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WEF HQ Newsletter Florida Public Works Director Selected as APWA Top Ten Leader Water Utilities Recognized for Future-Focused Initiatives Growing Awareness of Water Treatment Methods, says National Public Opinion Study 38 Cybersecurity: Going Beyond Protection to Boost Resiliency—Don Dickinson
President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando
Technical Articles 4 The Cybersecurity Framework and its Use by Water and Wastewater Utilities— Robert L. George
22 Climate Adaption and Resilience for Miami-Dade County Wastewater Treatment Plants—Sussette Irizarry
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Columns 10 Let’s Talk Safety 12 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 18 Process Page: Town of Davie is Earl B. Phelps Award Winner for Advanced Secondary Treatment—John McGeary, Renuka Bajnath, and Timothy Ware
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Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
F W R J
The Cybersecurity Framework and its Use by Water and Wastewater Utilities Robert L. George his article describes the relationship between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework (CSF) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) “Cybersecurity Guidance and Tool” and other guidance information relevant to the water/wastewater sectors. Both sets of guidance share a common origin and are complementary in many aspects. The ways in which the CSF can be used independently or in conjunction with other relevant industry guidance is also explored.
Background General Accounting Office Report: 2011, GAO-12-92 In response to increasing pressure to address vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure, the General Accounting Office (GAO) was tasked in 2011 with identifying the state of cybersecurity within critical industry sectors, the extent of implementation, and commonalities and differences between sector cybersecurity guidance and real-world implementations. The key finding of the resulting GAO-12-92 report was that “…there is no lack of cybersecurity guidance ... [but] given the plethora of guidance available, individual entities within the sectors may be challenged in identifying the guidance that is most
applicable and effective in improving their security posture.” The GAO concluded that “…developing a better understanding of the available guidance and best practices would help both federal and private-sector decision makers coordinate protection of critical cyber-reliant assets.” 1 Many utilities were confused by which standards applied to supervisory control and data acquisition/industrial control systems (SCADA/ICS) and how to implement them effectively. Executive Order: 2013, EO13636 – Improving Critical Infrastructure Presidential Executive Order 13636 – Improving Critical Infrastructure2, issued on Feb. 19, 2013, directed NIST to develop a baseline framework to reduce cyber risk to critical infrastructure. 2014 – NIST Cybersecurity Framework The resulting CSF provides a voluntary framework for organizations of any kind—independent of industry or market—to identify a “prioritized, flexible, repeatable, performancebased and cost-effective approach” to manage cybersecurity risk.3 Version 1 was released on Feb. 12, 2014. The CSF is not specific to any industry, and has been widely adopted as a best practice in many sectors.
Robert L. George, CISSP, is with Tetra Tech in Pasadena, Calif.
2014 – AWWA Cybersecurity Guidance and Tool The AWWA sponsored the Water Industry Technical Action Fund (WITAF) project #503 to develop water/wastewater-specific guidance to provide “… a consistent and repeatable recommended course of action to reduce vulnerabilities in process control systems.”4 The project developed cybersecurity guidance and an online, web-based tool for use by water utility managers. The guidance is intended to provide the water/wastewater sector with voluntary, sector-specific guidance as called for in EO 13636, aligned with the NIST CSF. The AWWA Guidance and Tool was updated in 2016. Although developed independently of, and released at the same time as, the CSF, the tool and guidance are aligned with the CSF to provide water/wastewater sector-specific guidance to implementing cybersecurity controls, with a focus on SCADA and ICS. The tool has been identified as the implementation guidance for the CSF for water/wastewater sectors by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As such, it is considered the “official guidance.”
Overview of the Cybersecurity Framework The CSF consists of three components: 1. Framework Core. Identifying sector-agnostic activities and desired outcomes based on existing standards and guidance. The core incorporates five functions (Figure 1) to address these goals: a. Identify at-risk assets (systems, equipment, software, hardware, and data) b. Protect assets with appropriate controls c. Detect cybersecurity anomalies potentially impacting assets d. Respond to cybersecurity incidents e. Recover and restore impacted assets
Figure 1. Framework Core (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The core comprises the bulk of the CSF, correlating activities, and outcomes, with established cybersecurity standards and references.
2. Implementation Tiers. Identifying the user’s current and desired effectiveness of risk management processes. These include: a. Partial (Tier 1) based on informal, ad hoc, and often reactive management practices, with limited understanding of actual risks and coordination with other agencies. b Risk Informed (Tier 2) based on approved practices that are not fully implemented organizationwide, with cybersecurity awareness, but inconsistent or incomplete implementation. Cooperation with other agencies is not formalized or structured. c. Repeatable (Tier 3) based on formally approved policies and updated practices. Risk is managed organizationwide, and staff has adequate resources to address threats. The organization shares information with partner agencies. d. Adaptive (Tier 4) based on actively reviewed and maintained polices through a continual-improvement process. Risk management is a fundamental part of organizational planning, and information is actively shared with partner agencies. 3. Framework Profiles. Identifying current (“as is”) and desired (“to be”) states, incorporating efforts at the executive, business, and operational levels (Figure 2).
While the impact of these and similar mandates is still to be determined, it is clear that, when mandates arrive, they will be far more onerous and cumbersome to implement than the voluntary measures that preceded them. These efforts mandate implementation of cybersecurity programs that closely resemble the most rigid mandatory rules for utilities: the North American Electrical Reliability Corp. (NERC) critical infrastructure protection (CIP) body of standards.
Contrast With Other Sectors Both the CSF and AWWA Guidance and Tool provide a voluntary framework for devel-
opment of a cybersecurity compliance program. This is in stark contrast to the stringent, mandated compliance standards for the power sector. 2008 – North American Reliability Corp. Critical Infrastructure Protection The NERC developed CIP standards to protect the Bulk Electric System (BES) against cybersecurity threats to grid stability.8 While not directly applicable to water/wastewater, CIP is notable for two reasons: 1. It is referenced as a standard by the AWWA Guidance and Tool. 2. It provides a good indicator of what mandated cybersecurity measures will look like Continued on page 6
The CSF provides an approach to managing cybersecurity based on risk, with emphasis on those systems and activities with the greatest potential financial, operational, and safety impacts. It provides a utility with a method of clearly defining its tolerance for risk, and to guide policy and planning efforts.
Current State of Cybersecurity Guidance for Water and Wastewater While there is currently no federally mandated cybersecurity standard for water/wastewater, individual states are beginning to introduce legislation that effectively transforms voluntary guidelines into mandated standards. • In February 2015, the New York Senate passed a suite of cybersecurity bills focused on critical infrastructure, including S34055, which implements a review and reporting process for key state agencies, and S34076, which introduces information-sharing protocols. The bill implements a “consultative process,” requiring public and private entities to participate. • In March 2016, the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities adopted a set of requirements for regulated utilities, including water/wastewater.7 All utilities are to implement a series of requirements, including a cybersecurity program, to define and implement cyber risk management.
Figure 2. Executive, Business, and Operations Level Efforts (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
Table 1. North American Electrical Reliability Corp. Critical Infrastructure Protection Version 5 Rules Standard CIP-002-5.1 CIP-003-6 CIP-004-6 CIP-005-5 CIP-006-6 CIP-007-6 CIP-008-5 CIP-009-6 CIP-010-2 CIP-011-2 CIP-014-2
Focus Cyber Security – BES Cyber System Categorization Cyber Security – Security Management Controls Cyber Security – Personnel and Training Cyber Security – Electronic Security Perimeter(s) Cyber Security – Physical Security of BES Cyber Systems Cyber Security – System Security Management Cyber Security – Incident Reporting and Response Planning Cyber Security – Recovery Plans for BES Cyber Systems Cyber Security – Configuration Change Management, Vulnerability Assessments Cyber Security – Information Protection Physical Security Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
Continued from page 5 should voluntary measures prove inadequate. The latest iteration, NERC CIP Version 5, defines a cyber asset as an asset that “if rendered unavailable, degraded, or misused would, within 15 minutes of its required operation, misoperation, or nonoperation, adversely impact one or more facilities, systems, or equipment, which, if destroyed, degraded, or otherwise rendered unavailable when needed, would affect the reliable operation of the BES.”9 All BES cyberassets are classified as high, medium, or low impact using a “bright-line” approach to identify assets subject to CIP requirements. A bright-line rule (or bright-line test) is defined as “a clearly defined rule or standard, composed of objective factors, which leaves little or no room for varying interpretation. The purpose of a bright-line rule is to produce predictable and consistent results in its application.” 10 Version 5 focuses on qualitative assessment of internal controls, rather than measurement against requirements. The CIP standards are applied to address risk that is based on the classification of the asset. While previous iterations tended to focus on quantitative “checklists,” Version 5 requires a qualitative evaluation of the overall effectiveness of controls. While a detailed analysis of the NERC CIP standards can (and does) fill volumes, a few characteristics are noteworthy for water/wastewater customers: • They are comprehensive, encompassing both policy and technical topics. • They require continuous review and update, with refreshes every 15 months. • They are expanding and growing in scope, with physical security being added in Version 5.
• Most impacted utilities employ multiple individuals dedicated to CIP compliance. Table 1 summarizes the CIP Version 5 rules as of mid-2016.
Guidance Versus Standards It is important to distinguish between guidance and standards when referring to cybersecurity references. The following working definitions are used here: • Standards define methods, technologies, and/or architectures to be used to secure a system in specific circumstances. There are many cybersecurity standards produced by different standards bodies, with each focusing on the concerns of a particular industry or market. In many cases, standards from different bodies within a single industry overlap. While most standards within an industry recommend similar practices, variations in terminology and approach, as well as differences between industries, can cause confusion. • Guidance provides recommendations for standards to be applied to a specific industry or setting. Guidance does not specify practices, but typically references one or more standards or bodies of standards applicable to a specific industry.
Cybersecurity Standards All of the current water/wastewater cybersecurity guidance refers to a number of general and industry-specific standards for detailed implementation recommendations. Many utilities are familiar with some of these by other, older names. Commonly referenced standards include: • ISA/IEC-62443 (Formerly ISA-99) Industrial Automation and Control Systems Security, including TR99.00.02 (2007)
• NIST SP800-82 Rev. 1 Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security (2013) • NERC 1300 Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) standards CIP-002 – CIP-009 (2008) • NIST SP800-34 Rev. 1 Contingency Planning for Federal Information Systems (2010) • International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 27002 (formerly ISO/IEC 17799) Information technology – Security techniques – Code of practice for information security management. • NIST SP800-53 Rev. 4 Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations (2014) • U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Recommended Practice: Improving Industrial Control Systems Cyber Security with Defense-In-Depth Strategies (2009) • DHS Catalog of Security Recommendations, the "Catalog of Control Systems Security, Recommendations for Standards Developers," a document developed for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Conclusions The state of cybersecurity readiness varies greatly within and among water/wastewater utilities. While some have implemented mature, robust programs, many more are still struggling with the basics, and where to start. 1. While cybersecurity guidance is freely available, many utilities are unaware of it, or confused by seemingly competing initiatives. 2. Guidance varies in how it prioritizes cybersecurity improvement efforts, particularly in identifying the actual risk associated with deficiencies. 3. The importance of proactively addressing cybersecurity, rather than waiting for a
Recent News on the NIST Cybersecurity Framework • Congressional bill HR 1224 NIST Cybersecurity Framework, Assessment, and Auditing Act of 2017, dated Feb. 27, 2017, requires NIST to develop outcome-based and quantifiable metrics. Specific language will be added, including underscoring the need for applying security engineering at the beginning of a system life cycle, building secure systems and components from the start of a project, and applying well-defined security design principles throughout a system’s life cycle (see https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/1224). • Executive Order 13800, Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure, issued on May 11, 2017, calls for all federal agencies to use the NIST cybersecurity framework to guide cybersecurity risk management (see https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/05/11/presidential-executive-order-strengthening-cybersecurity-federal).
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
mandate, cannot be overstated. Boards and management are less likely to be understanding of inadequate preparation in light of highly publicized breaches at Target, Home Depot, and other high-profile commercial chains. The perception of a utility as insecure and potentially unsafe by its customer base is unacceptable.
The NIST CSF provides utilities with a roadmap for identifying and mitigating cybersecurity risks aligned with system criticality. Combined with the AWWA Cybersecurity Guidance and Tool, it can provide a mechanism to identify critical SCADA/ICS components, and prioritize efforts to remediate cybersecurity threats based on risk.
“Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance is Available, but More Can be Done to Promote its Use.” U.S. GAO http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-9. “Executive Order: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.” https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/ 2013/02/12/executive-order-improving-critical-infrastructure-cybersecurity. “NIST Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity.” https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/documents/cyberframework/cybersecurity-framework-021214.pdf. “AWWA Cybersecurity Guidance and Tool.” https://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/waterand-wastewater-utility-management/cybersecurity-guidance.aspx. Senate Bill S3405 - https://www.nysenate.gov/ legislation/bills/2009/s3405/amendment/ original. Senate Bill S3407A - https://www.nysenate .gov/legislation/bills/2015/s3407/amendment /a. Transmission Hub, “New Jersey BPU directs utilities to have cybersecurity program.” http://www.transmissionhub.com/articles/2016/03/new-jersey-bpu-directs-utilities-to-have-cybersecurity-program.html. NERC United States Mandatory Standards Subject to Enforcement. http:// www.nerc.com/pa/stand/Pages/Reliability StandardsUnitedStates.aspx?jurisdiction= United%20States. Identifying Critical Cyber Assets http://www.nerc.com/docs/cip/sgwg/Critcal_Cyber_Asset_ID_V1_Final.pdf. Wikipedia “Bright-Line Rule” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brightline_rule. S
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
Achieving Energy Neutrality Through Codigestion Water Environment & Reuse Foundation research provides both information and examples of successful energy recovery
any in the water sector are striving to make water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) energy self-sufficient. Achieving this goal will reduce both waste and costs. To help foster this, the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF; Alexandria, Va.) has conducted many research projects that examine ways utilities can recover energy and reach energy neutrality. Combining waste treatment with renewable energy recovery provides benefits that such conventional practices as fossil fuel utilization and landfilling cannot offer. This collection of WE&RF research highlights programs at WRRFs that support energy recovered from wastewater as a renewable energy source. The projects highlighted are intended for facilities practicing (or planning to practice) several different processes, including codigestion, incineration, and energy recovery and food waste management through anaerobic digestion (codigestion). The WRRFs and other agencies examined in these projects provide valuable information that others can learn from and incorporate into their own practices to reach their sustainability goals.
