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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office: P.O. Box 745, Windermere, FL 34786-0745 Web: General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority

News and Features 4 6 11 34 36 36 38 44 46

Technical Articles

Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

14 Truck Shots and Over the Hole: Rehabbing a Force Main in West Palm Beach— Ray Thomson, Poonam Kalkat, and Rudy Fernandez

26 Boca Raton’s Proactive Pressure Pipe Renewal Program—Talia Garcia, Lauren M. Burack, James Carolan, and Jonathan Z. Goldman

Education and Training 9 20 37 41 45

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Florida Water Resources Conference FSAWWA Fall Conference CEU Challenge TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Training Calendar

Columns 8 10 12 24

FWEA Focus—Tim Harley Let’s Talk Safety FSAWWA Speaking Out—Grace Johns FWEA Chapter Corner—Abnery Picón and Juan Oquendo

32 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 40 Reader Profile—Joan I. Fernandez


Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference:

After the Storm Realizing the Digital Potential for the Water Industry—Antony Bourne WEF Launches Words On Water Podcast What You Should Know About Arc Flash—Keff Kurella In Memoriam Proposals Sought for Research on Water Reuse in Agriculture WEF HQ Newsletter—Beth Conway and Amy Kathman Targeted Call for Innovative Water Reuse and Desalination Technologies News Beat

40 48 51 54

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Volume 68

ON THE COVER: As part of a condition assessment and rehabilitation project for the City of West Palm Beach, a wetted liner tube is positioned over an insertion pit and inverted into the open end of a 48-in. force main. For more information, see page 14. (photo: Rudy Fernandez)

October 2017

Number 10

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


After the Storm Mother Nature gave Florida many gifts— thousands of miles of beaches, interesting and varied wildlife, and a beautiful climate (in the winter!). The landfall of Hurricane Irma reminds us that there are challenges that our environment can throw at us at any time. We certainly hope that you weathered this latest storm with minimal damage. Like police officers, firefighters, and medical personnel, those who work in the water and wastewater industry are also first responders. They selflessly and tirelessly work around the


clock to make sure that citizens have what they truly need the most—water. We’re already hearing many stories of the ways utilities were able to fairly quickly defy odds and get their operations up and running. After you catch your breath, get some sleep, and feel that life again has some normalcy, please consider writing an article for the Journal or a paper for next year’s Florida Water Resources Conference. The submittal deadline for the 2018 conference is Nov. 1, 2017; the magazine accepts articles anytime, and photos and other illustra-

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

tions are always welcome. Sharing your experiences about how you and your colleagues were able to restore service is another way of giving back to the community. It will help to ensure that everyone is even more prepared for the inevitable “next time.”

Editor and publisher.

Realizing the Digital Potential for the Water Industry New survey shows top priorities for digital transformation Antony Bourne Today's water and wastewater utilities face a variety of challenges, including decreasing water supply, growing and shifting populations, and increasing pollutants. Utilizing effective management techniques is crucial to the efficient use of water, sustainable treatment, and adequate quantity. Business intelligence and performance metrics play a large role in creating efficient processes for the water industry (including the companies they work with, such as manufacturers, consultants, government agencies, etc.), which relies on the use of digital technology to optimize operations. This includes metrics such as customer satisfaction, operational optimization, community sustainability, infrastructure stability, and many other factors. Digital transformation (DT) is finally coming of age. In the recent digital change survey commissioned by IFS covering 750 professionals across a range of industries, 80 percent saw themselves as “enabled,” “enhanced,” or “optimized” to leverage DT. Even more impressively, 89 percent said they had “advantageous” or “adequate” funding in place for digital projects—a clear acknowledgment

that the time of disruptive technologies is here, and that the vast majority of firms are realizing that they need to invest. But why are businesses investing? Where do they see the big profits? And how successfully are they selling digital change throughout their organizations? Water and wastewater utilities need to transform themselves so that they can access the benefits that digital technology provides. This transformation touches many different parts of the water business, including: S Customer service S Operations and maintenance S Asset management S Project delivery and procurement S Regulatory and strategic planning S Communications and engagement

Companies Need to Look Beyond Quick Efficiency Gains The survey found that over a quarter (27 percent) of companies say digital transformation “makes them more competitive,” giving them a vital differentiating edge. Twenty-nine percent see the main benefit as “accelerating innovation” and 28 percent see “growth op-

portunities in new markets.” All these are inspiring companies using digital transformation to ask far-reaching strategic questions (“Can I use digital transformation to get myself a bigger share of the market, or increase my product portfolio?”) and make the most of the long-term, strategic opportunities of the technology. They’re sensing how it can transform even seemingly small tactical decisions (“How often do I service my equipment and how does this impact my customers and my competitiveness?”) into key strategic differentiators. But these companies are still in the minority. The largest group in the survey (47 percent) still see the main benefits of DT as “improving internal process efficiencies,” which brings up another question: Do companies really see the full potential of what disruptive technologies can achieve? Innovation can make or break a company, and study after study foregrounds it as a C-suite priority. So why doesn’t it appear to be a driver for digital transformation? Considering technology investments, this could mean that the majority of funds are invested in making internal processes more effective and thereby failing to enable innovation. Seeing “improved internal efficiency” as the key reason to explore DT is, to many, short-sighted. It fails to exploit the strategic benefits and makes it more difficult to win the understanding and commitment of the staff.

Winning Hearts and Minds: Overcoming Fear of Change Despite plenty of good news, the survey still reveals that 42 percent of respondents view aversion to change as the main barrier to digital transformation. Companies need to think carefully about how they position the Internet of Things (IoT) and other disruptive technologies, how they tell the story of why they are using them, and how they communicate the benefits to their entire workforce— transforming staff from “dataphobes” to data fans. The most successful technology shifts are embraced from the bottom up, as well as the top down—they’re all driven by people. The buy-in from staff is mission-critical and the


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

opportunities for growth and improvement for all need to be communicated clearly and openly. Imagine service engineers hearing that predictive maintenance is to be deployed. “That’s going to put me out of a job,” would be a common reaction—even if closer questioning found them in need of new inspiration and working methods and open to new opportunities! In this scenario, stressing the bigpicture, long-term strategy (“We’re going to be more competitive, accelerate innovation, and win growth opportunities in new markets”) would be more inspiring than the short-term tactical benefits (“We’re improving internal efficiencies”). Digital transformation is like many other big-change projects that are all about winning the hearts and minds of the people who are actually going to enter the data or use the system hands-on: It needs to be managed on a human scale. It’s understood that no amount of shortterm savings will make jobs, or businesses, more secure if a firm isn’t staying competitive in the long term. Painting the big picture—positioning digital change as strategic, but not tactical; as inspiring, but not invasive—is vital.

Upskilling and Reskilling is Key to Leverage New Technology One in three companies in the survey is “unprepared to deal with the digital skills gap.” Smart businesses are already spotting potential data candidates, like service engineers, who have the appetite and skills to expand their role. How can companies bridge the skills gap affordably, sustainably, and creatively? S Consider how an organizational structure needs to be developed to foster digital development. For large companies, there is the option of creating new departments dedicated to digital initiatives—hothousing analytic skills and nurturing them in-house. S Conduct digital competence inventory. There is a huge need for training staff in managing and analyzing data that must be met for companies to succeed with digital initiatives. Establish what technology in a company is key for development. As part of this digital inventory, start earmarking individual staff members who have the knowledge and drive to upskill. S Developing skills properly is paramount. Human resource teams need to decide what current roles should be developed and where new talent is needed. Bring in external trainers to provide new perspectives. S Work together with local universities, both to attract talent and to influence the schools to focus their education programs in the right areas. Placement schemes often offer

undergraduates real-life programming experience, growing both the firm and the student. Apprenticeship programs discover local talent and give them support and a place to grow.

Three Pillars for Success: Where is the Focus? There are three pillars to succeed with digital transformation: technology, investment, and people. The technology aspect is often mastered most successfully, as it is driven by technology experts with clearly dedicated areas of responsibility. The main question is whether the focus is on the right technology to drive transformation at the right time. Does a company want to be the pioneer taking risks, or jump on the bandwagon when the technology is more mature? As shown in this survey, companies think that they are currently investing enough in digital transformation, but are they focusing on the right areas? The results indicate that there is a heavy focus on process efficiencies, so there could be a need to steer the focus towards more innovation-focused investments. Finally, people are the factor that is most often forgotten in the digital transformation process. This is important from both a talent and communications perspective. If over 40 percent view aversion to change as the main barrier, employee communications is of the utmost importance to make sure that staff members know the purpose of change and how they are affected. So it’s high time to ask: Where does a company focus to build these pillars and be successful in its digital transformation? In today's competitive marketplace, this digital transformation is helping deliver new capabilities to achieve greater resource efficiency and better customer service. Water agencies are aiming to become more cus-

tomer-centric. Managers are leveraging technology to achieve a number of goals, widely ranging from analyzing consumption patterns to managing accurate billing. With the onset of transformative information technology developments, water utilities and water-related companies are finding faster and more efficient ways to provide higher quality services to customers. Utilities across the United States are phasing out old legacy systems for more innovative enterprise resource planning systems that incorporate the key business functions of an organization. With these changes, water utilities are gaining improved monitoring of unbilled or under-billed usage, enabling them to find uncollected revenue. They are able to monitor water usage and conservation more effectively, while gaining improved regulatory compliance by using consistent reporting on customer service. There is also an increased awareness of customer inquiries, complaints, behaviors, and preferences, helping water utilities provide more effective services and create new incentives and pricing plans. For the water industry, there is no time to waste. Smart technology requires large-scale investment and commitment, and forwardthinking managers and executives need to be plotting their strategy now. The opportunity presented by digital transformation is there for the taking, but can utilities, with their legacy business models, take advantage of the new reality? For today’s water customers, digital technology is now mainstream, as their increasing adoption of online connectivity and social media demonstrates, and utilities are facing— possibly—a last chance to innovate and stay ahead. Antony Bourne is vice president for global industry solutions with IFS in London. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017



A Pebble in the Water Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA

EWARE! Hopefully there are folks who actually read this, and to those who do, beware because this edition will contain many clichés and a few idioms. For those brave souls who dare to continue, I challenge you to note each of these and maybe even think of a few more that you might add. In my last column, I described FWEA as a buffet with many items to choose from and encouraged you to find what tastes good to you, to try a few things that maybe you haven’t before, and to get your fill by helping and being involved in our great organization. We need for you to get in the game. In any organization, it has been said that 20 percent of the people do 80 percent of the work; this is especially true for volunteer organizations such as ours. From an individual standpoint, we can each identify what motivates us, even if at times it may be difficult to



verbalize it to others. For some, it may be a picture board with a new car, boat, or vacation location that we have a desire to obtain; for others, it may be the satisfaction they feel from a job well done, because we’ve been taught to run the race marked out for us with perseverance. We run the good race in an attempt to receive the prize. But what does that have to do with FWEA? In a nutshell, it’s our task to increase the 20 percent. But before going further, I would like to thank each of our volunteer leaders, our local chapter chairs and officers, our committee chairs and officers, and our FWEA board of directors. Unlike leadership within the workplace, where at times a job and a paycheck are the only motivation needed, these individuals must attempt to determine what motivates you, the member. While some have described leadership roles within a volunteer organization as herding cats, to those I repeat what the great motivational speaker Zig Zigler said: “You can have everything in life you want, if you will just help other people get what they want.” In order to do this, they need to find out what floats your boat and gets you up in the morning, and then

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

attempt to make the desires of the organization align with yours. Once they have accomplished this, they must then practice what they preach. They must hone their leadership skills and persuade others to run the race with them, rather than for them. They must get in the boat and encourage others to either row or, at times, bale water. Former General and United States President Dwight Eisenhower gave a good visual on how to get something to go where you what it to go when he said, “Pull the string and it will follow wherever you wish. Push it, and it will go nowhere at all.” As leaders, we need to actually be out in front doing what we are trying to direct other people to do. While leaders can lead by example, they also need followers who are willing to take up the yoke to get the job done. This reminds me of the story of the young boy who one day, while walking on the beach, saw it littered with starfish. He began to pick them up and toss them back into the ocean, when along comes an elderly man who approached the boy and told him that, with as many that had been washed onto the beach, “he could not make a difference.” As the boy leaned down, picked up

a starfish and tossed if back into the ocean he said, “I made a difference to that one.” The next day there were two out on the beach tossing starfish back into the sea. Find your passion and get involved in FWEA. Just a small pebble when tossed into the water creates ripples that spread out and have far-reaching effects and consequences. Please don’t overlook an idea or fail to take action for fear of not making a difference. Every single great project or initiative in life starts with one person—one person with one idea who has the strength and determination to see it through. Make ripples in life and make a difference. In conclusion, I would like to provide you with some updates on the initiatives for this year: S An Emerging Technology Committee with a focus on committee members from the manufacturer and equipment representative sectors. The Manufacturers and Representatives Committee (MARC) has had multiple teleconferences and is developing a path for this new group. If you would like to be a part of this committee, please reach out to its chair, Chris Stewart with Xylem, at S An Operators Committee to better address the needs of that segment of our organization. While a formal committee made up of operators has not taken flight, we have initiated a working group/task force to begin addressing certification/licensure for individuals who are mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control technicians who work on public and private wastewater collections systems in Florida. This group will certainly grow with time. If you are interested in being a part of this committee, please contact Kart Vaith at or me at S A Contractors Committee to take advantage of the experience that the members bring to the table. There has been interest from the general membership to start a committee with representation from this segment of our industry. If you are interested, please contact John Giachino at or me at

S Embracing technology and social media. The ways that we communicate today greatly differ from the ways we did so even a few short years ago. To that end, our social media footprint is beginning to take shape. If you have not joined our Facebook, LinkedIn, or Twitter efforts, then I encourage you to take a look. Thank you to Kristiana Dragash, Lindsey Marten, Tyler Smith,

Sondra Lee, and others for keeping the posts coming. S Our first Annual Membership Directory & Resource Guide has mailed. I hope that you have already taken advantage of the information provided. Special recognition and appreciation goes to those firms and organizations that advertised in the directory in support of FWEA. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Be Prepared for an Emergency ire. Flood. Tornado. Hurricane. Storm surge. You never know when an emergency situation may force you to leave your home or workplace to deal with disaster situations. In the event of a major disaster, you and your family should realistically plan to be selfsufficient for at least seven days before outside resources are available. A little preparation now could save lives and prevent injuries in the future. Escape routes. Every room in your house should have two designated escape routes. The whole family needs to know, understand, and practice the escape routes, especially children. Evacuation plans. Massive evacuations



caused by fire, hurricanes, and flooding are becoming more and more common. You may have only minutes to leave. So be ready to move! S If you know there might be trouble soon, keep a full tank of gas in your car and only take one car per family to evacuate. S Gather disaster supplies and have a batterypowered radio for official evacuation instructions. Don’t forget the extra batteries! S Before you leave, lock up your home and unplug everything except the freezer and refrigerator. S Let others know where you’re going, leave early to avoid being trapped, and follow recommended evacuation routes. Don’t take shortcuts—they may be blocked!

