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News and Features
4 Red Tide Continues Along Florida’s Gulf Coast 50 WEF HQ Newsletter: Women in Water are Thriving, Despite Low Numbers—Katherine Saltzman 51 News Beat 54 Water Research Foundation Seeks Research Project Proposals
Technical Articles 6 Big Bubble Mixing Enhances Biological Nutrient Removal Performance in a Unique Modified Four-Stage Facility—Rosalyn Matthews, Derek Bieber, Kristi Fries, and Steve Shelnutt 22 Evaluation and Installation of a Thermochemical Hydrolysis Process at the Kenosha Wastewater Treatment Plant— Alexander Kraemer and Zhongtian Li 30 Pressure Pipe Condition Assessment Technology Evaluation—Weston Haggen, Pamela Kerns, and Chuck Mura 44 Horizontal Directional Drilling in St. Augustine: Low-Impact Vacuum Sewer Replacement in a Residential Neighborhood—David A. Rasmussen, Teri Pinson, and Scott Trigg
14 C Factor—Mike Darrow 26 FWEA Focus—Kristiana S. Dragash 37 Committee Profile: FWPCOA Membership Committee—Darin Bishop 38 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Bill Young 40 Reader Profile—Bradley Hayes 42 FWEA Committee Corner: Utility Management Committee Update—Rick Nipper 52 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak
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Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
Red tide bloom.
Red Tide Continues Along Floridaâ€™s Gulf Coast
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
A red tide bloom that's been lingering along the Southwest Florida coast for the past two months has spread out and grown more dense in recent weeks. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission is reporting counts of 1 million cells per liter (and higher) of Karenia brevis (the organism that causes red tides in this region) in Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota, and Manatee counties. Fish kills can happen when counts reach 10,000 cells per liter and have been reported in Lee, Charlotte, and Sarasota counties, although the strongest part of the bloom is offshore. K. brevis is a natural part of the ecosystem, but can bloom to high concentrations when conditions favor it. Blooms typically start off around Sarasota and work their way south toward Collier County and Marco Island. This bloom probably started in October of last year as several cormorants (birds that are native to North America) with red tide poisoning were taken to the Center for the Rehabilitation of Wildlife, or CROW, on Sanibel, an island and city in Lee County. These birds are the canary in the coal mine for red tides because they're far-ranging birds that feed along the coast and just offshore. Cormorants eat small fish that have accumulated the red tide in their system, and the birds then get sick themselves. Red tide also kills fish; marine mammals, such as dolphins and manatees; and sea turtles. The dense areas of red tide are large and spread out along the coast. The patch of red tide on satellite imagery is shown to be over 2 miles wide. The dense patches are likely killing fish, but the dead fish are, for the most part, out in the Gulf of Mexico and not on local beaches This could change if winds come out of the northwest, as they often do during cold fronts, but those winds can also cause weaker patches of red tide to disburse. A cold front has started to work its way through the area, and north winds are expected to blow for awhile. Environmental groups are paying attention to the bloom as well. Some are worried that the bloom is being fed by excess nutrients running off the southwest Florida landscape and from Lake Okeechobee, which renews the discussion about stormwater and lake releases feeding the bloom. Some feel the intensity, in terms of densities and duration, may be contributing to its persistence here. Flows from Lake Okeechobee and local stormwater runoff have been very high this year, as several storm events added up to create the wettest wet season on record. S
F W R J
Big Bubble Mixing Enhances Biological Nutrient Removal Performance in a Unique Modified Four-Stage Facility Rosalyn Matthews, Derek Bieber, Kristi Fries, and Steve Shelnutt he City of Orlando (city) completed facility improvements in February 2016 at the Water Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility (WCIIWRF) that enhanced the biological nutrient removal (BNR) within the facility basins. The key goal of the improvements was to provide mixing within the first anoxic basins to reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations and enhance denitrification. The city wished to maximize the capacity and treatment capabilities within the BNR process. Prior to the project, mixing of the anoxic zones was accomplished through the addition of
a low level of diffused air. A similar level of low aeration is used within the “second anoxic” zones within aeration basins 5-10; however, it was determined that even low levels of air increased the dissolved oxygen (DO) level enough to impact denitrification within the basins. To improve mixing within the basins and reduce DO levels, two alternatives were proposed: hyperboloid mixers and big bubble mixing technology, both of which have been used in the municipal wastewater industry. The purpose of the project was to evaluate both technologies on performance and net-present-worth comparisons.
Figure 1. Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Biological Nutrient Removal Process Flow Diagram
Figure 2. Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Biological Nutrient Removal Aerial Flow
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Rosalyn Matthews, Ph.D., P.E., is an associate with Hazen and Sawyer in Cleveland, and Derek Bieber, P.E., is senior principal engineer with Hazen and Sawyer in Orlando. Kristi Fries, P.E., is a project manager and Steve Shelnutt is plant manager for Water Conserv II with City of Orlando.
Facility Description The city owns and operates WCIIWRF. The 21-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) annual average daily flow (AADF) facility consists of flow equalization, preliminary treatment, biological nutrient removal (BNR), clarification, dual media filters, and disinfection. Solids handling includes thickening, a proprietary lime stabilization process, and dewatering. Biological Nutrient Removal Schematic The BNR process consists of two trains: the north train consists of basins 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, while the south train consists of basins 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. The ten basins are located in two sets of consecutive rectangular tanks: basins 1-4 are located in the first tank and basins 5-10 are located in the subsequent tank. The improvements redirected the flow path within basins 1-4 and constructed a mixing system for basins 3 and 4. Prior to the project, a low flow of diffused aeration was used to provide mixing within the anoxic basins; however, the small amount of aeration resulted in suboptimal performance. The redirection of the internal recycle flow from basins 3 and 4 to basins 1 and 2 allowed for the process to use the basins with the highest fine bubble diffuser density for aerobic zones. The current flow path sends influent flow, return activated sludge (RAS), and internal recycle (IR) through the anoxic zones in basins 3 and 4. The IR pumps deliver approximately two times the influent flow from the effluent channel of basins 3 and 4 over the wall and into basins 1 and 2 where it flows in the reverse direction. Basins 1 and 2 aerate the IR with high-efficiency diffusers Continued on page 8
Continued from page 6 and the flow is recombined with the raw and RAS flow going to basins 3 and 4. After these four basins, the flow continues to basins 5-10, where it flows in a serpentine pattern. A portion of basins 5-10 is maintained with minimum aeration to create a "secondary anoxic zone." The facility uses online nutrient
monitoring to adjust performance parameters within the basins, such as airflow and IR. Figure 1 presents the process flow diagram of the biological system and Figure 2 presents the liquid flow and IR loop within basins 1-4. Permit Limits The effluent quality limits of WCIIWRF have
Table 1. Water Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Permit Summary
Table 2. Water Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Influent Quality (October 2016 - March 2017)
Table 1. Water Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Effluent Quality (October 2015 - January 2016)
three permitted discharges: local public access reuse, rapid infiltration basins (RIBs), and the citrus freeze protection and irrigation water supply to the Water Conserv II distribution center. The RIBs are classified as a rapid-rate land application system and have a total wetted area of 261 acres. Chapter 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, FAC, sets the treatment criteria for rapid-rate land application effluent disposal systems and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) requires at least secondary treatment and basic disinfection levels for rapid-rate land application systems. The FDEP also requires WCIIWRF to adhere to an effluent nitrate limit of 10 mg/L annual average and 12 mg/L weekly and monthly average for the rapid infiltration basins. Table 1 summarizes the effluent permit limits for the facility. Historical Trend Tables 2 and 3 present recent historical trends for influent and effluent quality. Inflow to the BNR is typically balanced between the two trains, though fluctuations in the data may occur if a basin is down and flow is diverted to the other train. The effluent quality data set was taken for the four months prior to commencement of the improvements project; even before the improvements, WCIIWRF was achieving a high level of biological nitrogen removal. The IR flow is maintained at approximately twice the plant equalized flow (2Q) and RAS is maintained at approximately 0.8Q.
Mixing Systems Mechanical Mixers Vertical shaft hyperboloid mixers have a motor and gearbox mounted above the water and a vertical shaft similar to other vertical shaft impeller mixers, but the key difference is the use of a solid hyperboloid-shaped impeller instead of a multibladed impeller. The hyperboloid impeller has multiple vanes integral to the impeller that direct flow radially from the impeller; this directs flow out toward the tank walls, which then turns the flow up toward the surface. This creates counter-rotation currents around the mixer similar to vertical shaft impeller mixers, but the hyperboloid impeller also creates numerous microvortices along the floor of the tank to prevent solids from accumulating at the bottom. The hyperboloid impeller is typically located much closer to the tank floor (approximately one/tenth impeller diameter) and has a slower rotational speed. Low rotational speed reduces the potential of shearing the mixed liquor floc, which can improve settling in downstream processes. Figure 3. Typical Big Bubble Mixer Components
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Big Bubble System A big bubble mixing system provides mixing action through coordinated short bursts of com-
pressed air. The compressed air is discharged through nozzle headers installed on the floor of the tank, similar to coarse and fine bubble aeration systems; however, the large bubble system has significantly fewer nozzles than a diffuser-based system and only discharges air intermittently in timed bursts. The transfer of oxygen is dependent on the surface area of the bubbles and the surface area (per unit volume) is inversely related to the diameter of the bubbles produced (larger bubbles result in less surface area in the same volume). Since the bubbles produced in a big bubble mixing system are much larger (approximately grapefruit-sized) than coarse and fine bubble systems, the oxygen transfer is negligible. Figure 3 shows a typical nozzle header arrangement. The air to each header is controlled by electrically actuated valves (one for each header) located in a valve control panel (VCP). Compressed air is supplied to each VCP from receiving tanks, typically one per panel, which are supplied from a common compressor. The receiving tanks and VCPs are typically mounted near the header pipes they supply. The VCPs can be programmed to fire sequentially at controlled intervals to â€œrollâ€? the tank from one end to the other and achieve uniform mixing with negligible oxygen transfer. Design Comparison The hyperboloid-style mixer installation requires modifications to each of the basins to accommodate hanging the mixer in the center of each basin. At basins 3 and 4, new fabricated aluminum structures could be provided to support the new mixers; at basins 7, 8, 9 and 10, the existing walkways would require modifications to the concrete infrastructure to support the mixers. Additionally, existing concrete columns supporting the walkway create constraints on mixer locations. For this installation, big bubble mixing can provide adequate mixing for solids suspension, with a reduction in power consumption compared to hyperboloid mixers. In addition to potential energy savings, use of the big bubble mixing system requires less structural modifications to the basins for access. All moving parts of the big bubble mixing system, including the compressor and air control valving, are installed above the water line, facilitating maintenance. Three 200-pounds-per-sq-in. (psi) air compressors (two active and one standby) are required as part of the big bubble mixing package for all six basins. A phased design of installing basins 3 and 4 now and basins 7-10 later requires only two compressors, with one serving as active and one as standby. The compressors operate to maintain a given pressure within a precharged receiver tank. A valve panel operates to discharge air from the receiver tank into air headers for dis-
Table 4. Hyperboloid Mixer Energy Requirements
Table 5. Big Bubble Mixer Energy Requirements
Table 6. Summary of Hyperboloid Mixer Capital and Operation and Maintenance Costs
tribution into each basin. Once distributed, small-diameter-type 316SS piping distributes flow to the nozzles, which are arranged and installed around the existing diffuser grid and mounted directly to the basin floor. This preliminary design indicated a total power consumption requirement of 41.7 horsepower (hp). The number of mixers and nozzles that are required for each design are based on requiring 0.11 and 0.08 hp/1,000 cu ft (ft3) of aerated basin floor for basins 3-4 and 7-10, respectively. Tables 4 and 5 present the amount of hp that is required based on the amount of mixing energy. These hp requirements are the basis for energy consumption. Life Cycle Analysis To provide the city with an equal basis for deciding between the hyperboloid mixers and big
bubble mixers, costs were evaluated on a life cycle analysis. For each type of mixer, the capital, electrical, and maintenance costs were included. Each mixer type required modifications to the existing fine bubble tube diffusers to pin them to the basin floor or provide a clear space around the mixer. Additionally, the hyperboloid mixers required that aluminum walkways be constructed to support the mixers within the center of the basin, and the big bubble mixers included a pre-engineered steel building construct above the compressors. Table 6 presents a summary of the capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs for the current project (basins 3 and 4), as well as estimates to install hyperboloid mixers into basins 7-10. The capital cost includes 20 percent contingency and 25 percent contractor overhead and profit. Table 7 presents a summary of the capital Continued on page 10
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ October 2018
Table 7. Summary of Big Bubble Capital and Operation and Maintenance Costs
Continued from page 9 and O&M costs for both the current project, as well as estimates to install the big bubble mixer system into Basins 7-10. The capital cost includes a 20 percent contingency and 25 percent contractor overhead and profit. Capital, electrical, maintenance, and rebuilding costs were estimated over a 20-year life cycle to equitably compare both of the mixing systems. Though the capital cost of the big bubble mixing system was slightly higher, the expected O&M costs were slightly lower, with both costs being within the applied contingency. Table 8 presents the 20-year life cycle analysis of the two systems.
Big Bubble Design Description
Table 8. 20-Year Net-Present-Worth Life Cycle Analysis: Hyperboloid Mixers and Big Bubble Mixing System
Based on the life cycle analysis, the city decided to move forward with final design and bidding of the big bubble mixing system. The project was bid with a base bid to include the work within basins 3 and 4, and an alternate bid to include the work in all basins. Due to budgetary reasons, the base bid was selected, and the big bubble mixing system was installed within basins 3 and 4. Installation of a mixing system in basins 7-10 was deferred. For basins 3 and 4, there are 12 nozzle headers in each basin. Each header has six nozzles, for a total of 72 nozzles in each basin. Each basin has two VCPs, each with six valves, which supply air to the headers. Each VCP has a dedicated receiver tank located adjacent to the panel that keeps the system pressurized. Two compressors (one duty and one standby) are located adjacent to the aeration tanks, and are housed under a new canopy structure for protection of equipment and staff during maintenance. Due to ease of installation, press-fit stainless steel piping was utilized for the mixing system air piping. The master control panel is located in an adjacent electrical room and contains the control screen, with various parameters that can be adjusted, including pressure (2530 psi), valve firing frequency, valve firing duration, and valve firing sequence. The parameters allow the operators to fine-tune the system and can provide operational flexibility; if desired, a portion of the system could be kept in mixing mode while another portion is aerated. Mixing and aeration can also be operated simultaneously, if desired. Figure 4 presents a schematic view of the locations of the mixing system equipment; not shown are the compressors that feed the receivers.
Results of Project
Figure 4. Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Big Bubble Mixer Schematic
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Mixing Performance Testing Full-scale mixing testing was performed as a contract requirement and to ensure that the Continued on page 12
Figure 5. Sample Locations Within Aeration Basin No. 4
Table 9. Basin No. 4 Mixing Test Results (7/25/2016)
Continued from page 10 big bubble mixers were keeping the contents of basins 3 and 4 completely mixed. Typically, total suspended solids (TSS) measurements are made across the basins at various depths. The data are collected and analyzed to confirm that the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the TSS concentrations from each tank are â‰¤ 10 percent, indicating uniform basin contents. Due to aeration basins 3 and 4 being geometrically similar, only one basin was tested. The mixing system default-firing parameters are as follows: S Frequency is the interval between complete cycles of firing the valves in each VCP in the defined sequence. The frequency during testing was 25 seconds. S Sequence is the order in which each VCP fires to complete a single cycle. The sequence during testing was 1-2-3-4-5-6 (all valves fired once in order, then repeated). S Duration is the length of time each air control valve remains open. The duration during testing was 0.5 seconds. The TSS measurements were obtained with a portable, handheld TSS analyzer, Cerlic Model C83C5EN11. The sample site locations for each zone are shown in Figure 5. Three samples were collected at each sampling location in the tank: approximately 18 in. below the surface, mid-depth, and 18 in. above the tank floor. The average measured concentration within each zone ranged from 3,700 to 3,900 mg/L; the concentration did not vary significantly along the length of the basin. The calculated Cv from this testing was approximately 1.8 percent, which is significantly less than the 10 percent typically allowed for mixing systems. The results in Table 9 indicated uniform basin contents.
Table 10. Nutrient Tracking Through Basins
Table 11. Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Effluent Quality (October 2015 - January 2016)
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Nutrient Removal Enhancement Table 10 shows the average concentrations of each pair of basins through the biological treatment trains. Since the installation of the mixers, the system has seen enhanced nutrient removal and treatment performance stability. Prior to the installation of the big bubble mixers, ammonia and nitrate concentrations leaving basins 1-4 were variable due to the difficulty of denitrifying in an aeration using fine bubble aeration to provide mixing. Prior to the upgrade leaving basins 1-4, nitrate concentrations typically were between 5 and 10 mg/L, while ammonia concentrations varied more dramatically at 1 to 20+ mg/L. After the mixers were installed, ammonia concentrations leaving Basins 1-4 were approximately 8 mg/L, while the nitrite and nitrate concentra-
tions were typically less than 1 mg/L. The low nitrate levels demonstrate the enhanced performance of the first anoxic zones with the big bubble mixing. This high level of treatment within the first four basins occurs in only 2.24 mil gal of tankage, or approximately 32 percent of the total aeration tankage of the facility. The facility is able to achieve partial nitrification and nearly complete denitrification within basins 1-4 in a relatively short nominal detention time (approximately 3.4 hours).