Codigestion of Organic Waste Addressing Operational Side Effects (ENER9C13) The WE&RF initiated a series of complementary studies to better expand the science and understanding of the best practices to ad-
vance codigestion as an option for increased energy recovery. This first project is one in a collection of research intended to advance anaerobic digestion to enhance renewable energy. The ENER9C13 study evaluated five WRRFs in New York, Texas, and California for codigestion design, performance data, and operation and maintenance issues. The findings indicated that digestion of fats, oils, and grease (FOG), food waste, and other organic wastes can increase a WRRFâ€™s energy production. As the facilities studied were early adopters of this process, the findings highlighted the challenges they faced and the steps they took to address them.
In addition, the staff members of WRRFs who were interviewed identified their best management practices for codigestion systems, which may be beneficial to other facilities beginning their codigestion programs. First, they recognized that consistent record keeping is crucial for operational decision making and identifying potential problems with accepting these wastes. Second, they recommended screening hauled wastes and creating a permit system for haulers who take measures to improve source control. Third, they recommended scheduling deliveries when WRRF staff members are present for unloading. Lastly, these facilities found that monitoring digester gas production requires better
September 2017 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
process control parameters than volatile solids destruction, which can be relied upon in anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids alone.
Energy Recovery From Thermal Oxidation of Wastewater Solids: State-of-the-Science Review (ENER13T14) The research team on the ENER13T14 project performed a state-of-the-science review to evaluate the potential for energy and heat recovery from thermal oxidation of wastewater solids. The team compared the value of the energy with that of coal in a triple-bottom-line approach and estimated the quantity of renewable energy available from thermal oxidation of wastewater solids. The goal was to help WRRF managers identify how much energy could be recovered through implementing energy recovery projects and the potential for these projects helping facilities meet sustainability objectives. The research team developed seven scenarios to represent thermal oxidation (incinerator) system configurations. These scenarios identified the potential energy recoverable from wastewater solids and residuals. Scenarios included cofiring wastewater solids with such alternative feedstocks as FOGs and woodchips to evaluate the potential for increased energy production. The energy recovery in each of the seven scenarios produced more electricity than the solids process needed to operate. This proves that energy recovery from thermal oxidation, theoretically, can make solids processing a net energy provider for WRRFs. The process is sustainable when compared to fossil fuel power generation, and existing and emerging thermal oxidation technologies provide reliable, effective, and flexible systems for implementing energy recovery.
Renewable Energy Production From Department of Defense Installation Solids Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion (ENER14R14) Department of Defense (DoD) institutions, such as the Air Force Academy, produce large quantities of food waste and consume large quantities of energy. This study demonstrated that the energy in food waste, if recovered, can supply 60 percent of the energy requirements for DoD installations worldwide and help meet its sustainability goals. Ultimately, the project showed that anaerobic digestion is successful as a means of treating food waste and producing renewable energy to partially offset an installationâ€™s energy demands, while reducing waste disposal. Biogas generated by the digestion process can be used without further treatment to generate energy, and to further maximize energy production, the biogas can be purified to biomethane as a natural gas substitute. The results revealed that anaerobically digesting this food waste meets or exceeds performance objectives; moreover, the practice is cost-competitive with alternative methods of food waste management. Using anaerobic digestion to dispose of food waste while recovering energy also represents a significant greenhouse gas savings, compared to landfills or composting. The produced biogas can be sent to a combined heat and power generator to produce electrical power that can be used to reduce facility power costs. The ultimate end use of the biogas or biomethane had a significant impact on cost-effectiveness.
on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided
for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.
Kelsey Beveridge is the technical writer in the communications department at the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (Alexandria, Va.). She holds a bachelor of arts in environmental studies from Franklin & Marshall College. S
Learning From Water Environment & Reuse Foundation Research Overall, the goal for these projects and others in WE&RFâ€™s portfolio is to help WRRFs and other agencies become energy neutral and reduce the demand for purchased electricity or natural gas. The information obtained and insights derived can help to show how different energy recovery methods can be incorporated. Even more so, however, exploring real-life applications can encourage decision makers to use new technologies to help their operations long-term. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ September 2017
LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.
Weld Well to End Well afety is a critical consideration for any welding project. Arc welding is a safe undertaking when proper precautions are taken, but if certain measures are ignored, welders (and those around them) face an array of hazards that can be potentially dangerous, including electric shock, respiratory hazards, eye and skin injuries, fire, explosions, and more. To help keep welders safe, organizations such as the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American Welding Society, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) offer safety guidelines to help control, minimize, or help employers and workers avoid welding hazards. Here are a few to review before beginning any welding project.
Eye Injuries Welding and cutting operations are a major source of eye injury. Related accidents occur when proper personal protective equipment (PPE) is not worn. The most common eye injuries result from flash burn, metal flying into the eye, and particulates falling into the eye. The only measure that will prevent eye injury is the use of appropriate eyewear and shields. It is also important not to wear contact lenses while welding or near where welding is taking place. Welding helmet sand filter plates are intended to help protect users from arc rays and from weld sparks and spatters that strike directly against the helmet. They are not intended to
protect against slag chips, grinding fragments, wire wheel bristles and similar hazards that can ricochet under the helmet. Spectacles, goggles or other appropriate eye protection must also be worn to protect against these impact hazards. When arc cutting and arc welding with an open arc, OSHA requires operators to use helmets or hand shields with filter lenses and cover plates. Nearby personnel viewing the arc must also be protected and the welder should always use a welding curtain or wall. Safety glasses with a shade 2 lens are recommended for general-purpose protection for viewers.
Skin Injuries Injuries to the skin usually result from ultraviolet rays or from hot metal. The hot metal may be the material being worked on, or it may be part of the equipment. Unprotected skin is at risk for injury. In addition to burns, it is easy for exposed skin to be cut during work with sharp metal. Proper safety shoes, clothing, and PPE will greatly reduce the chances of skin injury.
Respiratory Hazards Without adequate ventilation or when adequate PPE is not used, the threat of respiratory injury greatly increases. Before welding, the welder should know what the metal is and the potential effects of the fumes produced, which include carbon monoxide.
Inhaling welding fumes or gas can produce metal-fume fever, the symptoms of which include a dry, metallic taste in the mouth; fatigue; nausea; and muscular and joint pain. Depending on the metal or alloy, the results can be fatal. Adequate ventilation (natural, mechanical, or respiratory) must be provided for all welding, cutting, brazing, and related operations, which means enough ventilation so that a person’s exposure to hazardous concentrations of airborne contaminants is maintained below the level set by federal standards. Adequate ventilation depends on the following factors: S Volume and configuration of the space where the welding operations occur S Number and type of operations that are generating contaminants S Natural air flow rate where operations are taking place S Location of the breathing zones for the welder and other workers in relation to contaminants or sources Natural ventilation is considered sufficient for welding and brazing operations if the work area meets these requirements: S Space of more than 10,000 sq ft is provided per welder S A ceiling height of more than 16 ft S Welding is not done in a confined space S Welding space does not contain partitions, balconies, or structured barriers that obstruct cross ventilation Whenever feasible, local and area ventilation systems should be used to remove harmful fumes and gases. However, in many cases, engineering controls alone cannot reduce exposure levels adequately. In such cases, it may be appropriate to use respirators. For most welding applications, an array of respirator options exist that offer specific benefits.
Electric Shock Electric shock is one of the most serious and immediate risks facing a welder. It can lead to severe injury or death, either from the shock itself or from a fall caused by the reaction to a shock.
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Electric shock occurs when welders touch two metal objects that have a voltage between them, thereby inserting themselves into the electrical circuit. For instance, if a worker holds a bare wire in one hand and a second bare wire with the other, an electric current will pass through that wire and through the welding operator, causing an electric shock. Be aware that the higher the voltage, the higher the current, and thus, the higher the risk for the electric shock to result in injury or death. The most common type of electric shock is secondary voltage shock from an arc welding circuit, which ranges from 20 to 100 volts. Bear in mind that even a shock of 50 volts or less can be enough to injure or kill an operator, depending on the conditions. Due to its constant change in polarity, alternating current (AC) voltage is more likely to stop the heart than direct current (DC). It is also more likely to make the person holding the wire unable to let go. Be sure all electrical equipment is properly installed, inspected, operated, and maintained. Before use, consider the following: ■ Placement of welding machines ■ Placement of cables ■ Load protection ■ Use of electrodes and holders
Fire Hazard Welding and cutting should be done in designated areas that are free of flammable materials or conditions favorable to fire or explosion. If your utility has a hot-work permit program, make sure to follow its requirements. Before and during the welding operation, the welder and safety watch should do the following: ■ Inspect the area for flammable and combustible material before welding or cutting begins ■ Cover cracks or floor openings ■ Have fire extinguishers on hand During welding, constantly watch for fires between walls, on opposite sides of metal partitions, or in any concealed place.
Personal Protective Equipment Your utility’s PPE helps to keep welding operators free from injury, such as burns, which are the most common welding injury, and exposure to arc rays. The right PPE allows
for freedom of movement, while still providing adequate protection from welding hazards. Thanks to their durability and fire resistance, leather and flame-resistant cotton clothing is recommended in welding environments. This is because synthetic material, such as polyester or rayon, will melt when exposed to extreme heat. Welding leathers are especially recommended when welding out of position, such as applications that require vertical or overhead welding. Avoid rolling up sleeves or pant cuffs because sparks or hot metal can deposit in the folds and may burn through the material. Keep pants over the top of work boots—don't tuck them in. Leather boots with 6- to 8-in. ankle coverage are the best foot protection. Metatarsal guards over the shoelaces can protect a welder's feet from falling objects and sparks.
Confined Spaces Because of the small size and questionable atmosphere in most confined spaces, welding and cutting in such spaces requires very serious thought and planning. There are very specific regulations from OSHA when it comes to welding in confined spaces. If the area can’t get proper ventilation without blocking the means of entry, welders must use respirators and be in constant communication with a coworker on the outside. Another OSHA rule states that safety belts, lifelines, and preplanned rescue procedures are required if the welding work has to happen in a space with a very small entryway (like manholes). Always check the following before working in a confined space: S Making sure there isn’t any equipment blocking the exit S Testing the air for toxic gases before entering the workspace S Removing all hazardous materials S Keeping vents open and making sure valves are tight and leak-free S Having the means to immediately shut off gases, fuel, and power from inside the space if possible
Fire and Explosions The welding arc creates extreme temperatures and may pose a significant fire and explosion hazard if safe practices are not
followed. While the welding arc may reach temperatures of 10,000°F, the real danger is not from the arc itself, but rather the intense heat near the arc and the heat, sparks, and spatter created by the arc. This spatter can reach up to 35 ft away from the welding space. To prevent fires, before beginning to weld inspect the work area for any flammable materials and remove them from the area. Flammable materials are comprised of three categories: liquid, such as gasoline, oil, and paint; solid, such as wood, cardboard, and paper; and gas, including acetylene, propane, and hydrogen.
Other Safety Considerations In any welding situation, welding operators should pay close attention to safety information on the products being used and the safety data sheets provided by the manufacturer, and they should work with their employer and coworkers to follow appropriate safe practices for their workplace. Good common sense is key to a safe workplace when welding. If opening cans of electrode, keep your hands away from sharp edges. Remove clutter and debris from the welding area to prevent tripping or falling, and never use broken or damaged equipment or PPE. By following these safety practices, operators can stay safe and alive and keep production moving with no lost-time accidents. For additional information, go to the OSHA website at www.osha.gov, or the website for the American Welding Society at www.aws.org. S
The 2017 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2017 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set. Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
Test Yourself Water Treatment Plant Operators: What Do You Know About Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminant Monitoring? Donna Kaluzniak
1. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires that, once every five years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issue a new list of not more than 30 unregulated contaminants to be monitored by public water systems (PWS). This monitoring is a primary source of data that EPA uses to develop regulatory decisions for contaminants in the public drinking water supply. This is called the UCMR, or a. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule. b. Unrelated Containment Methodology Requirement. c. Urgent Contamination Monitoring Regulation. d. Urgent Communication and Methodology Requirement. 2. The EPA’s selection of the contaminants for each UCMR cycle is largely based on a review of the contaminant candidate list (CCL). The CCL is a list of contaminants that are not regulated by the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, are known or anticipated to occur at public systems, and a. are proven carcinogens. b. have been designated as hazardous substances. c. may warrant regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). d. the EPA is being pressured by the public to regulate. 3. Which laboratories may be used to conduct analyses for UCMR monitoring? a. All utilities may perform their own UCMR analyses if their laboratory has local health department certification. b. Any laboratory may conduct analyses for UCMR monitoring. c. Laboratories must have EPA approval for UCMR testing to provide these analyses. d. Only commercial laboratories can provide UCMR analyses. 4. The fourth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 4) was published
in the Federal Register on Dec. 20, 2016, and sampling/testing will begin in 2018. Which water systems must participate? a. All PWS b. All large (serving more than 10,000 people) community water systems and nontransient/noncommunity systems, plus a nationally representative sampling of small systems c. All transient, noncommunity water systems serving under 10,000 people d. Only large surface water and groundwater under the direct influence (GWUDI) of surface water systems 5. The EPA requires laboratories conducting UCMR 4 analyses to report the results to EPA’s web-based Safe Drinking Water Accession and Review System (SDWARS) within 120 days from sample collection. Within 60 days from the laboratory posting the data, large PWS must a. access the data and review it. b. access the data, review, and approve it. c. record the data and send it to EPA in a hard-copy report form. d. transfer the data to EPA’s central data exchange (CDX) system. 6. The required contaminants to monitor under UCMR 4 include 10 cyanotoxins and 20 additional contaminants. Which systems will be required to monitor for the 10 cyanotoxins? a. All PWS b. Only large PWS c. Only surface water and GWUDI systems d. Only groundwater systems
and following sampling instructions provided by the agency's support contractor. b. complete the same steps required of large PWS, except that EPA will pay for the testing. c. enter their own data into SDWARS instead of having the laboratory upload the data. d. finish their sampling and testing before the large PWS begin theirs. 9. Who pays for the analytical costs for UCMR 4 monitoring? a. All participating PWS pay for their own analytical costs. b. All participating PWS pay EPA a set fee for the analytical costs. c. The EPA pays for all analytical costs for UCMR 4 monitoring. d. Large participating PWS pay for their analytical costs, and EPA pays for analytical costs for small PWS. 10. Does EPA require public notification of UCMR results? a. The EPA does not require public notification of UCMR results because there are no compliance limits on the contaminants being monitored. b. The EPA requires a Tier 3 (annual) notification, allowing results to be included in the annual water quality report (Consumer Confidence Report) c. All PWS do not need to provide any notification because EPA places results on its website for the public to review. d. All PWS must notify customers of the UCMR results within 30 days of receiving test results.