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Family communications. Your family may not be together when a disaster strikes, so plan how you will contact one another in emergency situations. Pick a friend or relative who lives out of state for family members to notify that they are safe. Utility shutoff. Every adult needs to know how to shut off the utilities: natural gas, water, and electricity. Because different gas meter configurations have different shutoff procedures, contact your gas utility for guidance on preparation and response. Food. Prepare in advance a week’s worth of nonperishable food supplies for every family member. Try to avoid foods that will make you thirsty. Choose salt-free crackers, wholegrain cereals, and canned foods with high liquid

content. Stock canned foods, dry mixes, and other staples that do not require refrigeration, cooking, water, or special preparation. You may already have many of these on hand. Be sure to include foods that meet special dietary needs, and do not forget a manual can opener! Water. This can become a precious resource after a disaster. Keep an emergency water supply ample enough to meet the needs of the entire family for seven days or longer. Also, plan on having enough water to meet your family’s personal hygiene and sanitation needs. Important documents. Store documents, such as insurance policies, deeds, birth certificates, and property records, in a bank safety deposit box away from home. Make copies for your disaster supply kit. Keep a small amount of cash or traveler’s checks where you can quickly get to them. Special needs. A family member with a disability or a special need may require additional assistance in an emergency. Find out

what assistance is available in your community and be sure to inform the local office of emergency services and the fire department about your family’s special needs. Pets. If you must evacuate, don’t leave your pets behind! They may not survive on their own, and you may not be able to find them when you return. Create a pet-survival kit that includes essential supplies such as food, water, and medications. For more information, contact the Humane Society of America. Safety skills. Family members should know how to administer first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The American Red Cross frequently provides first-aid and CPR classes. Everyone should also know how to use a fire extinguisher; your home should have an ABCtype extinguisher (one that can be used for paper, liquid, and electrical fires). Shelter. You may want to consider having sheltering supplies, such as tarps, tents, and

sleeping bags ready to go. Emergency kit for work. This kit should be in one container and ready to grab and go in case you are evacuated from your workplace. Besides food and water in the kit, have comfortable walking shoes in case an evacuation requires you to walk long distances. Emergency kit for your car. In case you are stranded, keep a kit of emergency supplies in your car, which should contain food, water, firstaid supplies, flares, jumper cables, and seasonal supplies. Change stored food and water supplies in all of your kits every six months and write the new date on all containers. You’ll also need to rethink your supply needs every year and update your kit as your family needs change. For more information check out the Federal Emergency Management Agency website at, the American Red Cross website at, and your community’s emergency service organizations. S

The 2017 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2017 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

WEF Launches Words On Water Podcast The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has launched a podcast titled, “Words On Water,” which will feature conversations with influential and interesting people who work in the water sector. The podcast can be found at and is also available on iTunes. Words On Water will present one-onone interviews with prominent individuals from all facets of the water industry. Through these conversations, topics such infrastructure, innovation and technology, resource recovery, workforce, research, and public awareness will be explored. Listeners will also hear the latest news from WEF. “Conversations about water are so fascinating, particularly during this transformational time when the water sector faces both difficult challenges and tremendous opportunities,” said Travis Loop, the host of Words On Water and WEF’s senior director of communications and public outreach. “The organization looks forward to evolving and growing the podcast so that it’s a valuable source of information on water issues, and we welcome listener input to help that process.”

The first episode of Words On Water features Eileen O’Neill, WEF executive director, who discusses what it’s like to lead an organization with 34,000 members from all areas of the water business. O’Neill also talks about what makes her hopeful about the future of water, as well as the greatest obstacles facing the industry.

Podcast episodes will be published at least every two weeks. The next two episodes will feature Kevin Shafer, executive director of Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and chair of the board of the U.S. Water Alliance, and Rudy Chow, director of Baltimore City Department of Public Works. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017



“Price is What You Pay. Value is What You Get.” Grace Johns Chair, FSAWWA

he quote that’s the title of my column this month is attributed to Warren Buffet, billionaire and chief executive officer of Berkshire Hathaway, and is appropriate for describing the value of water from an economist’s perspective. In his 2005 paper, “The Value of Water,” W. Michael Hanemann, an economist and professor of environmental and resource economics at the University of California at Berkeley, states the following: “Economic value is different than price. Price does not in general measure economic value, and items with no market price can still have a positive economic value.” The price paid for potable water, also called the water rate or water rate structure, is the cost to capture, treat, and deliver potable water to customers. Well-managed water utilities ensure that the water rate structure collects sufficient revenue to sustainably provide safe, reliable, and potable water. But this price paid for water is not the value of the water.


Customer’s Value of Potable Water is Willingness to Pay The value of potable water is the customer’s well-being, income, and/or profit created when this water is used either for human consumption or for commercial or industrial production. This value is reflected in the customer’s maximum willingness to pay for the water consumed. “Willingness to pay” is an economics term that means the maximum amount of money a person is willing to pay for a good or service of a particular quality. The value of water to individual customers can be defined in two ways: marginal willingness to pay and total willingness to pay. Marginal willingness to pay is the marginal value of water to the customer and is the maximum amount of money that the customer is willing to pay for an additional unit of water. Essential water uses have greater marginal values to the customer than nonessential or discretionary water uses.


Essential water uses are drinking, cooking, sanitation, and processes needed for commercial and industrial production. Examples of nonessential or discretionary water uses include taking long showers, filling swimming pools, washing cars, and irrigating lawns. Discretionary water uses in commercial and industrial production include processes where water can be used more efficiently and better managed—especially in response to increased water prices and supply shortages. Water can be reused, leaks can be repaired, water-efficient technologies can be installed, and water waste eliminated. Total willingness to pay is the maximum amount of money the customer is willing to pay for all the water consumed and is the sum of the marginal willingness to pay values. In practice, a customer’s total willingness to pay for water is always greater than the customer’s water and sewer bill.

Estimating the Customer’s Value of Potable Water To my knowledge, the value of water for essential uses has never been estimated for a utility in the United States, but we know that the value is huge. Fortunately, in Florida we don’t have to put a dollar value on this water, as long as we are able to provide this basic and critical service at a low price that we know is affordable. But once we get beyond what is needed for public health and economic prosperity, the value of this additional or discretionary water use is lower and can be reasonably estimated. The value of discretionary water use is needed to assess the economic feasibility (benefits greater than costs) and public desirability of water infrastructure investments that increase the amount of water produced. To address the replacement of aging infrastructure, the value of water for both essential and discretionary uses is usually the appropriate measure of project benefits, which results in a much greater value than when only discretionary uses are included. Water utilities rarely estimate or consider the customer’s value of potable water when making investment and management decisions. I reported in my January column that, using the results of water demand studies, the average value of potable water for nonessential uses is roughly about $1,600 per Florida household per year. This means that an average Florida household would be willing to pay as much as $1,600 per year to continue using water for nonessential uses. Only

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

about one-half of this amount is paid to a utility for water and sewer service for all the water consumed. In fact, most of us spend well below 4 percent of our income on utility-provided water and sewer service in Florida, and yet this service is responsible for the lion’s share of our health, our livelihood, and our well-being. Water and sewer investments that keep this potable water for discretionary uses flowing to our homes and businesses 24/7, such that the total cost of water and sewer service is less than $1,600 per year, would be economically feasible and desirable to customers. And, bear in mind that this $1,600 does not include the value of safe, reliable, and potable water for essential uses, which is much more valuable than $1,600 per household per year. The $1,600 per-household and per-year estimate for discretionary water uses represents the average value for all Florida water utility customers. The average per household for individual water utilities is expected to be higher or lower than this value, depending on the area’s climate, household income and size distribution, water and sewer price, size of landscaped areas irrigated with potable water, soil characteristics, water use restrictions, and water-using technologies employed by the population, among other factors. Customer potable water value can be estimated for individual utilities using well-accepted statistical and econometric methods that evaluate utility customer data, data collected by government agencies and private entities, and/or data collected from customer survey research. Average water values per household and total water value among all customers can be used to assess economic feasibility and customer acceptance of new projects. Rate structure design methods are used to allocate utility costs so that water for essential uses is affordable to all.

Using Value of Potable Water to Justify Infrastructure Investment Customer water values can be used to assess whether water customers are willing to pay the cost of reducing or eliminating water shortages. Consider a water utility manager contemplating the customers’ desire and affordability to fund a water supply project to avoid future water shortages. If the manager knew the marginal value of water associated with the avoided shortage, then he or she could determine the economic feasibility and public acceptance of the project. For example, an estimated marginal water value of $10

per 1,000 gallons would tell the manager that she could develop additional water supplies as long as the total cost of developing and delivering that water did not exceed the $10 per 1,000 gallons. Since the marginal value of water falls as the amount of water use increases, there is a limit to how much additional water the utility should provide before the marginal cost exceeds the marginal value. A water demand study specific to the utility would address this issue. As far as I know, water utility organizations do not explicitly recognize customer willingness to pay as the value of potable water in their outreach materials, nor do they provide estimates of the customers’ value of potable water or define the meaning of the value of potable water. The AWWA Research Foundation commissioned a value of water study in 2005, but the scope did not include methods for utilities to estimate their customers’ value of water, nor did the study estimate any of these values. However, the report, “The Value of Water: Concepts, Estimates, and Applications for Water Managers,” did address these items as areas for future research. In 2011 the AWWA Research Foundation commissioned a handbook for water utilities to conduct surveys of water customers for the purpose of estimating the economic value of potable water titled, “Assessing Customer Preferences and Willingness to Pay: A Handbook for Water Util-

ities.” This study did an excellent job of describing survey research methods related to estimating a customer’s willingness to pay for specific levels of water service. While the handbook is a good utility resource, most of it is focused on how to conduct a valuation survey. Another Foundation study completed in 2005, “Customer Acceptance of Water Main Structural Reliability,” evaluated customer acceptance of and willingness to pay for water main replacement using survey research. Both studies are excellent utility resources, but their scopes did not include nonsurvey methods for estimating the customers’ value of potable water, nor did they emphasize, in layman’s terms, the many ways in which estimated water values can be used to assess the economic feasibility and customer acceptance of a project.

Recommendations A study that illustrates how estimates of the value of water can be used, describes the different methods to estimate these values, and provides an outreach platform that is visible and easy for noneconomists to digest would help to facilitate the estimation and use of customer potable water values. Research and outreach organizations should estimate and publicize customer values of water and illustrate how these values can be used to evaluate proposed water projects. Most im-

portantly, the results of these studies need to be disseminated to utilities through outreach efforts. Water organization outreach materials tend to be focused on how much water is needed to produce a commodity, the cost of water, the price of water, the economic impact of water service disruption, and the economic impact to the construction industry and the region when water infrastructure is built. While these measures are useful in illustrating the importance of water and the benefits of water investments they are not helpful in assessing whether a project should be constructed. Until willingness to pay is recognized in the water industry as the value of water and estimated by or for water utilities, there is no mechanism to provide utility assurance that water infrastructure investment will be accepted by their customers. This acceptance is necessary to fill the nation’s $82 billion annual water infrastructure gap over the next ten years, as projected by the Value of Water Campaign. I urge AWWA and other organizations to seek guidance from water resource economists and other relevant professionals on how to facilitate utility estimation of the customers’ value of potable water that would be used to assess the economic feasibility and public acceptance of individual water infrastructure projects.

FSAWWA Past Chairs Dinner and Summit Event a Huge Success The FSAWWA Executive Committee wishes to thank the twenty-one FSAWWA past chairs who attended the Past Chairs Dinner and Summit in Celebration on August 17 and 18. These chairs provided valuable recommendations regarding the Likins Scholarship Fund, Operators Scholarship, training programs, FL 2040 efforts, membership outreach, Utility Council activities, and award presentations. Several past chairs agreed to form a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Outreach Ad Hoc Committee to recommend methods to recruit high school students to pursue education in the drinking water-related fields and ensure that these students are ultimately hired by Florida utilities, vendors, and consultants. As FSAWWA chair, I was very impressed and happy with the level of engagement and attention paid to the future performance of FSAWWA and I thank each and every past chair who attended this fun dinner and productive summit. Congratulations to Glenn Yaney, 2004 FSAWWA chair, who is retiring from Tampa Bay Water and was a good sport during his roast that took place after dinner.

FSAWWA past chairs enjoy Glenn Yaney’s retirement roast after dinner.