Table 12. Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Effluent Quality (October 2016 - January 2017)
Conclusions This successful project for the city resulted in construction of an energy-efficient mixing system, with low maintenance for the city. The mixing system enhanced denitrification within the biological process and improved overall plant performance, as can be seen in Tables 11 and 12. The four-month effluent snapshots represent the four months prior to the start of the improvements project and the same four months following project completion. The facility consistently achieves effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentrations well below what is typically accepted as the limit of technology (TN<3 mg/L). In addition to the mixing system, the combination of mixing and aeration in the same tank and the unique internal recycle flow scheme allows the facility to maximize flexibility and allows for basins to be taken offline without significantly impacting plant performance. Figure 6 provides a visual comparison of the effluent quality and stability before and after the improvements were completed. Not only has effluent quality improved since the project, but ease of operation has also improved. The biological system was enhanced because of the increased mixing and the use of true anoxic basins. In addition to improving overall effluent quality and providing for operational flexibility of the BNR process, installation of the mixing system appears to have improved the time for the facility to recover following high-flow events, such as hurricanes. Figure 7 presents an expanded graph of effluent TN and nitrate concentrations; the spike in nitrogen shown in October 2016 was due to Hurricane Matthew and the spike in nitrogen shown in September 2017 was due to Hurricane Irma. The big bubble mixing system improved plant resiliency and allowed for a quicker recovery of effluent quality following the high inflow. Based on the increase in facility performance from the successful project, the city has decided to move forward and expand the remainder of the big bubble mixing system in Basins 7-10. S
Figure 6. Big Bubble Mixing System Improves Effluent Quality
Figure 7. Conserv II Water Reclamation Facility Quick Recovery Following Hurricanes
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ October 2018
Lift Stations: A Key to Sanitary Sewer Overflow Prevention curred in the past, to keep thing flowing smoothly.
Lift Station Basics
hese days a sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) or wastewater spill of any size can be a major issue, involving repairs, cleaning, and/or replacement to correct the problem. For operators, this is the easy part; because of media attention, public notification, and regulatory fines, we’re in the unenviable spotlight when these events occur. We all are in a profession that is not used to being in the public glare. Traditionally, we are behind-the-scenes professionals doing our best to keep things flowing and operating properly. At times, it can be challenging to keep everything running smoothly, all day and every day, without incident. Anytime a utility has a SSO spill that hits the waters of the state or is over 1000 gallons, we are required to notify the state watch office and put the incident on the public notification website through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). With this step, we must be more focused on preventive measures. It’s best to look at each and every lift station in your collection system to be sure of proper operation and continued service. Another good practice or measure is line cleaning, jetting, or checking manholes of known hot spots in your system, where blockages have oc-
In my humble opinion, the key to preventing a majority of spills is proper lift station maintenance and operational setting or controls. As you all know, the lift station moves wastewater from a low point in the collection system and pumps it to a higher point to restart the gravity flow and direct it to the wastewater treatment plant through a force main. For reference, look up Chapter 62-604, Florida Administrative Code (FAC), which lists the requirements for design, operation, and maintenance for proper lift stations. These stations and collection systems must be designed and operated to protect public health, ensure proper flow, remove waste streams, and be energy-efficient in their operation. Chapter 62-604, requires that the following basic measures be in place: S Two same-kind pumps installed in the station. With either of them out of service, the other pump will have the capacity to handle the flow at peak hourly flow. S Visual alarms and audible emergency alarms that function in the event of a high level in the wet well. S Access control to prevent the public from entry in the lift station area. S Control panel that has surge protection. S Periodic inspection of the lift station and its mechanical equipment.
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Pumps In your system, look at the pumps in each station. Some questions that come to mind include: S Are all pumps running? S Is there a backup option? S Are they keeping up with the flow? S Are the pumpdown and run times equal for each pump? S Does this pump keep having issues? You should try to have all the pumps running in a duplex or triplex station; if not, is there a backup pump? It‘s common practice of good systems to have backup pumps available to cover the times when a station pump is down for maintenance. Make sure that each station has a quick-connect fitting available on the discharge to hook up the backup pump when needed. Use the floats of the backup pump as a secondary control. Try to have multiple portable backup pumps to be moved around to cover downtimes, depending on the size of your utility. Another form of backup is standby power generation. Many large lift stations will have a stationary generator available for use in power outages. Here too, portable generators are an option to move around to cover trouble spots. After several recent storm events in the state, most of the lift station issues and spills were power-related, with spills occurring from power lost from the electrical utility going down and no power to run the lift station. In very large-scale events, the number of lift stations you have on hand may need to be increased; therefore, your utility’s capital improvement plan may need additional funding to purchase more necessary equipment.
Make sure your utility joins the Florida's Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (FlaWARN), or if you’re a small utility, join the Florida Rural Water Association; both have access to backup pumps or generators available for use in troubled times, and have other valuable information. If the pumps in the station are not keeping up with the incoming flow over time, this means two things: the pumps may be in need of a rebuild with new impellors, or the flow has increased to the station. A larger pump may be needed for the new flow capacity the station is experiencing, which can be tricky due to power and breaker requirements from an increased-horsepower pump. You can also add a third pump to the flow equation, but choose this wisely. Controls Now let’s look at the controls of the station. Several questions come to mind: S Are all the floats working or set at the right level? S Is there supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) monitoring for each lift station? S Do you measure the amperage for each pump? S Do you run trends and runtime reports on each lift station? Floats, relays, starters, and breakers are the triggers that allow the lift station to operate correctly and turn on and off to keep the station at the proper level; always ensure that they are properly sized and working correctly. Floats are to be tested regularly to make sure they operate correctly in the pump and set off an alarm at high level. The rule governing this calls for a visual (light) or audible (horn) alarm to be in place. If you’re in a residential area, this could get tricky with the neighbors! You can also use the alarms to your advantage in conjunction with a SCADA monitoring system for good remote observation 24 hours a day to call out adverse conditions. Many utilities across the state of Florida have SCADA systems in place to help with this. It’s good practice to use your SCADA system to track your runtimes and pump downtimes on each pump. This is a good tool, or indicator, to find problems within the station. As a pump wears out or get ragged, the runtimes will change. Pulling the pump and deragging it, or replacing a worn impellor, will keep the station running smoothly and efficiently. Measure and track your amperage, wet well level, and discharge flow on your SCADA system where you can. Amperage tracking, like run-pump down hours, is another tool to use to look for pump
problems or issues over time. Use it to your advantage to prevent SSOs before they occur. Inspections A very important part of problem prevention is to routinely inspect each lift station. Some questions that come to mind are: S Does the station look and sound normal? S Is the equipment working properly? S Is the site secure and locked up? S Is there grease or solids buildup in the station? S When is the last time it was pumped down or cleaned? S Is there an unknown (unusual color or odor) contaminant coming into the lift station? I would recommend a regular routine visit to check each station to ensure that all of these are in normal condition. If any of them are not right, then corrective action is necessary to fix the issue. A monthly pumpdown test and cleaning is another good way to make sure all is right with the pump station. I used to scrape down the sides of the station and wash the solids during the pump downtime many years ago; now, chemical or biological degreasers are available to help in the chore. Also, jet/vac truck cleaning is another good choice today. The monthly testing of any standby generators to operate the whole station is a great way to be sure it’s ready for the next outage. Inspections, and washes and pumpdowns, coupled with a SCADA monitoring system, are a good bet for trouble-free operation. Private Lift Stations Private lift stations are not directly your area of responsibility, but if they’re in your service area, it can be another issue to address. Checking with property owners on their lift stations and educating them about the proper ways of operation and maintenance is a good idea to prevent spills and SSOs. Knowing how many, where they are, and who the contact is, for each station in your system is another good choice for improving customer relations and for the good of the environment.
Good luck to you on your collection system operations and maintenance. I wish you continued success in a job the never stops. Many thanks go to all of you who do this routine task without failure—you are true professionals! I encourage you to keep learning your craft by attending FWPCOA collection system or utility maintenance classes, or the Online Institute; further information about all training is available at www.fwpcoa.org or http://go.flextraining.com/FLC8518/.
2018 Short School Success The August FWPCOA state short school was another successful training event. This was held in Fort Pierce at Indian River State College, with over 350 students attaining training in many different industry disciplines and certification options. The short schools are held In March and August of each year. I want to thank the talented individuals who volunteered their time to pass on their knowledge of the profession as instructors at the school. We have some great instructors in the state and I appreciate all who do this work. I also want to thank the training office, headed by Shirley Reaves, for the excellent job of coordination and logistics for the short school. I commend the awards committee and Renee Moticker, our excellent awards chair, for a great job, too. My congratulations go to the many award winners recognized at the FWPCOA annual awards luncheon—they were all well deserved. Lastly, I wanted to thank all the passionate and hardworking professionals who came to learn, take a class, and stay on top of their craft. Continued success to you all—never stop learning! S
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
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Evaluation and Installation of a Thermochemical Hydrolysis Process at the Kenosha Wastewater Treatment Plant Alexander Kraemer and Zhongtian Li ludge hydrolysis pretreatment for anaerobic digestion increases biogas production, enhances volatile solids reduction, and improves dewaterability of digested sludge (Abelleira-Pereira et al., 2015; Ruiz-Hernando et al., 2013; Schieder et al.; 2000). Conventional thermal hydrolysis treatment applies high temperature and high pressure to achieve an adequate hydrolyzing effect of treated sludge (Feng
et al., 2014; Schieder et al., 2000). Thermochemical hydrolysis process (TCHP) combines both thermal treatment and chemical treatment for sludge hydrolysis. The TCHP can be achieved below boiling temperature and could be applied at small to mid-sized utilities. Both sodium hydroxide (Neyens et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2015) and hydrogen peroxide (Abelleira-Pereira et al., 2015) have been applied
Figure 1. Thermochemical hydrolysis process (TCHP) installation at the Kenosha Wastewater Treatment Plant.
Figure 2. Dynamic viscosities of waste activated sludge, thickened waste activated sludge, and lysed thickened waste activated sludge near room temperature.
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Alexander Kraemer is regional sales manager and Zhongtian Li is technical manager with Centrisys/CNP in Kenosha, Wis.
for thermal chemical treatment. The PONDUS TCHP utilizes heat (60°C-70°C) and sodium hydroxide. Though six full-scale PONDUS TCHP installations are in operation, the TCHP is still at the early stages of technology adaptation. Dewaterability of sludge is an important economic driver of implementing sludge hydrolysis technologies. Maximizing sludge dewaterability is especially important when wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing high sludge disposal costs (Aichinger et al., 2015; Takaoka et al., 2014). Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of sludge for anaerobic digestion is reported to improve sludge dewaterability in relation to dry cake solids and polymer dosage (Neyens and Baeyens, 2003). This study evaluated the impact of TCHP on the dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge. Improvement of sludge rheology for better sludge transfer and mixing is another benefit of the sludge hydrolysis process (Higgins et al., 2017; Urrea et al., 2015). Thermal hydrolysis pre-
Figure 3. Dynamic viscosities of lysed thickened waste activated sludge during the cooling test.
treatment significantly decreases sludge viscosity (Bougrier et al., 2008; Feng et al., 2015) and enables better mixing in anaerobic digesters (Baudez et al., 2011). Sludge viscosity reduction allows better mixing and higher solids loading in anaerobic digesters in the Kenosha WWTP. On average, the TCHP achieves 80 percent reduction of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) viscosity. The implementation of the TCHP enables the plant to reduce six operating mesophilic digesters to three, realizing significant savings of digester heating, pump maintenance, and laboratory monitoring costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a TCHP process on the rheology of TWAS, the biogas production, and the dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge. Dynamic viscosities of TWAS and lysed TWAS (LTWAS) were monitored. Cell lysis of TWAS was confirmed by microscope examination and biogas production; volatile solids reduction (VSR) and volatile solids volumetric loading were also evaluated. The results of this study may provide reference information for technology evaluation.
Figure 4. Floc morphology of thickened waste activated sludge and lysed thickened waste activated sludge before and after thermochemical hydrolysis process treatment.
Materials and Methods The Kenosha WWTP, with a current average wastewater flow of 22 mil gal per day (mgd), implemented a PONDUS TCHP in 2015 as a key upgrade of its energy-optimized resource recovery project. The TCHP was commissioned in March 2016 and occupies part of a basement with a 40-ft by 30-ft footprint at the plant (Figure 1). The TCHP includes a hydrolysis reactor, a heat exchanger, a recirculation pump, and temperature and pressure sensors. The TCHP operates with atmospheric pressure and low-grade hot water (80°C-90°C), ensuring a safe working environment requiring no specialized certification. Operation costs mainly consist of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) consumption (20-lb NaOH/dry-ton sludge). Hot water is supplied from the exhaust heat of two combined heat and power units. Required operator time is less than 0.5 hours/day based on more than two years of operation experience. Kenosha Water Utility (KWU) partnered with Centrisys/CNP for a performance evaluation of the implemented TCHP. Total solids (TS), volatile solids, biogas production, sludge flow rate, and solids loading rate were provided by the laboratory at KWU. Centrisys/CNP conducted dynamic viscosity test of waste activated sludge (WAS), TWAS, LTWAS, and digested sludge using a rotational viscometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Calif.). The changes of dynamic viscosities of LTWAS during the cooling process were evaluated at 47.5°C, 38.2°C, and 25°C. Floc Continued on page 24
Figure 5. Biogas production from primary anaerobic digesters of baseline year (2012) and project year (2016-2017). A peak biogas production was observed in August 2018 during a grease codigestion test.
Figure 6. Volatile solids reduction and volatile solids volumetric loading after implementing the thermochemical hydrolysis process.
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
Continued from page 23 morphology of TWAS and LTWAS was evaluated under a microscope (AmScope, Ill.) at 40x, 400x, and 1000x magnifications. Floc images were captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera installed on the microscope. The VSR was evaluated with care. The KWU implemented a fine screen (FSM Filterscreen®) at the plant headwork and hydraulic mixing system (Vaughan Rotamix®) in anaerobic digesters as part of the upgrade project. In general, the Kenosha WWTP achieved satisfactory grit removal at the plant headwork and provided high-efficacy digester mixing. It was assumed that minimal grit accumulation would occur in the anaerobic digesters; therefore, the Van Kleeck method was selected for calculating VSR (Brobst, 2011).
Results Change of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge Rheology In order to increase the capacity of the anaerobic digester, WAS was thickened to 6 to 7 percent TS at the Kenosha WWTP. Near 80 percent reduction of dynamic viscosity was observed after TWAS went through PONDUS treatment, as shown in Figure 2. Both TWAS and LTWAS were non-Newtonian fluid; however, the change of dynamic viscosity of LTWAS at different shear rates was less significant, compared with that of TWAS. Figure 3 evaluates the dynamic viscosity of LTWAS under different temperatures. No significant change of the dynamic viscosity of the TLWAS was observed during the sludge cooling test. This observation was beneficial since the data suggested that LTWAS could be held for a longer time or be transported long distances at a lower temperature.
Floc morphology of TWAS and LTWAS are compared in Figure 4, with a rotifer selected as a target microorganism for comparison. Floc images at 1000x magnification clearly indicated the damage of cell structure on the rotifer. The combined effects of thermal treatment and chemical treatment on microorganisms could facilitate release of inner cellular organics. This observation was in agreement with other studies focusing on thermal hydrolysis (Bougrier et al., 2008; Feng et al., 2015).
worthwhile to note that KWU did not intend to maximize cake solids due to sludge cake pumping at the subsequent sludge dryer. Figure 8 evaluates the dewatering polymer curve before and after TCHP implementation, within the temperature range of 28°C and 30°C. The optimum polymer dosage reduced from higher than 43 active lb/dry-ton to about 35 active lb/dry-ton. Within the optimum dosing range for treated sludge, a constant 3.5 to 4 percent increase in cake dryness was observed.
Biogas Production and Volatile Solids Reduction The TCHP improved the biogas production of the anaerobic digestion process. Figure 5 indicates 20 percent more biogas production after the implementation of the TCHP, compared to the baseline year of 2012. A peak biogas production month was observed in August 2017 when the KWU tested grease codigestion in one of the primary digesters. The VSR remained around 63 to 70 percent despite an occasionally low value of 55 percent due to the receiving of aluminum sludge from the Kenosha Drinking Water Treatment Plant (Figure 6). The volumetric loading of volatile solids varied between 130-160 lb/1000 cu ft (ft3), which was doubled from the <80 lb/1000 ft3 before TCHP implementation.