7. Dec. 31, 2017, is a critical deadline for large PWS that must participate in UCMR 4. These systems must a. access EPA’s SDWARS to review and update contact information, sampling location, and monitoring schedule. b. access EPA’s SDWARS to download UCMR 3 data before starting UCMR 4 sampling. c. contact the local laboratory to schedule analyses. d. request to be excused from UCMR 4 requirements.
Reference used for this quiz: • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr. The Fourth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule General Information Fact Sheet and 40 CFR Part 141 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 4).
8. For small PWS, only randomly selected systems will have to participate in UCMR 4. Small PWS will need to a. collect samples for EPA, using sampling kits
Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Answers on page 50
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PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the Wastewater Process Committee! Each year, the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) gives the Earle B. Phelps Award to wastewater treatment facilities in recognition for outstanding operations.
Town of Davie: Earl B. Phelps Award Winner for Advanced Secondary Treatment John McGeary, Renuka Bajnath, and Timothy Ware ocated in Broward County, the Town of Davie is the sunny home to just over 100,000 citizens, with the stated mission that “the Town of Davie strives to be the preeminent community in South Florida to live, work, learn, and play, while treasuring our preserved natural settings.” Having a treatment facility that can step up to the challenge was key to realizing this mission. Permitted at 3.5 mil gal per day (mgd), the town’s water reclamation facility (WRF) currently sees and annual average daily flow of approximately 1.3 mgd. The treatment process consists of headworks with rotating drum screens and grit separation, anoxic tanks, preaeration tanks, and membrane tanks, followed by high-level disinfection with ultraviolet treatment. Effluent is disposed of through a reuse system or by deep injection wells. Residuals are
sent through two-stage aerobic digestion and dewatered before being land-applied or disposed of by landfill. The town embarked on a journey to embody its motto "Make Davie Clean Through Green" with the construction of its WRF, which was commissioned in July 2013. The facility was the first membrane bioreactor treatment plant in Broward County. The use of reclaimed water was a sustainability initiative for the town as it recognized the need to reduce the burden on local drinking water resources. Reclaimed water also provided additional benefits to the customers in terms of no water irrigation restrictions, low cost of reuse water compared to drinking water, and reduction of fertilizer usage. Apart from producing high-quality reuse and reducing the burden on local drinking water resources, the facility also provides the following environmental benefits: reduced carbon footprint, biologically controlled odor system (not chemical), and power savings from natural
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
lighting, auto-off light switches, and variable frequency drive-controlled motors. Furthermore, the town believes education is essential for everyone to become better stewards of the environment. In this regard, it has partnered with various educational institutions to conduct facility tours. The tours include the details of the process description, benefits of using reclaimed water for the environment and for the consumer, and a hands-on plant walkthrough. Educational institutes accommodated to date include Florida International University, Nova Southeast University, University of Florida, Broward County Schools (Monarch High School), Broward County Adult Education (Wastewater Certification School), Somerset Academy, and Broward College. The town has also provided tours and training to other governmental agencies interested in membrane bioreactor technology and various other features at the facility, including City of Marco Island, City of Sunrise, Broward
County Utilities, City of Fort Lauderdale, Seminole Tribe of Florida, City of Miramar, and Florida Water Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA). Finally, the town was recognized as the 2015 FWPCOA "Utility of the Year" for Broward County. The recognition was granted on the following criteria: S Commitment to better serve the needs of its citizens and community. S Foresight to explore and utilize alternative treatment technologies to ensure that future water resources are preserved and or protected.
S Recognition of infrastructure needs to meet current and upcoming regulations. S Leadership to ensure proper utility management and allocation of resources for operations and compliance. S Participation in outreach and knowledge-sharing opportunities with peer utility members. S Accommodation of utility events, including training, testing, and special meetings.
tion and start-up of the facility and has gone through the learning curve together. With the new systems and the ability to track performance through the supervisory control and data acquisition system, the utility is able to stay ahead of any issues at the plant with its multicapable team. The operators at the Town of Davie WRF continuously demonstrate what happens when good operators step up to a new challenge: they succeed!
When asked how they managed to be successful, John McGeary, chief operator at the utility, said that it’s the entire team that wants to succeed. The team has worked together since the construc-
John McGeary is the chief operator and Renuka Bajnath is the assistant utilities director for the Town of Davie. Timothy Ware, P.E., is client manager for Arcadis in Tampa. S
Florida Public Works Director Selected as APWA Top Ten Leader Richard Howard, P.E., CFM, public works director for City of Orlando, was recently named as a Public Works Leader of the Year by the American Public Works Association (APWA), He was one of the ten leaders selected for 2017, which marks the 57th year of the Top Ten Public Works Leaders of the Year Awards, one of the most coveted and prestigious awards presented by APWA. This award focuses on outstanding career service achievements of individual public works professionals and officials from both the public and private sectors in North America. Each of the leaders are recognized for their
accomplishments in federal, state, provincial, county, or municipal engineering or administration, including: career advancement; contribution to technology or job knowledge; commitment to the profession as evidenced by education, training, certification or registration, and continuing education; and professional excellence and service to the community in large and small municipalities. The other leaders for 2017 are: S David Fabiano, P.E. – town engineer, Town of Gilbert, Ariz. S Lee Gustafson, P.E. – senior project manager, WSB & Associates Inc., Minneapolis, Minn. S Patricia Hilderbrand, P.E. – division manager of coordination services, Public Works Dept., Kansas City, Mo. S Paul May, P.E. – chief engineer, York Region Rapid Transit Corporation, Markham, Ont., Canada S Robert Newman – director of public works, City of Santa Clarita, Calif.
S Jeanne Nyquist – president, Nyquist & Associates Inc., Tigard, Ore. S Darren Schulz, P.E. – director of public works, City of Carson City, Nev. S Kevin Sheppard, P.E. – public works director, City of Manchester, N.H. S Larry Stevens, P.E. – project director, HR Green Inc., Johnston, Iowa “The Top Ten Public Works Leaders of the Year Awards aim to inspire excellence and dedication in public service by recognizing the outstanding achievements of individual public works professionals and officials. Since its inception in 1960, the awards program has recognized 570 men and women who reflect the highest career standards of professional conduct for public works officials,” said Scott Grayson, APWA executive director. “Every year, the APWA Top Ten represent the best of the public works profession, and they are all to be highly commended on this honor.” S
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
FWRJ READER PROFILE What education and training have you had? S Bachelor of science in civil engineering, University of Florida, 1998 S Master of engineering, University of Florida, 2000 S Professional engineer, State of Florida, 2004 S Currently pursuing a master of public administration from Troy University, expecting to graduate in 2018
Monica M. Autrey, P.E Destin Water Users Inc.
Work title and years of service. I’m the operations manager at Destin Water Users. I started working for the organization in 2010. What does your job entail? My job is to ensure that we are providing reliable services to our customers, as well as meeting all regulatory requirements. I currently oversee seven departments of the organization, including engineering. I’m active in reviewing new and large developments for compliance with our specifications; large purchases of new equipment, such as pumps and filters; and dealing with regulatory agencies for permit compliance and modifications.
Most of my continuing education comes from annual conferences, such as the Florida Water Resources Conference and the FSAWWA Fall Conference. This past June I had my first trip to the AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE) and it was very enlightening. I usually attend the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) when it’s held in New Orleans, and I gain invaluable information there, as well. What do you like best about your job? The best part of my job is that no two days are alike. I work with a great group of employees at the utility. I love the fact that we help people every day with an essential resource, yet we are often not thought of unless there is a problem. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m currently a member of the following: S Florida Section AWWA (Region IX chair) S Florida Water Environment Association (WEF member)
S Florida Engineering Society - Emerald Coast Chapter (state director and scholarship chair) S Northwest Florida Utility Managers Council (secretary/treasurer) S Choctawhatchee Basin Alliance (treasurer) How have the organizations helped your career? The FSAWWA has exposed me to a large group of people around the state with similar missions and objectives. I’ve been able to collaborate with other state officers on important issues for our utility, as well as the state, such as reclaimed water and aquifer storage and recovery. In addition, I’ve learned about other programs and training opportunities to participate in around Florida. As I’m pursuing my MPA, I was selected by FSAWWA for a Roy Likins Scholarship to help offset tuition costs. The support of the organization through this scholarship helps to motivate me to complete my degree while working. In addition, I’ve been able to meet a lot of current and former scholarship winners who also provide encouragement as I work toward my goal. What do you like best about the industry? As a member of the water utility industry, I like that we are a necessary resource and our customers depend on us daily. As an engineer, I enjoy helping developers shape their vision of a project to fit within our service area, as well as improving the performance of the components of our utility through new technology. What do you do when you’re not working? If I’m not at work, my favorite place to be is on the water, either fishing or just cruising, as well as at the beach. I love spending time with my family and scrapbooking the memories. I actively volunteer for the Fort Walton Beach High School Viking Band, where I’m serving as the vice president, while my daughter is a member of the color guard. In addition, I help with the various professional S organizations of which I’m a member.
Autrey reviews plans for a new apartment complex being planned for Destin’s service area.
Autrey discusses adjustments with Robb Hensel, project manager, for the US Highway 98 utility relocation project.
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
F W R J
Climate Adaption and Resilience for Miami-Dade County Wastewater Treatment Plants Sussette Irizarry iami-Dade County is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Over time, increased episodes of flooding and storm surge have posed a threat to the Miami-Dade community and its infrastructure. Sea level rise (SLR) has become a regional concern for southeast Florida and government agencies that provide essential public services. The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) represents one of these agencies, and SLR has become an integral part of its planning and adaption strategies that focus on protecting local water and wastewater utilities from catastrophic flooding events. The effluent pump station (EPS) at the Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant (central plant) is an example of an asset that requires additional hardening efforts. The EPS, located on the southeast side of the central plant, receives treated effluent that is discharged
through an ocean outfall. Pumps at the station operate to discharge water during periods when it canâ€™t travel by gravity flow to the ocean outfall. These pumping efforts are normally required during periods of peak flows at the plant or high tide. The WASD has elected to build a new electrical building for EPS in an effort to protect critical electrical equipment from storm surge. The new electrical building is designed to meet an SLR design elevation of 20.3 ft, which was calculated based on research and design standards. Design engineers working on this project had to incorporate this design elevation across all disciplines. These challenges offered opportunity for creative and ingenious solutions toward meeting the 20.3-ft design criteria. The design process was a collaborative effort among different engineering disciplines and the WASD staff. The EPS design project, among other wastewater treatment plant projects in Miami-
Figure 1. Site Location of Effluent Pump Station (2016 Basis of Design Report)
September 2017 â€˘ Florida Water Resources Journal
Sussette Irizarry is an environmental designer with Stantec in Miami.
Dade, provides a unique model for engineering design teams that must incorporate SLR elevation as an element within their design. Public agencies in various coastal communities have implemented local guidelines and policies that require SLR as an integral design factor for any new building or retrofit. This article will provide other design teams with a holistic model on how to design utilities that must adapt to SLR.