The 2017 Past Chairs Summit was a productive way to assess the state of the section and make improvements using the sound advice of those who know the section best.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017



Truck Shots and Over the Hole: Rehabbing a Force Main in West Palm Beach Ray Thomson, Poonam Kalkat, and Rudy Fernandez he City of West Palm Beach (city) is completing an intensive condition assessment and rehabilitation project to extend the service life of a critical 48-in. force main that carries all of its wastewater to the East Central Regional Water Reclamation Facility (facility). After an internal investigations in 2015 to evaluate the condition of the prestressed concrete cylinder pipe that was installed in the 1970s, the city will complete a $14 million project in late 2017 to install a cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining system in the most distressed portions of the force main. The CIPP lining was installed under two separate and sequential contracts, covering a total length of 12,000 ft. The work was performed under two separate contracts to allow work to begin in the most vulnerable section of the force main as soon as possible. The early start for the first contract also minimized the impacts on a golf course that the force main passed under, allowing the work to be performed during the slower summer season. As the first phase of work was being bid and construction was beginning, the design of the second phase of construction was being completed. The second contract included more design and permitting challenges to be addressed for road crossings, traffic maintenance, and bypass piping layout, since the force main alignment was within the right of way of a busy Palm Beach County roadway. The first contractor used a lining installation technique referred to as a “truck shot,” which involves delivering sections of the liner, prewetted with epoxy resin, to the jobsite in a refrigerated truck traveling several hours from a remote facility. The second contractor elected to install the liner by setting up the equipment to wet the liner with the epoxy resin at the insertion pit itself, referred to as the “over the hole” method. Both methods are well-established in the industry and can provide equivalent final results. The liner was installed in lengths up to 1,000 ft in a single shot, minimizing the number of insertion pits required to be constructed. Other special features of the lining installation included the design of the temporary flow bypassing systems, with one contractor using available upstream line pressure to carry the full force main flow through multiple parallel bypass lines, while the second contractor used in-line



booster pumps and a fewer number of bypass lines to convey the bypassed flow to the treatment facility. Installation of the temporary bypass lines involved extensive coordination with the golf course, state and county roadway agencies, and a local drainage district. A relatively new technology for installing bypass lines under a state road was approved for this project by the Florida Department of Transportation as a demonstration test, involving close tolerance horizontal directional drilling to install multiple bypass lines side by side at a relatively shallow depth below the roadway. An effective community outreach and public information program was successfully employed throughout both construction contracts, including public open houses, mailers, a telephone hotline and project website, and direct personal communications with impacted residents and business owners. The construction contractors were responsible for providing the community outreach and public information services, with coordination and approval by the city, to ensure that the contractors were fully engaged in identifying and mitigating the impacts on the community during construction. This article provides background on the condition assessment process and findings, with an emphasis on the critical construction issues, innovative approaches, costs, and lessons learned.

Overview of the Water and Wastewater Systems The city, located on the Atlantic Ocean in south Florida, is the largest in Palm Beach County, with a population of approximately 110,000. The city and other communities in the

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Ray Thomson, P.E., is senior project manager with Jacobs Engineering Group Atlanta. Poonam Kalkat, Ph.D., is public utilities director with City of West Palm Beach. Rudy Fernandez, P.E., is senior project manager with Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. in Palm Beach Gardens.

county are favored destinations for visitors yearround, but especially during the winter months, when people from northern regions come to enjoy the sunshine and warm temperatures. The city provides wastewater collection and treatment services for a total population of approximately 120,000, consisting of residents on the mainland and the Town of Palm Beach (town), located on the barrier island between the Intracoastal Waterway and the Atlantic Ocean. The wastewater for these two locations, along with wastewater from other communities in the area, is treated at the 70-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) facility. The facility is funded and governed by a board consisting of representatives of the entities it serves: the cities of West Palm Beach, Lake Worth, Riviera Beach, and Palm Beach, as well as Palm Beach County. Three large force mains from the various contributing communities carry wastewater to the facility for treatment; there are no interconnections among these force mains. The wastewater from the city and the town is conveyed to the facility through a collection system consisting of 400 mi of gravity sewers, 100 mi of force mains, and 124 lift stations. All flows eventually are pumped into a single 48-in. force main, which serves as a manifold collector pipe that eventually discharges at the headworks of the facility. The force main is operated and maintained by the city, but it is jointly owned by the city (77 percent) and the town (23 percent). The city’s public utilities department also operates a 50-mgd water treatment plant, which uses surface water taken from a broad catchment area within the city limits and extends further west toward the Everglades. The 48-in. force main passes through the raw water supply catchment area, highlighting the need for ensuring the reliability and integrity of the force main.

Figure 1. Typical construction of embedded cylinder pipe (left) and lined cylinder pipe (right) joints.

Critical Force Main The force main that delivers wastewater from the city and the town to the facility is the sole pipeline for carrying flows from the city’s service area to the treatment plant, so it must provide continuous and reliable service. The force main is constructed of prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), with a total length of approximately 31,000 ft; the force main generally runs from east to west. The pipeline consists of 12,000 ft of 42in.-diameter and 5,000 ft of 48-in.-diameter lined cylinder pipe (LCP) in the eastern portion of the city (east of I-95) and approximately 14,000 ft of 48-in.-diameter embedded cylinder pipe (ECP) west of I-95 for the rest of the run to the treatment plant. The force main was installed in the mid1970s under two separate contracts; the contractor for the eastern portion (Contract 1) selected LCP type pipe manufactured by Price Brothers, and the contractor for the western portion (Contract 2) selected ECP type pipe manufactured by Interpace. The pipeline generally was installed on a flat grade with depth of cover generally ranging from 5 to 10 ft, except where dropped sections, with up to 18 ft of cover, were required to cross under canals and roadways (including I-95). The force main was installed in dedicated easements or within roadway rights of way through a highly developed area. The pipeline passes through a condominium development, crosses a Jack Nicklaus-designed golf course and country club, and runs under a heavily traveled county road. No valves for isolating segments of the line were installed in the 42-in. and 48-in. force main in its original construction. Recent master plans prepared for the city indicate that the force main will need to convey up to 32 mgd to the facility, although current flows average less than 20 mgd. The 48-in. force main was conservatively sized in its original design and is projected to have adequate capacity to serve the community at build-out. Typical operating pressures are less than 20

pounds per sq in. (psi). Hydraulic modeling under a variety of flow conditions and lift station start/stop scenarios demonstrated that pressure surges/transients are quite small in magnitude and duration, largely due to the diversity of lift station capacities, connection points, and operating sequences.

Action Plan for Force Main Rehabilitation The city was well aware of the potentially severe impacts that could result if a major failure of the force main occurred, including: S Loss of wastewater service for the entire city’s service area S Localized contamination in the vicinity of the pipe failure S Contamination of the city’s primary raw water supply S Contamination of the Intracoastal Waterway This knowledge prompted the city’s leaders to initiate the condition assessment in the first place, to be followed by decisive steps to mitigate, if required, the impacts of a force main failure, and more importantly, to proactively reduce the likelihood of such a failure. The steps in the city’s action plan are described. Condition Assessment of the Force Main The force main has provided reliable service for 40 years, with only a few repairs required during that time; however, the city is well aware of the history of failures of certain types of PCCP pressure mains. In particular, pipes with Class IV prestressing wire are known to be associated with excessive numbers of broken wire wraps; the pipe installed under Contract 2 was manufactured with this type of prestressing wire. The city decided to proactively investigate the condition of the force main and take steps to ensure

uninterrupted conveyance of wastewater to the treatment plant for another 40 years and beyond. Field Investigations In 2014, the city initiated plans to investigate the condition of the force main through the selection of Jacobs as its engineering consultant to assist in procuring the services of a firm to perform an internal condition assessment, and then develop alternative solutions for rehabilitating the pipeline. To perform the field studies and condition analysis, the city contracted directly with Pure Technologies (Pure), a firm specializing in performing condition assessments for a variety of infrastructure systems. Field investigations were conducted by Pure in spring 2015. The two elements of the condition assessment consisted of the following: S Acoustic inspection, using Pure’s SmartBall® device, to identify leaks and gas pockets S Electromagnetic inspection, using Pure’s PipeDiver® technology, to locate and quantify broken prestressing wire wraps. Findings and Recommendations of the Condition Assessment Key findings of the condition assessment were: S No indication of leaks was found S 23 anomalies in the acoustic test results were found that were indicative of entrained gas or slugs of gas at various locations along the length of the force main S 1,682 pipe segments (total of LCP and ECP types) were inspected electromagnetically S 169 pipes had measurable broken wire wrap distress, consisting of: • 55 pipes with 65-100 broken wire wraps (Category 1 pipes) • 31 pipes with 30-64 broken wire wraps (Category 2 pipes) • 83 pipes with 5-30 broken wire wraps (Category 3 pipes) Continued on page 16

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


Continued from page 15 S 161 (out of the 169 segments) of the distressed pipe segments were 48-in. ECP manufactured by Interpace and installed under Contract 2 S Only eight of the 169 pipes were LCP type (Contract 1 pipe manufactured by Price Brothers) with only five or fewer broken wire wraps per segment S Approximately 75 percent of the distressed ECP pipe segments were found in the first 50 percent of the 48-in. ECP (Contract 2) length S Category 1 distressed pipe segments were calculated to have reached or exceeded the yield limit of the pipe design and were recommended by Pure to be rehabilitated in the near future S Category 2 pipe segments were calculated to have reached approximately one-half the yield limit and were recommended to be re-inspected or rehabilitated within two years S Category 3 pipes were recommended to be re-inspected in two years to determine if the physical condition and category determination have changed Engineering Evaluation of Rehabilitation Alternatives With the publication of the condition assessment report and its conclusion that a significant level of distress had already occurred in the ECP portion of the force main, the city concluded that a rapid and comprehensive rehabilitation approach would be required. A series of strategy sessions between the city and Jacobs were held to quickly determine the city’s best option for addressing the distressed condition of the force main. The outcome of these sessions was a decision to employ a trenchless technology, namely installation of a CIPP lining system for the entire length of the ECP pipeline installed under Contract 2. By rehabili-

tating the ECP force main, the city addressed all Category 1, 2, and 3 pipe segments at once, while eliminating the need for future periodic inspections and condition assessments of the pipe. Design of Cured-in-Place Pipe Lining Solution Preparation of the design documents for installing a CIPP lining system for 12,000 ft of 48in. ECP type force main began within a few weeks after final release of the condition assessment report. To expedite the rehabilitation work and address the most critical portions of the force main first, the construction was divided into two separate construction contracts, referred to as Phases 1 and 2. The Phase 1 bid package was released first to rehabilitate the portion of the force main with the greatest number of distressed pipe segments. A schematic map of the force main route and rehabilitation contracts is shown in Figure 2. The CIPP lining system specifications for both phases of construction included the following requirements: S Liner tube: Glass fiber reinforced felt S Resin: Vinyl ester S Test pressure: 55 psi S Liner thickness: To be determined by CIPP lining system manufacturer S Depth of soil cover: 8-18 ft (maximum groundwater level at ground surface) S Design service life: 50 years S Design standard: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F1216 The bid documents allowed the bidders to propose the most cost-effective installation methodology to complete the force main lining within the specified parameters. The goal of this approach to formulating the bid documents was to establish the requirements of the completed work, but to also take advantage of the specialty

Figure 2. Force main route and contract limits.


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

contractors’ expertise to find a timely and costeffective method to meet those requirements. Options available to the bidders included selection of the number and placement of liner insertion pits (and correspondingly the length of each insertion “shot”), as well as the liner preparation method, choosing between the following: S Truck shot method, in which the liner tube for a specific insertion procedure is prewetted with resin at a remote facility, transported to the project site in a refrigerated truck, and then immediately inserted into the force main. The length of a single-liner insertion shot can be limited by the allowable weight of the wetted liner tube that can be carried on the highway. S Over the hole method, in which the dry liner tube is brought to the project site, wetted with resin at the insertion pit location, and then inserted into the force main. The weight restriction for transporting the dry liner without resin is eliminated, potentially allowing longer shots; however, more space at the worksite is required for the additional wetting facilities. Phase 1 Lining Construction Phase 1 Contract Overview Approximately 5,700 ft of 48-in. pipe were lined under the Phase 1 contract, beginning at the eastern end of the Contract 2 ECP pipeline and extending westward to the edge of the right of way of a heavily traveled state road, called Military Trail. The work began in the parking lot of a residential condominium development, passed through the country club and golf course, and paralleled a canal managed by a local improvement district. Flow Bypassing Flow bypassing was accomplished using the upstream driving pressure contributed by the multiple lift stations that discharge into the 48-in. force main (rather than using temporary bypass pumps). Specifications for the no-pumping flow bypass sysContinued on page 18

Extensive coordination with the Bear Lakes Country Club minimized disruptions to the golf course during lining operations.

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


Continued from page 16 tem included requirements to deliver a peak flow of up to 30 mgd at a maximum allowable pressure drop of 12 psi, with a redundant bypass pipe installed to provide the specified hydraulic capacity and with one bypass pipe out of service. The contractor elected to use multiple 24in. high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes for the bypass system. To meet the hydraulic requirements, a total of four bypass pipes were installed (three service, one standby). The redundant line was used occasionally when flow in one of the three in-service lines needed to be transferred due to maintenance issues. The city’s directive to require firm capacity for the bypass system proved to be a wise choice. Because the bypass lines needed to be parallel to the force main alignment across from the golf course, the contractor created an access “road” by placing a series of high-strength plastic mats on the grass on which the bypass pipes were placed

and construction vehicles drove. Although the turf grass of the golf course was damaged due to the extended period of work, the underlying soil was undisturbed. At the completion of the work, the mats were removed and the golf course used an allowance in the contract to replace the damaged grass within the limited area of the placed mats. Lining Installation Although the engineer’s concept for the Phase 1 work was based on the use of the over the hole method, due to the relatively open terrain available to set up equipment, the contractor elected to use the truck shot method. This required one additional insertion pit to be constructed due to the shorter allowable length per shot that could be achieved, but the benefits of this method for the Phase 1 contractor outweighed the cost of the additional excavation and insertion procedure. Shot lengths were approximately 900 to 1,000 ft in length.

Figure 3. Typical lining insertion pit detail.

Bypass piping and liner insertion pits were located to limit impacts on the property.