Dewaterability of Anaerobically Digested Sludge The cake solids of dewatered anaerobically digested sludge were reported under the same polymer dosing condition (Figure 7). Before the TCHP was adopted, the average cake solids value was at around 26 percent. The cake solids improved gradually during the TCHP start-up phase, and stabilized around 28 to 31 percent. It’s
Figure 7. Change of dewatering cake solids of anaerobically digested sludge during the start-up of the thermochemical hydrolysis process.
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The impacts of the TCHP on sludge viscosity, floc morphology, biogas production, and dewaterability were evaluated at the Kenosha WWTP. The TCHP reactor effectively hydrolyzed TWAS, with total solids around 7 percent, and biogas production was increased by higher than 20 percent. The VSR was maintained around 63 to 70 percent, with VS volumetric loading of 130160 lb/1000 ft3. Implementation of thermochemical hydrolysis improved the dewaterability of anaerobically digested sludge by >3.5 percent, with maximum cake dryness of 31 percent. The results of this study suggest that the thermochemical hydrolysis can effectively reduce sludge viscosity, enhance biogas production, and improve sludge dewaterability.
References • Abelleira-Pereira, J.M., Perez-Elvira, S.I., Sanchez-Oneto, J., de la Cruz, R., Portela, J.R. and Nebot, E. (2015) Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment. Water Research 71, 330-340.
Figure 8. Polymer curves of dewatering anaerobically digested sludge with and without thermochemical hydrolysis process pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge.
• Aichinger, P., Wadhawan, T., Kuprian, M., Higgins, M., Ebner, C., Fimml, C., Murthy, S. and Wett, B. (2015) Synergistic co-digestion of solid-organic-waste and municipal-sewagesludge: 1 plus 1 equals more than 2 in terms of biogas production and solids reduction. Water Research 87, 416-423. • Baudez, J.C., Markis, F., Eshtiaghi, N. and Slatter, P. (2011) The rheological behaviour of anaerobic digested sludge. Water Research 45(17), 5675-5680. • Bougrier, C., Delgenes, J.P. and Carrere, H. (2008) Effects of thermal treatments on five different waste activated sludge samples solubilisation, physical properties and anaerobic digestion. Chemical Engineering Journal 139(2), 236-244. • Brobst, R. (2011) Biosolids Management Handbook. 3.11-11. • Feng, G.H., Guo, Y.B. and Tan, W. (2015) Effects of thermal hydrolysis temperature on physical characteristics of municipal sludge. Water Science and Technology 72(11), 20182026. • Feng, G.H., Tan, W., Zhong, N. and Liu, L.Y. (2014) Effects of thermal treatment on physical and expression dewatering characteristics of municipal sludge. Chemical Engineering Journal 247, 223-230. • Higgins, M.J., Beightol, S., Mandahar, U., Suzuki, R., Xiao, S., Lu, H.-W., Le, T., Mah, J., Pathak, B., DeClippeleir, H., Novak, J.T., AlOmari, A. and Murthy, S.N. (2017) Pretreatment of a primary and secondary sludge blend at different thermal hydrolysis temperatures: Impacts on anaerobic digestion, dewatering and filtrate characteristics. Water Research 122 (Supplement C), 557-569. • Neyens, E. and Baeyens, J. (2003) A review of thermal sludge pre-treatment processes to improve dewaterability. Journal of Hazardous Materials 98(1-3), 51-67. • Neyens, E., Baeyens, J. and Creemers, C. (2003) Alkaline thermal sludge hydrolysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials 97(1-3), 295-314. • Ruiz-Hernando, M., Martinez-Elorza, G., Labanda, J. and Llorens, J. (2013) Dewaterability of sewage sludge by ultrasonic, thermal and chemical treatments. Chemical Engineering Journal 230, 102-110. • Schieder, D., Schneider, R. and Bischof, F. (2000) Thermal hydrolysis (TDH) as a pretreatment method for the digestion of organic waste. Water Science and Technology 41(3), 181-187. • Takaoka, M., Oshita, K., Iwamoto, T. and Mizuno, T. (2014) Effect of co-managing organic waste using municipal wastewater and solid waste treatment systems in megacities. Water Science and Technology 69(6), 1159-1166.
• Urrea, J.L., Collado, S., Laca, A. and Díaz, M. (2015) Rheological behaviour of activated sludge treated by thermal hydrolysis. Journal of Water Process Engineering 5, 153-159. • Zhang, S.T., Guo, H.G., Du, L.Z., Liang, J.F., Lu, X.B., Li, N. and Zhang, K.Q. (2015) Influence
of NaOH and thermal pretreatment on dewatered activated sludge solubilisation and subsequent anaerobic digestion: Focused on high-solid state. Bioresource Technology 185, 171-177. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
FWEA Board of Directors Steers the Work of the Association Kristiana S. Dragash, P.E. President, FWEA omething I hadn’t the slightest idea about when getting involved with FWEA was how the board of directors worked and what they actually did. Even as the president, I’m still learning, thanks to the seasoned leaders I have the pleasure to work alongside. This month I’d like to share a bit about how the board works and extend a sincere thank you to one of our Water Environment Federation (WEF) delegates whose three-year term ended at the WEF Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC), recently held in New Orleans. The main function of the board of directors is focused around policies and proce-
dures that allow the association to function as it does. In addition to these, the board deals with a lot of behind-the-scenes things, from annual paperwork for the Internal Revenue Service that maintains our not-forprofit status, to additional insurance for some of our events that take place; for instance, on the water or at a shooting range. Since WEF is a federation, the state association isn’t under the federation’s umbrella so to speak, and is individually responsible for making such arrangements. The board is made up of eight directors at large (DALs) who provide guidance to assigned state committees and local chapters and provide updates to the board at bimonthly meetings. The DALs are appointed by the president. The treasurer, who is currently Sondra Lee, keeps us all in line financially and is the primary interface with the association’s new bookkeeper. The vice president, Jamey Wallace, is in charge of membership, giving updates and reports on
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
association membership at each board meeting. The president-elect gets off somewhat easy; though there aren’t any specific items they are in charge of, they generally shadow the president throughout the year and plan the annual Leadership Development Workshop (LDW), which happens in January or February. It was so much fun, albeit a bit stressful, planning last year’s LDW. I’m sure our president-elect, Mike Sweeney, has some tricks up his sleeve for this year’s LDW—though I’m not sure it will involve a flash mob to Gangnam Style like last year! Actually, Mike has a unique experience as president-elect this year: Since I’ll be out on maternity leave for a few weeks, he’ll get the opportunity to serve as president for a board meeting in my absence. The president is in charge of general supervision of the affairs of the association, presiding at all conferences and board meetings. The president is also an ex-officio member of all committees (other than the nominating committee), and has authority to appoint chairs of committees and chapters. The past president (now Tim Harley) performs duties as assigned by the president, and Tim is still hard at work on the initiatives he began during his presidency last year, without being assigned anything further. We also have an Operations Council representative, Brad Hayes, who represents FWEA to the Florida Water Pollution and Control Operators Association (FWPCOA). The Utility Council chair, Paul Steinbrecher, is also a member of the board of directors and updates the FWEA board on Utility Council happenings at each board meeting, while serving the council as outlined in its governing documents. The executive director of FWEA, Kart Vaith, has his hands full. Kart serves as the resident agent of the corporation and is the only board member, other than the president, who can sign a contract on behalf of the association. By now, all of you have likely met or corresponded with Karen Wallace, our executive manager. She keeps FWEA up and running
on a daily basis, providing the official phone number and address for the association and handling more things than I can describe here for events and the website. The last two members of the board are the WEF delegates who represent the association at a national level with WEF, and Raynetta Marshall and Tim Ware are our current delegates. Tim Ware joined us when Ron Cavalieri’s term was up at this past WEFTEC. We are thrilled to have Tim on board! I know he is one of the few people who can fill the large shoes that Ron left. Ron has done a fantastic job representing the association over the past three years, first getting involved with FWEA when he moved to Florida in 2005. He had been involved with the New York WEA and wanted to be engaged in Florida too, which was lucky for us! Ron first held the position as the secretary/treasurer of the Southwest Chapter, later serving as the chair. He began attending the annual LDWs to represent the chapter, which soon led to becoming a DAL on the board. Ron stepped into the WEF delegate role seamlessly, actively participating on Ron Cavalieri several committees and workgroups, including operator initiatives, innovative utility management, and public communication and outreach for member associations (MAs). Ron, we can’t thank you enough for your dedication and service to the association, and we’re looking forward to seeing what’s next for you in FWEA! When I contacted Ron about including him in my column, he had this to say: “I have really enjoyed being actively involved with FWEA. My favorite thing is the friendships that I have made, while helping to create a better water environment. It has been both personally rewarding and a benefit to my company. A highlight of my career was being recognized by my peers at the 2018 Florida Water Resources Conference for induction into the Florida Select Society of Sanitary Sludge Shovelers. It has been an honor and privilege to serve FWEA.” Our association is so fortunate to have a board of directors and a dedicated roster of volunteers who all work tirelessly to help advance the water profession in Florida. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!
Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!
Weston Haggen, Pamela Kerns, and Chuck Mura (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW/DW/DS)
1. Ultrasonic and pulsed eddy current testing are preferred for ___________ pipes. a. ferrous b. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) c. concrete d. high-density polyethylene (HDPE) 2. Magnetic flux leakage testing was eliminated from consideration because it a. presents a potential health hazard. b. requires considerable effort to dewater pipelines. c. is subject to human error. d. requires access to both sides of the pipe. 3. Which of the following was not an element of the criticality ranking system used? a. Likelihood of failure b. Consequence of failure c. Prioritization score d. Cost of asset replacement 4. ____________ is typically used on pipes with a solid-free internal fluid. a. Radiography b. Ultrasonic thickness testing c. Pulsed array ultrasonic testing d. Magnetic particle 5. Which of the following internal pressurized methodologies can be used on 4-in.-diameter pipelines? a. Acoustic/closed-circuit television (CCTV) b. PipeDiver™ electromagnetic inspection c. SmartBall d. SeeSnake™ and HydraSnake™
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)
Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded
Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded
If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)
Contact FWPCOA at firstname.lastname@example.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.
Pressure Pipe Condition Assessment Technology Evaluation
____________________________________ (Expiration Date)
Big Bubble Mixing Enhances Biological Nutrient Removal Performance in a Unique Modified Four-Stage Facility Rosalyn Matthews, Derek Bieber, Kristi Fries, and Steve Schelnutt (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)
1. _____________ mixers have a motor and gearbox above the water with a vertical shaft. a. Turbo b. Hyperboloid c. Vortex d. Submersible 2. Measuring basin total suspended solids (TSS) concentration, the coefficient of variation must be less than ____ to indicate uniform basin contents. a. 1 percent b. 5 percent c. 10 percent d. biochemical oxygen demand concentration 3. Low __________ levels demonstrated the enhanced performance of the first anox zone with big bubble mixing. a. phosphate b. nitrate c. pH d. oxygen 4. In bubble mixing systems, the transfer of oxygen is dependent upon a. air pressure. b. bubble surface area. c. temperature. d. atmospheric pressure. 5. Prior to installation of big bubble mixers in Basins 1-4, effluent nitrate concentrations were variable because a. surface-mount mixers were ineffective. b. the tanks lacked sufficient detention time. c. oxygen levels were too low. d. it’s difficult to nitrify with fine bubble diffusers.
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Pressure Pipe Condition Assessment Technology Evaluation Weston Haggen, Pamela Kerns, and Chuck Mura unicipalities across the United States are struggling to effectively manage aging infrastructure within their utility systems. As these systems age and approach the end of their expected useful life, municipalities end up with pressure mains of unknown condition, which could fail at any moment. Once utility staff decides to take action, the challenge becomes how to systematically prioritize the various portions of the system, and what technologies to employ to effectively and efficiently assess them. The City of Largo (city), the fourth largest city in the Tampa Bay area, services more than 80,000 residents through over 236,600 lin ft of wastewater force mains and 227,100 lin ft of reclaimed water pressure pipes. To help protect its aging pressure systems, the city decided to implement an assessment program that would allow it to prioritize critical areas of the respective systems and determine remaining service life and renewal needs. Subsequent to this prioritization, various testing methods and technologies were applied to evaluate the condition of the assets. Technologies were recommended based on the quality and reliability of the results, as well as the invasiveness of the testing methodologies (technologies with minimal system downtime and minimal impact to the community were preferred). The assessment program included detailed review of existing data, hydraulic modeling, a criticality assessment, and asset prioritization to identify
problem areas within the pressure systems. The criticality ranking system considered risk and prioritization, and consisted of the likelihood of failure and consequence of failure, which were combined to provide a prioritization score, or ranking, for each asset. The assets with the highest score (those with the highest likelihood of failure, highest consequence of failure, or both) were identified as candidates for the assessment technology pilot. Prior to the implementation of the field assessment pilot, four types of nondestructive inspections were evaluated, including external thickness, external defects, internal dewatered (dry) inspections, and internal pressurized (wet) inspections. Assessment technologies associated with these methods were evaluated to assess their efficacy in determining the condition of the cityâ€™s sanitary force main and reclaimed water pipe network. A total of 17 assessment technologies were evaluated as part of the study, five of which were selected for the field assessment pilot study, which was completed in mid-2018. Following the successful completion of the pilot program, the city plans to perform similar assessments on other prioritized mains within its system using the technologies that provided the best results during this pilot study. This article will detail the criticality assessment, prioritization ranking, testing technologies assessment, and field assessment pilot testing results.
Table 1. Criticality Ranking System
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Weston Haggen, P.E., is project manager and Pamela Kerns, E.I., is a project engineer with Reiss Engineering in Tampa. Chuck Mura, P.E., is senior engineer with City of Largo Engineering Services Department.
Data Collection and Analysis Data collection involved the gathering of information, including hydraulic models, geographic information system (GIS) data, record drawings, flow data, equipment locations, reports, and institutional knowledge from city staff for both the reclaimed water and wastewater systems. With assistance from the city, the collected data were used to update its existing hydraulic models, assess and prioritize critical areas using a criticality ranking system, and evaluate inspection technologies to determine which ones would best suit its pressure systems. Some data and system information were not available at the time; therefore, reasonable and diligent assumptions were made for this assessment report.
Criticality Ranking System To prioritize repair, rehabilitation, and replacement activities, the cityâ€™s reclaimed water and wastewater pressure systems were assessed. Asset records were compiled and a criticality ranking system was developed and applied to each asset. The criticality ranking system consisted of likelihood of failure and consequence of failure, and when combined, provide a prioritization score for each asset. Table 1 presents the criticality ranking system categories and criteria, as presented in this section. The criticality ranking system analysis involved the collection, processing, and inventory of several sets of data. To facilitate breaking the systems into distinct assets, pipelines were split up into small segments based on the location/neighborhood, pipe diameter, length, and material. Using this approach, the reclaimed water system was broken up into 198 reclaimed water main segments, two outfall segments, and two reclaimed water plant main segments. Likewise, the wastewater system was split into 109 wastewater public force main segments and 112 wastewater private force main segments. Al-
Figure 1. Ultrasonic Thickness Testing Implementation
Figure 2. Ultrasonic Thickness Testing Transducer
though the private segments were identified, no analysis was completed per city direction for this project. Once the criteria for each category were determined, a weighting score was also allocated based on applicability and significance to the city’s system. Each criterion was assigned a weighting factor, with sums equaling 100 percent for each category. For example, within the likelihood of failure category, a past failure criterion was identified as the most important; therefore, it was assigned the highest weighting factor of 30 percent. Condition assessment criterion was considered the second most important and was assigned a weighting factor of 25 percent. Pipe material, installation date, and level of service requirements were each considered of equal impact and were given a 15 percent weighting factor. The sum of these criteria totals 100 percent. Additionally, each segment was assigned a rank score ranging from low (1) to high (5) chance of failure, which equates to ranking from best to worst condition. In order to calculate the prioritization score for each pipe segment, the percent weighting factor was multiplied by its associated rank score, then each result was added up, taking the sum for each category. After the individual scores for likelihood of failure and consequence of failure categories were determined, they were multiplied together to generate a risk or prioritization score for each pipe segment.
ated, including external thickness, external defects, internal dewatered (dry), and internal pressurized (wet) inspections. Assessment technologies associated with these methods were evaluated to assess their anticipated efficacy in determining the condition of the city’s reclaimed water pressure and wastewater force main network, and its compliance with National Association of Sewer Service Companies (NASSCO) pipeline assessment certification program (PACP) inspection requirements. A total of 17 assessment technologies were evaluated as part of the study and are explained. Five of these technologies were selected for incorporation into the field assessment pilot study.