Background On any given day, WASD provides water and wastewater service to over 2 million residents and thousands of visitors throughout Miami-Dade County. The WASD currently operates three wastewater treatment plants (North District, Central District, and South District) that serve Miami-Dade County, providing service to approximately 354,000 retail customers and 13 wholesale customers. The oldest and largest wastewater treatment facility is the central plant, which was constructed in 1956. The raw wastewater that is pumped to the central plant is hydraulically split to two treatment plants: Plant 1 and Plant 2. Although the treatment capacities are different, the treatment processes used are identical. The treatment process used at the central plant consists of pretreatment (grit removal), high-purity oxygen activated sludge, secondary clarification, and basic disinfection. The treated effluent from the secondary clarifiers at Plants 1 and 2 are combined at the EPS and discharged to an ocean outfall. The entire plant handles approximately 143 mil gal per day (mgd) on an average annual daily flow (AADF) basis, and more importantly, this facility is located on an island: Virginia Key. Unlike other major utilities in the state, WASD faces the challenges of expanding, replacing aged equipment, and protecting its existing in-
frastructure at the central plant on the barrier island as the population increases; however, complicating these challenges and the impacts associated with SLR is the fact that the plant is located in an area that is designated as a flood hazard area and vulnerable to storm surge. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has established flood hazard maps that identify separate zones based on flooding risk, and a base flood elevation (BFE) is determined for each zone based on this information. As a result, WASD has incorporated SLR as important design criteria in hardening efforts for the central plant and its other two treatment plants. Mitigation efforts include replacing electrical equipment that has deficiencies and elevating the equipment for critical assets within the treatment plants. The EPS is located on the southeast side of the plant (Figure 1) and represents a critical asset within the central plant. The pump station is not air conditioned and currently houses eight 500-horsepower (HP) vertical turbine pumps that operate during peak flows. Failure of these pumps will hinder the plant’s ability to dispose of treated effluent. In order to address the issue associated with the failure of the EPS during flooding conditions, the proposed design for the EPS was to remove all electrical equipment within the building. According to existing condition reports, published in 2008 and updated in 2012 by MWH, existing electrical equipment at the pump station, including the motor control centers (MCC), switchgears, and transformers, were determined to have reached their useful life and required replacement. Additional recommendations included replacing the existing inefficient magnetic clutch drives for the pumps with variable frequency drives (VFDs), as well as replacing the existing 500-HP pump motors. To protect the facility, it was determined to relocate all of the critical electrical equipment to a new single-story annex building located west of the existing EPS building. A one-story building was more favorable towards internal maintenance activities, equipment loading, and personnel access. The new annex building layout has three main areas: S Transformer area S Electrical room S Control room that also includes a rest room The transformer area will be divided into two smaller rooms (Room 1 and Room 2), which will provide space for two 5,000-kilovoltampere (kVA) transformers and two 300-kVA transformers. In the electrical room will be two arc-resistant 5 kV metal-clad switchgears, two
Table 1. Wastewater Treatment Plant Sea Level Rise Elevation Design Criteria (CH2M, 2015)
MCCs with a main-tie-tie-main arrangement that will replace the existing automatic transfer switch (ATS) configuration, and eight new VFDs associated with the effluent pumps; the motors and pumps, however, will remain in the existing EPS building. The control room will include the new remote terminal unit (RTU) panel that will communicate with new equipment, as well as existing equipment in the existing EPS building. The new annex building will also be designed to accommodate SLR requirements.
Action Plan Development Southeast Florida is an excellent example of a coastal region with an infrastructure and unique habitat that are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These concerns were recognized in 2009 when four counties, which included Miami-Dade, Monroe, Broward, and Palm Beach, created the Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact (SFRCCC), with the main objective of implementing mitigation strategies and sharing information in an annual forum (SFRCCC, 2011). In 2012, a regional climate action plan (RCAP) was developed that included seven areas of focus and 110 recommendations for policy implementation (RCAP, 2012). The RCAP was created as a guide for participating counties within the regional compact. The objective of the plan was to create synergy among all of the participating counties and encourage collaboration on mitigation strategies that focus on specific climate change issues. The action plan includes goals within, but not limited to, the areas of sustainable communities, water supply management, and agriculture. The regional compact has also created a database to track which counties and municipalities have successfully implemented these strategies. The Miami-Dade GreenPrint, the county’s sustain-
ability plan, is an extension of the 2012 RCAP, incorporating initiatives within the seven areas of focus. Although the GreenPrint includes additional initiatives to the existing 110 policy recommendations within the RCAP, the objective is consistent. In September 2014, the Miami-Dade Board of County Commissioners adopted an ordinance relating to the rules of procedures of the commissioners amending Section 2-1 of the code of Miami-Dade County to require that all agenda items related to planning, design, and construction of county infrastructure include a statement that the impact of SLR has been considered. The county ordinance was adopted based on recommendations provided by the Miami-Dade Sea Level Rise Task Force in the June 2014 final report. The task force was created by Resolution R-599-13 on July 2, 2013, to review the relevant data, prior studies, assessments, reports, and evaluations of the potential impact of SLR on vital public services and facilities, real estate, water and other ecological resources, waterfront property, and infrastructure (Miami-Dade County, 2017). As a result of the county ordinance, an SLR assessment was incorporated into all design and construction activities for WASD facilities, including wastewater treatment plants and pump stations. The SLR design criteria for existing assets within wastewater treatment plants were adopted by WASD based on recommendations in the report, “Technical Memorandum: Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant Engineering Approach for Climate Adaptation and Resiliency,” prepared by MWH in 2014. A design elevation of 16 ft was highlighted for all three regional wastewater treatment plants, including North, Central, and South, referred to in Table 1. The design elevation was established based on recommendations provided by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) standards and SFRCCC. Continued on page 24
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
Continued from page 23 The ASCE provides technical standards for the construction of new buildings and structures in particular buildings that are located within a flood hazard area. The ASCE 24-05 is a standard for flood-resistant design and construction, which recommends a design elevation of 2 ft above the existing BFE. In 2015, a document was developed by SFRCCC titled, “Unified Sea Level Rise Projection,” that was created as a planning tool for risk assessment of flood-vulnerable areas. The SFRCCC concluded that Miami-Dade County would experience a 3-ft SLR by 2075, and engineering design should incorporate this estimate into all projects. The 16-ft design elevation for existing wastewater treatment plant assets was calculated based on the plant’s BFE, adding an additional freeboard (FB) of 2 ft (as recommended by ASCE), incorporating the SFRCCC guidance of 3 ft and adding 1 ft as a safety factor. According to the FEMA flood hazard map (Figure 2), the central plant is located in Zone AE (determined by FEMA as an area inundated by a 1 percent annual chance of flooding), with a BFE of approximately 10 ft. In 2015 CH2M developed a report titled, “Design Guide for Hardening Wastewater Treatment Facilities Against Flooding From Surge, Sea Level Rise, and Extreme Rainfall.” Based on the 16-ft SLR design criteria developed by MWH for existing facilities, CH2M developed separate SLR design criteria for new
assets constructed within all three wastewater treatment plants. An SLR design elevation of 20.3 ft was determined for the central plant. The design elevation, similar to the MWH design elevation, incorporated a BFE of 10 ft, a FB of 2 ft, and a safety factor of 1 ft, while also incorporating a higher SLR guidance factor of 4 ft, a 21-in. precipitation estimate, and an estimated storm surge factor for 2075. Overall, based on this estimate, a 20.3-ft SLR design elevation was incorporated into the EPS project.
Design Approach and Challenges The SLR was a major consideration with regards to the electrical improvements project for EPS and associated substations No. 11 and No. 12 to elevate and protect critical electrical equipment during storm surge conditions. The existing high-voltage transformers, MCCs, switchgears, pump motors, and drives are currently installed at an elevation of 14 ft above the City of Miami datum, which clearly does not meet the required SLR elevation of 20.3 ft. In order to meet the design elevation requirement, a new annex building will be constructed west of the existing building with a finished floor elevation of 20.3 ft to house the new electrical equipment. The design team for this project was split into seven main disciplines including civil; instrumentation and control; architectural; structural; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); plumbing; and electrical.
Figure 2. Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood Map (www.fema.gov)
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
A technical memorandum was initially developed detailing existing condition reports, recent site investigations, and proposed infrastructure improvement. After the technical memorandum was submitted, a basis of design report followed detailing alternative evaluations considered for the new electrical building, such as considerations for a single story or two stories and a description of the discipline design criteria. The project design was structured between progressive design phases, including an initial 30 percent design submittal, followed by a 60 percent design submittal and then a final 100 percent design submittal. Workshops were held with the client and project management team at each phase of the design to ensure the client is aware of any design changes and approves the overall design. The design process was essentially an integrated approach among the design team, the client’s project management team, and the client. Design challenges for the project varied for each of the design disciplines that were required for this project. The flood load for the new building was determined based on flood Zone AE, a BFE of 10 ft, and an SLR design requirement of 20.3 ft, which resulted in many challenges with regards to the structural design of the new building. Some of the structural challenges were as follows: S In order to suspend the building to a finished floor of 20.3 ft, a concrete beam and column system was designed to support the reinforced floor slab. The concrete frame created by the floor concrete beam and column becomes a moment-resistance frame, and a cast-in-place concrete column was positioned to support the concrete beam and floor slab. The building foundation was also supported by auger cast-in-place piles, and for this design, each column was supported by five concrete piles. S The size of the building also posed a difficult challenge. The new electrical building is approximately 163 ft long by 66 ft wide, which creates a long span of framing and a heavier load for the roof beams. These roof beams were designed to approximately 5 ft and 6 in. in depth. A 32-in. deep precast double tee with 2-in. concrete topping was used, along with the roof concrete beam for roof support. S Another structural design item included in the project was a covered walkway between the new electrical building and existing pump station building. The purpose of the walkway was to provide a covered accessibility point between both buildings for onsite personnel. The covered walkway is also elevated and supported by a concrete beam and
column system; however, each floor beam is supported by two smaller concrete columns and less piles. An expansion joint between the existing building and walkway was also created to balance any slight potential differences in height between the floor elevation within the existing building and the floor elevation of the walkway. Architecturally, an elevated building also posed various design challenges. For example, in order to access separate areas within the building, multiple stairs were needed to provide access points. Per code, two means of egress were required for each room within the building; therefore, platforms and staircases were provided along all sides of the building. Platforms near the transformer and electrical rooms were also designed to support load and clearance for arc-resistant technology, such as the metal clad switchgears and the three cooling towers located on the north side of the building. Guardrails were provided along the side of the platforms and staircases and the elevated floor slab also created a crawl space underneath the building. To minimize unauthorized access to the crawl space, the openings along the sides of the building were covered by a black vinylcoated chain link fence with privacy slats. In addition, the covered walkway between both buildings also required a staircase between the new building and walkway due to their differences in floor height. Building mechanical design also resulted in many challenges, which were associated with locating the three cooling towers on the same plinth as the 20.3-ft design elevation and the cooling requirements associated with the elevated building. The weight of the cooling towers was more of a challenge on an elevated platform in comparison to towers directly located on a slab on-grade. Cooling towers are filled with water, which increases their weight; therefore, the platforms slab must account for the increased weight of the cooling towers. Additionally, in order to meet clearance requirements, a larger platform area was required for the cooling towers. Another challenge was the piping required for the condensate lines of the HVAC system, as well as the restroom within the building. Generally, pipes for a single-story building would normally run within an underground trench beneath the slab; however, for this building the indoor piping required suspension and additional reinforcement. A final design challenge associated with the mechanical design included accounting for cooling losses, which are triggered by an elevated slab. These cooling Continued on page 26 Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ September 2017
Continued from page 25 losses must be accounted for during selection of the size of the AC equipment. In comparison, on-grade installation of HVAC equipment would not require additional clearance space or cause cooling losses. The civil design challenges included providing access points along the side of the building, including sidewalks, driveways, and onsite parking. Multiple staircases for the elevated platforms required additional coordination between discipline leads to ensure that the egress paths are clear, safe, and easy to access to the grade and parking lot. The proposed grading was designed to minimize any ponding water within the crawl space and allowed for stormwater to travel by sheet flow to existing sodded/swale areas and collect within existing structures. As a result of the SLR requirements, WASD and MWH are developing a stormwater master plan and drainage system for the plant under a separate project. The instrumentation and electrical design challenges included the location of the duct banks required for wiring needs between the new building and existing building, and new power cables will be installed between the two buildings. The existing remote terminal unit (RTU) will be removed and a new RTU will be installed within the new electrical building. The existing fiber optic network will be expanded to the new electrical building and connected to the new RTU. The equipment that will remain in the existing EPS building, such as the pumps and pump motors, will communicate with the new RTU. In addition, the existing feeder cables for the existing building will be replaced with new feeder cables between the plant’s main switchgear building and the new electrical building. The new feeder cables will use a combination of both existing and new duct banks. Due to the new building’s floor slab elevation and foundation concrete column system, routes for the underground duct banks had to be coordinated with the location of concrete columns underneath the building. Probably the best lesson learned by those involved was coordination. During the design phase of this project, a significant amount of coordination among the discipline leads and the WASD maintenance and operation staff was essential to ensure that all needs for each discipline were met. Weekly progress meetings with the leads were held to discuss all design issues and coordination actions required. These weekly meetings proved to be an essential communication tool throughout the design process. A project schedule was also developed to ensure that all responsibility roles were highlighted
and design deadlines were met. In addition, scheduled review meetings were held with WASD’s maintenance and operational staff to ensure that their specific requirements, such as maintenance and removal of equipment, access to equipment, and so forth, were met.
Software Modeling The EPS project also incorporated Autodesk Revit modeling throughout the design process. Revit is building information modeling (BIM) software that allows engineers to design with three-dimensional capability. The software allows for designers from multiple disciplines to work on different elements of the building design at the same time, allowing for improved clash detection. In addition, designers can share information, such as specific design details from another discipline, which can be incorporated as a background and built upon during various phases of the design. For the EPS project, Revit modeling was an essential design tool that allowed discipline leads to coordinate their designs and reduce potential conflicts. For example, the architectural model for the electrical building was used as a background for other disciplines, such as electrical, in order to accurately locate equipment within the space. The three-dimensional design model also improved the quality of the project design by providing a visual tool that effectively demonstrated the design concept to the client. This visual tool allowed for greater collaboration between the design team and WASD during the workshops.