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Regardless of the lining installation method selected, insertion of 48-in. linestops at each end of the project was required to divert flow into the bypass system, while the force main was emptied, cleaned, and lined. The city elected to take advantage of this project to install permanent isolation valves at each linestop to provide a way to stop flow in the event of a future leak in the force main. A typical lining insertion/termination pit detail with a linestop is shown in Figure 3. Contingency planning and rapid response to unexpected events is required in any project, and the Phase 1 work was no exception. As the first liner tube, wetted with resin at the factory in Alabama, was en route to the town in a refrigerated truck, the resin began to activate unexpectedly before reaching the project site. Once the resin activated, there was no way to reverse the process and prevent the resin from hardening before insertion into the pipe. The truck returned to the factory, the liner tube was discarded, and a fresh tube was loaded with resin and transported successfully to the project for insertion. No further instances of premature resin setting occurred during the project. Project Cost and Schedule The total construction cost for the Phase 1 work was approximately $7.1 million for the CIPP lining, flow bypassing, air release valve (ARV) replacement, feeder main reconnections, and 48-in. gate valves. The original Phase 1 construction contract period was approximately six and a half months, from May through November 2016, but the final completion date was extended two months by a change order. Substantial liquidated damages were established for failure to meet the milestones for completing the work within the golf course, reflecting the potential economic impact on the golf course that would result if construction work hampered play as the busy winter golf season got underway. The first three months of the contract pe-

The wetted liner tube was positioned vertically over the insertion pit (left) and inverted into the open end of the force main (right).

riod were dedicated to site mobilization and installation of the flow bypass system. Lining activities required another two and a half months from initiation of flow bypassing to return of flow to the force main, and the remainder of the contract period was used for site restoration and cleanup. The critical requirement for completing all work and removal of construction equipment from the golf course prior to the busy winter season was achieved, and no liquidated damages were assessed. Phase 2 Lining Construction Phase 2 Contract Overview Scheduled for completion by fall 2017, approximately 6,500 ft of pipe will be lined, from Military Trail to the entrance to the facility. Nearly the entire length of this portion of the force main to be lined in Phase 2 is directly under the paved roadway of a heavily traveled Palm Beach County road, called Roebuck Road. A significant portion of Roebuck Road is scheduled to be improved, widened, and repaved by Palm Beach County beginning in early 2018. The city needed to complete the Phase 2 CIPP lining work prior to the beginning of the county’s roadway improvement construction to avoid conflicting work activities between the two contracts and to allow final paving of the roadway to be completed after the lining insertion pits were backfilled. The city and county, and their consultants, collaborated extensively during the parallel design efforts to share utility location information, geotechnical data, and traffic planning. Flow Bypassing Flow bypassing during bypass operations was specified to be accomplished for the full length of the Phase 2 lining contract limits, requiring linestops only at each end that could be placed in pits outside the paved roadway and active traffic area. The flow bypassing system for Phase 2 required in-line pumping to overcome the pressure drop in the bypass pipes running the 6,500-ft distance between linestops at a peak flow of 30 mgd. Because bypass pumping was specified for Phase 2, the hydraulic constraints to limit pressure drop in the bypass piping required for Phase 1 were not applicable. The contractor was allowed to select and size the pumps and piping to satisfy the flow requirement of 30 mgd with one redundant bypass pipe. The contractor’s engineered bypass system consisted of three 10,500-gal-per minute (gpm) diesel engine pumps, with sound-attenuating enclosures (two service, one standby) and three 24-in. HDPE pipes (two service, one standby). The bypass lines were placed on public road rights of way or on private property, with permission granted by a homeowner’s association.

Bypass pumping through three 24-in. HDPE pipes was required to deliver 30 mgd to the treatment plant during lining operations.

Bypassed flows were discharged directly into the headworks structure.

The bypass pipes were routed to discharge directly into the headworks structure at the facility. A critical work element for completing the bypass system involved road undercrossings for the 24-in. HDPE pipes. The bid documents gave the bidders the option of open-cut or horizontally drilled crossings. The Phase 2 contractor elected to use a relatively new technology referred to as “close tolerance horizontal directional drilling” (CTHDD) to install the bypass piping under two roads where open-cut crossings would be difficult. The CTHDD approach allows a shallower placement of the lines than traditional horizontal directional drilling.

Lessons Learned

Lining Installation The lining sequence plan and proposed access excavation pit locations presented in the bid documents were based on using a combination of over the hole lining insertions and truck shot insertions within the paved roadway to limit lane closures and maintain two-way traffic at all times. As with Phase 1, bidding contractors were given the flexibility to select their most cost-effective lining approach, within the constraints of traffic maintenance and overall specification requirements. The winning contractor based the bid on using the over the hole method for the entire project. The work area layout at each insertion pit and the associated maintenance of traffic (MOT) plan are based on the extended length of facilities and equipment required for this method. The equipment set-up area for each insertion pit is approximately 200 ft long by 24 ft wide, extending along the length of the force main. Project Cost and Schedule The Phase 2 contract amount was approximately $7.1 million, with a total contract period of seven and a half months. Due to challenges in obtaining permits, the contract period was extended by five and a half months for final completion in December 2017 in advance of the beginning of the county’s roadway project.

The design, permitting, and construction of this project highlighted several key lessons: S The use of so-called “trenchless” technologies for pipeline installation or repair does not mean “impactless.” Through the course of design and construction, extensive efforts were made by the city, the engineer, and the contractors to be proactive and open about the work. During construction, one-on-one attention to residents, school officials, and business owners was key to resolving issues as they arose, resulting in a positive and lasting impression on the public. S Once all systems and preparations were in place, the actual force main lining process was relatively straight-forward. The major project challenges were associated with permitting and installation of the bypass system, as well as developing and implementing the MOT plan. S Precautions against movement of HDPE pipes should be taken. Extended storage periods of stacked HDPE pipes resulted in shifting of the pipes, causing some pipe segments to fall (with no damage or injury, in this case). Even when fused and placed in service on the ground, thermal expansion caused one of the pipes to flex sufficiently that it slipped down the bank of a canal. S The CTHDD is a developing technology for trenchless pipe installation that merits consideration when compared with traditional horizontal directional drilling.

References • “Condition Assessment of PCCP: 42- and 48inch-Diameter PCCP Force Main, Lift Station 22 to the East Central Water Reclamation Facility.” Prepared for the City of West Palm Beach by Pure Technologies U.S. Inc., Sept. 21, 2015. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details to Lindsay Marten at

FWEA Unveils New South Florida Chapter

Abnery Picón and Juan Oquendo

New Chapter to Serve Two Counties

The South Florida Chapter’s inaugural luncheon meeting at the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Dept.

We are happy to announce that the FWEA South Florida Chapter has officially been created. The chapter will serve the local community in the counties of Miami-Dade and Monroe. The FWEA board of directors realized the need for a local chapter a couple of years ago and approved the formation of the group at the 2017 Florida Water Resources Conference. For our first year, we have made it our goal to form an active steering committee to get a variety of points of view. On May 18, 2017, the members elected the 2017-18 steering committee, consisting of 15 members. During this fiscal year, we plan to host four quarterly lunches, with topics of interest to our local members. We already have seven sponsoring companies for our activities this year. There is plenty of work ahead for us and we will need support to get there. The chapter steering committee meets on a quarterly basis. Please contact for more information about meetings, chapter activities, and how you can help the organization.

Chapter Inaugural Luncheon Meeting The fiscal year started with a successful luncheon meeting, with over 100 attendees. Jim Ferguson and Virginia Walsh, from the Miami Dade Water and Sewer Dept., were our guest speakers. They gave us an update on the Miami Dade Water and Sewer ocean outfall legislation program. Our fall luncheon meeting will be held between October and November 2017. Check the FWEA calendar of events for more details and location updates.

The South Florida Chapter’s first steering committee meeting was held in May 2017 in the Gresham, Smith and Partners office in Coral Gables.


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Juan Oquendo and Abnery Picón are chair and social media/webmaster, respectively, of the FWEA South Florida Chapter. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017



Boca Raton’s Proactive Pressure Pipe Renewal Program Talia Garcia, Lauren M. Burack, James Carolan, and Jonathan Z. Goldman Overview: Developing the Risk-Ranking Analysis Approach The City of Boca Raton Utility Services Department (city) recently developed an advanced desktop pipeline asset-ranking approach for its water distribution mains and wastewater force main pipeline assets citywide. The city is fortunate to currently experience below-average rates of infrastructure failure when compared with utilities across the United States. The city determined that investing in a detailed analysis of its existing infrastructure would help maintain that below-average rate and methodically project and plan for future capital improvement program (CIP) projects. The city engaged CDM Smith to assist in performing a risk-ranking evaluation and provided existing geographic information system (GIS) data to assist with the analysis. The firm processed and analyzed the available information using desktop computer software to identify the most appropriate pipeline assets for the city to focus its renewal efforts using two types of methodologies: 1. Long-range planning of capital renewal needs by analyzing service life estimates for specific pipe materials based on estimated asset age to project renewal rates for the system over the next 100 years. 2. Risk-based water pipeline asset ranking using Esri GIS software that leverages the city’s previous GIS investment.

A step-by-step decision framework was developed to supplement these two methodologies to screen and prioritize the results of the analyses mentioned and sort the studied pipeline segments into action groups for rehabilitation and/or replacement (renewal). This information will assist the city with incorporating proactive renewal efforts into its multiyear CIP. Overall, this project provided the city with a holistic, systemwide evaluation of its pressurized water and sewer pipeline infrastructure and an action plan to minimize the risk of future infrastructure failure. The city will also have a new framework to use in the CIP decision-making process that is based on specific system information and recommended engineering approaches.

Forecasting Methodology: LongTerm Renewal Needs by Material The results of this part of the project’s analysis provided the city with a customized renewal-needs curve for its pipeline assets over the next 100 years showing graphically, by type, how much rehabilitation and/or replacement is recommended annually to maintain the system’s integrity. The renewal-needs analysis is driven by the specific pipe materials installed over time and the estimated service life curves for those pipe

Table 1. City-Owned Pipeline Materials and Lengths

Talia Garcia, P.E., LEED AP, is utilities engineering manager and Lauren M. Burack, P.E., CIP, is manager with the City of Boca Raton Utility Services Department. James Carolan is vice president with CDM Smith in Boston and Jonathan Z. Goldman, P.E., BCEE, is an associate with CDM Smith in Boca Raton.

materials. To begin the evaluation, the primary pipe attributes needed are pipe material types and dates of installation. Installed Pipeline Inventory Table 1 lists the city’s large-diameter water and sewer pipe asset groupings used in the analysis and the total miles of pipe installed as extracted from the city’s GIS. It is important to note that the cast iron material makes up the majority of the water and force main systems (68 and 46 percent, respectively), with ductile iron mains representing the majority of the remaining material for each system. Within the city’s water distribution GIS layer, there are 7,821 segments, with a total pipeline length of 650.2 mi. Approximately 5 percent of the city’s service area includes private water distribution systems. Only city-owned pipeline segments were included in the analysis, for a total pipeline length of 618.1 mi. Within the city’s force main GIS layer, there are 1,315 segments, with a total pipeline length of 126.1 mi. Approximately 10 percent of the city’s service area includes private and/or inactive force mains. Only city-owned pipeline segments were included in the analysis, for a total pipeline length of 112.5 mi. Service Life Curve Development The long-term renewal model calculates the estimated pipe service life values to develop service life curves, indicating how the pipe assets will “survive” over time using a three-point method: S The first point on the curve indicates the date at which the majority (i.e., 90 percent) of the pipes within that group are expected to be in service (before they have the potential to “fail”).


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S The second point on the curve is the point at which 50 percent of the pipes in that category are expected to be in service (assuming half also fail). S The final point on the curve is the date at which only 10 percent of the pipes remain in service (on average).

Table 2. City-Owned Pipe Service Life Values Used

This can similarly be related to human life expectancy curves, with the majority of people statistically surviving to middle age, some infant mortality, and some people living to a very old age. The software utilizes a Herz distribution function to randomly select pipeline segments of each material type based on these curve values. The software then models the potential failure of each pipeline type over time based on its installation year. By doing this, the software model generates a random distribution of potential pipeline failures to mimic real-world asset degradation. The pipe service life values shown in Table 2 were used in the city’s long-term renewal needs analysis. These service life values are based on guidance from the American Water Works Association (AWWA), as well as other industry standards, that pipe materials, such as ductile iron and polyvinyl chloride, have an approximate service life of 100 years. Results Summary: Long-Term Renewal Needs by Material Using the pipe groupings and service life values in Table 2, the renewal-needs model provided a year-by-year pipeline quantity (by material type) that should be targeted for replacement between 2016 and 2116 (100-year study period). The model output is a list of pipeline quantities by material (in miles) that reach their end of service life in future years. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the renewal needs for the city’s water main and force main pipeline networks for the next 100 years. The horizontal axis is the projected years 2016 through 2116; the vertical axis is miles of pipe renewal needed by material per year. The total renewal need is shown in the “top” portion of the stacked bands, with 2016 showing approximately 0.4 mi, or 0.06 percent of the total 618 mi analyzed. The width of each colored band indicates the estimated amount (in miles) of each material type that needs to be considered for the future year. The general industry guidance is to reach a “sustainable” renewal level per year, i.e., if 1 percent of the system was renewed each year, the entire system would be completed over 100 years and remain consistent with the average material service life. Continued on page 28

Figure 1. Projected Water Main Pipeline Renewal Needs Through 2116 (in miles)

Figure 2. Projected Force Main Pipeline Renewal Needs Through 2116 (in miles) Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


Continued from page 27 In Figures 1 and 2, the dashed line represents the 1 percent renewal rate for the system, with the solid line depicting the level of work needed for the city to increase the 1 percent renewal rate. Since the city’s break/failure rates are below industry averages, it can gradually increase the renewal rates, while also monitoring break rates in future years to confirm that the renewal efforts are effective. Table 3 lists the projected pipeline renewal needs between 2016 and 2116 for each material type. The total renewal needs for the water distribution system is 573 mi, or approximately 93 percent of the total 618 mi of pipe analyzed. The total renewal needs for the force main system is 112 mi, or approximately 99 percent of the total 112 mi of pipe analyzed.

These results indicate that not all of the studied pipelines will require renewal over the next 100 years, and that the majority of the existing pipelines, with remaining useful life in 2116, are the newest cast iron pipelines in the water system. Cast iron pipelines are identified in the pipeline ranking process as the lowest risk. While there is still a need to address these assets, city staff can monitor the cast iron infrastructure to verify that it is not deteriorating at a faster rate than estimated. As expected, due to their harsh operating conditions, nearly all of the force main pipeline assets will need to be renewed or replaced over the next 100 years, with over 50 percent of the pipelines reaching their useful lives by 2070. Based on these results, the city can attempt to increase the renewal rates within the water

Table 3. City-Owned System Renewal Needs by Pipeline Group

Table 4. Probability of Failure Factors


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

distribution and force main pipe networks to meet the anticipated 1 percent system renewal rate. This level of renewal should result in keeping up with the predicted pipeline degradation within the system when coupled with the riskbased pipeline selection process (discussed in the next section). By addressing the highest-ranked pipelines by risk and by pipeline material, as well as increasing the renewal rate gradually, the city can address its long-term renewal needs and maintain the current low pipeline failure rate.

