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News and Features 7 46 47 54 58

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

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For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Technical Articles 4 How to Use Advanced Modeling and Animation to Evaluate Water Quality Improvements—Brian T. White, Phillip J. Locke, and Daniel H. Cote 12 Achieving Simultaneous Total Organic Carbon Removal and Clarification Under Alkaline Conditions— John F. Williamson, Denise M. Horner, Ty McGown, and Cale Mages 32 Rising Tides and Sinking Brines: Managing the Threat of Salt Water Intrusion—Andrew W. McThenia, W. Kirk Martin, and Jolynn Reynolds 48 Flint’s Path From Crisis to Distribution System Optimization—Christopher Hill, Rebecca Slabaugh, David Cornwell, and Melinda Friedman

Education and Training 11 21 24 29 41 45 53 55 59

Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

FWPCOA Short School CEU Challenge FSAWWA Fall Conference FSAWWA Water Distribution System Awards FSAWWA Customer Service Seminar TREEO Center Training FSAWWA Customer Service Seminar FWPCOA Training Calendar Florida Water Resources Conference Call for Papers

Columns 10 22 23 30 31 39 40 44 56

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference:

In Memoriam From AWWA: Politics as a Lagging Indicator—G. Tracy Mehan III Concerns About Household Water Quality Increase, According to New National Study Workshop to Help Women in Water and Wastewater Achieve Professional Goals WEF HQ Newsletter—Patrick Dube

FWEA Focus—Tim Harley FWEA Committee Corner—Collier Frank Wyche Legal Briefs—Gerald Buhr C Factor—Scott Anaheim Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak Let’s Talk Safety FSAWWA Speaking Out—Grace Johns Contractors Roundup—Lauren Atwell Process Page: City of Plant City Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant—Lynn Spivey, Steve Saffels, Patrick Murphy, and Tim Ware

Departments 54 60 63 66

New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Volume 68

ON THE COVER: The Water Buoys, from the City of Palm Coast, won the national AWWA Tops Ops competition at the Association’s annual conference in Philadelphia in June. Pictured from left to right are: Fred Greiner, Jim Hogan (coach), Tom Martens, and Peter Roussell (captain). For more information, see page 40.

August 2017

Number 8

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



How to Use Advanced Modeling and Animation to Evaluate Water Quality Improvements Brian T. White, Phillip J. Locke, and Daniel H. Cote he City of Daytona Beach (city) has experienced challenges in maintaining an appropriate balance of its disinfection processes at the Brennan Water Treatment Plant (WTP) and two booster pump stations located in the potable water system. Figure 1 details the city’s existing water distribution system network. This situation results in periods when chloramine residuals, disinfection contact times, and compliance with disinfection byproducts (DBPs) regulations are difficult to maintain. In particular, the city experiences water quality challenges associated with low chlorine residual levels (less than 3 mg/L) during seasonal demand periods and in areas where system hydraulics and potable water demands result in older water. The city has noted that water quality complaints often occur from a single entity within a given area, oftentimes where the user is lo-


cated in a remote location near a dead-end distribution main. To address these and other potable water system concerns, hydraulic and water quality modeling was performed to establish and corroborate existing field conditions and seek possible solutions to improve water quality.

Brian T. White, P.E., is a hydraulic modeling unit leader with McKim & Creed Inc. in Raleigh, N.C. Phillip J. Locke, P.E., is a senior project manager and Daniel H. Cote, P.E., is a technical specialist with McKim & Creed Inc. in Clearwater.

Hydraulic Model Development The initial phase of the project included data collection used to develop and update the city’s existing potable water system hydraulic model. The model was updated using the following information: S Previous H2ONET® hydraulic model S Potable water system geographic information system (GIS) information S Records of system changes (e.g., new pipes) since last model update

S Flow meter data S Water treatment plant monthly operating reports S Pump curves for booster pump stations S Water distribution system operational strategies S Flushing programs S Historic water usage, pumping rates, and system pressures at various locations S Water quality data (chlorine residual) S Diurnal curves (with and without auto flushers) The model was converted to the ForceMain® modeling software, which was used, in part, to prepare visual animations of hydraulic and water quality modeling scenarios for review and discussion with the city. The following is a general summary of how the model was developed: S H2ONET hydraulic was exported to GIS shapefiles S GIS shapefiles were compared to city-provided GIS water system data S GIS shapefiles were updated with city GIS information (e.g., pipe sizes, new pipes, connectivity, routing, and locations) S Updated shapefile data was imported into ForceMain S ForceMain model was updated based on input from the city Initial model runs were performed using demands from the original model and results were reviewed with the city as a validation of the existing model. In general, initial modeling results were fairly indicative of residual pressures and showed that water pressures were good, with residual pressures greater than 50 pounds per sq in. (psi) throughout the potable water system.

Figure 1. Water System Map


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued on page 6

Continued from page 4

Hydraulic Modeling Summary and Results The ForceMain model was updated with more detailed information provided by the city, including addresses and metered flows over extended periods. Using the extracted automatic meter reading (AMR) data provided (including over 27,000 rows of data), demands were applied locally in the model. Additionally, the model was updated with diurnal flow information taken during both flushing and nonflushing periods. Hydraulic modeling was performed on the system using both AMR demands and diurnal flow information. Similar to the preliminary modeling, results showed that pressures in the system remain above 50 psi under each of the modeled conditions.

Fire Flow Analysis Once updated demands and piping modifications were incorporated into the model, a desktop fire flow analysis was performed. Model elements simulating fire hydrants were set at five locations that were selected to represent a variety of potential fire flow conditions within the city. The model was set to maintain a minimum residual pressure of 20 psi at the simulated hydrants. It then calculated available fire flow at each location, while maintaining the selected minimum residual pressure of 20 psi (Table1). Results of the desktop analysis show that sufficient fire flows are available as long as there is ample potable water supply.

Water Quality Modeling Summary and Results Water quality modeling depends on having a calibrated hydraulic model with reasonably accurate flows and velocities in the pipes. As such, model-calculated potable water system residual pressures were confirmed with field measure data prior to beginning water quality modeling.

Water quality can be defined using many different parameters; for purposes of this project, water quality was measured by mg/L of chlorine residual and the city had a goal of maintaining a minimum chlorine residual of 3 mg/L in the water system. The following were the general parameters used for modeling: S Bulk modulus (reaction-rate chlorine decay) was initially set at -0.5 S Booster pump stations were set to discharge 3.8 mg/L of chlorine Based on input from the city, initial water quality modeling results indicated chlorine residuals were slightly higher than field data; therefore, the model was adjusted using a bulk modulus of -1 to simulate faster chlorine decay. Additional modeling was performed and results showed that model-predicted chlorine residuals were closer to the actual field data. Additionally, modeling indicated that water quality was generally good, with chlorine residuals over 3 mg/L for much of the overall system.

Improvement Alternatives Based on results obtained from the water quality modeling, six specific areas within the city were identified as having chlorine residual levels below its goal of 3 mg/L. These areas included: S Winston Park S Fairway Estates S Van Ness S Tournament Drive S Grande Champion Boulevard S The Avenues For each of these areas, the city provided additional input based on field operations, and this information was used to further develop the model. Once it was updated, several modeling scenarios were developed to evaluate potential water quality improvement projects. Each of the six areas with low chlorine residual is discussed, with a summary of information from the city and general results of the water quality modeling.

Table 1. Calculated Available Fire Flows

Alternative 1 Winston Park: This area had an existing 6-in. main missing from the model, which was updated with the pipe information. Once updated, additional modeling was performed on this area, which included closing the valves on the 8-in. main running west on Clearwater Road and at the intersection of Verona Street and Cambridge Avenue. Winston Park Results: Once the model was updated to include the missing pipe, results showed existing system chlorine residuals of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L in the area. The referenced 8-in. pipe was then closed and the model results showed chlorine residuals below 0.5 mg/L. Subsequently, a 6-in. pipe connecting two dead-end (6- and 12-in.) pipes near the end of Forest Glen Boulevard was added to the model. The model results indicated that chlorine residuals can be improved to over 3 mg/L in the general vicinity. Alternative 2 Fairway Estates: In this area, alternate combinations of opening and closing the existing pipes, along with closing the valve located near the intersection of Peachtree Road and Wilder Boulevard, were evaluated. Fairway Estates Results: Closing the referenced pipes and valves had little impact on water quality and seemed to transfer lower chlorine residuals to adjacent areas. There was discussion with the city about adding a chlorine booster pump to improve water quality, but the water quality animations for this area were reviewed and it was agreed that a booster pump would provide little or no benefit due to the direction of water flow. Based on modeling results obtained, no capital improvement projects (CIPs) were recommended for this area. Alternative 3 Van Ness: The city initially suggested adding a new pipe to connect the water main along North Street to the 8-in. water main on Clyde Morris Boulevard. Modeling was performed on this area and showed a change in flow direction in the immediate vicinity. Van Ness Results: The modeling that was performed showed a potential for marginal water quality improvements over a limited area. It was agreed that the city would continue to monitor water quality in the area and utilize the updated model to evaluate possible future improvements. Based on this information, there were no CIPs currently recommended for this area. Alternative 4 Tournament Drive: This was an area of concern early on in the project. The problem was due to an existing 20-in. main that runs along Tournament Drive to the Champion Ele-


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

David Paul Fitzgerald 1960 - 2017

David Paul Fitzgerald, P.E., died on June 27, 2017, his 57th birthday, as he bicycled back from a workout at a pool in Gainesville. David was born in Richmond, Va., and raised in the state in Fredericksburg. He attended Virginia Tech, where he met his wife, Kiera. Accepted into Tau Beta Pi, he graduated in 1983 with a degree in mechanical engineering and a minor in biology. He moved to Florida to work at Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, then to Gainesville where he received his master's degree in mechanical engineering

with a focus on robotics and controls from the University of Florida (UF). He was the lead designer on a pilot decontamination system for the U.S. Air Force prior to accepting a position at CH2M, where he rose to the level of senior project manager and eventually served as the company’s southeast regional information solutions operations manager. In 2000 he left CH2M to start D.P. Fitzgerald Inc., where his knowledge of programmable logic controller programming and supervisory control and data acquisition systems, coupled with his process, mechanical, and biology backgrounds, made him an unparalleled expert in his field. Through the P.K. Yonge Developmental Research School at UF, David became renowned for his set-building skills, including the rotating set for a production of Les Misérables.

mentary School. Due to a combination of low demand and large pipe volume, chlorine results were very low (less than 0.5 mg/L). The following is a summary of the alternatives suggested by the city that were modeled in this area: A. Close the existing 20-in. main on the west side of the intersection of Tournament Drive and Thornberry Branch Lane, while connecting a new 10-in. main to the existing 8-in. main along Tournament Drive to the school. B. Close the existing 20-in. main west of the intersection of Tournament Drive and LPGA Boulevard and connect a new 10-in. main to the existing 8-in. main along Tournament Drive to the school. C1. Close the existing 20-in. main running north on Dunn Avenue near the WTP. C2. Close the existing 20-in. main running north on Dunn Avenue near the plant, while closing the 20-in. main along Tomoka Farms Road. C3. Close only the existing 20-in. main along Tomoka Farms Road. Using the results from these scenarios, a new scenario (Alternative D) was developed to

More importantly, having his own consulting firm allowed him to be actively involved with his two sons, Liam and Cullen. He and Liam achieved blackbelts in Taekwondo, and he was Cullen's diving coach, leading him to become the number one diver in the county and region, and a state finalist. After his sons graduated, David shifted his focus to singing in the Gainesville Civic Chorus Master Chorale and Chamber Singers. A high lyric baritone, he had been taking lessons and extended his vocal range from low G to high G, and touched a high B flat at his last lesson. David was also learning Gaelic and Spanish. He and Kiera took ballroom dance classes and enjoyed Latin dance. For 28 years they camped with the same group of friends. David leaves behind his wife, partner, and best friend, Kiera

include a new 10-psi hydraulic booster pump station (no chlorine addition) with a new section of 6-in. water main and valving modifications. Tournament Drive Results: Based on water quality modeling results, chlorine residuals in this area can be increased from less than 0.5 mg/L to approximately 3 mg/L by implementing Alternative D as a future CIP. Included will be a new in-line submersible booster pump station with a design capacity of 220 gal per minute (gpm) at 23-ft total dynamic head (TDH). Additionally, approximately 3,000 lin ft of new 6in. water main will be installed and the existing 20-in. water main located to the east of the proposed booster station will be valved off. These piping modifications were designed to impart a flushing or “racetrack” effect on the water from the proposed 6-in. main clockwise through the existing 20-in. main. Refer to Figure 2 for a map depicting the proposed improvements for Tournament Drive. Alternative 5 Grande Champion Boulevard: Preliminary modeling suggested that the piping network in this area was designed with the anticipation of

(they would have celebrated their 35th anniversary this year); sons Liam and Cullen; mother Lydia O'Neil and father Irving F. “Boonie” Anderson Jr. (Mickey); half siblings Kathryn O'Neil Hill (David), Paul O'Neil (Jennifer), Irving F. 'Kip' Anderson III (Mary), Michael Scot Anderson (Katherine), and Mathew G. Anderson (Michelle); mother-in-law Fionnuala Swords; and brothers and sisters-in-law Brendan M. Swords (Sherilyn), Aidan J. Swords, Owen P. Swords (Ruth), Mairin B. Swords (Linda Buonocore–deceased), and Kevin Swords (deceased). Contributions in David's memory can be sent to Virginia Tech or University of Florida Chapter of Engineers Without Borders, or Alachua Habitat for Humanity, S

significant growth, which has yet to occur. Similar to the Tournament Drive area, the combination of relatively large-diameter pipes with lower than expected demands resulted in older water age and the associated chlorine decay. The following is a general summary of modeling efforts performed on this area: 1. Various valves and combinations of valves were closed in this area and modeling was performed to see if there were any improvements to water quality. 2. A new 6-in. pipe was added along Gene Daniels Road. 3. Added new 6-in. pipes along Gene Daniels Road and along Masters Lane and included a new booster pump. 4. Items 2 and 3 were combined while closing the valves. Grande Champion Boulevard Results: Adding the 6-in. pipes with a new booster pump station showed some potential to improve water quality; however, the city indicated that adding the new pipes was not feasible and that water quality in the area has probably improved due to recent growth and is expected to continue to Continued on page 8

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 7 improve. It was recommended that the city keep monitoring this area as the building construction continues and associated potable water demands in the area increase. Based on this information, there were currently no CIPs recommended at this time to improve water quality in the area. Alternative 6 The Avenues: Based on water quality modeling results, this area has significant water quality issues, with chlorine residuals below 0.5 mg/L in the vicinity of Oak Street and Avenue A. The city provided a list of five parcels it owns in

this vicinity that could be used for booster pump station locations to help improve water quality. Modeling was performed and the booster pump station location that showed the greatest potential for water quality improvements was located at Golf Avenue. The Avenues Results: Based on modeling results, improvements in this area will improve water quality by increasing chlorine residuals from less than 0.5 mg/L to over 3 mg/L. Several modeling alternatives were evaluated and the recommended option included a booster pump station with a capacity of 289 gpm at 42-ft TDH, along with a chlorine storage and feed system at the Golf Avenue location. The pump station will

connect to the existing system using approximately 2,300 lin ft of 6-in. water main running south through the power easement to Flomich Street. A new 6-in. main will also be installed from the northwest corner of Springleaf Drive running northwest to Avenue K, where a new parallel 6-in. main will be constructed and will run west to Oak Street. Modeling also showed significant water quality improvements with the installation of approximately 650 lin ft of 6-in. water main to connect the existing mains that run along Hand Avenue. Figure 3 shows the proposed improvements at the Golf Avenue site to address water quality in the Avenues.