Conclusion The EPS project is an example of the design challenges facing wastewater treatment plants that must adapt to SLR. The design challenges encountered during this project offered an opportunity for all design leads to work together and be interconnected throughout different phases of the project. The structural design was perhaps the most important design element of the project. Designing the electrical building for an SLR elevation of 20.3 ft began with an understanding of the structural needs of the building, including dead loads, live loads, rain loads, wind loads, soil loads, and most importantly, flood loads. Knowledge of flood hazard mapping services, such as the FEMA flood map, was important to understand the impact of flood loads on the new electrical building. The structural needs for all other disciplines required an understanding of the live loads for different areas of the building. The SLR elevation of the building made the struc-
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
tural design process a bit more challenging toward meeting these load needs. The design process was a collaborative effort among all discipline leads and the use of three-dimensional software, such as Autodesk Revit, allowed for efficient and creative design solutions. Success of the project was also dependent on understanding the project goals and client needs. Communication mediums, such as the design workshops with WASD staff and progress meetings with the discipline leads, were essential tools throughout the design process. Overall, incorporating SLR as design criteria for wastewater treatment plants involved a strong effort from both WASD and Miami Dade County. It was important to have a holistic approach throughout the design process in order to effectively adapt SLR within the design.
Acknowledgments I would like to express my gratitude to the EPS design team for assisting me and providing valuable information for this article. My thanks and appreciations also go to the extended Stantec family, including Harold Schmidt, Edward Rectenwald, Brian LaMay, Antonio Inojal, and Vicente Arrebola, for their kind support and help.
References 1. Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact Counties. Regional Climate Action Plan. Rep. N.p.: n.p., 2012. PDF. 2. Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact. Regional Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Baseline Period: 2005-2009. Rep. N.p.: n.p., 2011. PDF. 3. "Flood Zone Map | Fema Flood Map By Address." FEMA Flood Map Research. N.p., n.d. Web. Mar. 2017. <http://www.floodpartners.com/fema-flood-map/>. 4. Services, Miami-Dade County Online. "Sea Level Rise Task Force - Miami-Dade County." N.p., n.d. Web. March 2017. <http://www.miamidade.gov/planning/boar ds-sea-level-rise.asp>. 5. Existing Conditions Report: Upgrades to the Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant. MWH. 2008 and 2012. PDF. 6. Central District WWTP Engineering Approach for Climate Adaptation and Resiliency. MWH. 2014. 7. Design Guide for Hardening Wastewater Pump Station Facilities Against Flooding From Surge, Sea Level Rise, and Extreme Rainfall. CH2M. August 2015. PDF. 8. Basis of Design Report. MWH. Nov. 2016. PDF. S
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Florida Water Resources Journal â€˘ September 2017
Water Utilities Recognized for Future-Focused Initiatives
wenty-five water utilities have been selected for recognition of their leadership in community engagement, watershed stewardship, and recovery of resources, such as water, energy, and nutrients, including two from Florida. The Water Resources Utility of the Future Today recognition celebrates the achievements of forward-thinking, innovative water utilities that are providing resilient value-added service to communities. The recognition framework provides a model for utilities of all sizes to achieve more efficient operations, enhanced productivity, and long-term sustainability. The recognition program was launched in 2016 by four water-sector organizations: National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA), Water Environment Federation (WEF), Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF) and WateReuse, with input from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The sponsoring organizations for this recognition program understand that substantial excellence in the operations of wastewater treatment systems exists today. Many utilities optimize and continually improve their operations; consistently meet or exceed their regulatory requirements; plan and invest effectively for the maintenance, repair, and replacement of their infrastructure; and engage their employees and communities in meaningful and productive ways. A variety of initiatives already exist to promote and acknowledge excellent performance and sustainable management of utilities focused on the water sector’s historic focus of providing reliable, affordable, and responsible wastewater collection and treatment services. The Utility of the Future concept is being
promoted as the nation’s water systems further transform operations through innovation and technology. The 25 utilities recognized in 2017 are recovering resources from wastewater, engaging in their community, forming unique partnerships, and building an internal culture of innovation. The program seeks to encourage utilities to embed its principles within their organizations, beginning with organizational culture, which is seen as the foundation by which all other Utility of the Future activity areas are sustainably supported. The program also seeks to reach deeply into the water sector to form and motivate a community of like-minded water utilities engaged in advancing resource efficiency and recovery, developing proactive relationships with stakeholders, and establishing resilient, sustainable, and livable communities. The program, through the aggregation and sharing of utility advancements and experiences, will enable participants across a broad continuum of capacities and capabilities to learn from each other and continually grow and sustain their efforts to be, and continually advance the concept of, the Utility of the Future. “The innovations occurring within the water sector collectively present an opportunity for a paradigm shift in the way utilities think about and solve long-standing challenges,” said Dr. Eileen O’Neill, executive director of WEF.
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
“The Federation is excited to recognize these utilities that are already embracing innovative ways to better serve their communities.” The following utilities are being recognized for the first time: S Atlantic County Utilities Authority (New Jersey) S Beaufort-Jasper Water & Sewer Authority (South Carolina) S Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer (North Carolina) S Chesterfield County Department of Utilities (Virginia) S City of Cape Coral (Florida) S Little Rock Water Reclamation Authority (Arkansas) S City of Phoenix (Arizona) S City of Quincy (Washington) S City of Raleigh Public Utilities Department (North Carolina) S City of St. Cloud (Minnesota) S Columbus Water Works (Georgia) S Greenville Renewable Water Resources (South Carolina) S Greenwood Metropolitan District (South Carolina) S Hanover Sewerage Authority (New Jersey) S Lancaster Area Sewer Authority (Pennsylvania) S Loudoun Water (Virginia) S Lowell Regional Utility (Massachusetts) S West County Wastewater District (California) These utilities are being recognized for a second year but for a new area of performance: S City of Fayetteville (Arkansas) S DC Water (District of Columbia) S Gwinnett County (Georgia) S King County (Washington) S Miami-Dade Water & Sewer (Florida) S San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (California) S Tucson Water (Arizona) Honorees will be recognized during an awards ceremony at the 2017 Water Environment Federation Technical and Exhibition Conference (WEFTEC) this October in Chicago. To learn more, visit http://www.wef.org/UtilityoftheFuture or contact UtilityRecognition@wef.org. S
Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Emerging Issues and Water Resources Management. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!
Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at email@example.com or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.
__________________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)
Article 1 ________________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded
If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:
__________________________________________ (Credit Card Number)
The Cybersecurity Framework and its Use by Water and Wastewater Utilities Robert L. George
(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW/WW) 1. The tool that is identified as the “official guidance” for water and wastewater cybersecurity programs was developed by the a. b. c. d.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Department of Homeland Security. Water Environment Federation. American Water Works Association.
2. ___________ define(s) a “cyber asset” as one whose failure would, within 15 minutes, affect the reliable operation of the system. a. North American Electrical Reliability Corp. (NERC) critical infrastructure protection (CIP) Version 5 b. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) regulations c. State of New York regulations d. General Accounting Office (GAO) 12-92
3. A(n) ___________ “is a clearly defined rule or standard, composed of objective factors, which leaves little or no room for varying interpretation.” a. b. c. d.
standard guidance bright line rule administrative code
4. The water/wastewater cybersecurity guidance tool focuses primarily on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and __________ systems. a. b. c. d.
social media telemetry email and communications industrial control
5. Federally mandated water and wastewater cybersecurity requirements are a. b. c. d.
regulated by delegated state and local programs. administered by the EPA. identical to those applicable to the power industry. nonexistent.
__________________________________________ (Expiration Date)
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details to Lindsay Marten at Lindsay.Marten@stantec.com.
Reaching New Heights on the First Coast
University of Florida students working alongside the professionals.
Samantha Hanzel he FWEA First Coast Chapter held its ninth annual Don Maurer Memorial Putting Tournament this May at the World Golf Village in St. Augustine. Don Maurer was a passionate and dedicated engineer, friend, and mentor to many. He gave countless hours to the betterment of his community and our profession. Don was an integral part of FWEA throughout Florida, and especially the northeastern part of the state. It’s for this reason that the putting tournament was memorialized in his honor and a scholarship at University of Florida was created. The scholarship was fully endowed in 2014 and presents a scholarship to a deserving University of Florida student each semester. The event is a regional favorite and 2017 was a record-breaking year! We hosted over 120 golfers, 27 sponsors, 10 hole dignitaries, and seven student volunteers. We would like to thank our sponsors for their generous support: S CDM Smith S CH2M S Mott MacDonald S Jacobs Engineering Group S Constantine Engineering Group S McKim & Creed S Carter Verplanck S EnviroSales of Florida S Jones Edmunds S Degrove Surveyors S Bradshaw-Niles & Associates S EES S Wright Pierce S Heward S Sawcross S DRMP S RE Holland S Matthew Design Group S C&ES S ETM S Moss Kelley S Crom S Precon S Ortega Industrial S Petticoat Schmitt S Gannett Flemming S Meskel Engineering & Associates
Scholarship check presentation with Samantha Hanzel, Kathy Maurer, and Yanni Polematidis.
No pressure, but we need this to win!
Lining up the shot.
Team CH2M on the putting green.
The chapter has exciting networking and training events planned for the fall and spring: S Golf tournament cohosted with FSAWWA Region II at the end of August S Technical luncheon in October S Member appreciation event in December S TopGolf in the spring – NEW EVENT! The chapter steering committee meets quarterly. Please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org for more information about meetings and chapter activities. Samantha Hanzel is senior project engineer/project manager with Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. in Jacksonville.
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Central Florida Chapter Update
Jennifer Roque, Alyssa Filippi, and Tonya Kay he Central Florida Chapter (CFC) and its new officers are off to a running start! During one of our quarterly committee meetings, the chapter officers reorganized and restrategized for the 2017–2018 year. We are proud and grateful to announce the tremendous support of 17 companies for our new annual sponsorship campaign. We have an exciting and jam-packed calendar of events—some traditional and some newly incorporated events— including a Solar Bears Hockey Game Social. We are looking forward to the successful year ahead, full of engaging opportunities and community involvement.
Chapter Quarterly Luncheon The fiscal year started off with a successful technical luncheon, “Who Needs Pretreatment? Not Orange County Utilities With Operational
Aquifer Storage and Recovery,” which was held at the Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida and attracted over 60 attendees. The informative luncheon presented the methodology, challenges, and lessons learned by Orange County Utilities (OCU) utilizing an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system with alternative pretreatment for the removal of dissolved oxygen. Kim Kunihiro of OCU and Mary Fickert Thomas of WSP|Parsons Brinckerhoff touched on topics that included arsenic levels, aquifer conditioning, season conditions, injection rate, and water quality monitoring. Keep a lookout for our fall wastewater panel luncheon, where we will get the opportunity to learn about the current and dynamic challenges many central Florida utilities are facing and how they are preparing to overcome them.
Joining Forces! In addition to the technical luncheon event held in June, FWEA joined forces with the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) on July 13 in support of the 10th Annual ASCE Icebreaker held at the Orlando Science Center. Over 300 engineering professionals from around the central Florida area were in attendance. The CFC committee members provided a strong presence and were able to recruit several potential FWEA members.
The Central Florida Chapter’s most recent steering committee meeting held in July at Carollo’s office in downtown Orlando.
Posing at the FWEA Central Florida Chapter’s booth at the 10th Annual ASCE Icebreaker are (left to right) Megan Nelson, Greg Chomic, Satej Kulkarni, and Alex Solanilla.
Grab Your Clubs, It’s Tournament Time! The CFC held its 18th Annual Scholarship Golf Tournament on Friday, August 25, at Falcon’s Fire Golf Club. The proceeds raised from the tournament benefit the Gabe Delneky Scholarship Fund and the Norm Casey Scholarship Fund for local students who are pursuing engineering degrees at the University of Central Florida. We would like to thank our golf tournament sponsors for their continued support and we are already looking forward to next year’s tournament.
Upcoming Events We hope to see you all at our upcoming networking happy hour on Thursday, October 19, at 5:30 p.m. Join local industry professionals for a few bites to eat and receive one drink ticket with registration. Check the FWEA calendar of events for more details and location updates. Our next CFC Steering Committee meeting will be in October. If you are interested in getting involved, please contact Alyssa Filippi for more details at email@example.com. We hope to see you there! Alyssa Filippi, Tonya Kay, and Jennifer Roque, are chair, vice chair, and program coordinator, respectively, of the Central Florida Chapter. S
The FWEA Central Florida Chapter technical luncheon, with Kim Kunihiro from OCU and Mary Fickert Thomas with WSP|Parsons Brinckerhoff.
Participants in the 2016 golf tournament are (left to right) Lisa Prieto, Tonya Kay, Alyssa Filippi, Kristi Fries, and Kenny Blanton.