Forecasting Methodology: Risk-Based Pipeline Asset Ranking The results of this part of the project’s analysis provided the city with a customized CIP for inspection and replacement of pipelines ranked by highest risk, showing graphically by location which pipeline assets require rehabilitation and/or replacement to maintain the system’s integrity, and an accounting of the drivers supporting each of the rankings. Failure Risk Factor Data, Weights, and Analysis There are multiple factors that can result in a pipeline failure. This project considered 20 common probable and consequent factors that locally affect water and wastewater pipeline repairs. The development and use of 20 total risk factors provides a clear differentiation among the 8,400 or more individual pipe segments within the city’s GIS databases for the two pipe networks. This is key when ranking the pipeline assets for renewal. Generally, it is relatively straightforward for system operators to identify the small percentage of pipelines that are in the worst condition, and those that have higher consequences of failure within a system; however, once those assets are addressed, it is often difficult for utility system managers to accurately determine the next set of critical pipelines for renewal to mitigate future pipeline degradation and failure. Table 4 provides brief descriptions of the failure probability factors used in this analysis. Each factor was given a unique identifier number (P1 through P9) for easy reference and use in the final ranking database table, as well as in all other documentation developed for this project. Each probability factor utilized a scoring range for various internal factors, as well as an overall weight. For example, the probability based on the previous failures (factor P3), requires a range of internal scores based on the total amount of pipeline breaks the system has experienced. The individual pipelines were then scored Continued on page 30


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Continued from page 28 based on the number of breaks each has experienced. The scores were multiplied by the factor weight (highest = 5; lowest = 1) to arrive at a final score for the failure probability factor of each pipe. These weighted values provide city staff with the ability to assign importance and/or to rank to each of the factors against one another. Table 5 provides a brief description of each of the failure consequence of factors used in this analysis. The same process, as with the probability of failure factors, was used to calculate the

scoring for each of the factors for all pipelines within the system. Classification: Risk-Based Pipeline Asset Ranking The Jenks natural breaks classification method was used to classify the results for the total consequence, probability, and normalized total risk into manageable results. These results can be used to drive renewal activities within the system. This method identifies ideal break points within a range of values by utilizing data clustering techniques to sort values into differ-

ent classes, which attempts to minimize each class’s average deviation from the class mean while maximizing each class’s deviation from the means of the other groups. This then reduces the variance within each class and maximizes the variance among classes. The total risk-ranking values were separated into five classifications and utilized values normalized to 1,000, with the maximum score set to 1,000 and all others divided by this value to create a consistent, comparable range of values. Figures 3 and 4 provide graphs of the normalized systemwide risk-ranking results in total miles of water distribution and wastewater force main pipeline systems.

Table 5. Consequence of Failure Factors

Results Summary: Risk-Based Pipeline Asset Ranking As seen in Figure 3, the quantity of water distribution pipeline in the high- and extremerisk categories is relatively small when compared to the medium-risk group. The extreme- and high-risk pipeline groups comprise only 10 and 12 percent, respectively, of the overall system, for a total of 138 mi. If the city increases pipeline renewal rates following the levels shown on the solid line on Figure 1, it will represent approximately 95 mi of pipeline renewal over the next 20 years. It will also allow the city to address all extreme-risk pipelines and over 50 percent of the high-risk pipelines. The amount of high- and extreme-risk force main pipelines shown in Figure 4 represent larger overall percentages of the total force main system risk, at 22 and 13 percent, respectively. If the city increases pipeline renewal rates following the levels shown on the solid line on Figure 2, this will represent approximately 19 mi of pipeline renewal over the next 20 years. While this amount is less than the 25 mi of extremerisk pipeline in the force main system, it is an-

Figure 3. Normalized Total Risk-Ranking Groups for Water Distribution Pipe (in miles)


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 4. Normalized Total Risk-Ranking Groups for Force Main Pipes (in miles)

ticipated that current and future advanced pipeline inspection technologies can be used to determine the actual condition of the force main assets. This can reduce the total risk for some of the high- and extreme-risk assets if they are found to be in acceptable condition and can be operated with longer service lives with continued monitoring.

Capital Improvement Program Integration The long-term renewal needs and riskbased ranking analysis developed in this project have provided city staff with detailed information regarding the amounts, locations, and drivers for future pipeline renewal projects. Moving forward, projects will need to balance available funding and group assets with mixed-risk cohesive projects. In addition, specific extreme-risk pipelines with high-risk pipeline assets have also been identified to allow the city to develop a cohesive, efficient long-term program, while providing the flexibility to address individual extreme high-risk assets where needed at the same time. The city plans to integrate this information into its existing CIP and work toward the goal of meeting the needs identified by the long-term analysis. This will be accomplished by replacing, rehabilitating, or inspecting pipeline assets (as appropriate) and utilizing the digital results for total risk, total consequence, and total probability. The digital results are linked to the city’s GIS pipeline asset layers and can be displayed and queried with ease. Since the results are digital, the city can narrow in on specific project locations and boundaries to facilitate the planning of future CIP projects. Clusters of high-risk or linear runs of high consequences are being analyzed based on the rankings to determine appropriate projects and actions to take for each project. Figures 5 and 6 show the water distribution and wastewater force main system pipelines mapped by total risk ranking.

Figure 5. Water Distribution System Mapped by Total Risk Value

Conclusion The City of Boca Raton capital planning staff members have always been proactive regarding the management of their critical water and wastewater assets. The results of the long-term renewal needs and risk-based ranking analysis developed in this project have provided them with additional tools to more accurately pinpoint the pipeline assets that require action or monitoring today, while also allowing them to look into the future to best identify future funding needs. S

Figure 6. Force Main System Mapped by Total Risk Value

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


Test Yourself Questions About Disinfection for Water and Wastewater Operators Donna Kaluzniak

1. Disinfection is defined as a. the process designed to kill or inactivate most microorganisms, including essentially all pathogenic (diseaseproducing) bacteria. b. the removal or destruction of all microorganisms, including pathogens and other bacteria, vegetative forms, and spores. c. the removal and destruction of only pathogenic bacteria. d. the total destruction of parasitic organisms, especially Thiothrix and Actinomycetes.

2. The use of chlorine is one of the most common methods for disinfecting water and wastewater. The difference between the amount of chlorine added to the water or wastewater and the amount of residual chlorine is the a. b. c. d.

chlorine demand. free chlorine. oxidizing level. chlorine contact level.

3. The difference between chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite when used for disinfection is in the side reactions formed. How do chlorine gas and sodium hypochlorite affect pH of the water or wastewater? a. Chlorine gas and hypochlorite both decrease pH. b. Chlorine gas decreases the pH and hypochlorite increases pH. c. Chlorine gas increases the pH and hypochlorite decreases pH. d. The addition of chlorine gas or hypochlorite have no effect on pH.


4. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-600.440 Domestic Wastewater Facilities–Disinfection, where chlorine is used, basic disinfection for wastewater facilities requires a minimum total chlorine residual of a. 0.1 mg/L after 15 minutes of contact time at the peak hourly flow. b. 0.5 mg/L after 15 minutes of contact time at the average annual flow. c. 0.5 mg/L after 15 minutes of contact time at the peak hourly flow. d. 1 mg/L after 15 minutes of contact time at the average annual flow.

5. Per FAC 62-555.320 Design and Construction of Public Water Systems, water suppliers shall maintain a minimum free chlorine residual throughout their drinking water distribution systems at all times. What is the minimum free chlorine residual that must be maintained? a. b. c. d.

0.1 mg/L 0.2 mg/L 0.5 mg/L 1.0 mg/L

6. Per FAC 62-600.440 Domestic Wastewater Facilities–Disinfection, for reclaimed water facilities that must provide high-level disinfection, what percent of the fecal coliform values over a 30-day period shall be below detection limits? a. b. c. d.

25 percent 50 percent 75 percent 100 percent

7. With ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems, the UV dose calculation is based upon the a. contact time and intensity of the UV radiation. b. flow rate and UV channel volume. c. head loss and velocity calculation. d. maximum flow and channel hydraulics.

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

8. Filtration prior to UV disinfection is recommended because a. reclaimed water plants are the most frequent users of UV disinfection, and filtration is required for reclaimed water systems. b. most UV systems come with filtration systems attached. c. filtration is needed to reduce total suspended solids (TSS) because particles can shield bacteria and reduce the effectiveness of UV disinfection, d. UV systems are only used for drinking water where filtration is part of the treatment process. 9. Ozone is a strong oxidant, and virucide, which kills viruses, is used as a disinfectant. It is used less often than UV and chlorine because a. it is more costly than other methods and has more complicated technology. b. it is not available from most chemical suppliers. c. it is too difficult to measure the ozone residual. d. it requires an extremely long contact time to work. 10. The key process control guidelines for disinfection with ozone are a. b. c. d.

dose and contact time. dose, mixing, and contact time. flow rate and ozone channel volume. ozone intensity and flow velocity.

References used for this quiz: • Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, 7th Edition, Kenneth D. Kerri, California State University; Sacramento, Calif. • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-600.440 Domestic Wastewater Facilities–Disinfection • FAC 62-555.320 Design and Construction of Public Water Systems Answers on page 54

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to

What You Should Know About Arc Flash Keff Kurella

These factors lead to possessing the proper tools and personal protective equipment (PPE) to perform the work safely.

Most water and wastewater utilities today have a mixture of low-voltage (below 600V) and medium-voltage (600V to 69 kilovolts [kV]) equipment operating in their systems. Throughout the useful life of a treatment plant, there may come a time to replace, repair, or maintain some or all of this equipment. This includes, but is not limited to, the following: S Switchgear (medium and low voltage) S Motor control centers S Panelboards S Variable frequency drives (VFDs) S Transformers S Automatic transfer switches (ATS) S Generators S Motors

To provide adequate safety for electrical equipment, an arc flash hazard study must be performed. This study provides an analysis of the power distribution system, as well as special safety labeling for the electrical gear. While many have heard of this study, they may not have a deep enough understanding as to the following questions: S Who regulates the study? S What is involved in a study? S What are some of the challenges for the engineer and the owner?

While most people understand there is an inherent risk in working with live electrical equipment, electrical safety has become paramount in the water industry. We need to quantify the risk so we fully understand what we are dealing with. We need to develop and utilize safe work practices so that all who are involved in maintaining the equipment operate in a safe manner. Being code compliant will ensure that regulatory entities find no infractions within the plant or with the way that the staff operates.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states the following: “Arc flash, simply put, is a phenomenon where a flashover of electric current leaves its intended path and travels through the air from one conductor to another, or to the ground. The results are often violent and when a human is near the arc flash, serious injury and even death can occur.” Over the last few years, OSHA regulations have moved from recommending arc flash studies to requiring them. There a few standards that

Arc Flash Study

are relevant to arc flash hazards, including OSHA 1910.132, which deals with requirements for PPE for eyes, face, head, and extremities; protective clothing; respiratory devices; and protective shields. It also speaks to the owner’s responsibility for assessing the hazards and risks at the workplace. The1910.332 regulation pertains to training requirements for employees who face a risk of electric shock. The OSHA1910.333 regulation provides for safetyrelated work practices to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect contact with equipment or circuits, which are or may be energized. Another standard referenced throughout the OSHA regulations is National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 70E. This standard is produced by the same organization that publishes the National Electrical Code and various fire safety codes. The focus is electrical safety in the workplace and the standard is broken up into three chapters: S Definitions and safety-related work practices. S Maintenance requirements to keep electrical equipment operating properly. S Safety requirements for special equipment, such as batteries, lasers, and electronic power equipment. Specifically related to arc flash, NFPA 70E states the requirements for calculation of arc flash hazard levels, whether by table method or detailed calculation. It also lists the specific information required on an arc flash hazard label. This regulation provides a framework for both owners and engineers to organize and execute an arc flash study, train their employees, define approach boundaries, and provide the proper protection. When performing an arc flash study, there are five key elements: S Initial data gathering S Field data collection S Model development S Analysis S Arc flash label production and possible mitigation efforts Initial data gathering is the first opportunity for the owner and engineer to look at the plant and discuss the various facets of the study. The owner presents all the relevant record drawings for review, including single-line diagrams, site plans, and plan views. These documents give the engineer a sense of the scope of the study and the layout of the electrical equipment.


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

This is also a good time to discuss the operating modes of the plant. Some plants may have a double-ended configuration, where there are two utility feeds and two busses at each major distribution point, while some plants may operate their generators to shed load from the utility. The engineer needs to understand these modes and which ones are important to analyze in the study. One operating mode may introduce more fault current into the system than another and the arc flash labeling needs to reflect the worst-case condition. Field data collection is often overlooked in terms of how much work is involved and the effort required to compile all of the necessary data to input into the software model. This is especially true of older plants that have had multiple additions, changes to equipment, and renovations to their systems over the years. To get accurate results, the analysis software requires specific information on rotating equipment (pumps, fans, motors, generators), distribution equipment (switchgear, panelboards, transformers) and overcurrent protection (circuit breakers, fuses, relays). In most cases the information is on the nameplate; however, there are some cases where the nameplate is worn or not in clear view. The engineer may need to expend a lot of time researching model numbers to ensure that the correct information will be input into the model. A parallel process to field data collection is development of the software model. This is a computer simulation of the power distribution system and all of its components, like a hydraulic model for water/wastewater distribution. The companies that make this software keep an in-depth database of equipment information from all manufacturers. The engineer combines the information from the record documents and the data collected in the field to produce the model and use it for calculations, such as short circuit, protective device coordinate, and arc flash hazard levels. There is a great deal of quality control and assurance on the part of the engineer to confirm that the model is accurate. Once the model is complete, the engineer can perform the various analyses for the study. The short circuit analysis will ensure that none of the distribution equipment busses are undersized with respect to fault current. After this, the next step is overcurrent protective device coordination. This is a review of the upstream and downstream protective devices (circuit breakers, relays, fuses, etc.) at various locations within the distribution system. The purpose is to ensure that, should a fault occur, the protective devices trip in the proper sequence. Devices tripping out of sequence can cause nuisance tripping and an increase in the time required to clear a fault.