Summary and Recommendations

Figure 2 . Tournament Drive Proposed Improvements

Figure 3. Golf Avenue Proposed Improvements


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The following summarizes hydraulic and water quality modeling results, findings, and recommendations: S Water pressure is very good across the city, with minimum pressures greater than 50 psi for the modeled scenarios. S Other than six ”pockets” in the city, water quality (as measured in mg/L of chlorine residual) is generally good; residuals are typically greater than the city’s goal of 3 mg/L. S Modeling performed along the Tournament Drive area showed that chlorine residuals can be increased from less than 0.5 mg/L to approximately 3 mg/L. It is recommended the city design and construct a new in-line booster pump station and install a new 6-in. water main to realize these water quality improvements. S Modeling performed in the Avenues area showed that chlorine residuals can be increased from less than 0.5 mg/L to over 3 mg/L over a significant area. It is recommended the city design and construct a new Golf Avenue Booster Pump Station and install several new 6-in. water main segments to recognize these improvements. S It is recommended that the city design and construct approximately 650 lin ft of new 6in. water main along Hand Avenue to connect the existing 6-in. water mains to increase chlorine residuals from less than 0.5 mg/L to 3 mg/L in this area. S The city’s flushing program should continue and focus on areas where modeling showed no feasible improvements and also to address seasonal water quality issues. S The city should continue to monitor water quality in the Grande Champion Boulevard area as construction continues. This new construction is anticipated to increase demands and improve water quality. S


So God Made a Utility Worker technician, and treatment plant operator.” So God made a utility worker.

Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA

ost of you have heard, read, or seen Paul Harvey’s “So God Made a Farmer.” It even made its way into a commercial for Ram Trucks that aired during the 2013 Super Bowl. The radio version was from a speech that he had originally delivered to the Future Farmers of America in November 1978. Since the airing, others have made parodies about dogs, hockey moms, firefighters, emergency medical technicians, teachers, and soldiers, to name a few. While this column has no redeeming technical qualities, Paul Harvey had the right idea and I hope you enjoy my twist on the original.


So God Made a Utility Worker And on the eighth day, God looked down on his planned paradise and said, “They are making a mess of My creation.” So God made a utility worker. God said, “I need somebody who can be a mechanic, a maintenance person, pipefitter, lift station checker, fire hydrant fixer, electrician, field


“I need someone who answers to being called out at all hours of the day and night, on weekends, holidays, or in the middle of their kid’s baseball and soccer games to respond to a broken pipe or a sewerage spill coming out of a manhole. I need someone who works in the hot sun, pouring rain, or freezing cold for however long it takes to make the repair.” So God made a utility worker. God said, “I need somebody who can take something that someone else has flushed away and make it good again. I need somebody who cares for the earth, the fish in the sea, the birds in the sky, and every living creature that moves on the ground, for they are all My creations.” So God made a utility worker. God said, “I need someone who cares about and promotes clean and sustainable water for future generations. I need someone who is not satisfied with what they already know, but seeks knowledge and then shares that information with others, such that they too may be the best that they can be.” So God made a utility worker. God needed someone who was willing to do the things that others refused to do, someone who would not gag at the smells and who, armed with a pair of gloves and a face shield, laughs off being splattered on. It had to be someone who

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

would be willing to throw away their best fitting pair of boots because they care about their families, both at work and at home. And, after a hard day’s work, they would still find time for their spouse and children. God said, “I need somebody strong enough to handle the manual demands of the job and smart enough to avoid the dangers of the job. It has to be someone who knows that cutting corners can affect human health and the environment, and that if it is important enough to do, then it is important to do it right.” So God made a utility worker. “Somebody who will care for their community, stoop to help a child in need, or just spend time with the elderly, and do these things with a smile on their face because they know in their heart that they enjoy their job and that they made a difference.” So God made a utility worker.

Again thank you for caring, and please keep doing the great things that you do and continue to help others should the need arise. This is a great organization, not just for the things that we accomplish, but because of the people who are the organization. If you know of someone who would benefit from membership, please share FWEA with them. If you would like to become more involved, then all you need to do is to just make yourself available for service. S

Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association

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Stormwater Management A .........................................$275/$305

Backflow Prevention Assembly Repairer ......................$275/$305

Utility Customer Relations I, II & III................................$260/$290

Backflow Tester Recertification ......................................$85/$115

Utilities Maintenance III & II ..........................................$225/$255

Basic Electrical and Instrumentation ............................$225/$255

Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A ......$225/$255

Facility Management Module I......................................$275/$305

Water Distribution System Operator Level 3, 2 & 1 ......$225/$255

Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B & A ........................$225/$255 (Abbreviated Course) ................................................$125/$155

Wastewater Process Control ........................................$225/$255 Wastewater Troubleshooting ........................................$225/$255

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FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



Achieving Simultaneous Total Organic Carbon Removal and Clarification Under Alkaline Conditions John F. Williamson, Denise M. Horner, Ty McGown, and Cale Mages Growing populations often require municipalities to seek out alternative water sources for production of sufficient and safe potable water supplies. Surface water and groundwater are commonly used as the main source of drinking water supplies following process treatment. To meet the needs of an increasing population, municipalities have looked to combine both surface water and groundwater as a convenient way to provide the necessary volume and excess water supply for the future. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems are used as alternative water storage basins where excess treated water is injected into an underground geological basin for temporary storage until high-demand events occur. When accessing any of these typical water sources, process treatment is critical to ensure safe, potable water. Clarification and softening are typically employed to meet the growing demands for drinking water and process water needs. Softening is most critical for customers who suffer from hard water sources containing two primary divalent ions: calcium and magnesium. Hard water can affect many aspects of drinking water, including corrosion problems (e.g., faucets and water heaters), dry skin, and unsightly spots on surfaces, which become nuisance problems for the customer and very costly for the utility over time. Municipalities im-

pacted by hard water sources must implement a process treatment strategy that will address and minimize hard water effects. Various regions in the continental United States are more susceptible to hard water problems than others, particularly those utilizing groundwater or well water. Southwestern and Midwestern municipalities often experience these issues due to minerals that make up the geological sedimentary rock formations in the region from which water percolates, stripping and dissolving these mineral-laden formations that typically contain calcium and magnesium. Not only are solids removal and hardness removal important; total organic carbon (TOC) can impact water treatment requirements, particularly with respect to disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Most TOC removal is accomplished under low pH conditions (below neutral pH) to achieve maximum removal via enhanced coagulation–flocculation treatment through surface area adsorption onto typical metal hydroxide floc. Experience has shown that natural organic matter (NOM) can play an important role in achieving efficient hardness removal or calcium carbonate precipitation and crystal growth. The NOM, such as humic or fulvic acids, can exert varying degrees of inhibitory effects on calcium carbonate precipitation (Williamson, 2010). Humic material consists of organic matter re-

Figure 1. Model Structure of Humic Acid According to Stevenson (1982); R can be Alkyl, Aryl, or Aralkyl (Source: Pena-Mendez et al., 2005)


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

John F. Williamson and Denise M. Horner are with SUEZ in Ashland, Va., and Ty McGown, P.E., and Cale Mages, E.I.T., are with Burns & McDonnell in Kansas City, Mo.

sulting from natural decay via microbial and oxidative decomposition of plant tissue, dead organisms, and complex organic molecules, including carboxylates, carbohydrates, proteins, lignins, lignans, phenolate groups, and fats that are found in water and soil (Elkins and Nelson, 2002). Process treatment methods, such as feeding ferric chloride prior to lime addition, granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment, or dual-stage treatment to remove a percentage of TOC, have proven successful in limiting NOM inhibitory effects, particularly with softening applications. The NOM inhibition of calcium carbonate precipitation has long been considered the responsible factor to limiting calcium carbonate precipitation and crystal growth; however, the physical and chemical properties associated with the multitude of molecular configurations (Figure 1) that constitute NOM can greatly dictate the ability to treat and limit calcium crystal inhibition (Elkins and Nelson, 2002). The reported elementary composition of humic material generally consists of C (45-55 percent), H (3-6 percent), N (1-5 percent), O (30-45 percent), and S (0-1 percent). Humic material can also be divided into three distinct groups: humin, insoluble in water at all pH values; humic acid, insoluble at pH values less than 2, but soluble at higher pH; and fulvic acid, soluble in aqueous solutions over the entire range of pH (Elkin and Nelson, 2002). It is easily understandable why NOM inhibition is common in lime softening applications given this high affinity for solubility of humic and fulvic acids in the alkaline region (Williamson, 2010). These highly active functional groups associated with humic and fulvic acids favor metal ion complexation, especially multivalent metals such as aluminum, calcium, iron, and magnesium (Elkin and Nelson, 2002). Humic sub-

stances particularly will dissociate to a greater extent in the upper pH region (alkaline), making them more readily available to bind with free calcium. Moreover, free calcium can enhance the adsorption of anionic constituents onto the calcium carbonate crystal, thereby effectively reducing calcium carbonate precipitation (Liao and Randtke, 1986). The NOM can also form soluble complexes with free calcium through carboxylic acid moieties at neutral pH and with phenolic hydroxyl groups in the alkaline region. The formation of these dissolved NOM-calcium complexes can then affect calcite growth rate by (1) reducing the free calcium activity and degree of supersaturation, thereby decreasing calcite precipitation, and (2) by a change in the NOM molecular charge, resulting in surface adsorption onto the calcite crystal, thus interrupting calcite growth sites (Lin et al., 2005). A high-efficiency solids contact process treatment application can provide a viable physiochemical treatment approach to limit these effects and yield total hardness removal to within expected requirements. This study will address and demonstrate both successful removal of TOC and solids/turbidity and softening under alkaline conditions via high-rate solids contact clarification. This process treatment approach has long proven reliable through success in both the laboratory and full-scale applications.

Table 1. Midwestern Municipality Raw Water Blend Ratios

Table 2. Midwestern Municipality Raw Water Source Routine Characterization – Individual Raw Water Source and Blends

Results Growing populations throughout the U.S. are placing considerable demands on municipality water sources, forcing municipalities to look for additional or alternative sources to meet these rising demands. One Midwestern municipality looked at utilizing individual and various combinations of water sources, including surface water, groundwater, and ASR water produced from reclaimed wastewater following membrane filtration and aquifer injection, in order to address future expansion. Various blend ratios from each of these water sources would be utilized depending upon demand throughout the year. Representative samples collected from each of these three water sources were evaluated in the laboratory for softening and clarification utilizing calcium hydroxide, or hydrated lime, and ferric chloride, followed by a polymeric flocculant aid. The primary effluent treatment objectives defined for this treatability study included effluent turbidity below 2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), with a preferred goal of less than 1 NTU, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Disinfectant/Disinfection Byproducts (D/DBP) Rule, and total hardness ranging from 125-135 mg/L as CaCO3 with a preferred target of 120 mg/L as CaCO3.

An aliquot from each water source was processed through a series of analytical procedures to characterize influent water quality. In addition to the individual water sources, various raw water blends were prepared in accordance to the plant’s anticipated blend ratios. Blend ratios utilized for this treatability study are provided in Table 1, followed by pertinent analytical results in Table 2. Based on the routine characterizations, required D/DBP TOC removal ranges from 15 to 25 percent, depending upon the raw water source as noted in Table 2 and outlined in the EPA D/DBP chart (Figure 2). Whatman 2-filtered turbidities suggested that charge neutralization (coagulant demand) would not be significantly impacted.