Condition Assessment Technologies In order to obtain a more complete understanding of the physical condition of the city’s reclaimed water pipes and wastewater force mains, field investigations utilizing nondestructive testing (NDT) methods were performed on the recommended pipe segments based on the criticality assessment. The NDT allows for the evaluation and inspection of a pipe’s condition with minimal to no interruption to service during testing. Four types of NDT inspections were evalu-
Figure 3. Typical Pulsed Eddy Currents Setup
Figure 4. Phased Array
External Thickness Inspection Ultrasonic Thickness Testing Ultrasonic thickness testing (UTT) is used to measure the wall thickness and corrosion in metallic pipes by measuring the transit time of sound waves through the pipe wall. The UTT can be used in all pipe sizes and provides current wall thickness. The measured thickness is then compared to the original wall thickness to determine the percentage of material remaining. The subject pipe does not have to be cut or exposed to damaging chemicals during the test, and the pipeline can remain in service during testing, which is typically performed at fixed angles on the top half of the pipe. The portability of the testing equipment allows for a relatively quick onsite inspection and results are instantaneous. Figure 1 shows a typical UTT setup; the instrument used is handheld and relatively inexpensive. When the test is properly set up, results are repeatable and reliable. The UTT is typically completed at system high points, as determined through review of record drawings or subsurface utility engineering. The UTT uses high-frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. A typical UTT
inspection system consists of several functional units, such as the pulser/receiver and transducer, as shown in Figure 2, and display devices. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce highvoltage electrical pulses. Driven by the pulser, the transducer generates high-frequency ultrasonic energy. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal traveled. From the signal, information about the reflector location, size, and orientation can be gained. Pulsed Eddy Currents Pulsed eddy currents (PEC) were used to detect corrosion and general wall loss in ferrous materials. This technology can be used without direct contact with the surface of the material and, therefore, does not require surface preparation. This technology can be useful where the pipe surface is rough or inaccessible. Similar to the UTT, the equipment is portable and the Continued on page 32
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
Continued from page 31 pipeline can remain in service while the test is performed. The PEC works using the principle of electromagnetic induction. A magnetic field is created by an electrical current in the coil of a probe. When the probe is first placed on or near the pipe, the field penetrates through all the layers and stabilizes in the component thickness. The electrical current in the transmission coil is then switched off, causing a sudden drop in the magnetic field. This sudden change in the magnetic field strength generates eddy currents, which diffuse inward and decrease in strength as they propagate. The decrease in eddy currents is monitored by a set of receiver coils in the probe and used to determine the wall thickness; the thicker the wall of the pipe, the longer it takes for the eddy currents to decay to zero. Figure 3 shows the typical PEC setup. Phased Array Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) measures the wall thickness of ferrous pipes and detects defects or discontinuities, such as cracks. This type of testing is commonly used on pipes between 2 and 36 in. in diameter. The PAUT is more expensive than UTT (the typical configuration is shown in Figure 4) and is typically used
Figure 5. Radiography
to determine the integrity of steel pipe welds. The PAUT consists of computer-based agitation to elements in a probe. The timing of the agitation can be varied to obtain a clearer picture of the internal characteristic of the pipeline. The PAUT uses multi-element probes, each of which can pulse individually, and the beam can be steered electronically through the test piece. As the beam is swept through the inspection subject, the data gathered from the multiple beams is compiled and results in a visual image, presenting a "slice" through the object. The speed with which these results are gathered, interpreted, and presented is far faster than the more traditional UTT inspection methods and radiography. Radiography Radiography testing (RT) utilizes radiation to detect damage or thickness changes in ferrous and nonferrous pipelines. This technology can reveal both internal and external defects and can be performed in pipes up to 36 in. in diameter. The process can be relatively more time-consuming and expensive than other technologies and is typically used on pipes with a solid-free internal fluid. This testing method is based on the same principle as medical radiography. The pipe material is exposed to X-ray or gamma-ray radiation, with either film or reusable phosphorus plates used to capture the image on the other side. The film or plate is placed on the remote side of the pipe and radiation is then transmitted through from one side of the material to the remote side where the radiographic plate is located, as shown in Figure 5. The radiographic plate detects the radiation and measures the various quantities of radiation received over the entire surface of the plate. This plate is then processed, and the different degrees of radiation received by the film are imaged and represented in different degrees of black and white. The amount of energy absorbed by the object depends on its thickness and density. Energy not absorbed by the object causes exposure of the radiographic film, which shows up dark, and areas of
Figure 6. Pit Gauge
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Figure 7. Alternating Current Field Measurement ACFM
the film exposed to less energy remain lighter; therefore, areas of the object where the thickness has been changed by discontinuities, such as cracks, will appear as dark outlines. Inclusions of low density, such as slag, will appear as dark areas on the film, while inclusions of high density, such as tungsten, will appear as light areas. Results require interpretation by experienced, qualified inspectors. Pit Gauge Pit gauge technology measures the depth of pitting along the pipe wall of all sizes of pipes to determine the degree of corrosion. Typically, pit gauge is used on pits already identified from alternative inspection technologies. Any damage or deviation from normal measurements indicates a corrosion issue. This technology is limited to use in cast iron pipe material and is relatively inexpensive. A typical pit gauge consists of a simple lever and a pointer, as shown in Figure 6. This method could bring variable results as itâ€™s dependent on the inspectorâ€™s skills; therefore, results may vary. External Defect Inspection Electromagnetic Testing Electromagnetic testing is commonly used to determine the extent of deterioration of concrete pipes. Pipe sections are dewatered and equipment is set up that generates an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field is used to determine the pipe quality and tests for breaks and other damage in the pipe. This type of testing is performed in concrete pipes, but since none were found in the wastewater or reclaimed systems, this technology was not evaluated further. Alternating Current Field Measurement Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) testing is an electromagnetic technique developed to detect the surface cracks and record the location and characteristics of the crack working through paint and other pipe coatings, as shown in Figure 7. An ACFM inspection can be used in metallic pipes of all sizes. An ACFM probe introduces an electric current locally into the part and measures the associated electromagnetic fields close to the surface. The presence of a discontinuity disturbs the associated fields and the information is graphically presented to the system operator. The ends of a defect are easily identified to provide information on defect location and length. The depth of the flaw (through the pipe wall) plays an important role in determining structural integrity and is calculated using mathematical computations, thus allowing an immediate evaluation of the implication of the indication. Continued on page 34
Florida Water Resources Journal â€¢ October 2018
Continued from page 32
Figure 8. Liquid Penetrant
Figure 9. Magnetic Particle
Figure 10. Closed-circuit tellevisiion
Liquid Penetrant Liquid penetrant inspection, also known as dye penetrant inspection, is widely used to locate surface breaking defects in pipes. The penetrant can be applied to metallic and plastic pipes; however, test materials must be relatively nonporous and the testing surface must be free of all contaminants, including dirt, oil, grease, paint, rust, etc. The dye reveals cracks and other imperfections of pipe surface, as shown in Figure 8. The dye is applied to the surface of the pipe for a certain predetermined time, after which the excess penetrant is removed. The dye penetrates into pipe surface at discontinuities by capillary action. Penetrants typically used include visible or fluorescent dye penetrant. The inspection for the presence of visible dye indications is made under white light and inspection of presence of indications by fluorescent dye penetrant is made under ultraviolet (or black) light under darkened conditions. Evaluations are based on code requirements. Magnetic Particle Magnetic particle testing is commonly used for the testing of materials that can be easily magnetized, such as ferrous metals. This technology detects defects that are open to the surface and just below it, including cracks, seams, and laps in ferromagnetic pipelines. The most commonly used method for magnetic particle testing is the yoke technique, which is portable and can operate in alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) modes. The yoke has an electric coil in the unit creating a longitudinal magnetic field that transfers through the legs to the examined area. In this technology, the test material is first magnetized; any object that is magnetized will be surrounded by an invisible magnetic field. When the ferromagnetic material is defect-free, it will transfer lines of magnetic flux through the material without interruption; when a discontinuity is present, the magnetic flux leaks out of the material, typically if the discontinuity is perpendicular to its flow. As the flux leaks out, the magnetic field will collect ferromagnetic particles, making the size and shape of the discontinuity easily visible. If the defect is parallel to the lines of the magnetic flux, there will be no leakage; therefore, no indication will be observed. A typical configuration is shown in Figure 9. Internal Dewatered Inspection
Figure 11. Laser Profiling
Closed-Circuit Television Closed-circuit television (CCTV) technology is widely used to identify corrosion, leaks, and other internal issues, including cracks and fractures in plastic and ferrous pipelines between 6 in. and larger in diameter, as shown in Figure 10. A
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
CCTV inspection can be done in gravity wastewater and reclaimed water pipelines during lowflow conditions. Force mains must be dewatered prior to inspection. Ideally, the line inspection needs to take place during low-flow conditions. A CCTV inspection typically consists of a remotely operated camera that is mounted on a self-propelled robotic crawler connected to a video monitor at the surface. The CCTV camera is typically inserted through a manhole and, once in the pipe, must be assembled to keep the lens as close as possible to the center of the pipe. The vehicle is tethered to a fiber optic cable that is operated remotely. Inspections produce a video record that can be used for future reference. The CCTV identifies visible defects up to 1,000 ft away from the point of insertion. Laser Profiling Laser profiling technology provides accurate empirical data on ovality, capacity, and other conditions of pipelines using a projected laser light, as shown in Figure 11. This technology allows the detection of wall thickness, if the original internal diameter is known, and defects in plastic and ferrous pipes. The laser profiler can operate in pipe sizes 8 in. and larger in diameter under pressure, or in dewatered reclaimed and wastewater pipelines. The profiler projects a ring of laser light on the internal pipe surface, which is in the field of view of the camera while itâ€™s moving through the pipe. Lasers are used in the atmosphere, above the waterline; these can be either two dimensional (2D) or three dimensional (3D), depending on the level of detail required. A typical 2D laser profile provides an indication of the pipe ovality above the waterline, as well as general defects in the pipe wall; fine defects, such as cracks, may not be apparent. The value of laser profiling is that it provides clear evidence of pipe ovality, while the human eye is easily fooled using CCTV alone. Software excerpts the profile from the camera video and trends it over the length of the pipe to build a geometric profile. Magnetic Flux Leakage Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) is a method used to detect corrosion and pitting in metallic pipes. This technology scans pipe through linings to measure remaining wall thickness, scans the length and circumference of a pipeline, and provides depth and location of metal wall loss caused by corrosion, pitting, or other deterioration mechanisms. The minimum testing pipe diameter is 24 in. and is used in nonpressurized pipelines, as shown in Figure 12. The cost associated with this technology is significantly high. The problem with the MFL testing technique is that it contains permanent magnets that are utilized to form a magnetic flux field in the pipe wall. Defects will influence the path of the magnetic
field and will cause some of the flux to leak out of the tube wall. This leakage field will be picked up by the coils and the sensors in the probe. Size of the leakage field is determined by pull speed of the probe and by the shape, dimensions, and location of defects. Signals that represent the size of the leakage field, and thus the condition of the tube, are presented on a computer screen. The tool requires contact with the pipe wall. Internal Pressurized Inspection SmartBall Leak and Gas Detection The SmartBall® by Pure Technology leak detection platform is a free-swimming, nontethered foam ball that can accurately identify and locate leaks, gas pockets, and defects in pipelines over 4 in. in diameter. This technology is used in metallic, pressurized pipelines, including force mains and reclaimed water pipelines. A typical configuration is shown in Figure 13. This tool is comprised of a 2-in.-diameter aluminum ball that includes an acoustic sensor at the center. The tool is manually inserted into the system through a minimum 4-in.-diameter tap using a claw and is extracted at a second point in the system with a net. During an inspection, the tool is inserted into a pipeline and travels with the product flow for up to 17 hours, while collecting information about leaks, gas pockets, and defects. It requires only two access points—one for insertion and one for extraction—and is tracked throughout the inspection at predetermined fixed locations on the pipeline. The tool can complete long surveys in a single deployment without disruption to regular pipeline service. The SmartBall needs at least 1 ft per second (fps) for simple runs, but a velocity of 2 fps is preferred
Figure 13. SmartBall
for more complex pipe configurations. Higher velocities can potentially reduce data accuracy. PipeDiver Electromagnetic Inspection The PipeDiver® (Figure 14) is a free-swimming, electromagnetic tool used to detect leaks, variances in wall thickness, and defects in ductile iron pipes. This electromagnetic inspection procedure provides a nondestructive method of evaluating the baseline condition of the pipe wall to gather data for each pipe and identify anomalies produced by areas of wall loss and property changes. The PipeDiver is used inside active large-diameter pipes ranging from 16 to 48 in. It’s used in pressurized water, wastewater, and reclaimed water pipelines and the cost can be high. The sensors collect information about the condition of the pipe walls in the system as it travels through active pipes. Petals allow the PipeDiver to navigate through butterfly valves and different pipe configurations, with CCVT data available during testing. Data are collected and analyzed after the test to locate irregularities. Acoustic/Closed-Circuit Television This system comprises a CCTV and leak detection system for pressurized mains. The acoustic/CCTV is a tethered system that can be used in pipelines of ferrous and plastic pipe materials, such as ductile iron, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This technology allows for the detection of leaks, gas pockets, and defects in pipes greater than 6 in. The system can visually and acoustically detect air pockets in pipelines during inspections and can navigate bends totaling up to 270 degrees, as well as small pressure fittings, air valves, and gate valves. Most common acoustic/CCTV technologies include LDS-1000
by JD7 and Sahara by Pure Technologies (Figure 15). The equipment can be inserted through fire hydrants or small pressure fittings or valves (greater than 2 in.) and is used for inspection in water and reclaimed water pipelines, with lengths between 2,000 and 3,200 lin ft. The acoustic/CCTV system consists of a sensor head and a hydrophone, which is an electrical instrument used to detect or monitor sound underwater. The sensor head is inserted into a pipe through any access point greater than 2 in. in diameter. As the sensor is conveyed through the pipeline by product flow, acoustic signals are picked up at the surface by the hydrophone. The signal is fed through a cable and then to the processing equipment. The system operator is able to hear signals from the system directly, as well as view the signal on a computer with spectrogram software. The system locates leaks by identifying acoustic signals; the size of leaks can be estimated based on the acoustic signal recorded by the deContinued on page 36
Figure 12. Magnetic Flux Leakage
Figure 14. PipeDiver Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
Continued from page 35 vice. Typically, the system requires a minimum of 1 fps of flow for simple pipe runs and up to 2 fps for multiple bends and fittings. Higher velocities can potentially reduce data accuracy. SeeSnake and HydraSnake The SeeSnake™ and HydraSnake™ by Pika measure changes in wall thickness every tenth of an in. along the entire pipe segment to be tested. This technology also detects corrosion defects in 4-in.- to 78-in.-diameter ferrous pipe
Figure 15. Acoustic/Closed-Circuit Television
sizes under pressure or in dewatered reclaimed and wastewater pipelines (Figure 16). The cost associated with this technology is high. As the tool travels through the pipe, it records the wall thickness and stores the information onboard; the data is then sent to a computer in real time during deployment. The SeeSnake does not require contact with the pipe wall and can measure through scale, wax, and nonmagnetic liners. The tool has a small diameter and is flexible, which allows the tool to travel through tees and short-radius elbows. The
Figure 16. SeeSnake and HydraSnake
Table 2. Technology Assessment Comparison
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
tool does not have external movable parts, so they can’t break off or get caught at tees and branches. The tool can be pumped through the pipeline with the flow or with compressed air. Ground Penetrating Radar, Survey, and Air Lancing Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a nondestructive geophysical method that uses radar pulses to identify underground objects. Data collected with GPR can be used to evaluate the field conditions that may affect pipeline condition assessment. The surveyed field data can be used to identify high points or high segments of the pipe that could be subject to a higher risk of internal crown corrosion due to the accumulation of sewer gases. This field data will also identify locations where the pipe could be relatively easily excavated and exposed for inspection. The implementation of these services will not require the pipelines to be removed from normal service. The data collected during each inspection shall be recorded using a data management system compatible with city databases and GIS, and modified as appropriate for the criteria and parameters being assessed with each technology. Condition Assessment Technology Summary Table 2 summarizes each of the assessment technologies characteristics, relative cost, and recommendations for the city’s systems.
FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.
Membership Committee S Distribute pertinent information to members.
Affiliation: FWPCOA Current chair: Rim Bishop, Seacoast Utility Authority, Palm Beach Gardens. Coordinator: Darin Bishop Year group was formed: Most likely 1941, when FWPCOA was formed.
Scope of work: S Assist members with website and online databases. S Assist current and potential members with application or renewal process. S Send individual and group notices. S Act as call center for members and direct questions to appropriate areas. S Serve as liaison to members, regions, committees, and board of directors.