The last part of the analysis is calculation of the incident energy levels that correspond to the arcing current and the time required for a protective device to clear the current at a bus in the distribution system. The NFPA 70E includes tables for determining the arc flash hazard category and the PPE required for specific incident energy levels. The final step in the study is to produce the arc flash hazard labels. These can be produced from the analysis software or custom-designed by the owner. The NFPA 70E provides requirements for the minimum information to be included on each label. As part of this step, the engineer can look at various mitigation efforts to reduce the incident energy. This may mean capital expenditures are needed to replace equipment, in conjunction with the recommendations from the engineer. With an arc flash study comes several challenges for the engineer, including proper record keeping, issues with field data collection, and mitigation efforts. If the owner doesn’t have accurate as-built drawings, the engineer must start from nothing and spend more time working out the distribution system configuration. During data collection, there are cases where the nameplate for a protective device is hidden by an access panel in the switchgear. This means removing the cover while energized, but it may present a problem as the PPE level has not yet been determined. The NFPA 70E has conservative tables for performing this task; however, it may mean that a higher level of PPE is required. With respect to mitigation, many owners

would prefer that their employees only wear PPE corresponding to Category 2 or lower. In some cases, the constraints of the existing distribution system design do not allow for a solution. In the end, the only option may be to never work on the bus while energized. The age of the equipment and incapacity for trip curve adjustability can contribute to this issue.

Conclusion The owner can take several steps to help make arc flash studies a streamlined process. The first step is proper record keeping. The owner should endeavor to keep up-to-date information on all electrical gear and rotating equipment. Shop drawings, single-line diagrams, maintenance records, and record drawings are all important inputs into the study. Having these documents organized will help the engineer work quickly and efficiently. The next step is training. Giving employees instruction on arc flash and what the arc flash labels represent will provide another level of awareness to their daily operation. This training will also carry over into the development of updated procedures. The owners should review how they want to operate, what level of minimal PPE they want their employees to wear, and the methods used to mitigate arc flash so that all current and future equipment allows for a safe working environment. Keff Kurella, P.E., CDT, is principal electrical engineer with Arcadis in Tampa. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


– In Memoriam –

Sean O. Gucken 1962 - 2017 Sean O. Gucken was born on May 30, 1962, and passed away on Sept. 3, 2017, of a heart attack. He was a sales engineer with Revere Control Systems and loved his work colleagues and customers. Sean served his community in many ways. Fishing was a passion and he promoted the Coastal Conservation Association and its good work. He loved the Pediatric Cancer Foundation’s Annual Fishing tournament for kids, always making sure there was a fishing pole for every child. His most recent passion was the Tampa Bay Frogman Swim and its support of the Navy Seal Foundation. In 1999 Sean was part of the Local Arrangements Committee when the Florida Water Resources Conference was held in Tampa. “I just handled registration at that

time,” says Holly Hanson, executive director of the conference. “Sean showed me how to order audio/visual and food for the conference, and many other facets specific to it, and actually mentored me for several years after that. I will always be indebted to him.” Sean is survived by his beloved wife, Michelle Belline, of St. Petersburg, Fla.; parents Lawrence and Sylvia Gucken of Northville, Mich.; brother Kevin O. Gucken of Flat Rock, Mich.; sister Erin (Paul) Black of Cincinnati; and dear friend Scott (Judy) Brown of Odessa, Fla. He is also survived by many nieces and nephews, who he spoiled and allowed to do things their parents would not have approved of. He will be missed by many, including his uncle, Roger (Mary) Oesterling, and many other uncles, aunts, cousins, and friends. S

Proposals Sought for Research on Water Reuse in Agriculture The Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF) is seeking proposals for two water reuse research projects on understanding and expanding the use of recycled water for agricultural applications. These projects, which are funded by Foundation subscriber and global water company Pentair, were developed under WE&RF’s water reuse issue area and will be used to further its efforts to advance nonpotable reuse for agricultural uses. Evaluating Economic and Environmental Benefits of Water Reuse for Agriculture (Reuse-16-06) builds on an ongoing WE&RF research project that identified the need for an evaluation of economics of


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

water reuse for the agricultural community. The objective of this research is to document and characterize the economic and environmental benefits and potential challenges to utilizing nontraditional water sources for agricultural irrigation. The findings will help water utilities, the agricultural community, and other stakeholders by providing an economic analysis to support decisions to use recycled water for agricultural irrigation. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule: Opportunities and Impacts on Potential Water Reuse for Agricultural Irrigation (Reuse-16-07) will investigate the effects of this FDA rule on utilizing water for agricultural irrigation. The objective of the white paper is to describe the rule, explain how the it will relate to water reuse in terms of testing and water quality requirements, and present potential water reuse opportunities for states to consider. The results will help the water sector and the agricultural community to identify potential opportunities to utilize recycled water for agricultural irrigation under the rule and learn from the experiences of states currently practicing agricultural reuse. The request for proposals are available for download from the WE&RF website. Proposals for Reuse-16-06 are due no later than October 18 by 8:00 p.m., ET, and proposals for Reuse-16-07 are due no later than October 11 by 8:00 p.m., ET. For more information, contact Kristan VandenHeuvel, WE&RF project manager at S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

What You Should Know About Arc Flash

Truck Shots and Over the Hole: Rehabbing a Force Main in West Palm Beach

Keff Kurella

Ray Thomson, Poonam Kalkat, and Rudy Fernandez

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW/WW)

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), arc flash occurs when current leaves its intended path and travels through b. water. a. its original conductor. d. the air. c. a human.

1. Diversity of _____________ is not cited as a primary reason for the relative small pipeline pressure surges. a. connection points b. pump types c. operating sequences d. lift station capacities

2. Which of the following OSHA standards deals with requirements for protective clothing? b. 1910.332 a. 1910.132 d. 1910.334 c. 1910.333

2. Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP) installed under Contract 2 was originally installed a. without straps. b. with Class IV prestressing wire. c. with the bell end in the direction of flow. d. without proper pressure testing.

3. For the purposes discussed in this article, “medium voltage” is defined as b. 600v – 69 kilovolts. a. below 600 volts. d. None of the above. c. 69kv – 100 kilovolts. 4. The first step an owner can take to streamline and arc flash study is a. proper record keeping. b. estimate personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements and affix labels accordingly. c. to have the current draw tested by an electrician. d. operate motor starters and visually inspect them. 5. The _______________ ensures that none of the distribution busses are undersized with respect to fault current. a. incident energy fault clearance calculation b. overcurrent protective device coordination c. trip sequence evaluation d. short circuit analysis

3. A challenge that is specific to the “truck shot” method is that a. the line tubes must be pretreated offsite and refrigerated. b. the liner tube material is more difficult to procure. c. it requires additional excavation. d. bypass pumping is more expensive and complex. 4. The 2015 field assessment revealed that a. the pipeline was leaking in several locations. b. there were no distressed lined cylinder pipe segments. c. the majority of distressed pipe segments were identified as Category 2. d. the majority of distressed pipe segments were embedded cylinder pipe. 5. The “close tolerance horizontal directional drilling” method provides which of the following advantages over traditional horizontal directional drilling? a. Less horizontal separation between multiple drilled lines b. Use of a broader range of pipe materials c. Shallower line placement d. Shorter completion time

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


Utilities Acting on Climate Change Declining Water Resources Due to Drought

Beth Conway and Amy Kathman arth’s lands, oceans, and troposphere have been warming for many years now. Projections for the United States from the 2014 National Climate Assessment include not only an increase in temperatures, but also other climate changes, such as an increased intensity of droughts in the Southwest and heat waves and precipitation events throughout the country. Precipitation events are also projected to become more frequent. Climate change risks are not limited to the U.S. Among the many risks projected globally in “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report” by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are “drought, water scarcity, rising sea levels, and storm surges” for urban communities and “water availability and supply” for rural communities. The full report can be obtained at Water is likely to be further affected by climate change with precipitation pattern changes and water quality degradation. In the U.S., drinking water and wastewater infrastructure already requires significant investment to maintain current levels of service over the coming decades. The effects of climate change may significantly stress critical infrastructure further; however, adaptation strategies can help mitigate climate change effects. Many municipalities are already assessing and implementing measures to build resilience to climate change. Their work provides examples of what adaptation measures can achieve.



In the Southwestern U.S., Albuquerque, N.M.; Bernalillo County, N.M.; and the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Authority (authority) have demonstrated that relatively low-cost measures can be effective in adapting to drought conditions. Albuquerque and Bernalillo County began a conservation program in 1995 to deal with drought issues, and in 1997, developed a water resources management strategy that they update every 10 years. The programs and ordinances undertaken by the authority focus on both residential areas and public buildings. They encouraged water-conserving landscaping and water-efficient appliances in new developments. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, “Smart Growth Fixes for Climate Adaptation and Resilience: Changing Land Use and Building Codes and Policies to Prepare for Climate Change” (EPA 231-R-17-001), the authority gives rebates on the purchase of high-efficiency toilets, encourages xeriscaping (a type of landscape design for areas susceptible to drought), and touts compact development as examples of the measures instituted. As a result, residential customers achieved great reductions in water usage. In 2014, the authority’s programs shifted more of its focus to nonresidential customers. The water authority adopted four programs, according to its document, “2024 Water Conservation Plan: Goal and Program Update.” The authority updated building codes, modified the xeriscape program in several ways to include a larger rebate to some nonresidential customers, created a cooling tower rebate program, and offered assistance to new low-income customers with water auditing and water-conserving fixture installation.

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Minimizing Potential Flood Effects Parts of Kansas City, Mo., are at risk of flooding from rivers and streams. As of early 2017, more than two thousand structures sit in the city’s 100-year floodplain. The city’s wet weather solutions program provides for street and sewer infrastructure upgrades, as well as an increase in green infrastructure use. Two of the program’s goals are to reduce flooding and increase water quality. The shorter-term projects of the program’s overflow control plan will have been completed between 2010 and 2020. For example, the Middle Blue River Basin pilot project, which improved streetscapes through the inclusion of green infrastructure solutions, was completed in 2012. All major changes will be finished by 2035. By its end, the overflow control program will reduce the estimated sewer overflow by approximately 4 bil gal per year, thereby reducing cleanup, damage, and grey infrastructure costs, according to Kansas City Water Services. Looking internationally, in Tokyo, heavy rains often lead to flooding, and increased urbanization has decreased the amount of permeable ground. In 2015, the city completed an upgrade to the Tokyo Amesh, its rainfall information system. As described in the article, “Reconstructed Tokyo Amesh System Crucial to Flood Prevention,” published in the spring 2017 issue of WorldWater: Stormwater Management, rainfall radars were improved by upgrading to X-band multiparameter radars. These systems offer improved collection of rainfall data due to wave polarization. Information gathered from both radar and rain gauges is used by centrally located operators in determining pumping requirements for individual pumping stations. The Tokyo Bureau of Sewerage plans to continue improving radar capabilities and increase the capacity of sewer facilities to handle up to 60 millimeters of rain per hour.

Sea Level Rise A report by the Union of Concerned Scientists, “When Rising Seas Hit Home: Hard Choices Ahead for Hundreds of U.S. Coastal Communities,” estimates that approximately 85 coastal communities in the U.S. are at risk from chronic inundation, and the number of at-risk communities is expected to roughly double by 2035. Miami, New Orleans, and San Francisco are among municipalities implementing adaptation plans for sea level rise (SLR). For years, the City of Miami has monitored the risks of flood and saltwater intrusion from SLR. Among many projects underway to aid in adapting to climate change is the construction of a chlorine facility at the city’s central district wastewater treatment plant. This facility will be elevated 16 ft above ground level to accommodate SLR and storm surges, according to the April 2017 BBC article, “Miami’s Fight Against Rising Seas.” The city is installing pumps, improving drainage systems, and raising roads as part of its approach to address SLR. San Francisco, under immediate and longterm threat from SLR, has developed an action plan for implementation by 2018 that addresses combined sewer discharge (CSD) outfall structures with low-elevation weirs, which present immediate threats from SLR to the wastewater treatment process. In 2014, a device to prevent the inflow of seawater into the sewer system was installed in a CSD outfall structure. Data gathered from this installation will provide information useful for the installation of future devices. New Orleans faces risks from SLR from loss of coastal land. As noted in the report, “Resilient New Orleans: Strategic Actions to Shape Our Future City,” the city has invested $14.5 billion in such infrastructure as pump stations, levees, and floodwalls. The city will also leverage financial resources available through several sources to support the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority. Adaptation approaches may, in many cases, require additional resources.

Resources Available to Utilities Localities can access many resources to help develop their own climate change adaptation strategies. The Water Environment Federation (WEF) offers the book, Emergency Planning, Response, and Recovery, as well as the upcoming manual, Sustainability and Energy Management for Water Resource Recovery Facilities. The EPA initiative, Creating Resilient Water Utilities (CRWU), can also be a resource, where utilities can access tools, training, and assistance. The initiative’s Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT) provides climate

Threats Listed by the Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool

change threat identification, consequence assessment, and adaptation evaluation options for water and wastewater utilities. The table shows threats listed in CREAT for use in preparing assessments with the tool. These resources can be found at The CRWU also offers a basic guide to the effect of climate change on water and wastewater utilities entitled, “Adaptation Strategies Guide for Water Utilities.” For European cities, the European Union’s Climate-Adapt program can be found at It provides information in several areas, including projected climate change, adaptation case studies, options, and planning tools. It also enables users to share data. For both U.S. and international interests, resources from the group 100 Resilient Cities can be found at Formed and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the group provides “resources necessary to develop a roadmap to resilience.”

Action Today Pays Off in the Long Run The work needed to adapt to climate change and handle extreme weather events can be expensive; however, the do-nothing option can be even costlier. For example, New York City has an estimated $1.1 billion of vital infrastructure at risk. To mitigate the risk, New York is investing in protective measures for facilities and structures and is developing the city’s green infrastructure. Construction investments between $315 million and $426 million in the city can save potentially more than $2 billion in cumulative emergency response costs by 2065 according to the report, “Workshop W13: Vulnerability and Risk Response to Climate Change,” which was presented at WEFTEC in 2015.

Two principal goals for water and wastewater utilities regarding climate change effects are: S Assess risk and uncertainty due to climate change S Develop and take actions to improve resilience and sustainability in utility facilities and overall utility management Federal, state, and local funding is needed to adapt infrastructure and water supplies to climate change. As part of an ongoing effort to encourage funding for critical water infrastructure, WEF’s government affairs team has developed talking points on climate change-related infrastructure investment, which can be accessed at The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Beth Conway is an engineer in the Water Science & Engineering Center and Amy Kathman is a government affairs specialist at the Water Environment Federation in Alexandria, Va. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


FWRJ READER PROFILE and Lateral Assessment Certification Program (PACP/MACP/LACP). What do you like best about your job? I like that I get to see a project that is an idea on paper come to life; it brings you great satisfaction as an engineer. I also enjoy getting to know the clients and identify how we can help them improve their existing water and wastewater infrastructure.