The laboratory treatability study was conducted based on a specific process treatment technology application and effluent water quality objective(s). The treatability study format included physical–chemical process treatment simulating high-rate solids contact such as SUEZ’s Densadeg® Clarifier technology via standard-batch jar test procedures. Chemical injection was performed in systematic order utilizing a Phipps & Bird jar tester that included lime addition mixing at 1--00 revolutions per minute (rpm) for 13 minutes, followed by coagulant addition for 2 minutes at 100 rpm, and flocculant aid addition for 0.5 minutes at 100 rpm. Afterwards, a 3-minute slow mix or flocculation was performed at 35 rpm, followed by Continued on page 14

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 13 5-minute settling and collection of effluent parameters. Jar tests were performed on individual raw water sources, followed by the various blend ratios to evaluate the impact of switching periodically from the different water sources and what influence that may have on chemical dosing requirements and effluent water quality. Testing began initially with surface water and groundwater sources prior to receiving ASR due to availability of ASR from the site. Test 1: Surface Water Initial screening of the surface water source began with feeding lime dosages, ranging from 90 to 175 mg/L, followed by 20 mg/L of ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of a high-quality anionic emulsion flocculant aid (very high molecular weight, medium charge density). Sludge recycling was employed to simulate high-efficiency solids contact clarification where previously precipitated calcium carbonate crystals act to “seed” additional calcium carbonate precipitation in the reactor zone. When considering sto-

ichiometric calculations for lime consumption, the following reactions were taken into account: CO2 + Ca(OH)2 ’ CaCO3 + H2O


Ca2+ + 2HCO- + Ca(OH)2 ’ 2CaCO3 + 2H2O


Because magnesium hardness removal is not required to meet the preferred total hardness objective of 120 mg/L as CaCO3, theoretical stoichiometric calculations were based solely on raw water free carbon dioxide, calcium hardness, and bicarbonate alkalinity, according to Equations 1 and 2. The surface water raw water characterization determined that calcium hardness was 148 mg/L as CaCO3 and total alkalinity was 180 mg/L as CaCO3. Given that calcium hardness was less than the total alkalinity, calcium hardness can be considered entirely associated with carbonate hardness with no noncarbonate component; therefore, lime consumption would be influenced by the conversion of free carbon dioxide to carbonate alkalinity, and bicarbonate to carbonate

Figure 2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Stage 1 Disinfectant and Disinfection Byproducts Rule

Figure 3. Test 1: Surface Water – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

alkalinity, followed by calcium carbonate precipitation. Equation 1 establishes that for every 1 mg/L of free carbon dioxide present, 1.68 mg/L of lime is consumed; Equation 2 establishes that for every 1 mg/L of bicarbonate alkalinity present, 0.61 mg/L of lime will be consumed. Based on estimated stoichiometric calculations when factoring in complete conversion of bicarbonate alkalinity, free carbon dioxide to carbonate, no magnesium precipitation, and an excess lime approach of 1.25, the final calculated lime dosage of 176 mg/L would likely be needed to achieve the preferred effluent total hardness objective of less than 120 mg/L as CaCO3. This same procedure was applied to all succeeding water sources to determine stoichiometric lime dosing requirements. According to jar test results (Figure 3), a lime dosage of 175 mg/L was able to yield total hardness removal below 120 mg/L as CaCO3 and within good agreement of the stoichiometric calculation. Sludge recycling demonstrated that high-efficiency solids contact is able to improve chemical dosing requirements, in addition to including 20 mg/L of ferric chloride to achieve simultaneous TOC reduction in accordance to the EPA D/DBP Rule objective (25 percent removal for this water). Influent TOC was reduced from 5.02 mg/L to an effluent concentration of 3.78 mg/L, corresponding to a 24.7 percent reduction in TOC. Effluent turbidity was 0.48 NTU, well below the 1 NTU preferred objective. Test 2: Groundwater The groundwater source was evaluated feeding lime dosages ranging from 90 up to 240 mg/L, including sludge recycling, to zero in on the lime dosage needed to achieve the effluent total hardness objective. The estimated stoichiometric calculation suggests that a lime dosage of 241 mg/L would likely be needed to achieve the preferred effluent total hardness objective. Sludge recycling, along with 20 mg/L of ferric chloride, was evaluated to address mostly turbidity reduction (considering raw water TOC was well below 2 mg/L), thus requiring no further enhanced treatment. Laboratory results (Figure 4) demonstrated that a lime dosage of 240 mg/L was able to yield total hardness below 120 mg/L. In fact, there was some notable TOC reduction, although not required, and effluent turbidity below 1 NTU was achieved. Furthermore, sludge recycling (Figure 4) was shown to improve both total hardness and turbidity removal and demonstrates the benefits of high-efficiency solids contact clarification. In addition to the main effluent objectives, it was noted that both total and soluble manganese (0.296 mg/L and 0.295 mg/L, respecContinued on page 16

Figure 4. Test 2: Groundwater – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage

of ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of flocculant aid. The estimated stoichiometric calculation suggests that a lime dosage of 185 mg/L was needed. Test results (Figure 5) demonstrated that a slightly higher lime dosage of 260 mg/L was necessary to yield total hardness of less than 120 mg/L as CaCO3 and simultaneous TOC reduction in accordance to the EPA D/DBP Rule objective (25 percent removal for this water). Influent TOC was reduced from 5.05 mg/L to an effluent concentration of 4.15 mg/L, corresponding to a 17.8 percent reduction in TOC. There was some difficulty with meeting the less than 1 NTU objective once the effluent total hardness was met. Further testing was repeated adjusting the coagulant dosage to 40 mg/L, along with solids recycling, which resulted in improved TOC reduction of 26.7 percent (3.70 mg/L) and effluent turbidity less than 1 NTU, while maintaining total hardness. Test results were summarized in Table 3 to compare chemical dosing requirements and effluent water quality. It’s interesting to point out that stoichiometric dosing requirements were within reasonable agreement of the actual lime dosage fed. The TOC removal under alkaline conditions was also achievable and demonstrates that high-efficiency solids contact is an effective technology for meeting both total hardness and TOC reduction in a single-stage treatment design. Blend ratios were evaluated, given that the municipality would potentially utilize a combination of the three water sources based on demand. Blend ratios of 50:50, 80:20, and 33:33:33 were among the test conditions evaluated, as outlined in Table 1.

Figure 5. Test 4: Aquifer Storage and Recovery – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage

Test 4: 50 Percent Surface Water/50 Percent Groundwater Blend A 50:50 blend of surface water and groundwater was prepared and evaluated feeding lime dosages ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L, followed by 20 mg/L of ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of flocculant aid. The estimated stoichiometric calculation suggests a lime dosage of 207 mg/L would likely be required to meet the preferred effluent total hardness objective. Laboratory test results (Figure 6) demonstrated that 200 mg/L of lime was capable of yielding total hardness of less than 120 mg/L as CaCO3 and 24.9 percent TOC removal (corresponding to an effluent concentration of 2.17 mg/L), which falls easily within the 15 percent removal requirement based on the EPA D/DBP Rule; however, effluent turbidity (1.33 NTU) was limited to above the preferred less than 1 NTU effluent turbidity objective. Although below the less than 2 NTU target objective, sludge recycling simulating solids contact would have demonstrated the ef-

Continued from page 14 tively) were above the EPA Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (SDWR) of 0.05 mg/L. Therefore, manganese was monitored during batch tests to determine if effluent residuals would fall below the EPA SDWR, given that manganese precipitation is favored under high pH conditions. Effluent test results were shown to achieve manganese reduction below 0.010 mg/L, thus satisfying the recommended manganese EPA SDWR of less than 0.05 mg/L. It is also worth noting that soluble iron (0.185 mg/L) measured in the groundwater source submitted appears to make up nearly 50 percent of the total iron (0.392 mg/L) fraction based on analysis of a separate acid-preserved


sample collected onsite at the time of sample collection. Although slightly above the EPA SDWR of 0.3 mg/L in the total fraction, routine characterization upon arrival demonstrated that iron was relatively easily oxidized to 0.027 mg/L in the soluble fraction during transport and suggested that no further chemical treatment was necessary; however, the mere presence of soluble iron may indicate the need to monitor iron levels to determine if additional process treatment is warranted for the groundwater source. Test 3: Aquifer Storage and Recovery The ASR water source, received a few weeks later, was evaluated feeding lime dosages ranging from 180 to 260 mg/L, followed by 20 mg/L

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

fectiveness of high-efficiency solids contact, resulting in improved turbidity removal as seen during Test 2 given sufficient water availability. Manganese was also monitored based on the level of soluble manganese originally measured in the groundwater source. Test results continued to show that operating under high pH conditions was suitable for achieving soluble manganese concentrations well below the EPA SDWR.

Table 3. Surface Water, Groundwater, and Aquifer Storage Recovery Chemical Treatment Summary

Test 5: 50 Percent Surface Water/50 Percent Aquifer Storage and Recovery Blend A 50:50 blend of surface water and ASR was prepared and evaluated feeding lime dosages ranging from 200 to 240 mg/L, followed by 20 mg/L of ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of flocculant aid. The estimated stoichiometric calculation suggests that a lime dosage of 183 mg/L would likely be required to meet the preferred effluent total hardness objective. Test results (Figure 7) showed that a lime dosage of 200 mg/L was capable of yielding total hardness of less than 120 mg/L as CaCO3 and simultaneous TOC reduction from an initial raw water blend concentration of 5.04 mg/L to an effluent TOC concentration of 3.95 mg/L (a 19.1 percent reduction), falling below the EPA D/DBP Rule of 25 percent TOC removal for this water source. Therefore, testing was repeated with a 40 mg/L dose of ferric chloride (and no sludge recycling) and resulted in improved TOC removal of 28.1 percent (3.50 mg/L) and effluent turbidity less than 1 NTU, while still maintaining the preferred target effluent total hardness objective. Test 6: 50 Percent Groundwater/50 Percent Aquifer Storage Recovery Blend A 50:50 blend of groundwater and ASR was prepared and evaluated feeding lime dosages ranging from 240 to 260 mg/L, followed by 20 mg/L of ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of Nalco 7768 polymer. The estimated stoichiometric calculation suggests that a lime dosage of 214 mg/L would likely be required to meet the preferred effluent total hardness objective. Laboratory test results (Figure 8) demonstrated that a lime dosage of 240 mg/L was capable of yielding total hardness of less than 120 mg/L as CaCO3 and 28.9 percent TOC removal (corresponding to 2.24 mg/L in the effluent), which is well above the EPA D/DBP Rule of 15 percent removal. Effluent turbidity was initially limited to 2.02 NTU; however, solids recycling was able to demonstrate improved effluent turbidity removal down to 1.05 NTU. Furthermore, continual sludge recycling up to optimal design conditions will provide the added benefit of high-efficiency solids clarification. Manganese continued to be monitored and was shown to be well below the Continued on page 18

Figure 6. Test 4: 50:50 Groundwater/Surface Water – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 17 EPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) when operating under high pH conditions that favor partial lime softening.

Figure 7. Test 5: 50:50 Aquifer Storage Recovery/Surface Water – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage

Figure 8. Test 6: 50:50 Groundwater/Aquifer Storage and Recovery – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage

Figure 9. Test 7: 80:20 Groundwater/Aquifer Storage and Recovery – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Test 7: 80 Percent Groundwater/20 Percent Aquifer Storage and Recovery Blend An 80:20 blend of groundwater and ASR was prepared and evaluated feeding lime dosages ranging from 220 to 240 mg/L, followed by 20 mg/L of ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of flocculant aid. The estimated stoichiometric calculation suggests a lime dosage of 229 mg/L. Laboratory results (Figure 9) demonstrated that a lime dosage of 240 mg/L was capable of yielding total hardness of less than 120 mg/L as CaCO3 and simultaneous TOC reduction of 25 percent following one recycle. Furthermore, TOC removal was not necessary, given that the influent concentration was initially below 2 mg/L in accordance to the EPA D/DBP Rule. Once again, it was seen that effluent turbidity was initially limited to 2.20 NTU in the effluent and applying a single recycle was shown to improve effluent turbidity removal down to 1.74 NTU. Continual solids recycling up to optimal design conditions will likely provide the additional benefit of high-efficiency solids clarification. Also, manganese was shown to be well below the EPA SMCL when operating under high pH conditions that favor partial lime softening. Test 8: 33 Percent Surface Water/33 Percent Groundwater/33 Percent Aquifer Storage and Recovery Blend A final blend including all three water sources (33:33:33 blend ratio) was prepared and evaluated feeding lime dosages ranging from 190 to 210 mg/L, followed by 20 mg/L of ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of flocculant aid. The estimated stoichiometric calculation suggests that a lime dosage of 200 mg/L would likely meet the required effluent total hardness objective. Laboratory test results (Figure 10) demonstrated that a lime dosage of 210 mg/L was capable of yielding total hardness of less than 120 mg/L as CaCO3 and 20.5 percent TOC reduction (corresponding to 2.80 mg/L in the effluent) and well above the EPA D/DBP Rule of 15 percent removal of 20.5 percent, with an effluent turbidity of 0.79 NTU. Manganese was also well below the EPA SMCL when operating under high pH conditions. Summarizing test results in Table 4 from both individual and blend sources, it is easy to see that solids contact is an effective means for meeting simultaneous total hardness, TOC, and turbidity objectives under alkaline conditions. Theoretical sludge solids were also calculated and measured to confirm solids production for each given water source to estimate solids han-

dling. In fact, one particular benefit with a highrate solids contact clarifier, such as the Densadeg Clarifier, is its sludge thickening capability that helps to eliminate the need for additional sludge handling equipment, such as a thickener. Much of the literature research has focused on inhibition of calcium carbonate crystal development and growth by NOM or humic substances (TOC surrogate) through surface binding onto the calcium crystal surface, causing minimal to no crystal growth. What was evident from this laboratory testing is that TOC inhibition was minimized or not even realized, based on the excellent removal efficiencies that were seen and despite treating the individual sources or blends. Lastly, settling tests were limited to water availability and performed only with the groundwater source feeding 240 mg/L of lime, followed by 20 mg/L ferric chloride and 0.6 mg/L of flocculant aid to evaluate sludge settling performance. Continued on page 20

Figure 10. Test 8: 33 Groundwater/33 Surface Water/33 Aquifer Storage and Recovery – Total Hardness, Total Organic Carbon, and Effluent Turbidity Relative to Lime and Ferric Chloride Dosage

Table 4. Individual and Blend Ratio Chemical Treatment Summary

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 19 Laboratory settling test results demonstrated that at nearly maximum reactor solids concentrations of 18,400 mg/L, a calculated rise rate of 6.5 gpm/ft2 was achieved and would suggest that this is an excellent application for the high-rate solids contact clarification designed at standard rise rates. It should be noted that laboratory-calculated rise rates based on batch jar tests are not indicative of actual clarifier performance, but merely estimate the impact of solids concentrations on floc settling rate performance under specified chemical treatment conditions. Batch jar tests cannot duplicate the dynamic processes seen in pilot or full-scale systems, such as shear rates and sludge thickening performance.