Technologies associated with the identification of external defects were not given further consideration, as these technologies provide very limited information on the condition of the pipelines, and performing such investigations will be relatively expensive since the pipeline will have to be excavated and exposed. Additionally, leaks, wall thickness, and gas pockets cannot be determined through these types of inspections, and these criteria are relevant to understand the condition of the pipe. Technologies that require dewatering of the pipelines, including CCTV, laser profiling, and MFL, were initially evaluated, but due to the effort involved in the dewatering of the pipelines to perform the testing, were discounted. Among the external thickness inspection technologies, radiography, phased array, and pit gauge were not considered further. Radiography can present a potential health hazard, and requires licensed technical personnel due to the radiation associated with the test, multiple shots, access to both sides of the pipe, and a dark area to develop the film, making it time-consuming. Phased array inspection is typically used to assess the integrity of steel welds, primarily in the oil and gas industries. The pit gauge inspection method is limited to cast iron pipe materials and is subject to human error. Ultrasonic testing and pulsed eddy currents
Recent accomplishments: We recently developed a group billing program. With 57 percent of FWPCOA members on group billing, this allows utilities, which pay for most memberships, to include all member employees on one invoice. Utilities now donâ€™t have to track and pay for dozens of memberships throughout the year, and FWPCOA saves on paper and postage. The association is now sending out 200 renewals a month, instead of 400. Current projects: The former membership database is being transferred to newer web-based software. The new system will be more userfriendly, and members will have access to their information 24 hours a day. They will be able to renew memberships, pay invoices, register
are preferred for ferrous pipes due to their versatility, ability to precisely size defects at a relatively small number of points (less human error), immediate availability of test results, relatively low cost, and inherent lack of hazards for those working around the inspection site. Ultrasonic testing and pulsed eddy currents were recommended for external inspection of both wastewater and reclaimed water pipelines. Among the internal pressurized inspection technologies, PipeDiver, SeeSnake, and HydraSnake were not considered further. These technologies were too expensive for this pilot and may be used for detailed analysis, once a need is determined following initial inspections by other less costly means. The internal pressurized CCTV inspection alone cannot identify the thickness of the pipe, nor can it be used to estimate the anticipated life expectancy of the pipe; therefore, using a combination acoustic/CCTV, such a Sahara or LDS-1000, for the reclaimed water mains, was recommended. This combination of technologies will provide detection of leaks, gas pockets, and defects in live mains, and record sounds directly.
Conclusions and Recommendations In summary, the following technologies
for classes, update contact information, apply for awards, find association contacts, look for jobs, take online courses, and read about FWPCOA history. Future work: Assimilate the old training database with the new software, which will: S Give members access to their old records. S Show members when and where they took classes, which will avoid duplication. S Help members track their licenses and certificates, and notify them of possible lapses. S Help track member continuing education units through the renewal cycle. Group members: S Rim Bishop, chair S Darin Bishop, FWPCOA employee (since 1996) S
will be used during the pilot and will likely be viable options for future testing: S Reclaimed pressure pipe inspections, including acoustic/CCTV technologies via LDS-1000. S Sahara and external nondestructive thickness technologies via ultrasonic testing, along with a surge analysis. S Force main inspections, including acoustic technology via SmartBall and external nondestructive thickness technologies via ultrasonic and pulsed eddy currents. In addition to physical pipe assessment, additional assessments may be completed on the pressure piping, including hydraulic modeling, surge analyses, and pressure monitoring. A surge analysis simulates sudden changes in flow and velocity, which can cause overpressurization or underpressurization of pipe work. These changes could include sudden valve closures, pumping changes, and power loss. Pressure monitoring in the system may be used to monitor the effects of surge within the system or determine if existing operating practices are causing sudden changes in flow and velocity. Following the successful completion of the pilot program, the city plans to perform similar assessments on other prioritized mains within its system using the selected technologies. S
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ October 2018
FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT
Considering Utility Membership Bill Young Chair, FSAWWA
s the director of a fast-growing utility I have long been sold on the benefits that American Water Works Association (AWWA) membership brings to our workforce. Recently however, we have decided to upgrade our membership from several individual members to a utility membership. I’m convinced that this approach is much more cost-effective for us, and I highly recommend that others look into the benefits of becoming a utility member. Utility membership with AWWA comes with many benefits that are not included with an individual membership. In addition to the benefits individuals receive, AWWA provides utilities with additional resources to help manage a utility: tools for assessing infrastructure needs, rate setting, training and certification programs, communicating the value of water service to the public, and opportunities to craft regulatory policy. I have worked closely with Andy Chase, the AWWA utility relationship manager, on our decision and its transition, and have asked him to address the issues that my utility considered in upgrading our membership.
nering with sections and recruiting volunteers to join me in meetings with utilities and municipalities. We identify nonmember utilities through a variety of sources and group them geographically; I then reach out to section leadership and ask for volunteers to commit one day to visit the utilities with me. When meeting with utilities, we discuss how each water utility benefits from its AWWA membership differently; but for most, at least three areas of value rise to the top. First, AWWA is the preeminent forum for knowledge and solutions to help water professionals—and water utilities—do their jobs better and more efficiently. Through its international and local conferences, peer-reviewed Journal AWWA and other publications, and online training and webcasts, AWWA helps its members discover the right technologies, management strategies, and operational tactics to assure that each customer dollar is being spent efficiently and in a way that best protects public health. Second, AWWA is the entity that produces water industry standards for materials, equipment, and practices used in water treatment and supply. All AWWA members have a voice in the creation of these standards, and utility members always have access to the full, updated set. The association also produces a robust set of manuals of practice to complement the standards. Members further enjoy deep discounts on a vast collection of handbooks, reports, and other tools created through the intellectual capital of those in the industry. Third, AWWA provides the water sector with a critical voice in Washington D.C., where legislative and regulatory decisions can dramatically impact each of the more than 52,000 community water systems across the United States. Working closely with our utility members, AWWA’s government affairs group and its Water Utility Council bring sound science and the real-life experience of water utilities to the pub-
lic policy dialogue. The association brings critical technical information to the regulatory process and frequently has its officers and members testify before Congress on legislative and other matters. Utility members stay informed through regular public affairs, legislative, and regulatory advisories, and a biweekly newsletter, Water Utility Insider. We’ve enjoyed substantial success in the Florida Section. The AWWA membership engagement and development team has been working closely with the section to recruit new utility members. I’ve had the pleasure of meeting with utilities with Florida Section Chair Bill Young, St. Johns County Utilities; Chair-Elect Mike Bailey, Cooper City Utilities; Past Chair Mark Lehigh, Hillsborough County Water Resources; and Steve Soltau, Pinellas County Utilities. We are excited to welcome the Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA); Pasco County Utilities; St. John’s Utility Department; Polk County Utility, City of Coral Springs; City of Coconut Springs; and Village of Wellington as utility members. Utilities benefit from their utility membership, and the section benefits as well, since a portion of membership dues is returned to the section for operations to maintain member services locally. Successes such as these help to maintain AWWA as the largest nonprofit, scientific, and educational association dedicated to managing and treating water, the world’s most important resource. With our 51,000 members, AWWA provides solutions to improve public health, protect the environment, strengthen the economy, and enhance our quality of life.
I urge you to consider a utility membership and decide if it’s right for your organization, but remember that any kind of membership in AWWA is money well spent! S
I’m incredibly proud to be the first utility relationship manager in the 137-year history of AWWA. I joined the member engagement and development team in January 2015, and I was charged with developing our utility recruitment process. I realized early on the power of part-
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
FWRJ READER PROFILE
Woodard & Curran, Grand Island Work title and years of service. I’m a former utility director with City of Tavares and recently became a senior consultant and problem solver with Woodard & Curran. I have more than 36 years of experience in the water industry, working on both the public and private side, helping communities develop infrastructure solutions, manage and optimize utility systems, and find the money to make it happen! What does your job entail? My current role is to connect with utilities, learn about their challenges, and bring them innovative solutions that combine new ideas and proven practices gleaned from my many years in the water industry. My career has taken me from lift station mechanic in Pembroke Pines to utility director in Tavares during a period of rapid growth. In between these positions, I
worked in the private sector in the contract operations of treatment facilities as an operator and mechanic, as well as getting additional hands-on experience working on the water systems at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. All of this diverse experience has helped me understand that I can leverage my passion and help guide utilities to achieve their communities’ goals—and more. I want to help other communities succeed in the way Tavares did: implementing more than $40 million in innovative utility improvements, capturing more than $15 million in grants, and winning more than a dozen awards, all without any major rate increases. I would like other utilities to feel the sense of accomplishment that I feel, and leave their thumbprint on their community, like I did. What education and training have you had? I have bachelor of science degrees in management and human resource management (cum laude) from the University of Massachusetts. I’m a certified Double B operator in Florida and Massachusetts and hold a Distribution - Level 1 certification, and stormwater, collection systems, backflow, and other certifications, as well. What do you like best about your job? I like the opportunity to meet my peers on their turf and talk about what I can do to help them solve their problems or explore opportunities. I remember traveling the country and
Brad on and with his bike.
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
solving problems for Earth Tech as a “road warrior,” and now I realize the similarities with my current position. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to WEF, AWWA, FWEA (board of directors), FSAWWA, FWPCOA (stormwater instructor), and New England Water Environment Association (NEWEA). How have the organizations helped your career? I received my first certification from FWPCOA in 1981 and I have not looked back! I’ve continued to enhance my skill, abilities, and knowledge from the courses they all provide in conferences, seminars, and workshops. I am active in two of the organizations and that has helped me develop a different set of skills, alongside my technical learning. What do you like best about the industry? Every day since 1977 has been a different challenge. I love challenges in all areas of my life and have learned that you need to take healthy risks to get the job done. What do you do when you’re not working? You can usually find me on my 2014 HD Streetglide cruising the backroads of Florida or heading to a conference. I am gearing up to take the bike on the auto train (for the fourth time) to Lorton, Va., and head to the Midwest and then south back to Florida. S
FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send details to Megan Nelson at email@example.com.
Utility Management Committee Update Rick Nipper any of the Utility Management Committee (UMC) members are approaching the end of our careers, while others are just beginning; as good stewards, we are looking for replacements within our committee, and we welcome the opportunity to invite and include new members. As with any volunteer group, it’s sometimes difficult to “stay the course,” but I will also say that this group of volunteers has done an excellent job of keeping a focus on its mission and goals year after year. Our activities are guided by our goals. Rather than drill down into specifics, I’d like to share some of the activities we do to accomplish our mission.
We Measure As management thinker Perter Drucker stated, “You can’t manage what you can’t measure.” The UMC develops and participates in a Florida Benchmarking Consortium (FBC) workshop every year around November. This benchmarking effort is very similar to AWWA utility quality programs (QualServe), but with a Florida twist: the FBC benchmarks are more specific to Florida utilities. Several utilities in the state share measures as agreed upon by FBC, and gather once a year to participate in information sharing, discuss opportunities for improvements with one another, and set a path for future measures. There are many volunteers who assist us in bringing this workshop together, but I do want to mention the primary leaders of this effort: Joe Cheatham and Susan Boyer. Without their dedication and leadership, it’s not likely the good work of the FBC would have been created, nor succeeded as it has through the last several years.
We Create Awareness
The UMC has some impressive talent within our volunteer group. We work to share their knowledge and expertise via Florida conferences, Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC), and Utility Management Conference, when possible. Our primary focus is on Florida utility business, so we work to provide education and shared experience at the Florida Water Resource Conference (FWRC), which is held annually in the spring. The UMC gathered several volunteers to share their knowledge of asset management, succession planning, skillbased compensation successes, and “lessons learned.” The UMC plans to continue this effort and is always looking for volunteers to participate with us. Other technical session and workshop topics include International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 environmental management systems, effective utility management, and skill-based compensation implementation.
The UMC is partnering with our Central Florida Chapter to put on a social event at the Drive Shack in Orlando. The event is an opportunity for utility partners, vendors, and family members to have a social night out, meet up with associates and friends, and explore new working relationships. Once we set a date, we will advertise the event through the FEWA website and emails.
The Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) Utility Management Committee (UMC) is a group of volunteers that works to promote efficiency and excellence with a focus on utility management and the tools necessary to help those in the field continually improve. Our mission: “To advance continuous quality improvement in utility businesses through customer focus, organizational leadership, strategic planning, process improvement, rewards and recognition, and employee engagement/development to create excellent results.”
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
We Recognize The UMC collects nominations for a Municipal Utility Operational Performance Excellence award, which is presented at FWRC.
Conclusion I’m proud to serve as the volunteer chair of UMC and want to recognize the wonderful volunteers I have the privilege of working with to accomplish the things we do as a group. These volunteers, as with all volunteers in FWEA, are dedicated to giving back to our utility community in the hope of making all of us better at what we do, serving our customers and other stakeholders to the best of our ability, and keeping a focus on continual improvement through sharing and learning together. If you’re interested in joining our group, please apply at www.fwea.org, or contact me or one of the other volunteers listed. Rick Nipper - Chair firstname.lastname@example.org Marjorie Craig – Vice Chair CraigM@mydelraybeach.com Carol Hinton – Secretary email@example.com Rick Nipper is director of operations at Toho Water Authority in Kissimmee and is chair of the FWEA Utility Management Committee. S
F W R J
Horizontal Directional Drilling in St. Augustine: Low-Impact Vacuum Sewer Replacement in a Residential Neighborhood David A. Rasmussen, Teri Pinson, and Scott Trigg he St. Augustine by the Sea subdivision is located off State Road (SR) A1A in St. Augustine Beach. A project aerial location map is shown in Figure 1. The subdivision is served by an existing Roediger vacuum sewer system and is owned and operated by the St. Johns County Utilities Department (SJCUD). The existing vacuum sewer system was installed in 2001 and has experienced advanced aging and operational issues primarily due to the deterioration of the main vacuum sewer pump station. Due to the issues that the sewer system has experienced and the relatively recent installation of the vacuum sewer system, the neighborhood is sensitive to the idea of additional construction; therefore, the evaluation of a sewer system conversion needed to consider improvements that would be reliable and have minimal impact on the residents. In 2014, SJCUD tasked CDM Smith with evaluating the replacement of the existing vacuum sewer system. A cost analysis and feasibility evaluation were conducted and SJCUD determined that the existing vacuum sewer system should be replaced with 24 pre-engineered simplex grinder pump stations and approximately 3,800 lin ft of force main that would connect to the existing 4-in. force main along SR A1A. Design of the grinder pump station project began in August 2014 and construction was completed in September 2016. This article will focus on the pump station and force main de-
sign, the challenges and lessons learned during construction, and the public outreach programs utilized to minimize impacts to the 81 properties located in this sensitive neighborhood.
Existing Conditions The existing Roediger vacuum sewer system serves 81 residential households in the subdivision, which is divided by two streets: Surf Drive and Ocean Drive. Each street has a 4-in.-diameter high-density polyethylene (HDPE) DR-11 vacuum main generally sloped towards the vacuum sewer station with incremental “steps” in the piping consisting of a vertical increase of 0.8 ft over 10 ft that is located every 70 lin ft of the vacuum main. The two vacuum mains within the subdivision join, discharging into one 6-in.-diameter vacuum main that terminates at the vacuum tank of the vacuum station located at the entrance of the subdivision. Each home is connected to an 8-in. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) DR35 gravity sewer header that runs parallel to the road and drains to the vacuum chamber. There are a total of 24 vacuum chambers, each serving between two to six homes. The headers are a minimum of 36 in. below grade and have cleanouts at each end. Service laterals were drilled across the road with 3-in.-diameter HDPE pipe. Isolation plugs were installed that would allow two pods to be iso-
Figure 1. Project Location
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
David A. Rasmussen, P.E., QEP, is project manager with CDM Smith Inc. in Jacksonville. Teri Pinson, P.E., is project manager, and Scott Trigg, P.E., is chief engineer with St. Johns County Utilities Department in St. Augustine.
lated at a time. Figure 2 shows the configuration of the existing vacuum sewer system along Surf and Ocean drives. The vacuum station was originally installed at the entrance of the subdivision due to challenges with land acquisition. This location required installation below grade to comply with the height restrictions necessary to maintain suitable site distances for ingress and egress of traffic. The exceptionally high temperatures and corrosive environment resulting from this type of installation caused advanced aging of the infrastructure. It also posed safety concerns for operations and maintenance (O&M) staff working in abnormally high temperatures and required confined-space entry. The declining vacuum sewer system frequently experienced maintenance issues. The O&M staff at SJCUD was routinely called to the subdivision, at times spending days troubleshooting vacuum issues with the pipes and/or pods in the vacuum sewer system. This routine began to have a significant impact on SJCUD’s O&M resource management and budget.