Joan I. Fernandez Arcadis, Plantation Work title and years of service. I’m a senior project manager working in the industry for almost 13 years. What does your job entail? As a consulting engineer, my job entails helping cities and communities improve their water sustainability. Whether it’s designing a wastewater treatment plant to accommodate peak flows, or installing green infrastructure to reduce the impacts of stormwater flooding in neighborhoods, working with clients to envision, create, and deliver projects that improve quality of life is my passion. As a project manager, my time is spent leading multiple project teams in the design and delivery of water and wastewater projects—from scope development to construction services and everything in between; cultivating relationships with clients and partners; connecting with the market to discover new opportunities; and contributing to the industry through involvement in professional associations, such as the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA). What education and training have you had? I have a B.S. in environmental engineering sciences from the University of Florida (Go Gators!) and a M.S. in environmental engineering from Florida International University (Go Panthers!). I’m a registered professional engineer in the states of Florida and Maryland. I’m also a certified project manager and a certified inspector for the NASSCO Pipeline Assessment Certification Program, Manhole Assessment Certification Program,


What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m a member of both FWEA and the Chesapeake WEA. Currently, I hold two leadership positions in FWEA: chair of the Collection Systems Committee and vicechair of the Southeast Chapter. How have the organizations helped your career? Both organizations, FWEA and CWEA, have helped me tremendously! When I relocated to the Chesapeake area in 2008, I didn’t know any professionals in the water industry except for a few of my coworkers. I started volunteering in various leadership capacities, which gave me the opportunity to expand my network and build relationships with colleagues and clients who I now call friends. I moved back to south Florida in 2014 and immediately started volunteering in FWEA’s Collection System Committee and the Southeast Chapter. This helped me to again reconnect with colleagues and clients. What do you like best about the industry? The work that we do as water professionals is essential. Safe and reliable access to drinking water and sanitation improves the social, environmental, and economic landscapes of societies here in south Florida, North America, and around the world. While pursuing my undergraduate degree, I came upon a shirt from the Society of Environmental Engineers that stated, “Your No. 2 is our No. 1.” This still rings true. What do you do when you’re not working? For the most part, when I’m not working I’m either at the beach or at Pump Fit Club doing high-intensity interval training. I used to train in Capoeira, an Afro-Brazilian martial arts, for five years, but I’m taking a little break from it—I’m not as young as I S used to be!

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

New Products The high-resolution, digital CCTV, sidescanning Digital Universal Camera (DUC) from CUES is designed for rapid and detailed condition assessment. It can inspect and assess 5,000 ft or more per day, producing a high-resolution digital video scan of internal pipe conditions in a 6to 60-in. pipe, and a flat unfolded view of the pipe to facilitate rapid assignment of observations and for measurement. The low-maintenance camera has no moving parts and is driven through the pipe without the need to stop, pan, or tilt. The unit can be driven on cruise control to a remote manhole or through multiple manholes for maximum efficiency. (


The Husky 1050HP from Graco is the first pump on the market that allows users to choose between low- and high-pressure operating modes with a low-high pressure mode valve. High-pressure operation isn’t always required, so the pump can be switched to the low-pressure mode to reduce air consumption up to 50 percent. These features, combined with the standard Husky diaphragm pump design, make this one of the most unique high-pressure diaphragm pumps on the market. Other features of the pump include increased fluid pressure without sacrificing flow; low-high pressure mode valve to operate the pump as a standard air-operated double diaphragm (AODD) or a high-pressure AODD; same repair parts as the Husky 1050 AODD pump, which reduces inventory levels; and filter press, ceramic, high-head pressure or long-distance application areas. (


The Style W257 dynamic movement joint from Victaulic is preassembled and reduces installation complexity to threaded rod installations of the AWWA M11 harness and C219 bolted sleeve-type joints. It can accommodate differential settlement and seismic movement in large-diameter piping systems and is comprised of Victaulic’s AGS Flexible Coupling Style W77. The couplings are self-aligning and provide a visual confirmation of proper assembly from the metal-to-metal bold pad contact. The joint is available in 14- to 78-in. DN350 to DN1950 sizes and is designed to be directburied, utilizing epoxy coating compliant with NSF61 and AWWA C210, as well as stainless steel hardware. (


The Bionomic Industries Series 6500 Jet Ejector Venturi Scrubber offers a multispray zone staging configuration that gives a 50 percent boost in collection efficiency performance. Continued on page 42

New Products Continued from page 40 It features a simple, rugged design that utilizes a high-velocity spray and scrubbing liquid flow to achieve simultaneous removal of gaseous contaminants and particulate down to .75 micron size. The high-scrubbing liquid-to-gas ratio design rapidly reduces the temperature of high exothermic reactive gases. In most cases, it creates its own draft to eliminate the need for a fan, and its gas capacity sizes from 5 through 60,000 acfm are standard. (


The Aqua Rhino® Escalating Screen from Parkson consists of rows of self-cleaning screening bars in a staircase configuration. Every other bar in this configuration is fixed, while alternate bars are part of a moveable fixture. This fixture of lift blades rotates upwards, so as screenings are retained on the steps and form a mat, they are lifted step by step for eventual discharge at the top. This screen offers low headloss, has no carryover or brush to maintain, and produces dry and uniform screenings. To address the issue of blades bending and side frames distorting, the screen has the thickest lifting blade and side frame combination available on the market, with both components up to 50 percent thicker. To better manage grit buildup at the bottom of the screen, UHMW polyethelene spacers are used, as well as an optional grit washout system to minimize grit buildup in critical areas. The typical chain and sprocket drive system was eliminated in favor of a highly efficient and much more robust direct drive linkage system. This is an ideal screen for a wide range of municipal and industrial fine screening applications. It has proven extremely adept at handling flows containing high fibrous-like content. Screen openings range from 1/8 to 1/4 in. for clean water flows ranging from 0 to 75 mgd. (


The Vaughan Submersible Chopper Pump from Vaughan Co. is mounted on a portable stand and fitted with a high-velocity mixing nozzle. It recirculates the contents of the wet well, chopping and mixing it to produce a homogeneous mixture that is more easily pumped out. Floating mats are removed and solids accumulated on the floor are resuspended. The pump is mounted on a portable stand and can easily be used in multiple applications at a single job site, facility, or municipality. (


AP/M Permaform offers several products for cost-effective repair and trenchless replacement of badly deteriorated manholes, pipes, and


similar underground structures. The Permaform system enables complete replacement of old manholes and wet wells without digging or disrupting flows. For rehabilitation of existing manholes, Permacast—an engineered cementitious liner—is centrifugally cast from a patented robotic applicator. A dense and uniform liner is applied at the best thickness (1/2 in. to 2 in.) for the condition, depth, traffic loading, and groundwater pressure of the existing structure. CentriPipe is an engineered solution for underground infrastructure rehabilitation using a patented bidirectional spin caster to centrifugally compact a precision liner at the best design thickness for the size, shape, and condition of deteriorated pipe. It inhibits rust, waterproofs and seals, is highly resistant to abrasion, and structurally reinforces and protects round, arched, and elliptical pipe. The formulations are highstrength, quick-setting, and corrosion-resistant. For chemical corrosion, Cor+Gard 100 percent solids epoxy is applied as a protective top coat. In all cases, the materials are applied safely through a patented bidirectional spin caster from on top, without entry. For addressing microbial-induced corrosion in sanitary systems, the company’s ConShield liquid additive is added to concrete mix, preventing the growth of acid-producing bacteria and preserving the life of the concrete. (


The nonclogging DOSA from Red Valve Co. automatically removes chlorine residuals during discharges from water tanks. It also increases tank security and prevents intrusion of birds, rodents, insects, and cold-air drafts. It’s constructed of dual Tideflex nozzles and an internal adjustable dechlorination tube, completely encased in an epoxy-coated steel or stainless steel body. During an overflow event, the upper nozzle discharges an elliptically shaped jet down into a dechlorination tube. A calculated portion of water passes through the tube and the rest of the water deflects around it. The water is then completely blended to ensure that it is thoroughly mixed and dechlorinated before being discharged out of the DOSA through the lower nozzle. (


The biottta® biological filtration system from AdEdge Water Technologies leverages nature to offer a sustainable solution for wellhead treatment of inorganic and organic contaminants. Its fixedbed, dual-stage biotreatment cultivates an environment for microbiological organisms to destroy contaminants or reduce elements to simple unharmful forms. The fixed-bed treatment process

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

consistently addresses contaminants at low levels, with intermittent or fixed operation, and the dual bed assimilates a complete packaged biotreatment plant. It has regulatory approval for the reduction of nitrate and perchlorate, and demonstrates hexavalent chromium, volatile organic contaminants, iron, manganese, and sulfide elimination in a single process. The low-volume discharge is easily managed as a nonhazardous waste stream. (


The WrapidSeal Manhole Encapsulation System from CCI Pipeline Systems is a wraparound, heat-shrinkable sheet that has been specifically designed for protection of buried and exposed manhole structures. It consists of an engineered primer and a wrap-around, heatshrinkable sleeve designed specifically to seal joints and prevent groundwater from entering a collections system. It is supplied in bulk rolls of varying widths and consists of a cross-linked polyolefin backing, coated with an aggressive heat-activated adhesive. A separate closure is used to create a complete sleeve with the adhesive effectively bonding to the substrate, providing corrosion protection and adhesion for the impermeable backing. (


The 6500 Series from Gorman-Rupp is a horizontal end suction centrifugal pump line consisting of solids and clean liquid-handling pumps. Sizes are available from 3 to 16 in., with flows to 15,000 gpm, total dynamic head to 530 ft, and solids-handling capabilities up to 4 in. They provide high levels of performance and efficiency for applications in wastewater treatment plants and industrial facilities. They come standard with oversized bearings, an atmospheric vent, side-access inspection port (on solids-handling models), and indexable Smart Scroll discharge locator. (


The Nozzle Mix System from JDV Equipment Corp. is a dual-zone mixing system that provides uniform mixing patterns, producing even distribution and a stable environment. The system is designed with pumps installed outside the tanks to facilitate maintenance. The pumps are typically chopper pumps or pumps incorporating inline grinders that prevent fibrous materials from accumulating and causing plugging problems. The application dictates which type of the many varied pump options can be used. High-velocity nozzles are mounted inside the tank and oriented to discharge in a flow pattern that completely mixes the tank contents. ( S

Targeted Call for Innovative Water Reuse and Desalination Technologies The Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF) is seeking cutting-edge water reuse and desalination technologies to improve treatment and operations at municipal and industrial facilities. Proposers with innovative technologies and processes that can provide improvements in performance, cost, and operations (e.g., maintenance, compliance, sustainability, etc.) over conventional approaches are encouraged to apply to Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT), a joint Water Environment Federation and WE&RF initiative. Proposers must highlight key aspects of their technology or process for review by a panel of experts through LIFT.

All accepted proposers will be given an opportunity to present their technology to utilities, consultants, and other WE&RF subscribers. These technologies may also be included in the LIFT Link online technology innovation and collaboration platform. Subsequent opportunities may develop around research, piloting, validation, and early adoption of the technology. Selected proposers may also be invited to join LIFT representatives at upcoming industry events and workshops on this topic. See application instructions for a complete list of benefits. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:


Advanced Oxidation Processes Biologically Active Filtration Brine Concentrate Management and Treatment Control Systems Direct Potable Reuse Disinfection Fit-for-Purpose Reuse Granular Activated Carbon Forward Osmosis Indirect Potable Reuse Low Pressure Membranes Membrane Bioreactors Membrane Distillation Membrane Fouling Control Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies Nitrate Control Nonmembrane Processes for Water Reuse Ozone Treatment Pretreatment Technologies Removal of Contaminants of Emerging Concern Reverse Osmosis Sensors Thermal and Hybrid Technologies Zero Liquid Discharge Technologies Other Innovative Technologies

Submissions are due no later than 5:00 p.m., ET, on Nov. 15, 2017. To apply (there is no cost) go to www/, click on “LIFT Link," and then click the “Apply” button. Technologies in other areas will be accepted, and are encouraged. For more information, contact Aaron Fisher, WE&RF technology and innovation manager, at S


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! October 2-6 ....Water Distribution Level 3..............Osteen ............$225/255 2-6 ....Reclaimed Water Distribution C ....Osteen ............$225/255 5 ....Backflow Tester recert ....................Pensacola........$85/115 16-20 ....Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ............$350/380 16-20 ....Wastewater Collection C, B ............Orlando ..........$225/255 27 ....Backflow Tester recert***................Osteen ............$85/115

November 6-9 ....Backflow Tester ................................Osteen ............$375/405 13-16 ....Backflow Tester* ..............................St. Petersburg ..$375/405 24 ....Backflow Tester recert***................Osteen ............$85/115

December 4-8 ....Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ............$350/380 11-13 ....Backflow Repair ..............................Osteen ............$275/305 Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


News Beat McKim & Creed Inc. has won two awards for its outstanding performance on public works projects in the state of Florida. In addition, one of the firm’s Tampa-based engineers has received accolades for an award-winning presentation at an international conference. The Florida Chapter of the American Public Works Association (APWA) announced that the firm has won the 2017 Environmental Project of the Year Award, in the $25 million to $75 million category, for its work on the Dale Mabry Diversion Project in Tampa. This is the largest pipeline project ever undertaken by Hillsborough County, and replaces the 40-year-old Dale Mabry Wastewater Treatment Plant that has reached the end of its useful life. The project is one component of the overall Northwest Hillsborough County wastewater consolidation program, which is expected to save Hillsborough County $86 million in operation and maintenance activities over the next 20 years. Florida APWA also named the company its 2017 Consultant of the Year in the wastewater/water category. It was selected for this honor based on its documented project successes, community and professional involvement, and endorsements from clients. McKim & Creed also won this award in 2014. Mike Stoup, P.E., instrumentation and controls group manager in the Tampa office, won first prize for best paper at the 2016 International Society of Automation’s (ISA) Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium. The award for Stoup’s paper, “Systemwide SCADA Documentation to Prepare for Disaster Recovery,” was presented at the 2017 ISA Symposium, held August 8-10 in Orlando.