Conclusions The key findings from the treatability study demonstrated that effluent turbidity below 2 NTU and mostly below 1 NTU were achievable. Total hardness removal was reduced to within acceptable effluent concentrations ranging within the 125-135 mg/L as CaCO3, and even below the 120 mg/L objective. Simultaneous removal of both total hardness and TOC was achievable with


a ferric chloride dosage ranging from 20 to 40 mg/L in conjunction with a high-quality, NSFapproved flocculant aid, thus demonstrating the benefits of high-efficiency solids contact process treatment. Furthermore, solids contact helps to manage chemical dosing requirements, given the high-efficiency and enhanced treatment provided by calcium carbonate seeding and enhanced TOC adsorption onto metal hydroxide surfaces. Controlled use of flocculant aid and coagulant injection points will also provide benefits in achieving optimal TOC removal efficiencies throughout the year under softening conditions. Laboratory settling rates suggest that sludge solids are ideal for such a single-stage process treatment application. When summarizing these results, it’s shown that high-rate, high-efficiency solids contact clarification can provide municipalities a viable option and level of performance that can translate into capital-expenditure and operatingexpense cost savings benefits, including minimal equipment needs, lower chemical costs, and higher yields with regard to sludge solids concentrations.

References 1. Williamson, J. F. (2010). “Solids Contact

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal





Process Treatment Evaluation Studying the Impact of Total Organic Carbon on Reduction of Total Hardness in Saline Well Water via Cold Lime Softening.” SUEZ Treatment Solutions IDEAS Center. Elkins, K.M. and Nelson, D.J. (2002). “Spectroscopic Approaches to the Study of the Interaction of Aluminum With Humic Substances.” Coordination Chemistry Reviews 228, pp. 205–225. Pena-Mendez, E.M.; Havel, J.; and Patocka, J. (2005). “Humic Substances – Compounds of Still Unknown Structure: Applications in Agriculture, Industry, Environment, and Biomedicine.” Journal of Applied Medicine, Vol 3, pp. 13–24, ISSN 1214-0287. Liao, M.Y. and Randtke, S.J. (1986). “Predicting the Removal of Soluble Organic Contaminants by Lime Softening.” Water Research, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 27–35. Lin, Y.; Singer, P.C.; and Aiken, G. R. (2005). “Inhibition of Calcite Precipitation by Natural Organic Material: Kinetics, Mechanism, and Thermodynamics.” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, No. 17. S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Disinfection and Water Quality. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

Christopher Hill, Rebecca Slabaugh, David Cornwell, and Melinda Friedman (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW)

1. The author cites which of the following as a primary challenge associated with treating Flint River water? a. Chronically low river water pH b. Chronically high river water alkalinity c. Incompatibility with water received from the Detroit Water and Sewage Department d. Widely varying river water quality

3. Due to ____________, city staff is reluctant to scale back the amount of water distribution system storage regularly in use. a. the number of water main breaks b. inability to maintain residual chlorine c. lack of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) monitoring capability d. lack of qualified staff to monitor operations

2. To reestablish distribution system water quality after the system returned to Great Lakes Water Authority supply, the City of Flint was ordered to a. increase coliform monitoring frequency to hourly. b. boost orthophosphate residual of the incoming water. c. abandon its sodium hypochlorite disinfection system in favor of gas chlorine. d. increase system flushing to 25 percent of the incoming water volume.

4. The American Water Works Association (AWWA) Partnership for Safe Water distribution system optimization program recommend a standard of no more than ____ reported water main breaks per 100 mi of pipeline per year. a. 15 b. 20 c. 25 d. 50 5. Flint achieved compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule in January 2017, reporting a 90th percentile lead concentration of ___ micrograms per liter. a. 11 b. 12 c. 13 d. 14

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

Flint’s Path From Crisis to Distribution System Optimization


____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Achieving Simultaneous Total Organic Carbon Removal and Clarification Under Alkaline Conditions John F. Williamson, Denise M. Horner, Ty McGown, and Cale Mages (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW)

1. Humic and fulvic acid are two examples of a. compounds that facilitate calcium carbonate crystal formation. b. natural organic matter. c. acids applied to enhance high pH water treatment processes. d. acids applied to enhance low pH water treatment processes. 2. Of the source waters tested, which had the highest total organic carbon concentration? a. Groundwater b. Surface water c. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) water d. 50 percent surface water, 50 percent ASR water

3. The metal hydroxide flocculent used in this evaluation was a. aluminum sulfate. b. aluminum chloride. c. ferric sulfate. d. ferric chloride. 4. The process of seeding the reactor zone with previously precipitated calcium carbonate crystals is known as a. recalcining. b. sludge recycling. c. calcification. d. coagulation. 5. Stoichiometric calculations indicate that for every 1 mg/L of bicarbonate alkalinity present, ____ mg/L of lime will be consumed. a. 0.61 b. 1.48 c. 1.68 d. 2.00

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at Judges for the Stockholm Junior Water Prize are from the FWEA Public Communication and Outreach Committee.

2017 Florida Stockholm Junior Water Prize Collier Frank Wyche he Stockholm Junior Water Prize (SJWP) is the world's most prestigious youth award for water-related science projects. The prize taps into the unlimited potential of today's high school students as they seek to address current and future water challenges. The SJWP was founded in 1997 by the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) to complement the Stockholm Water Prize. In the United States, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and its member associations organize the regional, state, and national SJWP competitions, with support from Xylem Inc. The U.S. winner receives a $10,000


prize and an all-expenses-paid trip to Stockholm, Sweden, where he or she represents the U.S. at the international competition during World Water Week. Each year a group of judges, as part of the FWEA Public Communication and Outreach Committee, selects a Florida winner for the SJWP. The FWEA sponsors the student’s trip to the national contest. Talar Terzian, a sophomore at Oak Hall School in Gainesville, has been selected as the Florida winner of the 2017 Stockholm Junior Water Prize competition. Talar was selected for her project, “Spin Cycle: An Off-the-Grid Hydrodynamic Water Filtering Washing Machine.” She represented Florida at the national competition in June at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Not only was her study very timely and relevant to issues facing the water quality community, but her work is also relevant to global water issues in developing countries.

Two finalists were also selected: S William Gao, a junior at Suncoast Community High School in Palm Beach Gardens for his project, “Stormwater Treatment Area Performance Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks.” S Ammar Syed, a junior at Lawton Chiles High School in Tallahassee for his project, “Silver Nanoparticles: A Powerful Nanoweapon Against Bacteria.” The water-related science projects vary widely as evidenced by the winner and finalists selected this year. Many of the projects involve years of research by the young students, starting as far back as middle school. All three of the finalists are continuing the research on their projects. For two weeks in April each year, a group of judges review up to 30 papers submitted before selecting a winner and two finalists. The dedicated judges for the last few years are: S Ruth Burney, Brown & Caldwell S Matt Charles, Brown & Caldwell S Elizabeth Geddes, South Florida Water Management District S Julie Karleskint, Hazen & Sawyer S Kerstin Kenty, CH2M S Zachary Loeb, past Florida SJWP winner S Tim Madhanagopal, Orange County Utilities The SJWP competition is open to all high school students in grades 9-12 who have reached the age of 15 by August 1 of the competition year, and have conducted a water-science research project. More information about the Stockholm Junior Water Prize can be found at To participate in the Florida SJWP and other activities of the Public Communication and Outreach Committee, contact Chuck Olson at

Talar Terzian, winner of the Florida Stockholm Junior Water Prize, presenting her project at the 2017 national competition.


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Collier Frank Wyche is the state coordinator for the Stockholm Junior Water Prize and lives in St. Petersburg. S


Florida Utilities Face Legal Issues

Gerald Buhr Opa-locka’s Former Assistant Director of Public Works, City Manager, and Commissioner Convicted of Federal Conspiracy Involving Water Service; More Defendants to Follow The U.S. Department of Justice has sought and achieved prosecution of government officials at the City of Opa-locka relating to their allegedly “using their official positions and authority with the City of Opa-locka to solicit, demand, and obtain thousands of dollars in illegal cash payments from businesses and individuals in exchange for taking official actions to assist and benefit those businesses and individuals in their dealings with the city.” The allegations specifically describe a former commissioner’s contact with the city manager, wherein the commissioner would contact the other officials to assist businesses “extorted” to pay, “by issuing occupational licenses; waiving, removing, and settling code enforcement matters and liens; initiating, restoring and continuing water service; and assisting with zoning issues.” Along with the assistant director, city manager, and commissioner, the mayor’s son was also convicted, and all four had pled guilty to the charges. The commissioner is awaiting sentencing; however, the city manager received

a sentence of three years, and the mayor’s son received five months in prison and five months of home confinement. The former assistant utilities director only received a three-year probationary sentence with 600 hours of community service, as the federal prosecutor spoke up for him as providing important assistance to their Opa-locka case. The Miami Herald has reported that those four convictions “are a prelude to an expected indictment charging other city officials, employees, and an influential lobbyist with corruption later this year.” (Source: local/article137537773.html#storylink=cpy)

parent first choice to privatize the utility during the selection process, potentially leading to soon-to-be-held negotiations; however, Veolia was selected as only the third choice, yet local political pundits have used that third-place selection to compare this deal to the Flint, Mich., water treatment fiasco where Veolia is currently being sued for its alleged involvement, for which it denies any responsibility. The allegation here is that, just as in Flint, North Miami Beach is more concerned with profits than clean water. Sounds like a huge stretch to me to go from the Flint situation to the North Miami Beach privatization.

Gerald Buhr is a utilities attorney who has a Class A license in both water and wastewater treatment. A Florida Bar-certified specialist in city, county, and local government law, he is the city attorney for Zolfo Springs, Bowling Green, and San Antonio; represents other public, private, and nonprofit utilities; and teaches hospitality law and human resources at the Art Institute of Tampa. S

Acrimonious North Miami Beach Utility Plant Privatization Plan Receives Interest From FBI It has been reported that North Miami Beach is seeking to award a contract for the privatization of its water treatment facility because of alleged past improper operation and maintenance. It was also reported that an outside consultant found that the condition of the assets created “significant risks” to those assets. Apparently, the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) union and the local Democratic Party have partnered to fight the privatization of what is reported to be the second-largest facility in the county. Somebody has asked the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to look into the proposed transaction, and while the FBI has asked questions, nothing more is known at this time. The firm of CH2M was selected as the apFlorida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



Senior Systems Operator Award: It’s Not Just for the Big Boys Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

ots of work goes into getting water from its source to our tap. The same goes for the complicated process to convert the wastewater in our drains and sewers into a form that is safe to release into the environment. The duties of water treatment plant operators depend on the size and type of the plants they work in. In large plants multiple operators work the same shift and are more specialized than, say, an operator working in a small system who does it all. In the larger plants an operator may rely on computerized systems to assist with


Senior Systems Operator Award Winners 2015 - Kevin Goolsby 2015 - Randell Britt 2014 - Robert Kenner 2014 - Jose Perez 2013 - Angel Roldan 2013 - Brad Hayes 2012 - Garry Dennis 2011 - Anderson Mitchel 2004 - Pete Tyson 2003 - Ron Proulx 2003 - Brad Case 2002 - Thomas Terrell 2002 - Harold Roland 2001 - Milton Skipper 2001 - Raymond Bordner 2000 - J. C. Holley 2000 - Arthur P. Saey 1997 - William Kruppa 1995 - William Clayton 1993 - Don Graham 1992 - Walter Marion 1991 - Theodore Kamien 1991 - Al Monteleone 1990 - Jimmie Browning 1989 - James M. McCracken


monitoring the plant processes, while those in smaller systems may have to do more hands-on work. You may be asking where I’m going with this. Well, there’s a good explanation and it started with a discussion that I had at our June Region 2 monthly meeting. I was talking with the folks in attendance about the senior systems operator award that’s given out at our fall short school every August. We had talked about getting the word out for this award at our earlier board of directors meeting in Plant City, and so I was just following up on it. One of our long-term members and a past director for the region, Sam Willis, asked me what I thought the definition of a senior system operator is. I came out with the usual ways we would define it: a long-term employee who usually has a Class A license or is dual-certified. He or she runs the plant and is either the superintendent or supervisor, or whatever new buzzword human resources professionals now use for the position. All of this is true, but as Sam explained, he was looking at it more from a large-utility perspective. He went on to give his definition and it really makes you appreciate what an operator does—especially one working for a small system. According to Sam, the operator in a small system may not have the higher license due to size, but in many cases does more than a higherlevel licensed operator at a large plant. One day the small-systems operator is working in the plant repairing a pump, the next, reading meters or repairing a main in the distribution system. Operators have to attend monthly council or commission meetings and so forth, too; in other words, they have many hats to wear. I say all this because a lot of times good people get left out of the nomination process for the award because they work in a small system, or people don’t think they qualify for it. I believe we miss the opportunity to award folks because we’re not sure if they do meet the requirements, but I would ask that you go ahead and submit them for the award. Hey, if they don’t make it, what’s the harm in taking the time to sit down and acknowledge a person for the great job he or she is doing? I look back over my career and think about the people I worked with who mentored me and helped me along. These folks weren’t always my boss; even coworkers and colleagues helped

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

show me the right way to motivate people and help them learn how to do their jobs. I once had a great supervisor, Larry Johnson, who would come out on the jobsite, and when he saw something that needed to be corrected, he would simply stand by you and say, “If it were me, I would look at sloping that bank a little more,” or “Move that pump over here.” In other words, anyone could come and just take over the job and say, “do this or do that,” but he knew you were the person in charge and didn’t want to override your authority. It’s just little things like that where you miss what they were trying to do at the time, until later when you reach that right conclusion. So think about someone you know who has been that guiding light in your career, that person willing to step up and volunteer as a trainer, who gives up free time to chair a committee, get elected to a position in an association, or just mentor you. It doesn’t have to be someone for the senior operator award, because we have plenty of other awards, too, so go to the FWPCOA website ( and check out the nomination process. Look at all of the awards, because there’s someone in your utility who would love to receive one. You could even surprise someone with an award; you’ll never know if they could get one unless you try. Go to the “Awards” section of the website to download any of the award applications.