Figure 2. Vacuum Sewer Configuration
Grinder Pump Station and Force Main Design
Table 1. Design Flow, Pressure, and Velocities
The design flow and velocities used for the evaluation are presented in Table 1. The aerial photographs and the as-built drawings were reviewed by CDM Smith to determine the number of existing and proposed households served by the sewer system. The SJCUD manual, â€œWater, Wastewater, and Reuse Design Standards and Specificationsâ€? (September 2006), was referenced for the basis of design for wastewater design flow, pump station peak-flow factor, minimum depth of cover, force main velocity, and force main diameter. Grinder Pump Station Design Pre-engineered simplex grinder pump stations equipped with a submersible grinder pump, guide rails, level floats, and individual control panels provided a reliable solution that would facilitate SJCUD operator access. The SJCUD provided redundancy for the pump stations by maintaining three spare pumps at all times in storage. The grinder pump station design criteria used in the design are presented in Table 2. Several grinder pump station layout options were discussed by SJCUD and CDM Smith at the design criteria review meeting. At this meeting, SJCUD decided to install the grinder pump stations in the same locations of each vacuum sewer pod, as it would provide the least impact to the existing residences. The proposed grinder pump station and force main configuration along Surf and Ocean drives is shown in Figure 3. The pump stations are in the grassed rightof-way area in the front yards of the residences and SJCUD requested to have a minimal above grade footprint for each pump station. The SJCUD would maintain the pump stations, pay for all electrical costs, and maintain the power distribution system to each pump station. The new system will consist of 24 simplex grinder pump stations. The existing vacuum sewer pods will be removed and replaced with the fiberglass wet wells. Table 3 presents the wet well levels used for the design of the project. The active wet well volume (pump-on level) was based on a maximum number of pump starts per hour (six) and a pump rate of 30 gal per minute (gpm), the minimum water level elevation (pump off) was based on the manufacturer-recommended pump-off water level of 6 in., and the high-water level alarm elevation was assumed to be 6 in. above the pump-on level. Based on these assumptions, most of the existing gravity pipe inverts will remain at or above the high water level elevation in the wet wells. Continued on page 46
Table 2. Grinder Pump Station Design Criteria
Figure 3. Grinder Pump Station Configuration
Table 3. Wet Well Levels
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ October 2018
Continued from page 45 Gravity Pipe Design The existing 8-in. gravity sewer pipe connected to the individual service laterals were connected to the new wet well. The pipe size, slope, and inverts of each of these existing gravity sewer systems were acceptable to be reused in the conversion. It was assumed that since the pipes are relatively new, they were in acceptable condition for reuse. The existing vacuum sewer pods are in the grassed right-of-way area; therefore, this portion of construction should have minimal impacts to traffic and existing pavement. There were 88 service laterals connected to the existing vacuum sewer gravity headers. During construction of the conversion, two additional laterals were added to connect Parcel 14 on Ocean Drive, and Parcel 2 between SR A1A and Ocean Drive to the sewer system. These are presently vacant lots that were considered as potential future connections. Pressure Pipe Design The existing vacuum sewer pipes were not acceptable for conversion to the grinder pump station force mains. The existing vacuum sewer pipes would experience velocities less than 2 ft per second (fps) during peak flows, allowing for settlement of solids and possible clogging of the pipes. The velocity in the existing 4-in.-diameter pipes would range between 0.4 fps during average day flow and 1.8 fps during peak-hour flow at the discharge end of the force main pipe. The velocity in the existing 6-in.-diameter pipe would range between 0.2 fps during average day flow and 0.5 fps during peak-hour flow. There is no mechanism in place that would allow for the periodic flushing of these pipes, and the grinder pump maximum flow rates are not high enough to achieve flushing velocities; therefore, it was recommended to replace the existing vacuum pipes with smaller-diameter pipes to ensure proper velocities and to keep solids in suspension. The HDPE pipe was selected as the force main material, offering high corrosion resistance to surrounding soils and the raw wastewater being conveyed. The new pump station discharge pipe consisted of 2-in. Schedule 80 PVC piping that transitioned to 2-in. HDPE SDR-9 pipe in the yard. The 2-in. HDPE pipe connected to a new 3-in.-diameter HDPE SDR9 pipe along Surf and Ocean drives. The force mains combined at the entrance of the subdivision and increased to a new 4-in.-diameter HDPE SDR-9 pipe. The velocity in the new 2in.-diameter pipes would range between 2.2 fps during average day flow and 3.9 fps during peak-hour flow. The velocity in the new 3-in.-
diameter pipe would range between 2 fps during average-day flow and 3.6 fps during peakhour flow. Pressure Pipe Installation A key factor in mitigating the impact to residents in the neighborhood was the use of the horizontal directional drilling (HDD) pipe installation method, which is a trenchless technology that allows the installation of a pipe through a bore path in the subgrade by using a surface-mounted drill rig. The HDPE pipe is commonly utilized in HDD installations, which also made HDD an ideal choice for pipe installation. During design, it was critical to evaluate the existing soil conditions and the impact it would have on the HDD installation. Soil borings performed during the geotechnical evaluation resulted in a surficial layer that consisted of approximately 6 in. to 1 ft of rocks, topsoil, and topsoil underlain by shells. The borings then encountered very loose to very dense fine sand with coquina shell to the boring termination depths of 10 ft below the existing ground surface. The HDD design accounted for the dense sand with coquina shell in the soil profile, since it would limit the drilling distance. Several local contractors that have provided HDD services in the areas surrounding the beach were contacted to get input on recommended distances between entry and exit pits, groundwater elevation, and pipe-depth capabilities. Spacing and layout of HDD rigs and equipment were critical to avoiding existing underground utilities, driveways, and other above ground structures, and to stay within the county right of way. Based on this input and geotechnical data gathered from the project, it was determined that entry and exit pits should be spaced roughly 200 ft apart and in locations that would allow an HDD rig to stage its equipment. The drill rigs required staging areas 10 ft wide by 25 ft long, which were strategically located on the design drawings. It was critical to maintain pipe separation requirements between sewer and water main crossings with a minimum of 1 ft in the vertical and a minimum of 6 ft in the horizontal. All road crossings were performed via HDD to connect to the 3-in. force main along Surf and Ocean drives so that traffic was not interrupted. Electrical Design Each pump station was equipped with one SJE Rhombus EZ Series plugger control panel and mounting post, pump control float switch, and high-level alarm float switch. The panel included a built-in high-water alarm with a test/normal/silence switch and incor-
October 2018 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
porates a 240-volt (V), single-phase receptacle to accept the pump control piggyback switch. The 2-horsepower (hp) submersible pump power cable then plugs into the piggyback switch. The power for the pump stations is provided from a master Florida Power & Light (FPL) meter located at the entrance to the subdivision. Electrical service to the 24 simplex pump stations was provided from a new 400amp, 240/120-V, one-phase, power distribution panel located on the site of the existing vacuum pump station. The power distribution panel is equipped with two 225-amp, two-pole feeder breakers. Each feeder breaker provided power to 12 simplex pump stations. Each 200-amp underground feeder had 3-in. Schedule 40 PVC pipe, 2#4/0 XHHW phase conductor, 1#4/0 neutral conductor, and 1#4 grounding conductor. An underground pull box was located adjacent to each simplex pump station. Electrical conduit was installed via HDD to each of the underground pull boxes. The high-level alarm signal and power failure at each grinder pump station is individually monitored by the SJCUD supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The power distribution system from the main power distribution panel to the grinder pump stations includes a 120-V, single-phase supply conductor, and an individual alarm signal return conductor from each individual pump station control panel. At the control panels, the 120-V source conductor is switched through a highlevel alarm contact that opens if the station has a high-level alarm or loses power. The alarm signal return conductors energize individual control relays in the main power distribution panel. Each control relay is connected to the SCADA system to monitor the alarm status of each of the grinder pump stations. Construction Sequence A detailed construction sequence was developed during design and was included in the construction contract specifications. The intent of the construction sequence was to provide the contractor with a means to reasonably construct the project within the eight-month construction schedule, help refine contractor bids, and minimize impact to residents. The construction sequence was broken out into two phases and the completion of each phase coincided with a substantial completion milestone. These substantial completion milestones were presented in the public outreach program and SJCUD made it a priority to hold these dates as a commitment to the residents. Phase 1 consisted of the installation of the 3-in. HDPE force main, electrical conduit, elec-
Figure 4. Dewatering Equipment Setup
trical pull boxes, and electrical control panel at the existing vacuum sewer lift station site. The connection to the existing 4-in. force main, pressure testing of all installed piping, and testing of the electrical control panel were completed under this phase. Essentially, Phase 1 constructed a working distribution system for the new grinder pump stations. Phase 2 consisted of demolition of the existing vacuum sewer pods, installation of the grinder pump stations along Surf and Ocean drives, and connections to the force main and electrical in Phase 1. Since this was the most critical portion of the project, the design team implemented a construction constraint so that no household would be without sewer service for more than an 8-hour period. The contractor was required to demolish an existing vacuum sewer system and install a grinder pump station during the hours of 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern Time, as sewer service needed to be returned to the residents by the end of the day. Bypass pumping would be required in the event the complete conversion could not be accomplished in the 8-hour period. Demolition of the vacuum sewer pods and installation of the grinder pump station began at the end of the system (easternmost) on Surf and Ocean drives. Each vacuum pod was isolated from the remainder of the existing vacuum sewer system to keep the vacuum customers in operation. The contractor was required to keep the installed grinder pump stations and the existing vacuum sewer systems in operation. Maintenance The overall maintenance of the grinder pump station system is much less labor-inten-
Figure 5. Horizontal Directional Drilling Rig in Operation
sive for the SJCUD staff, as compared to the existing declining vacuum sewer system. The required maintenance on the proposed system will be like the many other comparable systems maintained by SJCUD, whereas the existing vacuum sewer system is the only one of its kind maintained by SJCUD; however, the installation of a master FPL service meter at the entrance of the subdivision gives SJCUD the liability for the electrical infrastructure supporting the operation of the grinder pump stations. Typically, FPL would be responsible for the service reliability serving the pump stations; in this situation, SJCUD would be responsible for restoring service inside of the master meter in the event of needed repair due to an event, such as a lightning strike to the underground wires or above grade posts, or due to a resident clipping a wire when digging in the area.
Construction Considerations The contractor, TLC Diversified Inc., was selected by SJCUD to complete the construction for the project, which began in December 2015 and was substantially complete by September 2016. The design of the project was tailored to minimize impacts to residents in the neighborhood; however, as is typically the case with construction, there were several challenges the project team encountered that were not anticipated during design. This section presents these challenges and lessons learned from construction of the project. Grinder Pump Station Installation The subdivisionâ€™s proximity to the beach presented unique construction challenges associated with the installation of the grinder pump
stations. The most difficult challenge was related to dewatering of the site. Each pump station required dewatering of up to 8 ft below grade. Groundwater levels vary in the area from 2.7 to 7.3 ft below grade, with seasonal high groundwater levels at grade. The dense sand with coquina shell also presented a challenge with dewatering, since the soil would prevent water from seeping further into the ground. In addition, the lack of a stormwater conveyance system in the community required the project team to develop unique solutions to coordinate the disposal of groundwater off of the site. Well points were installed around the perimeter of the excavation at each grinder pump station location. These well points were connected to a common suction manifold and pumped via a diesel engine-driven pump into a tanker truck. Once the truck capacity was reached, the groundwater was hauled offsite and disposed of in a stormwater pond identified by SJCUD. Figure 4 shows a typical arrangement of the dewatering equipment utilized for the project. Pressure Pipe and Conduit Installation The installation of the 3-in. HDPE force main and 2-in. HDPE conduit via HDD was completed by B&B Underground & Drilling Inc. A few staging areas that were identified during design were not practical due to site constraints and the space required for the drill rig; therefore, it was important for the project team to be flexible during construction in designating areas for staging and exit pits. To reduce the number of drills, the contractor decided to drill both pipes at the same time and would dig up the pipes at the connection locaContinued on page 48
Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ October 2018
Continued from page 47 tions (i.e., electrical pull box and grinder pump stations). Figure 5 shows the HDD drill rig setup used on the project. Construction Sequence A detailed construction sequence discussed previously was included with the design of the project. Phase 1 of the construction was generally completed in the sequence developed during design. Substantial completion of Phase 1 was issued in August 2016; Phase 2 of the construction sequence began with the removal of vacuum pod no. 12 along Surf Drive. The existing vacuum sewer main was installed with vertical tees every 300 ft to allow isolation of the mains by inflatable balls/plugs. The existing isolation balls were utilized to remove the vacuum pod from service. The contractor was not able to demolish a vacuum sewer pod and install, connect, and start up the grinder pump station wet well within the 8-hour outage allowed per the construction constraint, as previously outlined. Since that was not possible, bypass pumping
was necessary in order to return service to the residence. The contractor set up bypass pumps to pump out the recently installed grinder pump station wet well to a vacuum pod in service and located downstream. Additionally, the design required the contractor to test each pump station once it was placed into service. In order to expedite the construction schedule, the project team decided to test the first and last pump station installed on each street. The removal of a vacuum sewer pod and installation of a grinder pump station, including pumps, piping, and control panel, took roughly two days to complete. Public Outreach Program Due to the neighborhood sensitivity to additional construction, SJCUD implemented a community outreach program to keep residents informed of the construction progress and to address the concerns they had. In addition to typical outreach measures, such as public meetings, mailers, and door hangers, a progressive outreach tool was developed by
SJCUD using the ArcGIS Online interactive project mapping application that allowed residents to track construction progress and forecast sewer outages for their home by entering their address. Progress of work completed was updated daily and forecasts were updated weekly. Additionally, SJCUD offered to provide additional landscaping at the subdivision entrance and replace the subdivision signage as part of the grinder pump station project, although this was not necessary upon final completion of the project. A public outreach document used during the project is presented in Figure 6. Contractor and Resident Coordination A preconstruction meeting was held with the contractor where the project team identified protocols for communication and coordination with the residents of the subdivision. These protocols included the following: S Communication and coordination with the residents will be conducted by the contractor’s project manager or superintendent only. S SJCUD should be notified immediately in the event of a complaint or issue onsite. S Access to the existing vacuum sewer system and its components should be provided during construction to SJCUD operations and maintenance staff. As the project progressed, residents of the subdivision became familiar with the SJCUD project manager, as well as the contractor’s staff, and were comfortable communicating issues, including driveway repair, lawn repair, and sewer service outages. The contractor worked diligently to handle these issues, and the cooperation of the contractor’s staff and communication with the subdivision residents were critical to the success of the project.
Figure 6. Public Outreach Program Document
Figure 7. Finished Grinder Pump Station
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Conclusion The St. Augustine by the Sea grinder pump station project accomplished SJCUD’s two main goals: a reliable system to collect and convey raw sewage from the subdivision, and the improvements had minimal impacts on the residents. In fact, due to the public outreach program implemented by SJCUD, the residents welcomed the project and were actively engaged throughout its completion. The grinder pump stations have been in operation since September 2016 and since then have operated without any issues—even during the Matthew and Irma hurricanes. The final grinder pump station and control panel provided a low visual impact solution within a small footprint, as shown in Figure 7. S
FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! October 8-10 ....Backflow Repair ....................................Osteen ............$275/305 15-18 ....Backflow Tester* ....................................St Petersburg ..$375/405 15-19 ....Wastewater Collection C, B..................Orlando ..........$225/255 26 ....Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen ............$85/115 26 ....Backflow Tester Recerts........................Pensacola........$85/115
November 5-8 ....Backflow Tester ......................................Osteen ............$375/405 12-14 ....Backflow Repair* ..................................St Petersburg ..$275/305 12-16 ....Reclaim Water Feld Site Inspector ......Osteen ............$350/380 16 ....Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen ............$85/115
Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or firstname.lastname@example.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes
You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.
*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal â€¢ October 2018
Women in Water are Thriving, Despite Low Numbers Women are underrepresented in water sector, data say Katherine Saltzman he water sector employs significantly fewer women than the national average of all workers, according to the report, “Renewing the Water Workforce: Improving Water Infrastructure and Creating a Pipeline to Opportunity,” published in June 2018 by The Brookings Institute (Washington, D.C.) According to the report, 46.8 percent of workers across the United States are women, though women “only account for 14.9 percent of the water workforce.” Furthermore, the occupational breakdown of women in water is skewed. While women make up a majority of water workers in certain administrative positions—including 95 percent of secretaries—they only account for a fraction of employment in some of the largest water occupations overall, including plumbers (1.4 percent) and water treatment operators (5.2 percent), the report says.
Successful Women on the Job Joanna Healy, a Grade 4 certification operator at the McDowell Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by Charlotte Water in North Carolina, began her career in the mailroom at the Hoover Dam in Nevada. Soon a position testing water and wastewater samples opened, and she took it; later, she moved into compliance reporting. Healy then transferred to a community college where she received an associate degree in applied science in wastewater treatment before moving to North Carolina. “Usually there aren't a whole lot of us in the classes,” Healy said. “In the maintenance tech class there were over 60 students, and I was one of two females.” Healy attained her Grade 4 certification in two and a half years by earning her associate degree. She also received a Pretreatment and
Maintenance Tech 1 certification and plans to get a Pretreatment and Maintenance Tech 2 certification. Despite few women in her classes, Healy said that she has received support and mentorship from trainers and colleagues throughout her training and career in the water sector. “I think it's really neat that women can do anything men can do,” Healy said. “That's what I tell my daughter: You can do all the things the guys can do, but you don't have to prove yourself to anyone.” Tara Romine started working at Charlotte Water in October 1990 as a laborer. An operator position later became available and she received on-the-job training to become qualified; more formal training was not readily available then, according to Romine. By July 1998 she had received her Grade 4 certification and in 2000 took on the responsibility of first chief operator at the Mallard Creek Water Reclamation Facility for Charlotte Water. When the facility became the first International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-certified plant in Charlotte Water, she assisted with the development and creation of the ISO program. In her role, Romine helps implement standard operating procedures and create work instructions and procedures for new operators, among many other responsibilities. Romine said her career in water has been filled with strong relationships and rewarding opportunities. “I was always treated well,” Romine said. “The gentlemen that I train have given me the utmost respect. It has been a very good working environment for me. I feel like I have really been given a gift to serve the community.”