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rescinded the 2015 Waters of the U.S. (WOTUS) Rule. The current rule protects waterways and wetlands, while providing clarification to the Clean Water Act. This decision to repeal the WOTUS Rule will threaten Florida’s progress to preserve diminishing wetlands, wildlife, and water quality and supply. Nearly a million acres of wetlands were destroyed in the United States between 1996 and 2010, despite federal and state mandates for “no net loss of wetlands.” “We all live downstream, and every stream starts somewhere,” said Eric Draper, executive director of Audubon Florida. “It’s


important that we protect the sources of our water as well as our waterways. The WOTUS Rule is an essential tool to protect America’s water resources.” Scientists at Audubon’s Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary have shown that current protections are not sufficient, and Florida continues to experience significant loss of wetland habitats. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, wetland losses accelerated in the mid-2000s in coastal watersheds of the contiguous United States after two U.S. Supreme Court cases created confusion about what wetlands were actually protected under the Clean Water Act. The 2015 WOTUS Rule that was repealed was developed in response to the confusion caused by the courts. “Wetlands are ecological treasures that provide critical environmental values,” said Dr. Shawn Clem, director of the Audubon Florida’s Western Everglades Research Center. “Wetlands clean and recharge drinking water supplies, provide flood protection, offer habitat to rare wildlife, create ecotourism, keep estuaries healthy, and give us great places to fish and play. Once wetlands are destroyed, many of them are lost forever.”


The City of Eustis Public Works Department broke ground on the $6.85 million upgrade and expansion project at its Eastern Wastewater Treatment Plant (EWWTP). The plant, located in Sorrento, which is outside the current corporate city limits, serves the region at SR44 and SR46A. The project is funded in part by a $2.475 million cost-share funding grant from the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). “This project will allow Eustis to provide wastewater services in the new growth areas,” said Ron Neibert, city manager. “We would not have been able to complete this project without the support of the St. Johns River Water Management District and we are so thankful for its project grant and for partnering with us to provide quality utility services to Eastern Lake County.” The project, which was ranked fourth out of the 78 total project applications received by the SJRWMD for fiscal year 201617 funding, will expand the capacity of the EWWTP in the Sorrento area. The city currently serves this area, including the Sorrento Springs and Red Tail subdivisions, with water utility services, including potable water, public access reuse water for irrigation, and wastewater treatment. The project will also

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

eliminate the need for the installation of many septic tanks in near-future development in this area, which is located in the Wekiva River Basin. Dr. Ann Shortelle, SJRWMD executive director, said that “through partnerships, we can help local governments and water suppliers stretch their dollars for great projects they otherwise may not be able to achieve.” Upon completion of the EWWTP expansion project, the plant will increase capacity from 0.3 mil gal per day (mgd) to 1.3 mgd. The earthwork, which began at the end of December 2016, and the associated piping for the infiltration basins, will be constructed utilizing Eustis personnel.


Bay County Water has been awarded the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Plant Operations Excellence Award for the sixth year in a row—the most ever for a community in Florida The FDEP presented the 2016 Plant Operations Excellence Awards to several Northwest Florida water facilities this year, including Naval Air Station Whiting Field, Destin Water Users, and Bay County Water. The wastewater facility award recipient was North Bay Wastewater Treatment Facility. Whiting Field and Bay County are repeat winners, for five and six consecutive years, respectively. “Bay County has made numerous improvements in recent years,” County Commissioner Guy Tunnell said. “And one of the most important projects was the recently completed alternate raw water pump station at the upper end of Deer Point Lake reservoir. The new pump station is providing a better quality of water to the treatment plant, with lower total organic carbon.”


A program to improve Everglades water quality by ensuring that water flowing from farmlands in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) meets phosphorus reductions required by law, has performed far better than state-mandated goals. The use of best management practices (BMPs) produced a 70 percent phosphorus reduction in the 470,000-acre EAA farming region south of Lake Okeechobee for the 2017 monitoring period (May 1, 2016 to April 30, 2017). Florida's Everglades Forever Act requires that the amount of phosphorus leaving the EAA must be 25 percent less than before reduction efforts began. "These tremendous results year after year

are proof of the hard work from our farming community, which is doing its part to improve Everglades water quality," said Jim Moran, vice chair of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) governing board. "This program, coupled with the state's investment in stormwater treatment areas and other measures, have restored Everglades water quality and continue to make it better every year." South Florida's water, especially water moved into Everglades National Park by SFWMD, is cleaner than it has been in generations and meets stringent water quality requirements. The SFWMD compared the current water year for which BMPs are in place to a baseline period before the BMP program began, to determine whether the EAA has met the requirement of the law. A scientific model is used to compute the reductions and make adjustments to account for the influences of rainfall. Examples of BMPs include refined stormwater management practices, onsite farm erosion controls, and more precise fertilizer application methods. These and other management practices by agricultural growers reduce the amount of phosphorus transported in stormwater runoff that reaches the Everglades and its connected water bodies. When measured in actual mass, 152 metric tons of phosphorus were prevented from leaving the EAA and entering the regional canal system, which sends water into the Everglades, during the 2017 monitoring period. Since 1996, the BMP program has prevented 3,208 metric tons of phosphorus from leaving the EAA. The average long-term reduction in total phosphorus since 1996 has been 55 percent. Just west of the EAA, in the 170,000-acre C-139 Basin, a BMP program has been in place since 2002. In November 2010, the program requirements were enhanced to better control the nutrient runoff. For the 2016 monitoring period, data show the actual mass of phosphorus discharged from the basin during that time was 26 metric tons, which surpasses the state requirements. Ongoing work continues to focus on improving phosphorus reductions in this basin, which historically reports elevated nutrient levels in its runoff. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017



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City of Groveland Class C Wastewater Operator The City of Groveland is hiring a Class "C" Wastewater Operator. Salary Range $30,400-$46,717 DOQ. Please visit for application and job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP

Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

Polk County Government BOCC Capital Projects Manager (Utilities CIP) Polk County BoCC is now hiring for a Capital Projects Manager at their Utilities Division. If you are a Civil or Environmental Engineer and are looking for a career change, please apply by clicking the link below: Job Link: Location: Winter Haven, FL 33880 Work Schedule: Monday - Friday 8am - 5pm Compensation:$66,830.40 $100,328.54 (Exempt) Commensurate with Experience Please feel free to also forward your resume to or apply direct out on the website @

Utilities Storm Water Foreman $46,515 - $65,451/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $38,267 - 53,847/yr.; $40,182 - $56,539/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

City of Margate The City of Margate is currently accepting applications for the following positions: • Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator • Senior Engineer Please visit our website at – Job Opportunities - for complete job descriptions. Applications may be downloaded from the website. Completed, original applications must be submitted to City of Margate, Human Resources Department, 5790 Margate Blvd., Margate, FL 33063.

City of Groveland Chief Plant Operator The City of Groveland is hiring a Chief Plant Operator. Salary Range $ 42,764-65,643 DOQ. Please visit for application and job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP. Apply online at Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.

Manager, Water Quality & Treatment City of Boynton Beach Seeking Water Quality & Treatment Manager with a minimum of five (5) years of experience that includes water treatment plant operations, utility engineering, construction/design, plan review, and administration operations; Bachelor's degree and Professional Engineering (PE) License required; may require a valid Florida Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator certification. To review the job posting and to apply for the position, please visit our website at:

CORAL SPRINGS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT JOB OPENING Field Technician The Coral Springs Improvement District is accepting applications for the position of Field Technician. Individuals assigned to this classification are expected to have the mechanical skills and abilities necessary to perform the general manual labor required. Generally work with more experienced employees, but expected to work independently to perform relatively routine well-known tasks or more work following specific directions in all aspects of wastewater collection. The qualified applicant should have the ability to do the following: • Knowledge of various equipment including driving a truck, jet truck, back hoe/loader, fire hydrant seating equipment, shoring materials, trash pumps and hand tools. • Inspect water distribution mains and lines for needed maintenance and repair; participate in the repair of water mains and lines; install clamps, pipe or fittings, make proper tie-ins. • Trouble shoot to locate the causes of wastewater odor complaints. • Respond to public inquiries in a courteous manner; provide information within the area of assignment. • Receives, reviews, prepares and/or summit’s a variety of documents such as maps, daily schedules, weekly activity reports. • Remain on-call to respond to emergency situations for repair of distribution system. • Ability to deal with people beyond receiving instructions. • Must be adaptable to performing under stress when confronted with emergency situations. • Have a valid Florida Driver’s License • Have a High School Diploma or GED equivalent • Must obtain Class C FDEP Water Distribution License within 15 months of employment. Please see our website at to obtain and submit a completed application to 954-753-6328 attention: Jan Zilmer Coral Springs Improvement District 10300 N.W. 11th Manor Coral Springs, Fl. 33071

Field Service Technician

Reiss Engineering, Inc. Looking for an opportunity to make a difference? Looking for a dynamic team environment where you can manage and lead projects to success? Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to contribute and make a difference for our people, our clients, and our community! Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. To see open positions and submit a resume to join our team, visit


October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Hydra-Service (S) Inc. is a leader in the Water and Wastewater Industry and is looking to add a field service technician to our team. The ideal candidate will have a minimum of 3 years’ experience in trouble shooting controls, hydraulics and mechanical issues at lift stations or water/waste water treatment facilities. The candidate must also live in or be willing to re-locate to the greater Tampa Bay area. A clean driving record is required. We offer an excellent compensation and benefits package. Compensation will vary based on experience. Hydra Service (S) Inc. is a drug-free work place and an equal opportunity employer. If you are interested please send a Resume to

P o s itio ns Wante d KENNETH MARTIN – Holds a Florida Class B Wastewater license with 15 years experience. Has applied for a Class B Water license. Prefers the mid-west coast area but is willing to relocate. Contact at 519 S. Crest Ave., Clearwater, Fl. 33756. 727-337-823

Florida Water Resources Journal • October 2017


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Editorial Calendar January ..........Wastewater Treatment February..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ................Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ............Disinfection; Water Quality September ......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ..........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November........Water Treatment December........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Aqua Aerobics....................................................17 Automeg ..............................................................4 Blue Planet ........................................................55 CEU Challenge....................................................37 Crom ..................................................................47 DataFlow ............................................................29 FSAWWA Conference 2017 Students/YP events ..................................20 Calendar of Events ............................................21 Conference Registration ....................................22 Conference Overview ........................................23 FWPCOA Training ..............................................45 FWRC ....................................................................9 Hudson Pump ....................................................25 Hydro International..............................................5 Lakeside ............................................................43 Professional Piping............................................33 Stacon ..................................................................2 Treeo ..................................................................41 Xylem ................................................................56

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 32 1. A) the process designed to kill or inactivate most microorganisms, including essentially all pathogenic (disease-producing) bacteria. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, Chapter 10 Disinfection Processes - Words: “Disinfection: The process designed to kill or inactivate most microorganisms in water or wastewater, including essentially all pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria. There are several ways to disinfect, with chlorination being the most frequently used in water and wastewater treatment plants.”

2. A) chlorine demand. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, Chapter 10 Disinfection Processes - Words: “Chlorine demand is the difference between the amount of chlorine added to water or wastewater and the amount of residual chlorine remaining after a given contact time. Chlorine demand may change with dosage, time, temperature, pH, and nature and amount of the impurities in the water.”

3. B) Chlorine gas decreases the pH and hypochlorite increases pH Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, Chapter 10 Disinfection Processes – Section 10.101 Hypochlorite: “The difference between chlorine gas and hypochlorite compounds is in the side reactions formed. The reaction of chlorine gas tends to decrease the pH, which favors the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) formation, while the hypochlorite increases the pH with the formation of hydroxyl ions (OH-) by the formation of sodium hydroxide.”

4. C) 0.5 mg/L after 15 minutes of contact time at the peak hourly flow. Per FAC 62-600.440 Domestic Wastewater FacilitiesDisinfection: “Where chlorine is used for disinfection, a total chlorine


residual of at least 0.5 mg/L shall be maintained after at least 15 minutes contact time at the peak hourly flow.”

Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, Chapter 10 Disinfection Processes, Section 10.1052 Particles Shielding Bacteria: “Particles can shield bacteria and reduce the effectiveness of the UV disinfection process. These particles should be removed by upstream treatment processes, such as improved clarifier performance or some type of filtration.”

5. B) 0.2 mg/L Per FAC 62-555.320 Design and Construction of Public Water Systems: “(d) All suppliers of water shall maintain a minimum free chlorine residual of 0.2 mg/L, or a minimum combined chlorine residual of 0.6 mg/L, or an equivalent chlorine dioxide residual, throughout their drinking water distribution system at all times.”

9. A) it is more costly than other methods and has more complicated technology. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, Chapter 10 Disinfection Processes, Section 10.11 Disinfection Using Ozone Systems: “The disadvantages of ozone include: . . .Ozonation is a more complex technology than is chlorination or UV disinfection, requiring complicated equipment and efficient contacting systems. . . The cost of treatment can be relatively high in capital and power costs . . . In summary, ozone can be an effective disinfectant; however, the capital costs and the operation and maintenance costs of ozone are not competitive with available disinfection alternatives.”

6. C) 75 percent Per 62-600.440 Domestic Wastewater FacilitiesDisinfection: “(6) High-level disinfection. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs 62-600.440(6)(e) and (f), F.A.C., facilities required to provide high-level disinfection shall meet the following criteria (using membrane filter [MF] or equivalent most probable number [MPN] methods): 1. Over a 30-day period (monthly), 75 percent of the fecal coliform values shall be below the detection limits; 2. Any one sample shall not exceed 25 fecal coliform values per 100 mL of sample; and, 3. Any one sample shall not exceed 5.0 mg/L of TSS at a point before application of the disinfectant.”

10. B) dose, mixing, and contact time. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, Chapter 10 Disinfection Processes, Section 10.11 Disinfection Using Ozone Systems: “The key process control guidelines are dose, mixing, and contact time. An ozone disinfection system strives for the maximum solubility of ozone in the wastewater because disinfection depends on the transfer of ozone into the wastewater.”

7. A) contact time and intensity of UV radiation. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, Chapter 10 Disinfection Processes, Section 10.1022 Minimum UV Dose Management: “The intensity of the UV radiation and the contact time determine the UV dose received by the bacteria and, hence, the effectiveness of the process.”

8. C) Filtration is needed to reduce TSS because particles can shield bacteria and reduce the effectiveness of UV disinfection.

October 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal









Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Volume 1, 7th Edition, FAC 62-600.440, Domestic Wastewater Facilities-Disinfection, and FAC 62-555.320 Design and Construction of Public Water Systems.

October 2017  
October 2017  

New Facilities, Expansions and Upgrades