Thank You, Ray Bordner I also want to take this time to acknowledge Ray Bordner and thank him for all the contributions he has made to this association and the industry over the years. He’s the epitome of what I was saying earlier in this column: a man who has given so much of his personal time and traveled throughout the state instructing people and sitting on committees and boards for system operators. I have worked with Ray on the state water distribution exam review committee and you should see how animated he gets when we discuss issues about the exam. Ray takes training seriously and has always done his best to give the students the information they need to prepare them for the exams. Again, thanks Ray for all that you do and I hope you get well soon because we miss you. S

Test Yourself Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators: Questions About Debris and Grit Removal Donna Kaluzniak

1. Removal of metal, rocks, rags, sand, eggshells, and similar materials that may hinder the operation of a treatment plant is called a. b. c. d.

advance treatment. inorganics treatment. preliminary treatment. primary treatment.

2. The part of the treatment facility that removes larger debris, such as rocks, cans, and rags includes a. b. c. d.

aeration. clarification. screening. sedimentation.

3. The difference between bar screens and racks is that racks typically have 3 to 4 in. of space in between the bars and bar screens typically have spaces that are how far apart? a. b. c. d.

3/8 to 2 in. 2 to 3 in. 4 to 5 in. 6 in.

4. Grit removal involves the settling of heavier material in wastewater, such as sand, coffee grounds, eggshells, gravel. and cinders. Grit is also called a. b. c. d.

detritus. organic wastes. sludge. suspended solids.

5. A device that acts as both a cutter and screen, which contains sharp blades to shred solids and leave them in the wastewater, is called a a. b. c. d.

bladed bar screen. centrifugal cutter. chopinator. comminutor.

a. b. c. d.

6. The simplest method of removing grit from the wastewater flow is to pass it through channels or tanks that allow the flow to be reduced to a rate that allows the grit to settle while moving along lighter organic solids. The best flow velocity for a grit channel or tank is a. b. c. d.

1 ft per second. 2 ft per second. 2.5 ft per second. 3 ft per second.

aerobic acclimation. pre-aeration. primary treatment. oxidation reduction.

Reference used for this quiz: Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, California State University Sacramento, Volume 1, Seventh Edition, 2008. Answers on page 66

higher specific gravity than water. lower specific gravity than water. tendency to force grit out of the water. turbulent effect on the water/grit mixture.

8. A cyclone grit separator removes grit using a conical chamber where the velocity of the flow forces grit outward to the casing of the cyclone, then down toward the bottom of the cyclone. Lighter particles and water are carried upward and out the overflow discharge pipe. The slurry of grit spinning downward is called the a. b. c. d.

flow-through channel. grit washer. organic separator. primary clarifier.

10. The addition of air at the initial stages of treatment to freshen the wastewater, remove gases, add oxygen, promote flotation of grease, and aid coagulation is called a. b. c. d.

7. An aerated grit chamber helps to freshen stale or septic wastewater, prevent odors, and improve the biological process. An aerated grit chamber also helps the grit settle out better because the mixture of air and water has a a. b. c. d.

9. If flow through a grit chamber is slower than it should be, organic matter may settle out with the grit. To avoid odors, organic matter may need to be resuspended and separated from the grit. This is typically done with a

centrifugal portion. primary vortex. secondary vortex. spinning grit exodus.

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



Rising Tides and Sinking Brines: Managing the Threat of Salt Water Intrusion Andrew W. McThenia, W. Kirk Martin, and Jolynn Reynolds he Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority (authority) has adapted its Biscayne Aquifer monitoring plan to track changes to the saline water interface and to address a growing threat from a localized hypersaline plume in southeast Miami-Dade County. The authority’s Biscayne Aquifer wellfield in Florida City is located about 10 mi west of Biscayne Bay and about 5 mi east of Everglades National Park. The authority currently monitors a network of 16 Biscayne Aquifer wells within an area of approximately 30 sq mi south and east of its Florida City wellfield as part of a saline water intrusion monitoring (SWIM) program. Continued inland movement of the saline water interface towards the authority’s wellfield has necessitated changes in its monitoring program to include six new wells inland of the saline water interface and to cease monitoring at eight existing wells. At least two distinct sources of saline water have been identified as impacting the authority’s SWIM network: 1) hypersaline density driven seepage from the Florida Power and Light (FPL) cooling canal system at Turkey Point east of its wellfield, and 2) seawater encroachment via seepage from the C-111 and other nearby canals south of the wellfield. The FPL salinity source has been confirmed by its tritium signature within the surrounding groundwater monitoring network. The leakage of seawater from tidally influenced canals has been indicated by correlation of salinity variation with canal stage data. Recent Comprehensive Everglades Recovery Plan (CERP) projects involving improvements to canal control structures and the plugging of canals have begun to have a measurable impact in the form of decreasing chlorides at some wells adjacent to canals in the western half of the SWIM network. All of the monitor wells located in the eastern half of the network exhibit increasing chloride level trends and also have the highest levels measured in the network. In order to facilitate optimization of the SWIM network, the authority’s historical records of chloride concentrations at multiple well sites and multiple depths within the Biscayne Aquifer were graphed and mapped using a geographic information system (GIS). The data were evaluated to determine trends in existing wells that had previously experienced saline water invasion and to identify target areas where monitoring



coverage was lacking. New well sites were chosen within the target areas based on estimates of the rate of intrusion and logistical factors, such as accessibility, land ownership, utilities, and right of way concerns. The depths for sampling points in each new well were chosen to fill gaps in data from neighboring wells. The new well construction design generally matches that of existing SWIM wells and includes provisions for continuous salinity profiling across the vertical extent of the Biscayne Aquifer, as well as discreet sampling at separate and distinct intervals within the well. The design facilitates continuity of sampling and monitoring procedures within the network and provides for a variety of approaches to characterize the movement of saline water within the aquifer. Time series plots of chloride levels at a number of the SWIM wells have exhibited variable degrees of saline water influence, ranging from highly fresh and stable to exponentially increasing salinity. Several wells with multiple discreet sample depths have demonstrated pronounced density-controlled stratification, which indicates that the saline water interface has moved preferentially along the bottom of the aquifer, while water in the upper portion of the aquifer has remained relatively fresh. This stratification has been occasionally reversed with wells showing episodic increases in salinity within the upper sampling interval, while deeper samples remained fresh. This inversion of the normal salinity distribution has been transient and indicates transient encroachment of saline surface water. The accuracy and integrity of the SWIM program is critical to the management and sustainability of the authority’s Biscayne Aquifer wellfield. Continued improvements and optimization of the monitoring program ensures long-term viability of the critical Biscayne Aquifer groundwater resource.

Historical Overview The 1935 Labor Day Hurricane destroyed the Florida Overseas Railroad and halted the transport of large quantities of fresh water to the Florida Keys via railroad tank cars. The lack of a dependable water supply prompted the Florida Legislature to create the Florida Keys Aqueduct Commission (FKAC) in 1937, which was the

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Andrew W. McThenia is senior hydrogeologist and W. Kirk Martin is president and principal scientist with Water Science Associates in Fort Myers. Jolynn Reynolds is compliance and planning manager with Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority in Key West.

predecessor of the authority. The U.S. Navy reopened its naval base in Key West in 1939 and entered into an agreement with FKAC in 1941 to build a water supply pipeline from the mainland to Key West, with the federal government paying two-thirds of the cost. The Navy acquired 353 acres of land in Florida City in 1941 and contractors began drilling wells, building pump stations, and laying approximately 128 mi of 18-in. ductile steel pipe to bring water to Key West. Water pumped from three 10-in. Biscayne Aquifer wells at the Florida City Navy wellfield first reached Key West on Sept. 22, 1942. Due to the high level of calcium hardness in the water, which caused excessive buildup of lime scale in pipes, a filtration and lime softening water treatment plant was added to the Florida City facility in 1944. In the late 1980s, a new lime softening/filtration water treatment plant was built and then expanded to meet the demands of growth and tourism in the Florida Keys and Monroe County. Although alternative and emergency water supply systems have been developed, including reverse osmosis treatment plants at Florida City, Stock Island, and Marathon, the primary source of fresh water for the Florida Keys remains groundwater from the Biscayne Aquifer pumped from the Navy wellfield in Florida City.

Saline Water Intrusion Monitoring Program Background The Central and Southern Flood Control District, later to become the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), originally issued the authority’s Water Use Permit Number 1300005-W in 1974 for 13.5 mil gal per day (mgd) of Biscayne Aquifer water. Under two SFMWD programs, entitled Saline Water Intrusion Monitoring and Management (SWIMM) and Multi-

depth Potentiometric Head Monitoring Program (MUD-POHMP), the original permit required that the permittee collect water samples from canals and wells for analyses of dissolved chloride concentrations and other parameters. The permit required the construction of one onsite and two offsite monitor wells to be equipped with monitoring devices, and records to be submitted monthly. In 1974 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Navy to assess the adequacy of the water supply and to evaluate potential impacts of seawater intrusion in response to U.S. Navy and authority concerns that increased withdrawals from the wells could cause seawater to move inland and contaminate the wellfield. An early USGS saline water intrusion map as it relates to the Navy wellfield is excerpted as Figure 1. In 1980, the authority entered into a joint funding agreement with USGS to perform water level monitoring and dissolved chloride analysis of wells owned by the authority, as well as other USGS wells in established monitor well networks. Several of these wells remain in the SWIM network and continue to be maintained by USGS. Under cooperative funding between the authority and USGS, two of these wells provide real-time water level data that are available on the USGS website. During the water use permit renewal process in 1990, SFMWD required an update of the SWIM monitoring program due to increases in salinity observed in several wells. The authority implemented changes to the monitoring program, namely by addition of six new monitor wells, designated as FKS-1 through FKS-6, and by conductivity profile monitoring in addition to the previously required chloride and water level data. In 2001, SFWMD again required updates to the monitoring plan and the authority responded by the addition of three more monitor wells, FKS-7 through FKS-9, by 2004. As part of a wellfield protection study conducted in 2010, the authority’s consulting engineer recommended a number of changes to the program, including the addition of seven new monitor wells and ceasing monitoring at four existing wells. In 2015, the authority requested that Water Science Associates (WSA) reevaluate the previous consultant’s recommendations, provide an updated analysis, and design and implement modifications to the SWIM program.

Figure 1. Inland Extent of Seawater Intrusion for 1946, 1970, and 1971 (Meyer, F.W., 1974)

Figure 2. Map Showing Saline Water Intrusion Monitoring Wells and Chloride Levels Over Time

Geographic Information Systems and Data Evaluation As part of the initial evaluation of the SWIM program, WSA assembled the files of monitored data from the authority for the 16 monitor wells in the network. These data encompassed monthly Continued on page 34

Figure 3. Chloride Levels in Upper and Lower Zones of Monitor Wells FKS-2 and FKS-5 Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 33 sampling events from 1991 through 2016. The chloride levels in all of the wells were plotted as time series and positioned on a GIS map of the network, as shown in Figure 2. Additional mapped information included a 2011 representation of the approximate extent of the 1000 mg/l isochlor based on work conducted by USGS (Prinos 2011) and a GIS contour map showing the base of the Biscayne Aquifer (Ramirez, J., 1990). A review was conducted by WSA of CERP work that included SFWMD and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects as they pertain to the effectiveness and spatial distribu-

tion of the SWIM network. Projects that were evaluated included the SFWMD’s C-111 Spreader Canal Western Project, the USACE’s C111 South Dade Project, and the USACE’s Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Project. Perhaps the most significant CERP project impacting the SWIM program is the plugging of several canals that previously have served as conduits for direct inland movement of seawater during dry periods and have allowed rapid drainage and reduced groundwater recharge during wet periods; specifically, wells FKS-2 and FKS-5 are located adjacent to a recently plugged section of the C-110 canal. As shown in Figure 3, over a period of

Figure 4. Canal Stage Correlation With Salinity Increases at FKS-1 and G-1603

several months in 2014, FKS-2 and FKS-5 experienced elevated chlorides in their upper zones, while the lower zones did not show corresponding increases. This pattern of salinity indicates that the canal and upper zones of the wells were intruded by surface water rather than groundwater. The lowering of the water table elevation in the immediate vicinity of canals also produced localized areas of reduced hydraulic head within the aquifer that facilitate saline water intrusion in the groundwater system. This effect is believed to have caused transient intrusion of saline water into FKS-1 and adjacent G-1603 during two lowstage episodes that occurred in April 2009 and May 2011. During drought conditions, the canal stage on the C-111 adjacent to the two wells was lowered to about 1-ft National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), and chloride levels in FKS-1 and G-1603 experienced corresponding dramatic increases on the order of 3000 to 4000 mg/l, as shown in Figure 4. This correlation of wellfield water levels and chlorides with the canal stage had previously been established by a detailed statistical analysis in 2013 by one of the authors (Martin, 2013). The study concluded that canal-stage levels had a much more significant impact on observed groundwater levels and chlorides than withdrawals from the wellfield by the authority or other nearby users. This conclusion was further bolstered by the current evaluation and was subsequently used as a basis for a permit modification linking dry-season Biscayne Aquifer water use restrictions to actual groundwater levels in USGS monitor well G-613, rather than the calendar-based criteria previously imposed. The G613 is located about 2 mi southeast of the authority’s wellfield.

Florida Power and Light Hypersaline Plume

Figure 5. Contour Map of Salinity in Deep Bicayne Aquifer Groundwater: Average December 2014 Practical Salinity Units (PSU) Values


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The FPL maintains a cooling canal system (CCS) for operation of power generation units at its Turkey Point power generation facility in southeast Miami-Dade County. The western boundary of the CCS is located about 9.5 mi east of the authority’s wellfield and about 5.5 mi east of FKS-9. The CCS consists of some 6,000 acres of canals through which water is circulated for dissipation of heat created by the power generation units. The CCS is characterized as a “closedloop” cooling system, in that the same water is circulated through the extensive canal network without direct input of new water to the system; however, the CCS does not function as a closedloop system hydrologically in that, as the warmed water is circulated, evaporation losses to the atmosphere remove freshwater from the canal sysContinued on page 36


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Continued from page 34 tem, causing a concentration of salinity that exceeds typical ocean salinities by a factor of two or more. This increased salinity is accompanied by a corresponding increase in water density that causes hypersaline water to migrate downward into the underlying groundwater system and radially outward beneath the CCS (Figure 5). Tritium and total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater samples show that hypersaline water emanating from the CCS has moved westward of the L-31E Canal more than 2 mi and is influencing movement of the saline water interface within the Biscayne Aquifer more than 4 mi inland. Currently, FPL is under a consent order to remove the hypersaline plume and has begun operation of a recovery and injection

system designed to remove hypersaline water from the Biscayne Aquifer and inject it into the Boulder Zone via a deep injection well. The SFWMD has permitted FPL to capture 5.475 bil gal per year (15 mgd) of hypersaline water from the Biscayne Aquifer and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) has granted FPL an underground injection control (UIC) permit to inject up to 15.59 mgd of water into a deep injection well.