Barriers to Entry The Brookings report includes overall recommendations on improving gender and racial diversity in the water sector. These include: S Increasing the visibility of the sector for younger students
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
S Creating more opportunities for workforce training S Expanding career paths for professionals in the water workforce The report, however, stops short of forming conclusions on why so few women are in the water workforce. Kalpna Solanki, chief executive officer of the Environmental Operators Certification Program in Canada, suggests that her country faces similar obstacles to the U.S. in terms of recruitment, training, and retention, especially for female employees. Solanki’s nonprofit organization classifies water and wastewater facilities in British Columbia and Yukon and certifies the operators who work in those provinces. “Very often, people literally fall into their careers; it wasn't necessarily a planned path. It would be better if it were proactive, rather than reactive,” Solanki said. Often, information on these water jobs are heard about at the Canadian equivalent of city or state departments of parks and recreation, or departments of sanitation, with majority male staff, she said. “Men get into the water/wastewater workforce because they happen to be there,” she said. “There are not many women here, so the result is fewer women going into the field from that point.” Solanki echoed the Brookings report message that women’s job descriptions within the water sector are skewed. While things are changing, and most female operators love their jobs, she said that she is aware of some situations of discrimination and harassment in the workforce. If 10 percent of the water workforce is female, their numbers are not spread evenly among the four major area specialties: water treatment, water distribution, wastewater collection, and wastewater treatment. “I would be surprised if more than 1 percent is female in wastewater collection and 1 to 2 percent in water distribution,” Solanki said. “Within
that 10 percent of female operators, there are some specialties that have almost no women at all.”
Overcoming Entrenched Attitudes Even though Canada has workforce standards in place at public utilities, each employer at the utility must reinforce rules and guide employees on proper workplace behaviors. This is especially true if women have historically been underrepresented in the specialty area, Solanki explained. “Some of the feedback I have received from women, especially in water distribution and wastewater collection, is that the problem often lies at the employer level,” she said. “The support mechanisms are not in place, and women are just parachuted into the workforce. The men are not prepared for this change and are not educated with regards to workplace harassment. The women are not properly trained in terms of what is acceptable and what is not acceptable behavior and what resources are available to them,” Solanki said. In June 2018, Solanki participated in a panel discussion during a workplace diversity workshop at the Canadian Water Summit. Topics included
how to promote the field in general, as well as to women; it also dealt with how to better recruit and integrate women in areas of the water sector where they are currently underrepresented. “Most of the women that I meet like the work and are good at it, and like the variability of the job—there are no two days that are the same,” Solanki said. “We do hear of a few women who face harassment, but in general, most of the women are happy and really enjoy being in the field.” Amanda Schuffels serves as an example of a happy newcomer to the water sector. In January 2018, she took on the role of full-time Grade 1 wastewater operator at the Kelowna Wastewater Treatment Facility in British Columbia. Previously, she had worked in co-op training positions and part-time roles at the utility. “A lot of men and women have taken me under their wing and have taught me what I needed to learn so that I can thrive in my position”, she said. “I love the job and the industry.” Despite their lower numbers, female operators and utility leaders are at the forefront of .the sector. These women prepare and train new employees, support innovations and technologies, manage the day-to-day operations of their
facilities, and support the environment and public health for communities across the world. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.
Katherine Saltzman is a publications assistant at the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.) where she works on WEF’s operator initiative programs. S
News Beat The Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF) board of directors has approved $1.2 million in funding for 14 new research projects. The planned research, which was recommended by WE&RF’s Research Advisory Council (RAC), will significantly advance the Foundation’s research agenda, addressing high-priority research topics on stormwater, wastewater, and water reuse, including advancing utilities for the future, integrated water approaches, and intelligent water systems. The RAC, which is comprised of highly respected researchers and experts, recommended the 14 new projects based on their readiness and significance to the water community. The list of projects is provided on the WE&RF website at www.werf.org. “Each of these projects represents important Foundation research that will advance the water community,” said Rhodes Trussell, Ph.D., of Trussell Technologies and the WE&RF RAC chair. Due to WE&RF’s ability to leverage funding through partnerships and in-kind contributions, this new phase of research will provide two to three million dollars of research for the WE&RF research portfolio. “Based on the need for these research topics,
the projects will generate large interest in the water sector and the water research community,” said Jeffrey Mosher, WE&RF chief research officer. The research projects will address advancing integrated water management planning, stormwater management, data analytics, resource recovery, nutrient removal, and potable water reuse.
HDR subcontracted with New England Fertilizer Company (NEFCO) to complete facility design and construction of a biosolids processing facility for the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County. Responsibilities for the project include the overall management of permitting and design, procuring engineered equipment, providing field staff during construction, and holding an electrical subcontract and subconsultant agreement for assistance with permitting and site development. Highlights of the design-build project include: S Eliminates land application of biosolids S Creates a useful product S Utilizes landfill gas S Serves multiple wastewater treatment plants S Will generate revenue
The facility consists of biosolids receiving, storage, and processing areas, along with electrical, mechanical, and administrative areas, all of which are totally enclosed within a single 27,800-sq-ft precast concrete building. Adjacent to the building are two 250-dry-ton product storage silos and two regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) with a 137-ft by 7.5ft diameter steel stack, two cooling towers, two building odor control scrubbers, and standby generation equipment. The process consists of thermally drying the biosolids with the use of two triple bypass dryers and the appropriate supporting equipment. The dryer and RTOs are fueled with landfill gas and backed up by natural gas. The $27.8-million biosolids processing facility uses 100 percent landfill gas to process up to 600 wet tons per day of biosolids generated at five wastewater treatment plants in the county. The drying system uses two rotary drum dryers designed to utilize landfill gas, and natural gas or propane gas as fuel sources for heating the drying gas stream. A burner is employed with a smart valve system that employs multiple operational curves to ensure that the correct air-to-fuel ratio is utilized, depending on the fuel source selected. Landfill Continued on page 53
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
Test Yourself Water and Wastewater Facility Construction, Modification, and Upgrades Donna Kaluzniak
1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC), 62600, Domestic Wastewater Facilities, permittees must plan for design and construction of facilities to provide for proper treatment, reuse, or disposal. Capacity analysis reports must be submitted to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) every five years or with each permit renewal. If the capacity analysis report documents that permitted capacity will be equaled or exceeded within the next five years, the report shall include a statement, signed and sealed by a professional engineer registered in Florida, that a. construction of treatment facility expansion will begin within 90 days. b. planning and preliminary design of the necessary expansion have been initiated. c. plans and specifications for the necessary expansion are being prepared. d. the permittee will submit a complete permit application for the necessary expansion to FDEP within 30 days.
2. Per FAC 62-555, Permitting, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Public Water Systems, community water systems (CWSs) shall be designed and constructed so that structures and electrical or mechanical equipment used to treat, pump, or store drinking water and apply drinking water treatment chemicals or handle drinking water treatment residuals are protected from physical damage by what level of flooding? a. b. c. d.
10-year flood 25-year flood 75-year flood 100-year flood
3. Per FAC 62-555, applicants for a permit to construct a drinking water treatment plant’s source water or treatment facilities must establish that these facilities will meet the
system’s capacity requirement. The total capacity of all water source and treatment facilities connected to a water system shall at least equal the water system’s design
years or that finished-water storage will exceed capacity in less than five years, the water supplier must submit what documents with the capacity analysis?
a. b. c. d.
a. A preliminary design report from the water supplier’s engineer with details of how the capacity needs will be met. b. A completed FDEP construction permit application with attached bid specifications and construction plans. c. A schedule for design, permitting, and construction of new or expanded facilities, and a signed statement from the utility that the schedule will be met. d. State Revolving Fund loan documents with a request for inclusion for the next fiscal year.
annual average daily flow. maximum-day water demand. peak hourly demand. three-month average daily flow.
4. The FDEP provides funding with lowinterest loans or grants through the State Revolving Fund (SRF), which are provided to plan, design, build, or upgrade water and wastewater facilities. The SRF is made up of which three programs? a. Clean Water SRF, Drinking Water SRF, and SRF Management b. Clean Water SRF, Drinking Water SRF, and Stormwater SRF c. Drinking Water SRF, Stormwater SRF, and Wastewater SRF d. Drinking Water SRF, Reclaimed Water SRF, and Wastewater SRF
5. Per FAC 62-555, community water systems serving at least how many persons or more shall provide standby power for operation of that portion of the system’s water source, treatment, and pumping facilities necessary to deliver drinking water meeting all applicable primary or secondary standards at a rate at least equal to the average daily water demand for the system? a. b. c. d.
150 persons 350 persons 1,000 persons 10,000 persons
6. Per FAC 62-555, drinking water suppliers must provide for the timely planning, design, permitting, and construction of necessary public water system source, treatment, or storage facilities. If a capacity analysis report shows that maximum-day water demand (including fire-flow demand if fire protection is being provided) will exceed the total permitted capacity of the water treatment plant(s) in less than five
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
7. Per FAC 62-532, Water Well Permitting and Construction Requirements, for public water system wells, the upper terminus of the well casing shall project how far above the concrete apron around the well? a. b. c. d.
At least 6 in. At least 12 in. Exactly 15 in. No more than 8 in.
8. Per FAC 62-532, what type of report must be filed with the permitting authority within 30 days after completion of construction, repair, or abandonment of any water well? a. FDEP well disinfection report b. FDEP notification of completion of construction report c. State of Florida well completion report d. Water management district well activity report
9. Per FAC 62-505, Small Community Wastewater Facility Grants, funding is available for planning, design, and construction of wastewater facilities and inflow/infiltration reduction to financially disadvantaged small communities. Grants for the construction phase of projects are available only if the project sponsor adopts and implements what type of plan?
a. b. c. d.
Asset management plan Emergency response plan Preliminary design and permitting plan Wastewater management improvement plan
10. Per FAC 62-604, Collection Systems and Transmission Facilities, all new collection/transmission systems and modifications of existing systems for which construction permits are required by the department shall be designed to have emergency pumping capability. What criteria require provision for uninterrupted pumping capabilities, including an in-place emergency generator? a. Pump stations located within commercial or industrial districts. b. Pump stations connected to critical services like hospitals, schools, or nursing homes. c. Pump stations receiving flow from one or more pump stations through a force main, or discharging through pipes 12 in. or larger d. Pump stations with three or more pumps using variable speed drives. Answers on page 55 References used for this quiz: • FDEP State Revolving Fund web page: https://floridadep.gov/wra/srf • FAC 62-600, Domestic Wastewater Facilities • FAC 62-555, Permitting, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Public Water Systems • FAC 62-532, Water Well Permitting and Construction Requirements • FAC 62-505, Small Community Wastewater Facility Grants • FAC 62-604, Collection Systems and Transmission Facilities Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: email@example.com.
Continued from page 51 gas with methane concentrations between 50 and 60 percent is combusted in the burner, generating the 30 to 40 mil BTU/hr per dryer of drying energy required. The process produces a high-grade, marketable organic fertilizer for horticultural applications. The process is safe and sustainable and can produce a revenue stream. Using the landfill gas makes use of a byproduct that was wasted, as well as reducing air emissions at the landfill.
The Design-Build Institute of America (DBIA) has recognized Hillsborough County, Westra Construction, and McKim & Creed Inc. with its DBIA Florida Region Honor Award for outstanding utilization of design-build practices on a project that improves wastewater service, boosts reliability, lowers power usage, and minimizes future rate impacts. The team was selected for work on the $25.9-million Dale Mabry diversion pipelines project. The award will be presented October 12 during the association’s annual conference in Orlando. The project involved installing more than 12 mi of large-diameter force mains and reclaimed water transmission mains to transfer flows from the Dale Mabry Wastewater Treatment Plant to the Northwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility. The project also allows reclaimed water to be returned to the region to offset the use of potable water for irrigation. The project is the first of four designbuild projects to be completed as part of Hillsborough County’s $250-million northwest Hillsborough consolidation program. The largest consolidated capital improvement program ever undertaken by the county, the program will retire two aging wastewater treatment plants and consolidate treatment into one facility that will serve the area’s wastewater needs for decades. The consolidation program is estimated to save the county approximately $86 million in operation and maintenance costs over the next 20 years. “It was critical for this pivotal project to be successful to set the stage for the remaining three phases of the program. Our team was formed about a year before the procurement was issued, and it had a long track record of working together to complete water and wastewater infrastructure projects,” said Robert Garland, P.E., ENV SP, regional manager with McKim & Creed, who oversaw the engineering portion of the project. “This afforded the team great familiarity and confidence in each member, which is the cornerstone of a successful design-build relationship.”
The design-build process provided multiple benefits for the county. For example, the team was able to directly negotiate easements to quickly facilitate an alternate route, and incorporated maintenance of traffic reviews as part of the design process, which saved time and money. The team also used trenchless technologies to minimize environmental and community impacts, developed and implemented a successful and proactive community outreach and public information program, and incorporated alternative pipe materials and more stringent testing protocols to obtain permit variances.
The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) has unveiled a series of 12 online videos to help the public learn how to use SFWMD's expansive DBHydro environmental database. "The district’s governing board is committed to following sound science and providing the public with access to that science, which informs our water management decisions," said Federico Fernandez, SFWMD governing board chair. "This innovative and easy-to-understand online video training series further expands taxpayers' ability to review the scientific data gathered on their water resources." DBHydro, which has been the repository for a significant amount of environmental data for years, is now readily accessible online and the public has accessibility to vast amounts of historical and current data on south Florida's water resources, such as hydrological measurements and water quality sampling results. The database also provides access to groundwater data for specific wells and multimedia videos. The database contains approximately 30 million hydrological measurements and approximately 5 million data points of water quality data. While the online training is new, the district has offered in-person training classes to the public for years. To expand public access, the classes have been converted to the online training videos that will educate viewers on the types of data available, how SFWMD collects data, and the best way to search the database to obtain information. The videos are available on SFWMD's website at www.sfwmd.gov/dbhydrotraining. To access DBHydro visit www.sfwmd.gov/ DBHYDRO. S
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Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
Water Research Foundation Seeks Research Project Proposals The Water Research Foundation (WRF) is accepting proposals for a new project, “Critical Evaluation and Assessment of Health and Environmental Risks from Antibiotic Resistance in Reuse and Wastewater Applications.” The goal of the project is to examine approaches to quantify the public health and environmental risks related to antibiotic resistance (AR) in reuse and wastewater applications. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized AR as “one of the three greatest threats” to human health, and has highlighted the need to develop standards addressing AR occurrence in the environment, specifically in reuse water and wastewater (WHO, 2015). As a first step in understanding this topic, WRF and several key stakeholders, including the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC), published the document, “Occurrence, Proliferation, and Persistence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance During Wastewater Treatment,” which addresses questions related to biological wastewater treatment, and advances the science toward the broader goal of fully characterizing the implications of AR in water. The project will benefit the water quality community by: S Informing stakeholders of the current state of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)/antibioticresistant genes (ARG) risk assessment in wastewater and reuse water. S Outlining current research gaps and challenges with reference to ARB/ARG risk assessment. S Providing a framework outlining how ARB/ARG risk assessment in wastewater and reuse water can be achieved. S Providing a condensed summary that communicates major findings to stakeholders in an easy, straightforward manner. The GWRC works on a global matrix structure where data for a quantitative health risk assessment are collected. The data used in this study will be a part of the GWRC matrix structure where an expert meeting will be held to further populate the matrix, define research gaps, and discuss scenarios (e.g., hot spots, like wastewater discharge) to evaluate the global risk matrix. This project is not experimental in nature; investigators should focus on developing a proposal that addresses the topic of ARB/ARG risk assessment using information and resources that are currently available. Successful proposals will describe a comprehensive approach to assessing
to water quality (public health and aesthetic) and impact to advanced treatment effectiveness (e.g., loss of throughput, disruption of monitoring, impact to treatment efficacy, etc.). S Develop mitigation strategies including, but not limited to, treatment, inspection frequency and methodology, and monitoring requirements.
the risks associated with ARB and ARG in wastewater and reuse waters using the most up-to-date information available. Successful completion of the tasks specified in this request for proposals will result in a report yielding a current and comprehensive assessment of the risks associated with ARB and ARG in wastewater and reuse waters. Additionally, the report should also provide a roadmap focusing on what is needed for effective risk assessment with respect to ARB/ARG moving forward. Proposals may request WRF funds up to $140,000. Educational institutions, research organizations, federal or state agencies, municipalities, consultants, or other for-profit entities are encouraged to submit proposals. Proposals must be submitted before 5 p.m. Mountain Time (7 p.m. Eastern Time) on Oct, 10, 2018. For questions, contact Lola Olabode at email@example.com.