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
Time to Review Your Safety Training Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA
eptember is here, and with it comes the time when most municipal utilities will be completing their budgets for the fiscal year. We also usually see an increase of storms around our state at this time, whether it’s from a named tropical storm or just the increase in the afternoon rains that seem to pop up each day. I bring this up because this is when we see a rise in the number of manhours that are worked, which can lead to increases in injuries. As I’ve stated in previous articles about safety, we have a tendency to be complacent at work, especially as we have more time and experience on the job and are comfortable in
our roles. In October, the Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) releases a preliminary list of the 10 most frequently cited safety and health violations for the fiscal year, compiled from nearly 32,000 workplace inspections. One remarkable thing about the list is that it rarely changes, other than the order, which is compiled by most-to-least violations: 1. Fall protection 2. Hazard communication 3. Scaffolds 4. Respiratory protection 5. Lockout/tagout 6. Powered industrial trucks 7. Ladders 8. Machine guarding 9. Electrical wiring 10. Electrical, general requirements When I was the director for the operations and maintenance department for the utility I retired from, I would use this list to show how dangerous a job we have. Our safety group also ran an analysis on the recordable injuries that we had, and just like any other utility, you could see that most injuries are avoidable by taking an extra few seconds to review the work to be done and the work area before performing the task. We also noticed that the most frequently injured were the new to five-year employees. Steps were put into place to address this issue and there was a slight improvement, but programs only work if there is follow-through, even after improvements are made. One area that I always complained about, but was never properly addressed, was continued safety training for the more senior employees. It seems that many times we concentrate on the new hires or on a particular issue after a serious accident occurs. Taking the time to review standards to make changes in design, like installing guards to keep hands, feet, and other appendages away from moving machinery, or requiring training for new equipment to be part of the bid package, are ways to reduce injuries. All of this is important, but training is still needed, and being able to sit in a class with fellow employees discussing issues can’t be dismissed. I remember going to short schools, and it was great being able to discuss processes with other folks to learn how they do them. September is a good time to review
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
safety training because it gives you a chance to review the past year to see what areas need to be addressed. Long-term employees need refreshers (and it doesn’t have to be a 40-hour course), but if processes have changed, then they need to be covered. It has always been, and continues to be, the mission of FWPCOA to provide the best, most affordable training courses available to all operators in all areas in the utility industry—courses that are taught by professionals with the hands-on experience required for practical application in the real world of work, as well as preparation for licensure exams at all levels. So, pick up the phone and call our training office to see how FWPCOA can meet your training needs. In closing, I invite each of you to become an active part of your association by attending your regional meetings and attending a board of directors meeting. Visit our website and tell us what’s on your mind, whether it be positive or negative. Tell us your training needs and what additional areas of training you would like to see our association offer. We are here to serve. S
FSAWWA SPEAKING OUT
Improve Your Water Knowledge and Public Service at FSAWWA’s Fall Conference Grace Johns Chair, FSAWWA
’m looking forward to our Fall Conference, which will be held November 26-30 at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. This hotel is one of my favorites—it’s homey and luxurious—so don’t miss this chance to enjoy becoming a better water professional by speaking, listening, and networking with your peers. Last year’s conference attracted more than 1,500 water professionals representing a diversity of expertise and skills, including utility
managers, engineers, water plant operators, water distribution system operators, customer service providers, water technology vendors, chemists, geologists, economists, accountants, geographic information system and information management specialists, and anyone providing the chain of products and services that create safe and reliable water for all. This conference welcomes new participants and students to a variety of networking, learning, and competitive events. This year our theme is “Stewardship and Responsibility” and we expect at least 1,500 attendees, plus more than 150 exhibitors. Online and mail registration, and information on conference activities and sponsorship opportunities, are available at fsawwa.org/2017fallconference. Six workshops are featured at the conference on Monday, including:
1. 50 Shades of Gray Areas: Understanding the Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Water and Wastewater Sample Collection From Operators to Management 2. What is the Future for Chloramines? 3. Brain Drain Solutions: Innovative Ways to Fill Openings and Keep Current Staff 4. Utility Systems Symposium: Smart Cities Integration into the Utility Industry 5. Finance, Rates, and Perspectives on the Value of Water 6. The Utility’s Role in Environmental Stewardship in Light of EPA’s Revised Priorities These workshops are included in the full and Monday-only registrations. The Opening General Session (OGS) follows the workshops and, as in past years, will feature an engaging, interesting, and memorable
The 2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference will be held November 26-30 at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate.
The exhibit hall is always friendly and lively and provides easy opportunities to learn from other water professionals.
Each year the BBQ Challenge and Incoming Chair’s Reception gets bigger and better.
Fall Conference sessions are interesting and relevant to today’s water industry professionals.
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The University of Florida (UF) and the University of Central Florida (UCF) compete for first place in the nail-biting 2016 Water Bowl championship, with UCF ultimately winning.
The Students and Young Professionals Poster Session provides a glimpse into the future of our water profession.
keynote speaker. Also at OGS, we will recognize our AWWA Silver Drop Awardees and our 2017 Operators Scholarship recipients. We will be presenting the Regions’ Volunteer of the Year Awards and the Councils’ Awards of Excellence for Distinguished Service. Immediately following the OGS, the exhibit hall opens at 4 p.m., with a welcome reception until 6 p.m. Monday night is our annual BBQ Challenge and Incoming Chair’s Reception. This dinner party is a fun time for everyone and is included in the full and Monday-only registrations. Last year, nine teams competed for the honor of “Grand Champion.” The food was fabulous and so was the company. This year, we will be toasting Bill Young as our incoming chair. It will be quite a party and a fun networking opportunity. The day ends with an old-fashioned poker tournament to benefit the Roy Likins Scholarship Fund. Tuesday features technical sessions, including the following:
Dozens of water professionals show off their skills at the Backhoe Rodeo.
The Water For People Duck Race has been a very popular way to raise money to support the organization. Don’t miss this year’s event at the conference hotel.
S Reuse as a Drinking Water Supply Solution S Status of Membrane Treatment in Florida S New Alternative Water Supply Planning Methods S Water Quality Assessment in the Water Distribution System S Communicating With Stakeholders S Water Pipe Replacement: State of the Industry in Florida S New Water Treatment Methods and Design Options You can observe a variety of competitions throughout Tuesday, including: S Backhoe Rodeo S “Best of the Best” People’s Choice Water Tasting Contest S Iron Ductile Tap and Fun Tap competitions S Students “Water Bowl” S Meter Madness S Students and Young Professionals Poster Session
Don’t know what some of these are? Then come to the conference and find out how our water professionals have fun while fine-tuning their skills. More networking opportunities on Tuesday include the Students and Young Professionals Luncheon at 11:30 am and the Exhibitor “Meet and Greet” at the exhibit hall from 4 to 6 p.m. The Water For People Duck Race starts at 5:30 p.m. on Tuesday at the hotel’s Lazy River. Purchase a “ride” on one or more of our rubber duckies for $5 each, or five rides for $20. All duck-ride sales go directly to Water For People, a charitable organization with the following mission: “To see communities break free from the cycle of poverty and spend time growing, learning, and thriving, instead of walking for water and fighting off illness. We're working to reach Everyone Forever with safe water and sanitation.” Technical sessions continue on Wednesday, including: Continued on page 36
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
Continued from page 35 S Today’s Issues and Challenges in Utility Management S Addressing Water Quality Challenges in Raw Water and at the Treatment Plant S Solutions for Replacing Aging Water Distribution Systems S Water Conservation Symposium
The FSAWWA Annual Business Luncheon and Awards Ceremony begins at noon. This is an easy opportunity to learn more about FSAWWA and meet many of our active volunteers. After the luncheon, the Water Use Efficiency Division meeting will be held, and anyone can attend and learn more about water conservation and efficiency. The conference concludes on Thursday
with the annual Fall Conference Golf Tournament at the ChampionsGate National Golf Course. This tourney is always well-attended and is a great opportunity to golf with colleagues in a beautiful, relaxed setting. Sponsorship opportunities are available and all proceeds benefit the Roy Likins Scholarship Fund. We look forward to seeing you at our 2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference! S
Customer Service Committee Our first FSAWWA Customer Service Committee meeting was held by telephone on July 25, with 10 FSAWWA members participating. The committee’s new officers are: S Chair – Sandra Anderson S Vice Chair – Georges Gonzalez S Secretary – Paul Haskins
The Iron Ductile Tap competition is fun to watch.
The committee’s next meeting is via teleconference on October 12 at 10 a.m. All FSAWWA members with an interest in customer service and billing are urged to join in. Please email Paul Haskins at haskinsp@HillsboroughCounty.org to be added to the email list for meeting updates.
Growing Awareness of Water Treatment Methods, says National Public Opinion Study Pitcher or end-of-tap filters have highest recognition Awareness of water treatment methods increased over the past two years among consumers in the United States, according to a national public opinion study conducted for the Water Quality Association, with 92 percent of respondents aware of in-pitcher or end-of-tap filters, up from 84 percent in 2015. The number of households that were aware of filters in refrigerators rose slightly, from 83 percent in 2015 to 84 percent this year. Percentages do not add to 100 percent because of multiple responses. “Awareness is essential to making good decisions about water quality,” said Paul Undesser, WQA executive director. “A growing knowledge of water quality and water treatment options means consumers can
make better decisions about the water they drink.” Conducted in early 2017, the study, by Applied Research-West Inc., also found that a growing number of respondents (23 percent) said reverse osmosis was the most effective form of water treatment, up from 19 percent in 2015; ultrafiltration was next at 22 percent, up from 14 percent two years ago. A total of 1,711 adults over the age of 18 and living in private households were interviewed, using a random sampling procedure. Of those who purchased a water filtration system, 36 percent said they were concerned about whether their tap water is safe to drink, up from 27 percent in 2015. A similar number (35 percent) said they were concerned about the health risks associated with
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
tap water, up from 31 percent two years earlier. The WQA released the latest results of its survey in connection with National Water Quality Month, which is celebrated every August as a time to call attention to water quality issues and ways consumers can help safeguard water supplies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires municipalities and public water systems to make available to their customers a copy of their annual drinking water quality report, also known as the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) by July 1 of each year. The survey found that 62 percent of households said they did not receive, or did know if they received, their CCR, up from 56 percent two years ago. S
Cybersecurity: Going Beyond Protection to Boost Resiliency Don Dickinson High-profile cyberattacks and security breaches have become so commonplace that they might be viewed as an unavoidable cost of living in the digital age—despite the tremendous cost and adverse effect on consumers and businesses. The challenge of protecting sensitive data and cyber assets becomes even more daunting as the threat landscape constantly evolves and new attack capabilities emerge. Cyberthreats take on greater significance when the target is critical infrastructure, such as the electrical grid, a transportation system, or a water or wastewater utility. Although security professionals continue to expand and strengthen security profiles, cybercriminals continue to find ways to exploit vulnerabilities in even the best security plan. As a result, a comprehensive plan must go beyond protection strategies and include provisions for detecting and responding to a potentially harmful cyberevent to minimize its immediate impact on operations and public safety. Further, a security plan must include measures to recover from a cyberevent to minimize the long-term impact on business continuity. Going beyond protection boosts a utility’s resiliency and enhances sustainability, ensuring the availability and reliability of essential water and wastewater operations.
In February 2014 the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) issued the Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity. The purpose of the framework is to help organizations manage cybersecurity risks in a cost-effective way based on the business needs of the critical infrastructure sectors, including water and wastewater systems.
The New Normal Recent high-profile cyberattacks and security breaches are a reminder that managing cyber risks is now the norm in the digital age. On the cyber battlefield there is both good news and bad news. Per the SonicWall 2017 Annual Threat Report1, the good news is that, in 2016, security teams leveraged groundbreaking technologies to fend off attacks that would have devastated their organizations in years past. The bad news is that cybercriminals proved to be exceptionally innovative as well, wreaking havoc in the cyberworld, with attacks on targets ranging from hospitals to the Central Intelligence Agency. There is even evidence of cyberactivities potentially impacting the 2016 presidential election in the United States. Despite the endless string of cyberevents that have been reported—and countless others that were not—there are several worth noting.
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Attacks Get Bigger In September 2016 Yahoo reported that data associated with at least 500 million user accounts had been stolen in late 2014.2 This event was considered to be one of the largest cybersecurity breaches ever; that is, until December 2016, when Yahoo announced that more than one billion accounts were compromised in a 2013 attack! The two attacks are the largest known security breaches of one company’s computer network.3 Not only have attacks increased in scale, they continue to evolve, presenting new and more challenging threats for security professionals.
Botnets In October 2016 an automated attack using Internet of Things (IoT) devices caused a tremendous disruption to large portions of the internet. The IoT is the internetworking of physical devices, vehicles (also referred to as "connected devices" and "smart devices"), buildings, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enable these objects to collect and exchange data. In the attack, malicious software (malware) known as Mirai was used to create a botnet—a network of internet computers (robots
or “bots”) being controlled as a group without the owner’s knowledge. A botnet can overwhelm targeted devices or websites with communications that ultimately shut down the device or website. This type of attack is known as a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. The target of the attack was Dyn, an internet infrastructure firm. The attack was one of the largest ever seen and impacted web services for some of the best-known online sites that use Dyn’s services. Interestingly, the botnet was mostly IoT devices, such as digital video recorders, webcams, and routers. A troubling aspect of this and other DDoS attacks is that perpetrators do not need extensive knowledge to carry out such an attack—even on a large scale. Perhaps the good news is that the result of the attack was only a disruption of internet service, albeit a significant one. Other types of cyber threats can have much more harmful results.
Ransomware Ransomware is malware that blocks access to a computer or computer system until a sum of money is paid. In April 2016 Michigan’s third-largest electric and water utility, Lansing Board of Water & Light (BW&L) was a victim of a ransomware attack. The utility’s information technology (IT) systems, including administrative systems and online customer services, had to be taken offline for a week, along with the online system for reporting power outages.4 The BW&L reportedly paid ransomware attackers $25,000 to regain control of its system; however, administrators have since reported that the actual cost of the attack was $2.4 million when considering all costs related to the attack.5 The use of ransomware has increased dramatically. Per the SonicWall report, there was an exponential increase in the number of ransomware attacks, from nearly 4 million attacks in 2015 to 638 million in 2016.6 Losing access to a utility’s IT network due to a ransomware attack is a dire problem, and losing control of a critical process would be disastrous. Although this attack did not cause an interruption in service, it may be a harbinger of things to come, and a reminder of how a cyberevent can negatively impact utility operations. A security plan that reduces both the likelihood and the potential impact of a cyberevent enables business continuity and sustainability.
Social Engineering Even the best security plan can be compromised by the click of the mouse. The ran-
somware malware that took control of the BW&L business system was part of a phishing attack. Phishing is a form of social engineering, which is the use of deception to manipulate someone to willingly provide confidential information. Cybercriminals are always looking to exploit human weaknesses to gain unauthorized access to a network, which is much easier than finding vulnerabilities in the network. Spear phishing is an email that targets a specific individual or organization and appears to be a legitimate communication from a trusted source. When the receiver opens the email or clicks on a link, malware such as ransomware is introduced. Once a threat actor has access to the network, it is not difficult to acquire information that will aid in a future attack. Typically, when that attack occurs, it’s too late to do anything about it. If the target of that attack is a water or wastewater utility, the results could be potentially catastrophic—for the utility and its customers.
