operator becomes aware of the circumstances, followed by a written submission within five days. Per FAC 62-604.550(2)(a) and (c) Abnormal Events: “(a) Unauthorized releases or spills in excess of 1,000 gal per incident, or other abnormal events where information indicates that public health or the environment will be endangered, shall be reported orally to the State Warning Point toll-free number (800) 320-0519 as soon as practical, but no later than 24 hours from the time that the owner/operator becomes aware of the circumstances . . . (c) The oral notification shall be followed by a written submission, which shall be provided within five days of the time that the owner/operator becomes aware of the circumstances. The written submission shall contain: a description of the spill, release, or abnormal event and its cause; the duration, including exact dates and time, and if it has not been corrected, the anticipated time it is expected to continue; and steps taken or planned to reduce, eliminate, and prevent recurrence.”

10. D) preventive maintenance. Per Wastewater Collection Systems Management, MOP 7 Section 5.2 Types of Pumping Station Maintenance: “Preventive maintenance includes routine, scheduled activities performed before equipment failure to extend equipment life, reduce maintenance costs, and increase reliability. Maintenance programs should devote an appropriate level of resources to preventive maintenance.”

December 2017 Florida Water Resources Journal  
December 2017 Florida Water Resources Journal  

Distribution and Collection