Monitoring Network Upgrades Discontinuation of monitoring at eight existing wells was recommended by WSA, based on several factors, including proximity of the saline

Figure 6. Map of Existing and Proposed Authority Saline Water Intrusion Monitoring Wells and Florida Power and Light Monitor Well TPGW-7

front, existing monitoring by others, and previous chloride trends. The locations of existing SWIM wells, including those where monitoring is proposed to cease and the proposed new wells, are shown in Figure 6. Construction of six new SWIM wells, designated as FKS-10 through FKS-15, was recommended based on perceived gaps in the spatial distribution of the network, particularly in areas where the saline water had advanced inland beyond an existing site. Because the saline water interface has moved northward of FKS-2 at depth, but has not yet reached FKS-5, an intermediate well FKS-13 was proposed to monitor the movement of the salinity front between those two wells. The FKS-10, 11, and 12 are positioned along US Highway 1 to intercept the front that has previously moved inland of FKS-4, 7, and 8. Because FKS-7 and 8 have upper monitor intervals that are fresh, these wells remain useful for determining the vertical extent and inferred motion of the front, as is evidenced by chlorides at different depths and conductivity profiles. The area to the east of Card Sound Road and south of the Florida City Canal, historically referred to as Model Land, required additional wells due to the rapid encroachment of the hypersaline plume in this area. Prolonged elevated salinity has rendered G-1264 not useful and well G-3164 was lost in 2009 (Figures 7a and 7b). Because G-3164 was relatively fresh when it was last monitored in 2009, a well situated between G3164 and G-1264 was initially proposed; however, a lack of road access and pre-existing groundwater monitoring by the operator of a nearby mine dictated that the proposed location for FKS-14 be shifted southwest of the original location. Salinity monitoring data in the vicinity of FKS-9 indicates that the salinity front is approaching from the east in this area and potentially intruding the upper portion of the Biscayne Aquifer via surface flow in the Florida City Canal or from an abandoned rock pit adjacent to the well. Data from G-1264 indicate that chlorides began to rapidly increase at this site beginning in June 2001. Chloride levels at an FPL monitor well TPGW-7 (Figure 8) located about 1.3 mi west of G-1264, started to increase in December 2013. Based on the time span of about 12.5 years between salinity level surges at G-1264 and TPGW-7, the saline front is estimated to have moved at a rate of approximately 475 ft per year in this particular area.

Well Design

Figure 7a. Chloride Data from G-1264


Figure 7b. Chloride Data from G-3166

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The basis of design for the new monitor wells included consideration of many factors, including cost, effective life span, functionality,

nearby well coverage (both vertical and horizontal), accessibility, security, property ownership, easement availability, and consistency with historic data collection. Based on the authority’s long-term success with sampling and record keeping of its existing multizone FKS wells, the choice was simple: keep the well design consistent with that of the pre-existing wells. Although more complicated alternative well designs involving multiple discrete interval wells at each location were considered, the theoretical benefits of discrete sampling from isolated wells do not outweigh the additional costs that would be incurred by the authority. Consideration was also given to a well design using individual screened sampling tubes gravel-packed and grouted over discreet vertical intervals to be identified by geophysical logging; however, the risks of sand and grout loss to create such “nested” wells in a single borehole and time and costs for logs and tailoring each well were deemed excessive for the intended purpose of detecting the saline front. The inferred risk of upward interborehole flow is insignificant at most of the SWIM wells given the density stratification inherent to the saline water interface, especially in a highly transmissive aquifer setting. Currently there are no significant withdrawals from the Biscayne Aquifer in the immediate vicinity of any of the wells that might disrupt the static density equilibrium between separate and highly permeable zones within the aquifer; however, a salinity barrier system proposed by the nearby mine operator that involves pumping up to 7 mil gal per day of water from a single large shallow well into a north-south linear array of deeper injection wells has the potential to impact FKS-14, which is within 0.5 mi of the barrier wells. Increased hydraulic head in a lower flow zone and simultaneous reduction of head in the upper zone could potentially induce upward flow through a connected penetration, such as a borehole or mine pit excavation. The chosen monitor well design includes multiple small diameter (1- and 2-in.) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes secured from the top by means of a compressive well seal inside of a larger diameter (6-in.) PVC surface casing with an open borehole beneath the surface casing to total depth (Figure 9). This design allows discrete sample collection from upper and lower depths via the 1-in. open-ended pipes and for continuous vertical conductivity profiling in the 2-in. screen over the entire open-hole portion of the well. A 1-ft-long screened interval at the base of each sample tube was included in case plugging of the bottom of the tube was to occur. Protective measures at the

Figure 8. Chloride Level in Florida Power and Light TPGW-7 Well Nest (D) = Deep = Screened from -77 to -81 ft (NGVD 1929)

Figure 9. Schematic of Typical Saline Water Intrusion Monitoring Well Profile

wellheads include 12-in. diameter-schedule 40 steel casings, locking well caps, steel reinforced concrete well pads, and cement-filled 4-in. steel pipe corner bollards at each pad. There is a high risk of vandalism in the Model Lands area and the protective features are likely to be challenged.

Permitting The various permits and agreements obtained for modification of the SWIM program

and construction of the new wells include the following: S SFWMD Water Use Permit No. 13-00005-W, Application No. 160317 S Florida Dept. of Health Well Construction Permits 13-59-13036 to 13-59-13040 S Miami Dade Department of Transportation (DOT) and Public Works Permits 2016005628, 2016005629, 2016005630 S SFWMD Right of Way Occupancy Continued on page 38

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 37 Permit/General Permit No. 14687 S SFWMD Revocable Right of Entry/License Agreement S Memorandum of Agreement between Florida DOT and FKAA finalized in April 2017

Conclusions Salinity data reviewed in this study suggest that the authority’s Biscayne Aquifer wellfield in Florida City has not been currently impacted by saline water intrusion, nor have wellfield operations contributed to regional saltwater encroachment. The recent modifications to the SWIM program are a proactive response to man-made groundwater problems, namely drainage canals lowering groundwater heads and providing direct conduits and the hypersaline plume originating at Turkey Point. Although control structures and plugs now exist on most of the canals that have acted in the past as conduits for salt water intrusion, canals continue to pose risk for saline intrusion in the region due to their high potential to convey saline water rapidly inland toward the wellfield during storm surges, king high-tide events, and


extreme drought and low water conditions. Eleven of the 16 chloride monitoring wells in the current SWIM network are positioned within 100 ft of a major canal and are the most likely to exhibit salinity impacts. These canals include the C-111, C-110, Card Sound Canal, and the Florida City Canal. The SWIM wells FKS-7 and G-3342 are also located on a likely flow path for saline water, which is the abandoned Florida East Coast Railway borrow ditch extending south from the wells to the C-111 canal. The close proximity of these wells to the main pathways of intrusion ensures early detection and allows rapid response if any water management actions can be taken to arrest the problem. Apart from naturally occurring seawater, the single most damaging source of groundwater pollution threatening the authority’s wellfield is the FPL cooling canal system at Turkey Point. Because of the intense public and regulatory scrutiny focused on the hypersaline plume and remediation efforts being undertaken by FPL and others to halt and reverse the intrusion, future data from FKS-9, FKS-14, and FKS-15 will provide ever more valuable intelligence for the community of professionals involved in this issue.

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

References • Martin, W.M. “Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority Water Supply Protection Program: Phase II Detailed Groundwater Data Analysis.” • Meyer, F.W., 1974. USGS Open File Report FL 74014. “Availability of Groundwater for the U.S. Navy Well Field Near Florida City, Dade County, Florida.” • Prinos, S., 2011. “Approximate Inland Extent of the Saltwater Interface in the Biscayne Aquifer in 2011, Miami-Dade County, Florida.” WSC/metadata/SaltlineBiscayne2011_arc.htm. • Prinos, S.; Wacker, M.A.; Cunningham, K.J.; and Fitterman, D.V. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5025. “Origins and Delineation of Saltwater Intrusion in the Biscayne Aquifer and Changes in the Distribution of Saltwater in Miami-Dade County, Florida.” 101 pp. • Ramirez, Jorge, unpublished material. “Configuration of the Base of the Biscayne Aquifer in Dade County.” WRIR 90-4108, figure 16. LWSC/descriptions/dade_config_base_biscayne_arc.htm. S

LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Lightning: The Underrated Killer n estimated 25 million lightning flashes occur each year in the United States. Over the past three decades, lightning has killed an average of 58 people per year, which is greater than the annual average for either tornadoes or hurricanes. Nearly 75 percent of all U.S. lightning injuries and fatalities occur during June, July, and August, and the most incidents occur between 2 and 6 p.m. The top five states reporting lightningcaused deaths are Florida, Minnesota, Texas, New York, and Tennessee. Because nine out of every 10 lightning casualties involve only one victim, and there’s typically no mass destruction, getting struck by lightning is unfortunately underrated as a safety risk. The National Lightning Safety Institute recommends that all businesses, especially those that typically have workers with outdoor jobs, prepare and distribute a lightning safety plan to all employees. The core of the plan is to anticipate a high-risk situation and move to a low-risk location, with one outcome: save lives.

thunder to ensure everyone has time to find shelter. Leaders of outdoor events should have a written plan in advance that all staff are aware of and can enforce.



Watch for developing thunderstorms, which occur year-round. As the sun heats the air, pockets of warmer air start to rise, and dark, thick cumulus clouds form. Continued heating can cause these clouds to grow vertically into massive formations that often indicate a thunderstorm and lightning ahead.


Seek safe shelter. Lightning can strike as far as 10 miles from the area where it is raining; that’s also about the distance when you can first hear thunder. Remember: if you can hear thunder, you are within striking distance of lightning. Get to a large building or enclosed vehicle, and make sure that all windows are shut. Avoid open canopies and small picnic or rain shelters. And never seek shelter under a tree!


Stop outdoor activities at first thunder. Golfers and boaters are prime moving targets for a lightning bolt. Where organized outdoor sports activities and events take place, coaches, camp counselors, and other adults must stop activities at the first roar of

stall ground fault circuit interrupters on circuits near water or outdoors. When inside, wait 30 minutes after the last clap of thunder before going outside again.


If lightning is striking nearby when you are outside and can’t seek shelter, you should crouch down, put your feet together, and place your hands over your ears to minimize hearing damage from thunder. Have a minimum of 15 feet between you and any other person. Avoid all metal objects, including electric wires, fences, machinery, motors, power tools, etc.


Help a lightning-strike victim. Lightning victims do not carry an electrical charge, so they are safe to touch—and will likely need urgent medical attention. For those who die, cardiac arrest is the immediate cause. Some deaths can be prevented if the victim receives the proper first aid immediately. Call 911 and perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation if the person is unresponsive or not breathing.


Avoid electrically connected activities indoors. Turn off and don’t use corded phones, computers, appliances, televisions, power tools, and other electrical equipment that can put you in direct contact with a surge of lightning-caused electricity. Stay away from doors and windows. Also, stay away from pools (indoor or outdoor), tubs, showers, and other plumbing. Get surge suppressors for key electrical equipment. In-


Teach this safety slogan: “If you can see it, flee it; if you can hear it, clear it.”

Lightning is dangerous. With common sense, you can greatly increase your safety and the safety of others. For additional safety information go to the National Weather Service website at, or the National Lightning Safety Institute site at S

The 2017 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2017 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set. Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



FSAWWA Well-Represented at AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition Grace Johns Chair, FSAWWA


he AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE) held at the Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia in June provided valuable learning and networking opportunities for all of our water professionals. If you haven’t yet attended this conference, I strongly urge you to consider attending next year’s event, which will be held June 11-14 in Las Vegas. State-of-the-art technical sessions, exhibitors from around the world, exciting networking events, and world-class competitions all combine to teach and inspire you in your profession. This four-day conference is always well worth your time and money. Here are some of the Florida Section highlights from ACE17.

T AWWA’s Top Ops champions are (left to right) Fred Greiner, Jim Hogan, Tom Martens, and Peter Roussell.

City of Palm Coast Team is AWWA Top Ops Champion

Palm Coast Water Buoys in action at AWWA’s Top Ops competition (left to right): Fred Greiner, Peter Roussell, and Tom Martens.

For the second year in a row, our own “Palm Coast Water Buoys” from the City of Palm Coast took first place in the AWWA Top Ops competition at ACE. The champions included Peter Roussell (team captain), Jim Hogan (coach), Fred Greiner, and Tom Martens. This is their seventh first-place title since 2006 and they have been in the Top Ops Hall of Fame since 2005. Top Ops is a fast-paced question-and-answer tournament for AWWA section teams of water operators and laboratory personnel. The teams compete by correctly answering a broad range of technical questions and math problems, and the one scoring the most points in the championship round is awarded the Top Ops championship. Congratulations Palm Coast Water Buoys–you are the best!

Beverly Medina Takes Second Place in AWWA Fresh Ideas Poster Contest The Florida Section is proud that Beverly Medina’s Fresh Ideas Poster placed second at ACE. A student at the University of Florida, Beverly’s poster was entitled, “Evaluating Options for Regenerant Brine Reuse in Ion Exchange Systems for Dissolved Organic Carbon Renewal." Congratulations and great job Beverly!

Ana Maria Gonzalez Named AWWA Director Ana Maria Gonzalez, P.E., with Hazen and Sawyer, is the new AWWA director from the Florida Section.