Cybersecurity Going Forward Cybersecurity will become only more challenging in the future as the demand for more data drives more interconnectivity with the emergence of IoT. Already, there are several billion IoT devices connected to the internet, and it’s predicted that tens of billions of devices will be connected in just a few years. The IoT will change lives in ways that can’t yet be imagined. The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) will change industry and manufacturing as the fourth Industrial Revolution, with this one driven by dramatic technological advances in IoT technologies and embedded intelligence as they become mainstream. The IIoT will revolutionize organizations by enabling the acquisition and accessibility of far greater amounts of data, at far greater speeds, and far more efficiently than before. A number of innovative utilities have started to implement IIoT by leveraging intelligent, connected devices, such as the smart water grid, intelligent water, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), and asset management, to name just a few. The common denominator among all of these is data. “Big data” is already transforming the world and it will also transform the water industry. Data analytics have the potential to identify significant opportunities for process improvements, increased efficiencies, lower life cycle costs, enhanced regulatory compliance, and improved customer service, but more interconnectivity will make cybersecurity all the more challenging as evidenced by the Dyn cyberattack referenced previously.
Protecting Critical Infrastructure A key component in protecting critical infrastructure from cyberattack is protecting the automated systems used to monitor and control critical processes. Systems that control water and wastewater processes are known by many names: S Industrial control system (ICS) S Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) S Distributed control system (DCS) S Process control system (PCS) These are just a few of the terms that fall under the general category of operational technology (OT). Increasingly, OT systems and networks are coming under attack. Malware, such as Stuxnet, Havex, and BlackEnergy, which specifically target OT systems and networks, have been developed and used to attack critical infrastructure. Along with specialized malware, threat actors can employ a variety of tactics to penetrate defenses for critical infrastructure. One example is the December 2015 attack on the Ukrainian power grid that left hundreds of thousands without power. It was the first publically acknowledged cyberattack to result in a power outage.7 In addition to BlackEnergy malware, the attackers used spear phishing emails to gain access to the target’s business system and harvest credentials to gain access to the OT network via a virtual private network (VPN). Once the attackers were in the OT network, they employed multiple tools and technology to alter OT devices and process functions. Finally, a telephone DDoS attack on the target’s call center prevented customers from reporting outages. It’s clear that the perpetrators of this attack were motivated and highly skilled, and it should serve as a powerful reminder that the threat to critical infrastructure cannot be ignored. Owners and operators of OT systems controlling critical infrastructure must be aware of these threats and take steps to manage cyber risks. Although the primary goal of an OT security plan is to prevent a cyberevent from impacting critical infrastructure, even the most secure systems can be, and have been, compromised. A comprehensive security plan must go beyond the implementation of OT protection strategies. By planning its response to, and recovery from, a cyberevent, a utility increases its resiliency, while reducing the likelihood of potential fines and litigation.
Sustainable Infrastructure A comprehensive security plan is essential for increasing a utility’s resiliency, and ultimately, Continued on page 40
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
Continued from page 39 its sustainability. It’s important to put OT security into the broader context of sustainability. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promotes sustainable infrastructure within the water sector, which is critical to providing the American public with clean and safe water. The EPA’s Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Sustainability Policy encourages a range of practices that support sustainable water and wastewater systems. These practices include asset management, energy management, and effective utility management. In many cases, OT security is a foundational element of a utility’s overall resilience and sustainability. For more information on the EPA’s sustainable water infrastructure initiative, go to https://www.epa.gov/sustainablewater-infrastructure.
Asset Management Asset management is maintaining a desired level of service for what an organization wants its assets to provide at the lowest life cycle cost.9 Traditionally, assets are thought of as being pumps, motors, pipes, or other types of equipment, with predictable probabilities of failure. The consequences of equipment failure and the cost to replace a failed asset are rather straightforward. The OT cyberassets are now a fundamental part of water and wastewater processes and should be considered critical assets essential to sustained performance. Asset management includes protection of critical assets; as a result, cybersecurity is an important facet of asset management and essential to meeting commitments of a desired level of service to customers, regulators, and stakeholders.
Effective Utility Management
Effective utility management (EUM) is an initiative started in 2008 and is supported by a coalition of major water sector associations, including EPA. The EUM is the most widely recognized water sector utility management program in the U.S.10 This approach for utility management is based on the 10 attributes of an effectively managed utility. The EPA publication, “Effective Utility Management, A Primer for Water and Wastewater Utilities,” outlines the initiative and is available at www.epa.gov. The 10 attributes of an effectively managed utility listed in the EUM primer are: 1. Product Quality 2. Customer Satisfaction 3. Employee/Leadership Development 4. Operation Optimization 5. Financial Viability 6. Infrastructure Strategy/Performance 7. Enterprise Resiliency 8. Community Resiliency 9. Water Resource Sustainability 10. Stakeholder Understanding/Support
Cybersecurity is an extremely important facet of protecting critical infrastructure and one that will become more challenging as IoT and IIoT become an everyday reality. Now is the time to establish and implement a comprehensive, utilitywide security plan that focuses on resiliency and sustainability—not just protection.
A common theme throughout the ten attributes is resiliency and sustainability. Cybersecurity is directly relevant in several of the attributes, such as enterprise resiliency and infrastructure strategy and performance; however, cybersecurity and protection of OT cyberassets play a role in many of the other attributes as well. Regardless of one’s role, it is beneficial to have an awareness of how cyberevents can impact a utility’s overall resilience and sustainability.
References 1, 5, 6
SonicWall. “2017 SonicWall Annual Threat Report.” Web. https://www.sonicwall.com/whitepaper/ 2017-sonicwall-annual-threat-report812 1810/. Seth Fiergerman, “Yahoo Says 500 Million Accounts Stolen.” CNN Tech. Sept. 23, 2016. Web. http://money.cnn.com/2016/09/22/technology/yahoo-data-breach/. Vindu Goel, Nicole Perlroth, “Yahoo Says 1 Billion User Accounts Were Hacked.” The New York Times. Dec. 14, 2016. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/14/tech nology/yahoo-hack.html?_r=1. John Zorabedian, “Electric Utility Hit by Ransomware Shuts Down IT Systems for a Week.” Naked Security. May 4, 2016. Web. https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2016/05 /04/electric-utility-hit-by-ransomwareshuts-down-it-systems-for-a-week/. Electricity Information Sharing and Analysis Center (E-ISAC). “Analysis of the Cyber Attack on the Ukrainian Power Grid: Defense Use Case.” March 18, 2016. Web. http://www.nerc.com/pa/CI/ESISAC/Docu m e n t s / E - I S AC _ S A N S _ U k r a i n e _ DUC_18Mar2016.pdf. Environmental Protection Agency. “Asset Management: A Best Practices Guide.” April 2008. Web. https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi/ P1000LP0.PDF?Dockey=P1000LP0.PDF. National Institute of Standards and Technology. “Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity, Version 1.0.” Feb. 12, 2014. Web. http://www.nist.gov/cyberframework/ upload/cybersecurity-framework-021214final.pdf. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Effective Utility Management Primer.” January 2017. Web. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/ files/201701/documents/eum_primer_ final_508-january2017.pdf.
Don Dickinson is the senior business development manager for water management with Phoenix Contact USA in Harrisburg, Penn. S
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
Pull Up a Chair
The ProFlex Style 790 low-headloss check valve from Proco Products provides rapid dispersion of head pressures, and with its low cracking pressure, it prevents upstream flooding. The inline design allows the valve to be installed without having to do any modifications to existing structures or pre-install planning. The fold-away design of the inner sleeve allows for a near full-port flow, allowing for quick drainage. It will allow for passive flow operation, making it fit for combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, and outfalls. It’s available in many elastomers, making the valve compatible with virtually all weather and service conditions. Its neoprene elastomer is offered with an algae- and barnacle-resistant compound. Internal expanding clamps are available in 304 and 316 stainless steel or carbon steel.( www.procoproducts.com)
Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA
am sure that many of you grew up under similar circumstances as me. Unless it was my birthday, I don’t remember my mother or father asking me what I wanted for supper. My siblings and I ate whatever my mom cooked or we didn’t eat at all. There wasn’t a smorgasbord of options, but it did not seem to matter, generally; we had worked up an appetite and it was all delicious. The rare exception was if we went out to eat, and we either chose from a menu or went to a buffet. Maybe it was my parents who taught me to “waste not, want not” or told me that there are starving children in some country, but now, whenever I go to a buffet, I ask myself, “Am I going to get my money’s worth?” Both FWEA and WEF are like a buffet. There are a lot of good things to choose from, and not everything is for everybody, but there is something good for any who choose to sit down at the table. Our two organizations have a lot to offer, regardless of your taste. They provide you with a great opportunity to connect with water professionals on the local, state, national, and even international levels. As a member you have access to committees, task forces, and governmental affairs information, along with the highest-quality training through specialty conferences, seminars, webcasts, and distance learning opportunities, and an average of over 200 technical publications per year. The FWEA and WEF are truly all things water and they promote it through such programs as the Value of Water Coalition, Work for Water, and the Stockholm Junior Water Prize, to name a few. These organizations provide a platform for water sector innovation and promote a holistic approach to water management. An important part of this effort is the Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT), which is a multipronged initiative undertaken by WEF and the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WE&RF). Overall, LIFT includes the following components: • Technology Evaluations – Facility and industry end users share the cost of conducting demonstrations to accelerate adoption of new technologies (WE&RF lead)
• People and Policy – Benchmarking how individual utilities accomplish research and development and identification of resources and policies needed to implement them effectively (WEF lead) • Communication – Training, education, and outreach (WEF lead) • Informal Forum for Research and Development – Managers and individuals responsible for technology identification and deployment share experiences, activities, and interests (Facility/Industry lead) In addition to these items, the partnerships developed the blueprint for utilities that defined the evolving environment, economic, and social roles that they are playing in our communities. Our facilities today produce clean water, recover nutrients, and have the potential to reduce dependence upon fossil fuel through the production and use of renewable energy. The “Utilities of the Future” are green factories that reduce costs and increase revenue, while becoming more sustainable and positive influences for the environment. The things that were once considered to be something to be discharged or disposed of have now become beneficial resources. The global collection of member associations, including FWEA and WEF, provide water quality professionals around the world with the latest in water quality education, training, and business opportunities. The diverse membership includes scientists, engineers, regulators, academicians, utility managers, plant operators, and other professionals. Together we use this collective knowledge to further a shared goal of improving water quality, not only in Florida, but around the world. But the question again is, “Are you getting your money’s worth?” These and many more items are on this great smorgasbord of opportunities known as FWEA and WEF. You are more than welcome to pick and choose the items you want to fill your plate. In addition, put into these organizations as much of your time, money, and effort as you see fit, but please do not go away hungry without taking a taste of the opportunities presented. As my dad often told my brother, the picky eater, “Try it, you might like it!” S
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
The Sensorex SD7500 Universal Differential pH Probe extends the working lifetime of sensors, reducing maintenance frequency without compromising accuracy and reliability. Universal compatibility with virtually any brand of conventional pH transmitter enables easy upgrade of existing sensors for industrial and municipal wastewater treatment and neutralization, metal finishing and plating, wet fume scrubbers, chemical processing, and other online water quality and process applications. The probe measures process pH differentially with three electrode sensors: a process pH electrode, a pH reference (actually a second measuring pH electrode in a known pH 7 buffered cell solution protected by a replaceable salt bridge reference junction), and a titanium ground electrode. The result is a highly accurate differential pH measurement that is virtually unaffected by ground loop measurement errors. The three-electrode design, coupled with durable Ryton® Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) body construction, resists process contamination. The doublejunction construction of the replaceable salt bridge further guards against fouling, Continued on page 49
FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! September 11-14 ......Backflow Tester ........................................St. Petersburg......$375/405 11-15 ......Wastewater Collection B ........................Osteen ..............$225/255 18-20 ......Backflow Repair........................................Osteen ..............$275/305 18-22 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector....Jacksonville ........$350/375 29 ......Backflow Tester recert*** ........................Osteen ..............$85/115
October 2-6 ......Water Distribution Level 3 ......................Osteen ..............$225/255 2-6 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ............Osteen ..............$225/255 5 ......Backflow Tester recert ............................Pensacola ..........$85/115 16-20 ......Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ................Osteen ..............$350/380 16-20 ......Wastewater Collection C, B ....................Orlando ............$225/255 27 ......Backflow Tester recert*** ........................Osteen ..............$85/115
November 6-9 ......Backflow Tester ........................................Osteen ..............$375/405 13-16 ......Backflow Tester* ......................................St. Petersburg......$375/405 24 ......Backflow Tester recert*** ........................Osteen ..............$85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or firstname.lastname@example.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona
You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.
** Evening classes *** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal â€¢ September 2017
Tank Engineering And Management
Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983
EQUIPMENT & SERVICES DIRECTORY
EQUIPMENT & SERVICES DIRECTORY
Motor & Utility Services, LLC
Showcase Your Company in the Engineering or Equipment & Services Directory Contact Mike Delaney at
CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 email@example.com • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors
CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. firstname.lastname@example.org
P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Water Plant Operator – Class A, B, & C - Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee - Solid Waste Worker II & III - Public Service Worker I - Streets - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.
Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com. Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.
City of Margate The City of Margate is currently accepting applications for the following positions: • Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator • Senior Engineer Please visit our website at www.margatefl.com – Job Opportunities - for complete job descriptions. Applications may be downloaded from the website. Completed, original applications must be submitted to City of Margate, Human Resources Department, 5790 Margate Blvd., Margate, FL 33063.
Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com. Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.
CITY OF WEST PALM BEACH Electrician Electrician Assistant Senior Project Engineer Wastewater Plant Operator I,II, and III Wastewater Plant Shift Supervisor Public Utilities Electrical Operations Coordinator Utilities Maintenance Leader (Stormwater) Utilities Maintenance Worker I (Collections) For additional information and to apply for any of the listed positions please visit our website at http://www.wpb.org/Departments/Human-Resources/Home
Florida Wastewater Class “C” Licensed Wastewater Plant Operator Plant operator responsible for operating process equipment & controls for biosolids heat drying facility located in PB County. Duties include: meeting production goals, safety & environmental compliance, light maintenance plus plant housekeeping. Must demonstrate a positive team attitude and be mechanically inclined. Current Fl. Driver’s license, HS equivalent a must, Class “C” Wastewater License preferred. Requires shift work, mandatory OT, good communication, safety first attitude and good writing and math skills. Competitive pay and good benefits offered. Send resume to: email@example.com Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
WATER/WASTEWATER OPERATOR POLK COUNTY $18.00 to $20.00 (Hourly); SCHEDULED WORK DAYS -WEDNESDAY – SUNDAY (do not apply if unable to work this schedule). Class C Water/Wastewater Operator License “required”. Ability to work shift/on call work and respond to emergency call-out. Must possess a Valid FL Class E driver license. Must pass applicable pre-employment testing, background and credit checks. All interested applicants must submit a resume to firstname.lastname@example.org in order to be considered for employment.
SCADA Network Administrator Responsible for the configuration and support of the City’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network, and networked systems. Responsibilities include installing and maintaining control network hardware and software, monitoring and troubleshooting systems to insure availability and performance, maintaining user authentication and authorization, planning and implementing network security measures. Apply at www.ClermontFL.gov under City Jobs.
Field Service Technician Hydra-Service (S) Inc. is a leader in the Water and Wastewater Industry and is looking to add a field service technician to our team. The ideal candidate will have a minimum of 3 years’ experience in trouble shooting controls, hydraulics and mechanical issues at lift stations or water/waste water treatment facilities. The candidate must also live in or be willing to re-locate to the greater Tampa Bay area. A clean driving record is required. We offer an excellent compensation and benefits package. Compensation will vary based on experience. Hydra Service (S) Inc. is a drug-free work place and an equal opportunity employer. If you are interested please send a Resume to Tim@HydraService.net
Join Our Team! Water Wastewater Engineer III Wanted! Mathews Consulting, a Baxter & Woodman company, has a rewarding opportunity for a full-time Water/Wastewater Engineer III in our West Palm Beach, FL office. We are looking for a Water/Wastewater Engineer III with 5+ years experience in managing projects, developing business, serving clients and designing pump stations, water and wastewater projects. The successful applicant will be provided with a rewarding combination of design and fieldwork assignments and excellent career development opportunities. To apply visit www.baxterwoodman.com, Career Center.
Mechanical Design Engineer II Complete system layout and design with GA drawings, schematics & diagrams. Perform calculations and select system components. Accurately complete drawings, bills of material. Review component interaction along with preparing material requests for purchased items. Expert level knowledge of mechanical design including machine design, specification of motors, gears & mechanical systems. Must have experience in a manufacturing environment. Proficient with AutoCAD & Inventor. Some travel is required. Bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering; & five to ten years related experience. We offer a competitive salary and benefits package. Apply at https://tinyurl.com/y7d8axqv or www.merrick-inc.com
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
UTILITY SYSTEMS ENGINEER $81,834 - $138,265. How would you like to live and work in the beautiful Florida Keys? One of the Keys premier employers is searching for the right professional with the perfect balance of Engineering and Operations knowledge and education in water & wastewater utility systems operations. This position would perform advanced level professional work involving a variety of engineering and management tasks related to the development, implementation, and operation of water and wastewater programs and procedures, as well as the design and development of FKAA water, wastewater, and reclaimed water improvements. We are looking for a well rounded Professional Engineer, who is detail oriented, yet sees and understands the “big picture”. Applicants who fit this description with the following qualifications should apply: Civil, Chemical or Environmental Engineering degree, Florida Professional Engineering license; supplemented by and a minimum of 10 years previous experience and/or training that include progressively more responsible positions in a water utility, governmental or related agency or firm with a minimum of five (5) years of significant supervisory responsibility. Placement within the salary range will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at: https://workforcenow.adp.com/jobs/apply/posting.html?client=FKAA &ccId=19000101_000001&type=MP&lang=en_US EEO, VPE, ADA
Water Plant Operator Trainee The North Springs Improvement District is seeking a water plant operator trainee. Under direct supervision, follows a defined training program in water treatment to become a Licensed Operator; performs daily tasks and maintenance of the water facility; and performs related duties as assigned. Please email Mireya Ortega at MireyaO@nsidfl.gov with your application and resume.
P o s itio ns Wante d JOSEPH HEWITT – Holds a Florida C Wastewater license with one year experience. Has passed the C Water test and applied for license but needs time in plant. Has experience in maintenance, pumps and lift stations. Prefers the northeast area of the state. Contact at 4565 Mayflower Street, Middleburg, Fl. 32068. 904-760-2694
Mechanical Designer Produce accurate & detailed manufacturing drawings to support current & new design concepts that meet functional and performance specifications driven by engineering. Must be able to take project responsibility from concept to completion. Proficient in AutoCAD & Inventor.
BILLY WHITE – Holds a Florida C Wastewater license with 21 years experience and also holds an Industrial Pretreatment Certificate. Presently employed and is seeking additional work in a package plant position. Prefers Orange, Polk or Seminole County. Contact at 16400 Oviedo Grove Circle, Oviedo, Fl. 3
Associate's degree from a two-year college; and three-five years years of related experience and/or training. We offer excellent benefits & salaries commensurate with your experience. Apply at https://tinyurl.com/y7w3qbck or www.merrick-inc.com
New Products Continued from page 42 even in highly aggressive chemical environments. Automatic temperature compensation with an accurate Pt1000 RTD ensures pH measurement accuracy over a wide temperature range. Differential pH sensors are designed so the double-junction salt bridge and the buffered reference cell solution can be replaced in the field by onsite operators at a much lower cost than total sensor replacement. Compared to conventional combination sensors, differential pH sensors provide measurements of greater stability, over longer periods of time, with less downtime and maintenance. Typical sensor service lifetime ranges from three to five years. With a self-powered preamp and combination sensor output, the probe can be used with most conventional online pH/ORP transmitters and controllers. This enables drop-in replacement in existing process installations, as well as easy integration into new systems. Manufactured in the U.S., the probe is backed by a twoyear limited warranty. (www.sensorex.com.}
Model 888 silent wafer check valves from Flomatic Corp. is certified by NSF/ANSI Standard 61 for drinking water systems. All sizes and models are constructed with EPDM elastomers. The valve is designed for simple flange-supported installation and will operate equally well in any position. It is suitable for dual-flange ANSI 125 and 250 mounting, except for 8- and 10-in. sizes. The convex inlet, double-guided, spring-loaded poppet system maximizes efficiency and reduces water hammer. It has an easy field-exchangeable internal system. (www.flomatic.com)
LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.
Hydro International has launched the Hydro MicroScreenTM rotating belt screen, offering wastewater treatment plants an advanced and versatile alternative to a primary clarifier, with less footprint, power use, and installation costs. With its patented continuous rotating belt screen, the product effectively separates solids from influent wastewater, using just 10 percent of the footprint of a conventional primary clarifier and only 20 percent of the power. It’s easy to install, saving the construction and installation costs of building or refurbishing a primary clarifier, and its small footprint frees up much-needed plant space for other uses. As an advanced treatment solution, the belt screen not only achieves between 50 and 60 percent total suspended solids removal, it also offers operators the versatility to improve their downstream process efficiency. (www.hydro-int.com)
The Endura XL grease interceptor from Canplas is available in 75- and 100-gpm models. The unit has a dynamic inlet baffle that provides service access to the flow control. It includes an access system rated to AASHTO H20, a common extension riser solution for both models, and an outlet system that minimizes the risk of fats, oils, and grease being discharged downstream. Both units have dual access covers, which allow for ideal visibility for access and maintenance. A remote pumping option can be accommodated should the installation require it. (www.enduraxl.com)
The Ferro Check portable magnetometer from Spectro Scientific provides accuracy and convenience in measurement of total ferrous wear particulates in lubricating fluids. FerroCheck enables users to perform accurate measurements of ferrous wear particles, both in the field and in the laboratory, where it can be used to analyze gearbox, transmission, and other fluids in fleet and industrial maintenance applications. The product works by sensing disruption of a magnetic field that is generated due to the presence of ferrous debris, specifically iron, in the oil. Operation involves simply drawing the sample, placing it in the instrument, and using the touchscreen to complete the analysis and view the results. Nonlaboratory personnel can operate it with no solvents or sample preparation required. The lightweight unit weighs less than 5 lbs, is compact, and battery-operated for fast, 30-second testing of small samples. The magnetometer can detect particles from nanometers to millimeters in size and has a sensitivity range of 0-2500 ppm with a limit of detection of less than 5 ppm. Results are highly repeatable (+/- 5 ppm at concentrations of 0–50 ppm). Coupled with one of Spectro Scientific’s condition-based maintenance systems (MiniLab Series, MicroLab Series, and ViscCheck 3000 Series), FerroCheck is part of a comprehensive solution that ensures asset availability and longevity. When performing measurements onsite, it eliminates the wait associated with laboratory-based fluid analysis and enables users to make immediate maintenance decisions that reduce unexpected downtime and costs and eliminate potential catastrophic machine failures. S (www.spectrosci.com)
Florida Water Resources Journal • September 2017
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Editorial Calendar January ..........Wastewater Treatment February..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ................Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ............Disinfection; Water Quality September ......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ..........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November........Water Treatment December........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.
Blue Planet ........................................................51 CEU Challenge....................................................29 Crom ..................................................................25 Data Flow ..........................................................27 Ferguson ............................................................37 Florida Aquastore ................................................7 FSAWWA CONFERENCE Calendar ............................................................13 Registration ......................................................14 Poker/Golf..........................................................15 Call for Entries ..................................................16 Student/Young Professionals Events ..................17 FWPCOA Training ..............................................43 FWRC ....................................................................9 Hudson Pump ....................................................21 Lakeside ............................................................41 Stacon ..................................................................2 UF Treeo ............................................................33 Xylem ................................................................52
Test Yourself Answer Key From page 12 1. A) Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule Per information on the UCMR website: “EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) to collect data for contaminants that are suspected to be present in drinking water and do not have health-based standards set under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).”
2. C) may warrant regulation under the SDWA. Per information on the UCMR website: “The CCL is a list of contaminants that: • Are not regulated by the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations • Are known or anticipated to occur at public water systems • May warrant regulation under the SDWA.”
3. C) Laboratories must have EPA approval for UCMR testing to provide these analyses. Per information on the UCMR website: “All laboratories conducting analyses for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) must be approved by EPA.”
4. B) All large (serving more than 10,000 people) community water systems and nontransient/noncommunity systems, plus a nationally representative sampling of small systems Per the Fourth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule - General Information Fact Sheet (available on the UCMR website): “All community water systems (CWS) and nontransient/noncommunity water systems
(NTNCWS) serving more than 10,000 people (i.e., large systems) are required to monitor . . . of the CWS and NTNCWS serving 10,000 or fewer people (i.e., small systems): A nationally representative set of 800 randomly selected SW and GWUDI small systems will monitor for cyanotoxins. A different set of 800 randomly selected small systems will monitor for the 20 additional contaminants.”
5. B) access the data, review, and approve it. Per information on the UCMR 4 website: “Reporting monitoring results • Within 120 days from sample collection: Laboratories post monitoring results to EPA's electronic reporting system, SDWARS. • Within 60 days from laboratory posting of data: PWS serving more than 10,000 people review and approve data.”
6. C) Only surface water and GWUDI systems Per the Fourth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule - General Information Fact Sheet: “All large surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI) systems will monitor for cyanotoxins and the 20 additional contaminants . . . a nationally representative set of 800 randomly selected surface water and GWUDI small systems will monitor for cyanotoxins.”
7. A) access EPA’s SDWARS to review and update contact information, sampling location, and monitoring schedule. Per information on the UCMR 4 website: “By Dec. 31, 2017: • PWS serving more than 10,000 people are required to report contact information to SDWARS • PWS serving more than 10,000 people are required to review and if necessary revise: • sampling location information • monitoring schedule in SDWARS”
September 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal
8. A) collect samples for EPA, using sampling kits and following sampling instructions provided by the agency's support contractor. Per information on the UCMR 4 website: “Small water systems selected for monitoring will need to collect samples for EPA, using sampling kits and following sampling instructions provided by the agency's support contractor. The EPA will arrange for sample analysis and will review monitoring results for small PWS.”
9. D) large participating PWS pay for their analytical costs, and EPA pays for analytical costs for small PWS. Per the Fourth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule - General Information Fact Sheet: “As with previous UCMRs, large PWS pay for their own testing. The EPA pays for the analytical costs for the selected small systems.”
10. B) The EPA requires a Tier 3 annual notification, allowing results to be included in the annual water quality report (Consumer Confidence Report) Per information on the UCMR 4 website: “The PWS that are subject to UCMR are also subject to the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) and the Public Notification (PN) rules. The CCR rule requires that community water systems (CWS) report monitoring results when unregulated contaminants are detected (40 CFR 141.151).”
All information for this test is available on EPA’s UCMR website and links on the site: www.epa.gov/dwucmr and 40 CFR Part 141 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 4).