The WRF is currently funding research through a grant from the State Water Resource Control Board in California to understand water quality after advanced water treatment and how these contaminants can be mitigated. The project, “Review of Industrial Contaminants Associated with Water Quality or Adverse Performance Impacts for Potable Reuse Treatment,” will provide a better understanding of industrial contaminants of concern that may impact advanced treatment performance and/or impact water quality and forms a key part of this source water strategy. The project has three main objectives: S Identify contaminants or families of compounds related to industry or manufacturing (e.g., low molecular weight compounds, pharmaceuticals, contaminants of emerging concern [CECs], etc.), and review the types of industries that may consume or discharge these compounds. S Group the listed contaminants in terms of risk
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Successful proposals must include a literature review, a survey of wastewater treatment plants, review requirements of pretreatment programs, potential mitigation strategies, and a summary of findings. Proposals may request WRF funds up to $200,000 and may come from any technically qualified United States-based or non-U.S- based applicants, including educational institutions, research organizations, federal or state agencies, local municipalities, and consultants or other forprofit entities; however, for this specific project, because a portion of the funding is from California, there are territory limitations that can be reviewed that prohibit individuals and or organizations from certain states from participating in this project. Proposals must be submitted before Oct. 11, 2018, at 2 p.m. Mountain Time (4 p.m. Eastern Time).
The WRF is requesting proposals for four research projects in the area of microbial and process performance. “Indicator Viruses to Confirm Performance of Advanced Physical Treatment” (4955) – This research seeks to evaluate potential viral indicators(s) for assessing the performance of physical treatment processes during advanced water treatment for potable reuse. The research team will collect data to determine source concentration and log reduction values of selected viruses to recommend, where possible, potential online surrogates that may correlate with full-scale virus data. Proposals may request WRF funds up to $300,000. Proposals are due Oct. 11, 2018, at 2 p.m. Mountain Time (4 p.m. Eastern Time). “Integration of High-Frequency Performance Data for Microbial and Chemical Compounds Control in Potable Reuse Treatment Systems” (4954) – This research seeks to understand how high-frequency data monitoring and
analytics can best be leveraged to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and safety of monitoring and control strategies in potable reuse systems. The selected research team will develop recommendations for evaluation, selection, design, and commissioning of monitoring networks utilizing feasible technologies, like online water quality monitoring instrumentation and process control monitoring. Proposals may request WRF funds up to $400,000. Proposals are due Oct.11, 2018, at 2 p.m. Mountain Time (4 p.m. Eastern Time). “New Techniques, Tools, and Validation Protocols for Achieving Log Removal Credit across Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membranes” (4958) – This research will identify methods and procedures for validation of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane integrity to give regulators confidence to award appropriate log removal values for the technology. The outcome will help improve cost efficiency of membrane treatment, decrease chemical use and costs, and encourage expansion of possible water resources. Proposals may request WRF funds up to $350,000. Proposals are due Oct. 11, 2018, at 2:00 p.m. Mountain Time (4 p.m. Eastern Time) “The Use of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies and Metagenomics Approaches to Evaluate Water and Wastewater Quality Monitoring and Treatment Technologies” (4961) – This research will identify applications for next-generation sequencing (NGS) and metagenomics tools that have the most potential for use in a utility monitoring program. Proposals may request WRF funds up to $300,000. Proposals are due Oct. 25, 2018, at 2 p.m. Mountain Time (4 p.m. Eastern Time) These requests solicit proposals from all technically qualified U.S.-based or non-U.S. based applicants, including educational institutions, research organizations, federal or state agencies, local municipalities, and consultants or other for-profit entities; however, because a portion of the funding is from the state of California, there are territory limitations that can be reviewed which prohibit individuals and or organizations from certain states from participating in this project.
Proposals submitted in response to any of these projects must follow WRF’s “Guidelines for Focus Area Program Proposals,” which contains instructions for the technical aspects, financial statements, and administrative requirements that the applicant must follow. S
Test Yourself Answer Key From page 52 1. B) planning and preliminary design of the necessary expansion have been initiated. Per FAC 62-600.405(8)(a), Planning for Wastewater Facilities Expansion, “If the initial capacity analysis report or an update of the capacity analysis report documents that the permitted capacity will be equaled or exceeded within the next five years, the report shall include a statement, signed and sealed by a professional engineer registered in Florida, that planning and preliminary design of the necessary expansion have been initiated.”
2. D) 100-year flood Per FAC 62-555.320(4), Design and Construction of Public Water Systems, Flood Protection, “community water systems (CWSs) shall be designed and constructed so that structures and electrical or mechanical equipment used to treat, pump, or store drinking water and apply drinking water treatment chemicals or handle drinking water treatment residuals are protected from physical damage by the 100-year flood and, in coastal areas subject to flooding by wave action, from physical damage by the 100-year wave action. Additionally, CWSs shall be designed and constructed so that the aforementioned structures and equipment remain fully operational and accessible during the 25-year flood and, in coastal areas subject to flooding by wave action, the 25-year wave action; a lesser flood or wave action may be used if suppliers of water or construction permit applicants provide justification for using a lesser flood or wave action, but in no case shall less than the 10-year flood or wave action be used.”
3. B) maximum-day water demand. Per 62-555.320(6), Capacity of Drinking Water Source and Treatment Facilities, “The total capacity of all water source and treatment facilities connected to a water system shall at least equal the water system’s design maximum-day water demand (including design fire-flow demand if fire protection is being provided).”
4. A) Clean Water SRF, Drinking Water SRF, and SRF Management Per FDEP’s SRF web page, Florida's SRF is made up of three programs: Clean Water State Revolving Fund, Drinking Water State Revolving Fund, and State Revolving Fund Management. Both the clean water and the drinking water SRF programs are funded through money received from federal grants, as well as state contributions. These funds then "revolve" through the repayment of previous loans and interest earned. While these programs offer loans, grant-like funding is also available for qualified small, disadvantaged communities, which reduces the amount owed on loans by the percentage that the community qualifies.
5. B) 350 persons Per FAC 62-555.320(14)(a), Standby Power, “each community water system (CWS) serving, or designed to serve, 350 or more persons or 150 or more service connections shall provide standby power for operation of that portion of the system’s water source, treatment, and pumping facilities necessary to deliver drinking water meeting all applicable primary or secondary standards at a rate at least equal to the average daily water demand for the system. If a CWS interconnects with another CWS to meet this requirement, the portion of the combined systems’ components
provided with standby power shall be sufficient to deliver water at a rate at least equal to the average daily water demand for the combined systems.”
6. C) A schedule for design, permitting, and construction of new or expanded facilities, and a signed statement from the utility that the schedule will be met. Per FAC 62-555.348(6), Planning for Expansion of Public Water System Source, Treatment, or Storage Facilities, “If an initial or updated source/treatment/storage capacity analysis report indicates that maximum-day water demand (including fire-flow demand if fire protection is being provided) will exceed the total permitted maximumday operating capacity of the water treatment plant(s) in less than five years or that finished-water storage need (including fire storage if fire protection is being provided) will exceed the existing total useful finished-water storage capacity in less than five years, documentation of timely design, permitting, and construction of recommended new or expanded source, treatment, or storage facilities shall be submitted with the report. The documentation shall consist of a written statement that is signed by an authorized representative of the supplier of water and that certifies the supplier is meeting, and intends to meet, the report’s recommended schedule for design, permitting, and construction of recommended new or expanded source, treatment, or storage facilities.”
7. B) At least 12 in. Per FAC 62-532.500(4)(b), 4. Water Well Construction Standards, “For public water system wells constructed on or after April 1, 2002, the upper terminus of the well casing shall project at least 12 in. above the pump house floor, pump pit floor, or concrete apron around the well.”
8. C) State of Florida well completion report Per FAC 62-532.410, Water Well Completion Report, “Within 30 days after completion of the construction, repair, or abandonment of any water well, a written report shall be filed with the permitting authority on Form Number 62532.900(2), State of Florida well completion report, adopted and incorporated herein, and available as described in Rule 62-532.900, F.A.C.”
9. A) Asset management plan Per FAC 62-505.300(1)(d), General Program Information, “Grants under this chapter are available at the construction phase of a project only if the project sponsor adopts and implements, prior to the final disbursement of the associated State Revolving Fund construction loan, an asset management plan that meets all requirements of subsection 62503.700(7), F.A.C.”
10. C) Pump stations receiving flow from one or more pump stations through a force main, or discharging through pipes 12 in. or larger Per FDEP’s FAC 62-604.400(2)(a), 1. Design/Performance Considerations, “Emergency pumping capability shall be provided for all pump stations. Pumping capability shall be provided as follows: 1. Pump stations that receive flow from one or more pump stations through a force main or pump stations discharging through pipes 12 in. or larger shall provide for uninterrupted pumping capabilities, including an in-place emergency generator.”
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
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P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e
Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!
Available Positions Include: Business Development Leader – Tampa Area Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings, 0-15 yrs. exp.) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com
MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or pluming abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d
City of Groveland Class “C” Water Operator The City of Groveland is hiring a Class "C" Water Operator. Salary Range $ 29,203-43,805 DOQ. Please visit groveland-fl.gov for application and job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP
City of Titusville - NELAC Lab Supervisor & Senior Utility Engineer Competitive salaries. Great team. www.titusville.com
Utility Systems Operator (Wastewater Plant) Utilities Maintenance Supervisor $58,829 - $82,778/yr.
Utilities (Safety) Program Coordinator $48,399 - $68,102/yr.
Utilities Storm Water Foreman
Flagler County Government is accepting applications for state certified wastewater treatment plant operator. Applicant must have a minimum Class C FDEP Operator’s Certificate. A dual license is preferred. Applicant must have a HS Diploma or GED and a valid Florida Driver’s License. To view job description and apply for the position please visit our website, www.flaglercounty.org located in the Need to Know section in the bottom left of screen.
$47,911 - $67,414/yr.
Utilities Treatment Plant Operator II $47,911 - $67,414/yr.
Utilities Treatment Plant Operator I/Trainee
Wastewater Plant Operator The City of Sanford is accepting applications for the position of Wastewater Plant Operator.
$41,387 - $64,204/yr.
Utilities System Operator III $41,387 - $58,235/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.
WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d
Applicants must have and maintain a Florida Class C (or above) Wastewater License, High School graduation or GED equivalent. Must possess and maintain a valid Florida Driver’s License. Employees are responsible for conducting routine and moderately complex inspection and maintenance duties, ensuring efficient and effective operation of wastewater facilities and equipment. Starting position and grade may be determined by the applicant’s Wastewater License Class. Sanford has a full suite of benefits and is part of the Florida Retirement System (FRS). To apply follow the ‘Employment’ link on the City’s webpage www.sanfordfl.gov
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
CITY OF MARGATE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATOR – WATER Applicant must have High School Diploma or GED, must possess a minimum of a Class “C” Water Treatment Plant Operator license at the time of application. Must possess and maintain valid Florida Driver License. Competitive starting salary depending on Class – “C” $43,208; “B” $44,709; “A” $47, 709. Excellent benefits. The City of Margate is a participant in the Florida Retirement System and is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Apply on line at www.margatefl.com. This position is open until filled.
Assistant Director of Environmental Services Highly responsible work with managerial, administration, and professional duties within the City's Environmental Services Department. Duties include responsibility for the operation of the City's Wastewater Reclamation Facility, collections system, reclaimed water system, and IPP and FOG programs. The position requires a Bachelor Degree in Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Public Administration, or related field and at least 7 years of related experience. Starting salary range is $66,500 - $83,000. For more detailed information and application instructions, please go to: www.largo.com/jobs
Indian River County Department of Utility Services Assistant Operations Manager We are looking for an experienced leader with expertise to oversee our water distribution and wastewater collection systems. For more info or to apply, please visit our website at www.ircgov.com and click on the County Jobs link.
The City of Edgewater is accepting applications for the following positions. Wastewater Operations Maintenance Superintendent Supervises personnel and oversees operation and maintenance of lift stations, sewer lines, manholes and other wastewater collection equipment. Salary Range $37,835 - $59,134 Wastewater Maintenance Technician Repairs and maintains lift stations, sewer lines, manholes and other wastewater collection equipment. Salary range $27,164 - $42,452. For full job descriptions and to apply online go to http://www.cityofedgewater.org
Water Supply Specialist South Florida Water Management DistrictWest Palm Beach, Florida This position plays a key role in the development and implementation of the District's regional water supply plans. For more information about our organization, this opportunity and to apply online, please visit www.sfwmd.gov/careers. Job Reference: 2273BR. The SFWMD offers competitive wages and benefits. EOE.
October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Wastewater Manager Oversees operations and maintenance of an advanced A2O wastewater reclamation facility including daily maintenance and supervision of daily operation of maintenance, compliance, and staff. Associates Degree in Chemistry, Env Sci / Public Administration or related technical program with at least 7 years experience in utilities management and supervisory exp. Hiring Range: $60,300 - $76,000 For more detailed information and application instructions, please go to: www.largo.com/jobs
Lead Wastewater Operator The Coral Springs Improvement District is accepting applications for the position of Wastewater Lead Operator. Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license and pass a pre-employment drug screening. The Lead Operator operates the Districts wastewater plant, assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. This position reports directly to the WWTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Excellent benefits and compensation including a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match of up to 6%. EOE. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at www.csidfl.org/resources/employment.html and fax resume to 954-7536328 attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources
WATER PLANT OPERATOR CITY OF VENICE Accepting applications for state certified water treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold a HS or equivalent degree and at minimum State of Florida Class “C” Drinking Water Treatment Plant Operator License. Apply at www.venicegov.com The City of Venice offers competitive salary and participates in the Florida State Retirement System.
Town of Davie Assistant Utilities Director $85,823 - $ 99,350 / yr.
Utilities Project Manager
Assistant Water Production Superintendent The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Assistant Water Production Superintendent at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or GED; possession of a Class "A" Water Treatment Plant Operator's certificate issued by the State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection; a minimum five (5) years of experience in a management role directing the operations and maintenance of a large drinking water treatment facility. Must possess a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess a valid out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida driver’s license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $49,822 - $83,680/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit www.melbourneflorida.org/jobs and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.
$80,545 - $93,241
Utilities Maintenance Supervisor $59,271 - $68,613/ yr.
Utilities Electro - Technician $53,552 – $62,104 / yr.
Utilities Plant Operator II – Water / Utilities Plant Operator II –Wastewater $47,010 - $54,517/ yr. Please visit our website at http://www.davie-fl.gov for complete job descriptions and to apply. Open until filled.
City of Tarpon Springs Water Treatment Operator B and C (2 positions) $36,219 - $58,349/ yr.; $34,495 - $55,571 Apply online at: http://www.ctsfl.us/jobs.htm Open until filled.
Utilities, Inc. WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATOR Utilities, Inc. of Florida is seeking a Water Operator for the Pasco/Pinellas County area. Applicant must have a minimum Class C FDEP Water license. A dual license is preferred. Applicant must have a HS Diploma or GED & a valid Florida driver’s license with a clean record. To view complete job description & apply for the position please visit our web site, www.myuiflorida.com, select the Employment Opportunities tab. Search the Operations & FL, Holiday categories.
Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Minimum of seven years of experience in the direct operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Minimum two years in the supervisory capacity of a Class A water treatment facility. Must possess a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary Range: $39,893.88 - $67,004.60/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit www.melbourneflorida.org/jobs and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.
SKILLED TRADES SUPERVISOR – LIFT STATIONS (FULL-TIME) The Broward County Water and Wastewater Services Operations Division has an exciting opportunity for: SALARY: $24.98 - $39.88 Hourly LOCATION: Water and Wastewater Services, 2555 Copans Road, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 DEPARTMENT: Public Works Department For more information, please visit www.broward.org/careers
Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2018
City of St. Petersburg – Civil Engineer III IRC44832 City of St. Petersburg - Civil Engineer III (IRC44832) This is very responsible professional civil/environmental engineering work of an advanced level in the Water Resources Department, involving supervision over water/wastewater utilities including the planning, investigation, location, design and construction of municipal engineering and public works projects. Work involves advanced application of engineering skills and knowledge to perform difficult projects; supervisory responsibility; signing and sealing of water/wastewater construction and DEP permit documents. Requirements: Bachelor's Degree in civil/environmental engineering; 5 years as a Professional Engineer (PE) and possess a State of Florida PE license; considerable knowledge of modern engineering methods and techniques as applied to water/wastewater infrastructure. Close Date: 10-12-2018; $63,529 - $102,809 DOQ; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets' Pref
Polk County Utilities – CAPACITY ENGINEER, P.E. $58,427.20-$87,651.20/annually, great benefits! For additional information and application: https://www.polk-county.net/equity-and-humanresources/career-opportunities
CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Solid Waste Worker I, II & III - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.
Marion County, FL is looking for a Director of Utilities This position is responsible for managing a complex, multi-million dollar department while interacting with and forging partnerships with various internal and external stakeholders. The pay range for this position is $80,953.60 - $114,025.60 depending on qualifications and experience. Licensure as a Professional Engineer (PE) is preferred. Apply at www.marioncountyfl.org/careers
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October 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com. Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.
New Facilities, Expansions and Upgrades