University of Florida student Beverly Medina stands with her award-winning poster at ACE. Go GATORS!


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

At this year’s ACE, Ana Maria Gonzalez, FSAWWA past chair, began her tenure as a member of the AWWA board of directors. Her term is 2017 to 2020. She follows Jacqueline Torbert, FSAWWA past chair, who capably served as AWWA director from 2014 to 2017. Congratulations, and thank you Ana Maria and Jackie for your service to AWWA and the Florida Section. Continued on page 42

Jason Parrillo Receives Fuller Award at Breakfast Ceremony

Continued from page 40

Jacqueline Torbert is Chair of AWWA Diversity and Member Inclusion Committee Jacqueline Torbert, with Orange County Utilities, was installed as chair of the AWWA Diversity and Member Inclusion Committee.

Announced at ACE, Jackie Torbert will lead AWWA and its sections as chair of the Diversity and Member Inclusion Committee. The committee’s mission is to create a diverse membership and establish an organizational environment that recognizes, encourages, celebrates, and effectively utilizes each individual member's talents. Over the years Jackie has consistently and fully supported AWWA and the Florida Section and she continues to be a source of knowledge and inspiration. She also serves on AWWA’s Governance Review Committee and its campaign for “The Water Equation.” She recently completed her two-year term as AWWA vice president and her three-year term as AWWA director. Congratulations and thank you Jackie.

Jason Parrillo of the Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department received the Fuller Award for his distinguished service to the water supply field in commemoration of the sound engineering skills, brilliant diplomatic talent, and constructive leadership that characterized the life of George Warren Fuller. Jason has a long history of dedicated service to FSAWWA, having served as Public Affairs Council chair, Region III chair, and section chair. Thanks and congratulations Jason!

Jay Madigan Receives Zenno A. Gorder Membership Recruiting Award Jay Madigan, FSAWWA’s Membership Committee chair, received the prestigious Zenno A. Gorder Membership Recruiting Award at the ACE opening general session for his success in recruiting the most new AWWA members of any AWWA member in 2016. Congratulations and thank you Jay.

Jason Parrillo, with his Fuller Award plaque, surrounded by his friends and colleagues who cheered his award at the Fuller Award Breakfast (left to right): Jackie Torbert, past Fuller awardee; Grace Johns, FSAWWA chair; Jason Parrillo; Ana Maria Gonzalez, past Fuller awardee; Kim Kunihiro (front), FSAWWA past chair; Richard Anderson, past Fuller awardee; Pat Lehman, past Fuller awardee; and Peggy Guingona, FSAWWA executive director.

From left to right: David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer; Adriana Lamar and Lance Llewelyn, Miami-Dade County Water and Sewer Department; and Jeanne BennettBailey, AWWA president, with the 50-year service award.

Destin Water Users receive Landmark Award at ACE. Pictured left to right are David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer; Judd Mooso and Monica Autrey, Destin Water Users; and Jeanne Bennett-Bailey, AWWA president.

Jay Madigan accepts the Zenno A. Gorder award with Jackie Torbert, AWWA vice president.


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department Recognized for 50 Years of Service to the Water Industry

FSAWWA Receives Club 7 Award for Highest Percent Membership Growth

The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department received special recognition at ACE for its 50 years of service to the water industry. This award recognizes organization members who provided valuable support for AWWA programs and goals through their long-standing AWWA membership. Over the years the department’s employees have provided many valuable volunteer service hours in training and inspiring water professionals throughout Florida and the United States. We thank the department leadership and personnel for their hard work and dedication to the mission of AWWA and the Florida Section.

In 2016, FSAWWA exceeded its overall membership growth goal of 2 percent, with 7.6 percent actual growth relative to 2015. This is the highest growth rate of the AWWA sections in Division 1, which includes the largest of the AWWA sections. The FSAWWA is officially the third largest AWWA section, with 2,464 members as of Dec. 31, 2016. We extend a huge thank you to Jay Madigan, Membership Committee chair; Becky Cook, committee vice-chair; Casey Cumiskey, FSAWWA training coordinator/membership specialist, and other Membership Committee volunteers who work hard to keep our membership strong.

Destin Water Users Water Tower 1 Receives AWWA Landmark Award

Florida Section’s Annual Luncheon at ACE17

Destin Water Users Water Tower 1 received the AWWA Landmark Award for its continuing service after 50 years. The tower is still fully operational and is a tribute to Destin Water Users as it manages its water supply infrastructure for generations to come.

The Florida Section hosted its annual luncheon at ACE to encourage networking among the section members. The 67 members and guests shared their conference experiences and our competition teams were recognized and encouraged. Also featured were two students from the University of Central Florida and one from the University of Florida who gave presentations and competed at ACE. We gave a special thank you to Steven Duranceau, AWWA member and associate professor of environmental engineering at the University of Central Florida, for mentoring two of these students and bringing them to the luncheon. The FSAWWA luncheon was a lively networking and sharing event. S

FSAWWA receives the Club 7 Membership award at ACE. Pictured left to right are David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer; Grace Johns, FSAWWA chair; Peggy Guingona, FSAWWA executive director; Kim Kunihiro, FSAWWA past chair; and Jeanne Bennett-Bailey, AWWA president.

Above: Several Florida college students interact with water utility professionals at the FSAWWA luncheon.

At left: FSAWWA hosts a lively luncheon at ACE. Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



Are There Enough Resources for Your Capital Improvement Programs? Lauren Atwell Capital improvement programs (CIPs) are needed to accommodate the growth in Florida to expand, modernize, and improve existing facilities, and renew and replace aging ones. A quick survey of a few utilities across the state indicates that Florida is about to invest billions in water infrastructure: from Miami-Dade to Tampa, from Orlando to Jacksonville, individual utilities have five-year programs as large as $750 million. All of these CIPs are good for Florida, but will there be enough workers to build them? That’s a serious question, because many Florida employers, especially in construction, are facing labor shortages. The labor shortage has affected all types of construction in the state for the last few years. From heavy equipment operators, pipe layers, and carpenters, to plumbers and pipefitters, contractors are finding it difficult, if not impossible, to employ sufficiently skilled manpower to handle the surge of projects planned or already underway.

Nearly 90 percent of Florida’s contractors say they continue to experience shortages in skilled labor, even though local groups, and trade and industry associations, are working as quickly as they can to train new workers. According to the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), it has experienced a 53 percent decline (from 4.3 to 2.3) in the average number of bidders on the major class of its construction contracts. The percent of these construction contracts that received low numbers of bids (zero, one, or two) increased from 14 percent to 47 percent. These facts, combined with FDOT observations that no major new contractors have recently entered the market, suggest that highway contractors in Florida already have close to as much work as they can handle, and that they can therefore afford to be more selective about bidding on additional work. What can utility owners and managers do to help, and what can they do to get their projects built? Recognizing the problem is a good start. Understanding that resource shortages will affect your project


during the planning stages will help ensure a successful project. Starting a project early to take advantage of longer construction duration will help alleviate the labor shortage. For example, if your improvement project is scheduled for 12 months, and it takes 20 skilled craftspeople, allowing 15 months to build it will lower that demand to 15 craftspeople. Starting early can allow sufficient time to build the project and still met your overall goals of completion. It may also encourage additional competition. Utility owners compete for qualified contractors to build their projects. Allowing sufficient time to bid the projects will help encourage contractor participation. Seeking input from the contractors at pre-bid meetings as to conflicts with other utility owner lettings, making bid documents and forms less onerous, and ensuring high quality in the documents let out to bid will also help make your projects more attractive. The demand created by such an increase in the state’s CIPs, coupled with the labor shortage, will affect the cost of your project. Owners across the state have experienced dramatic increases in construction costs over the past three years. The cost of labor alone has increased 4.9 percent since the first of this year. Having updated, realistic budgets will be paramount to the success of your overall CIP. Advocating and supporting workforce development and vocational education efforts will assist trade and industry associations and local groups in their efforts to get the labor needed for the construction industry; however, developing a true team mentality and partnership among utility owners, engineers, and contractors every step of the way throughout the CIP is the best way to overcome the issues facing the successful implementation and completion of your utility projects. Lauren Atwell is vice president of Petticoat Schmitt Civil Contractors Inc. in Jacksonville. S


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

AWWA Section Services provides sections with content for their publications. These articles contain brand new information and will cover a variety of topics.

Politics as a Lagging Indicator Why Washington is the way it is G. Tracy Mehan III This column is derived from remarks delivered to the AWWA board of directors at the 2017 Annual Conference and Exposition in Philadelphia. Washington, D.C. is sometimes referred to as 68 square miles surrounded by reality. An old joke for sure, but things are unusually unsettled in the Federal City these days for a variety of reasons, many of which have to do with the last election. There are other trends, however— longstanding and persistent—welling up from the very nature of contemporary American society that are driving current political behavior, with often unsettling outcomes. There are also disturbing elements of the federal government’s fiscal situation, making everything more contentious as liberals and conservatives, Republicans and Democrats, face an endless stream of lose–lose choices when it comes to funding their preferred, yet competing, priorities.


This all needs to be kept in mind as the water sector pursues new initiatives, say, for water infrastructure financing, in the days ahead. Every federal dollar spent for every purpose faces scrutiny, and even good ideas rarely make it out of the political scrum. The fact that the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act, AWWA’s signature legislative achievement, was funded for the first time this year is something to celebrate. Furthermore, with budget cuts looming large, State Revolving Funds have remained largely untouched, and have even grown. This is good news, and perhaps a rare glimmer of common sense in today’s troubled political waters. The blue state–red state divide is not a purely political phenomenon. It is, at its root, cultural, religious, social, racial, and economic. The fact that President Donald Trump pulled together a coalition (a plurality, but not a majority) sufficient to win the Electoral College was a stunning election event, universally testified to by all. My home state of Missouri is normally a bellwether state when it comes to presidential elections: between 1904 and 2004

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

it has always gone with the winner, except for Adlai Stevenson and Barack Obama. Trump won all but four Missouri counties: he lost Jackson (Kansas City), Boone (Columbia, a university town), St. Louis County, and St. Louis City (a county-level jurisdiction). In the other 111 counties, he won all but four by margins of 60 percent or better, many in the 70 to 80 percent range. Urban, middle-class, racially diverse, and more secular communities were overwhelmed by white, rural, small-town counties, many suffering from the loss of light manufacturing due to globalization. President Trump won the state with 56.4 percent of the vote, versus Hillary Clinton’s 37.9 percent. In 2012, Mitt Romney won the state by 9.4 percent. Recall too that, nationally, President Trump won over 80 of the Evangelical vote. So it should not come as a surprise that only 20 percent of Americans today say they can trust the government in Washington to do what is right “just about always” (4 percent) or “most of the time” (16 percent), according to the Pew Trust’s national election survey. Pew has been doing these surveys since 1958; in that year, about three-quarters of Americans trusted the federal government to do the right thing almost always or most of the time. What makes these data even more challenging is that so many citizens distrust the government for different reasons. What agitates a Bernie Sanders voter is very different from what a Ted Cruz supporter finds disturbing; therefore, consensus is illusive. Again, this is all compounded by regional, cultural, and economic differences and a general sense of disconnection from Washington, with one exception: most Americans receive, or expect to receive, substantial transfer payments from the federal government. It’s not an accident that President Trump, Secretary Clinton, and Senator Sanders pledged not to touch or cut entitlements during their respective political campaigns. Polarization and gridlock are not just functions of a nation divided by culture, economics, religion, race, and the like; there is a sharp divide on budget and fiscal matters due to the straight jacket created by resistance to more taxation and a disinclination to restrain the cascade of entitlement spending, with Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and mandatory (not dis-

cretionary) spending, along with payment on the national debt with low interest rates, all soon to rise if the Federal Reserve is to be believed. According to the January 2017 Congressional Budget Office (CBO) report, “The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2017-2027,” things are not looking so good for the federal budget: “The CBO projects that over the next decade, if current laws remained generally unchanged, budget deficits would eventually follow an upward trajectory, which is the result of strong growth in spending for retirement and healthcare programs targeted to older people and rising interest payments on the government debt, accompanied by only modest growth in revenue collections. Those accumulating deficits would drive debt held by the public from its already high level up to its highest percentage of gross domestic product since shortly after World War II.” While we are talking big numbers here—a $559 billion budget deficit for fiscal year 2017 and a national debt of over $19 trillion (with a “t”)—this is just the bond debt held by the pub-

lic. It’s entitlement spending, as noted, that is the very real “Death Star” looming over the nation and the economy. Niall Ferguson, a Harvard economic historian and host of the PBS television documentary, “The Ascent of Money,” argues in his book, The Great Degeneration: How Institutions Decay and Economies Die (2012), that “the statistics commonly cited as government debt are themselves misleading, for they encompass only the sums owed by the government in the form of bonds. But the official debts in the form of bonds do not include the often far larger unfunded liabilities of welfare schemes [sic] like…Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security.” He goes on to say, “The best available estimate for the difference between the net present value of federal government liabilities and the net present value of future federal revenues is $200 trillion, nearly thirteen times the debt as stated by the U.S. Treasury.” (Italics are mine.) Everyone in Washington wants more of something but, again, usually very different things: more benefits, more tax cuts, more defense spending, more infrastructure, more subsidies. The inherent limits of the budget process, along with current law and rigorous budget

scoring congressional rules (PAYGO or “pay as you go”), are forcing tough trade-offs. Any new spending requires a reduction in spending elsewhere—or new revenue. There is no rising tide to lift all boats, to flip Jack Kennedy’s famous quote on its head. The budget process is barely functioning anymore and is another fraught political interaction between the Democratic and Republican caucuses looking for very different things for their respective blue and red constituencies. These are not harmonious times in Washington, D.C., and the nation at large. Politicians are as much a result of the current national distemper as a cause. Politics in the nation’s capital is a lagging indicator, and AWWA’s voice, advocating for smart water policy and promoting public health and the environment, has never been more critical. G. Tracy Mehan III is former assistant administrator for water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. He is now executive director for government affairs at American Water Works Association, the world’s oldest and largest water association with 50,000 members. S

Concerns About Household Water Quality Increase, According to New National Study Thirty-six percent concerned about contaminants in their water Concerns about water quality among Americans has increased over the past two years, according to a new national public opinion study, with a significant jump in the number of homeowners who expressed concern about possible health risks associated with tap water (29 percent) compared with just two years ago (12 percent). Thirty-six percent of those surveyed said they are concerned about contaminants in their water, up from 25 percent in 2015. Conducted in January and February of 2017, the study by Applied Research-West Inc. on behalf of the Water Quality Association (WQA), also found that more than a quarter of households (28 percent) were somewhat or very dissatisfied with the quality of their household water, also up from 2015 (26 percent). “The significant increase in these numbers is sobering, but not surprising,” said Pauli Undesser, WQA executive director. “Homeowners

are seeing more and more evidence of water issues across the country and are understandably concerned about protecting their family the best they can.”

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires municipalities and public water systems to make available to their customers a copy of their annual drinking water quality report, also known as the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR), by July 1 of each year. The WQA national survey found that 62 percent of households said they did not receive or did know if they received their CCR, up from 56 percent two years ago. The study presents the findings of a national online survey, with a total of 1,711 adults over the age of 18 and living in private households interviewed. More about the survey can be found at The organization also has available a free booklet, “Water Treatment for Dummies: WQA Special Edition,” to help consumers save money while enhancing the quality of the drinking water in their home or business. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



Flint’s Path From Crisis to Distribution System Optimization Christopher Hill, Rebecca Slabaugh, David Cornwell, and Melinda Friedman


he water crisis in Flint, Mich., was triggered in April 2014 as a result of a change from purchased treated water from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) to the Flint River, using the existing City of Flint (city) water treatment plant (WTP). The switch resulted in a number of distribution system issues, including Total Coliform Rule (TCR) violations, boilwater orders, main breaks, disinfection byproduct (DBP) issues, Legionella outbreaks, and elevated lead levels. In response to the crisis, the city, with support from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), implemented new programs, practices, and treatment, including the addition of a corrosion control inhibitor, to restore the quality of the water and to protect public health. The city developed a distribution system optimization plan to restore customer confidence and enhance its water distribution system operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. The planning process included an assessment of current distribution system practices and corrosion control treatment compared to industry best practices, the identification of associated gaps, and a determination of the human and financial resources needed to implement the recommended prioritized list of improvements for the city.

History Water Supply In November 2011, the city was brought under control of an emergency manager following accumulation of nearly $26 million in deficits. Under the advice of the emergency manager and other Michigan officials, the Flint City Council voted to purchase water from Karegnondi Water Authority (KWA) in a cost-saving move away from DWSD. The KWA was intending to construct an 80-mi pipeline (60 and 66 in. in diameter) to provide and distribute water from Lake Huron to Flint and other communities in Genesee, Lapeer, and Sanilac counties. In April 2013, DWSD asked the city to reconsider its decision to purchase water from KWA. When the city failed to do so, DWSD sent a notice of termination effective in April 2014. Construction of the KWA pipeline was not to begin until June 2013, which meant the city had to find an alternative supply until the KWA pipeline was completed. In June 2013, the emergency manager approved plans to treat Flint River water at the city’s WTP. The Flint River and WTP were previously considered an emergency supply and had not been used for decades. On April 1, 2014, MDEQ approved a construction permit for improvements

Figures 1 (left) and 2 (right). pH and Alkalinity at the Flint Water Treatment Plant Tap (Source: EPA)


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Christopher Hill is vice president and Rebecca Slabaugh is principle engineer with Arcadis U.S. Inc. in Tampa. David Cornwell is president of Cornwell Engineering Group in Newport News, Va. Melinda Friedman is president of Confluence Engineering Group LLC in Seattle.

to the WTP. Less than one month later, on April 25, the city switched to the Flint River and remained on that supply until Oct. 16, 2015, at which time it switched back to the Detroit supply following the well-publicized water quality crisis. Water Quality For decades, DWSD provided the city with treated water from Lake Huron, which was a stable and consistent source from a water quality perspective. This is essential to maintaining distribution system water quality, including maintaining effective corrosion control treatment, maintenance of a disinfectant residual, and control of DBPs. Figures 1 and 2 show plant tap pH and alkalinity prior to, during, and following discontinuation of use of Flint River water. As is shown in the figures, treated pH and alkalinity were widely variable during the period when Flint River was used as a supply. This is attributed to the variability of the Flint River as a source and the lack of proper treatment at the WTP to address the variability. Because of the variability, the city experienced a number of well-publicized water quality problems: S In August and September 2014, boil-water advisories were issued due to the presence of E. coli and coliform bacteria. The city boosted the distribution system chlorine residual and increased flushing as a result. S In November 2014, the city first exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total trihalomethanes. This problem persisted until August 2015. S In January 2015, residents show up at city council meetings with bottles of discolored water, and complained that their water “tastes funny and smells terrible.” S In February 2015, the first incidence of high lead is observed following sampling in one home, prompted by rashes on a child. The EPA Region V called the results “alarming” and






MDEQ responded by saying that the city had an optimized corrosion control program. In March 2015, EPA raised more concerns with MDEQ, suspecting that lead service lines were the sources of increased lead concentrations. Also, the Genesee County Health Department observed an increase in local cases of Legionnaire’s disease, including in Flint. The EPA questioned whether it could be related to the ongoing water quality problems in Flint. In April 2015, MDEQ stated that Flint had no corrosion control in place, but it was not required based on Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) monitoring results. In June, EPA said that, in light of lead test results, a lack of corrosion control treatment was a major concern. In August 2015, Virginia Polytechnic and State University (Virginia Tech) began a study of Flint water quality and in September 2015 stated that the water was corrosive and caused lead to leach into residents’ water. On Sept. 24, 2015, an increase in blood lead levels was observed in the children of Flint. On Sept. 25, 2015, a lead advisory was issued stating that only cold water should be used for drinking and making infant formula. On Oct. 1, 2015, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Genesee County Health Department declared a public health emergency. The city and the health department urged customers to not drink the water. On Oct. 8, 2015, the decision was made to switch back to Detroit water, operating as Great Lakes Water Authority (GLWA), and the city switched back to GLWA water on Oct. 16, 2015.

Treated water from GLWA contained an orthophosphate residual of approximately 1 mg/L as phosphorus and had a pH of approximately 7.5. To re-establish corrosion control treatment in the city’s distribution system, EPA directed the city to boost the orthophosphate residual to maintain a minimum 3.1 mg/L residual throughout the distribution system, boost the chlorine residual (using sodium hypochlorite) sufficiently to maintain compliance with the TCR, and maintain treated water pH greater than 7. The city targeted 7.5 ± 0.2 units using caustic soda. As of March 31, 2017, city residents were advised that Flint water was safe for bathing, but they should utilize a water filter for water used for drinking and cooking. As of this writing, filters and bottled water are still provided by the State of Michigan.

Water System Overview Water Distribution System The city’s distribution system includes two

Table 1. Distribution System Characteristics

Figure 3. Historic Water Demands

storage facilities: the Cedar Street Reservoir, which was constructed in 1948 and expanded in the 1960s and has a total capacity of 20 mil gal (MG); and the West Side Reservoir, which was constructed in 1970 and has a capacity of 12 MG. Both facilities have the ability to boost chlorine on the fill line to the reservoir using liquid sodium hypochlorite. In addition to the distribution storage, the city has 25 MG of available storage at the WTP, for a total of 57 MG. The city began practicing deep cycling of its reservoirs to manage water age in the distribution lines. Due to the high number of main breaks in the system, city staff was generally uncomfortable with scaling down the amount of storage regularly used in the distribution system. The Flint distribution system has approxi-

mately 580 mi of pipe, with its characteristics shown in Table 1. Water Demand The population of Flint has dropped significantly since its peak in the 1960s. It has experienced a 20 percent decrease in population since 2000 and has a current estimated population of 98,310. This decline has left the water department with an oversized distribution system, creating physical, hydraulic, and water quality challenges, including water age and chlorine residual management. Prior to the water crisis, system demand averaged 25.5 mil gal per day (mgd) from 2010 to 2013. During the crisis, demand dropped to 17.6 mgd, and has hovered near 13 mgd since Continued on page 50

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 49 the system reconnected to GLWA (Figure 3). Contributing to the decline in demand was the loss in October 2014 of General Motors, a commercial customer, over water quality concerns. As the water system stabilizes and water quality concerns decrease, demand may increase; however, given continuing decreasing population trends, demand may not return to pre-crisis levels.

Criteria for Optimized Distribution Systems The American Water Works Association (AWWA) Partnership for Safe Water distribution system optimization program is comprised of a methodology for utilities to optimize their distribution systems through a phased process of commitment to the program, annual data reporting to the partnership, self-assessment, and optimization. Although the partnership recognizes that it is difficult for any utility to achieve fully optimized status as defined by its performance goals, it offers a process in which all utilities can advance their system operations to attain performance nearer the goals. The city is utilizing the partnership methodology as the basis for optimizing its water distribution system. The optimization program focused on three performance indicators discussed here. Water Quality Integrity. The water quality indicator is based upon the capability of maintaining an adequate distribution system residual disinfectant level. An optimized distribution system using free chlorine as a secondary disinfectant will maintain the following:

S Chlorine residual of at least 0.20 mg/L and no greater than 4 mg/L in 95 percent of all routine monthly readings. S Routine sample locations should include known problem areas and all storage facilities. S No routine sample locations are to have consecutive readings outside this range. S The DBPs meet regulatory limits for each sample tested (not based on a running annual average); specifically, every total trihalomethane sample is ≤ 80 micrograms per liter (µg/L) and every haloacetic acids five (HAA5) is ≤ 60 µg/L. Physical Integrity. The physical soundness indicator is based upon the frequency of distribution system main breaks and leaks. Optimization of infrastructure integrity includes the goal of meeting the following criteria: S No more than 15 reported main breaks and leaks per 100 mi of pipeline per year. S Reducing main break and leak frequency (based upon a rolling, five-year trend). Hydraulic Integrity. The hydraulic soundness indicator is based on pressure management through the distribution system. Pressure must be monitored continuously, from the sensor located within the distribution system, ideally at low- and high-pressure locations. The goal for pressure management includes the following: S Distribution system pressure should be maintained at or above 20 pounds per sq in. (psi) in 99.5 percent of measurements (based on daily minimums from hourly readings). S Maximum pressure does not exceed utility-specific maximum in 95 percent of measurements.

Figure 4. Main Breaks Per Year (2008–2016)


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Pressure should be met under normal conditions, including maximum day demand and fire flow conditions (excluding emergencies). S Utilities have pre-approved procedures to protect public health during emergency conditions (main breaks, power outages). S Utilities have predetermined goals for maximum pressure ranges (differences between minimum and maximum pressure) within each pressure zone. Many other factors (administrative, design, maintenance, and operations) influence, or can be influenced by, these integrity performance indicators. Optimization through self-assessment of some or all of these factors (known as improvement variables) is another critical step in the program. Administrative factors, specifically administrative policies, funding, and staffing, were also reviewed, as they impact all aspects of a water utility, not just the distribution system.

Distribution System Assessment Water Main Break Analysis The analysis of main breaks falls under the guidance outlined in the partnership’s physical integrity category. The objectives of this analysis were to compare city practices to the partnership goals and criteria, identify potential causes of main breaks and opportunities for improvement, and if possible, identify impacts of the switch to the Flint River on infrastructure integrity. Figure 4 presents the number of main breaks per year for the period 2008 to 2016, and compares the number of breaks to the partnership goals. Excluding the data from years 2014 and 2015, the actual trend indicates a decrease in number over time; inclusion of the 2014 and 2015 breaks change the trend to be increasing over time. Currently, there is inconsistency with regard to the actual number of pipe miles in the Flint system, ranging somewhere between 580 and 800 mi. The optimization goal for 800 mi of pipe is 120 breaks per year, compared to 87 breaks per year for 580 mi. In either case, the city does not currently (nor historically) meet the optimization goal. Figure 5 compares the occurrence of water main breaks to temperature. This trend shows both the breaks and the average (recorded at Bishop International Airport) for each month. The figure clearly shows that the peak number of breaks occur during cold weather months. The coldest sustained temperatures within the dataset occurred in the winter 2014 season (average median low of 11ºF sustained for two months) prior to the switch to the Flint River. The coldest individual month occurred in February 2015. The warmest winter occurred in the 2015/2016 season and had one of the lowest rates of winter breaks

per month (based on data available through January 2016). Based on this analysis, temperature played a more significant role in the number of breaks than the change in source water. Chlorine Residual Maintenance of a disinfectant residual is critical to ensuring the integrity of a distribution system. In addition to providing microbial control, disinfectant residuals provide oxidizing conditions to help stabilize pipe scales and can serve as an indicator of distribution system integrity. Therefore, a key aspect of distribution system water quality management and optimization is to identify appropriate disinfectant residual levels and strategies for monitoring and maintaining them on an ongoing basis. Through 2016, the city monitored chlorine residual at the entry point daily and at 10 locations in the distribution system, including at the two main reservoirs. A minimum of 100 samples were collected and analyzed each month as part of routine regulatory TCR monitoring. Figure 6 shows site-specific data during the three operational periods (before, during, and after the switch) for the city’s original 10 TCR monitoring locations. Chlorine residual boosting began in January 2016 at the Cedar Street and Westside reservoirs and at the WTP in May 2016. As of June 2016, the city began targeting a free chlorine residual concentration of 1.7 mg/L leaving the plant. Since September 2016, the city has maintained chlorine residual concentrations above 0.5 mg/L in 95 percent of samples collected throughout the distribution system. The 0.5 mg/L level, while greater than the partnership target of 0.2 mg/L in 95 percent of samples, is viewed as appropriate for Flint during the restabilization process and to assist with control of microbial growth beyond the customer’s meter. Lead The most highly publicized aspect of the crisis was the elevated lead concentrations that resulted from the water source change, which caused one of the most intensive water quality investigations ever completed. In total, USEPA, MDEQ, and the city collected more than 29,000 lead samples at more than 15,000 homes. The city has been in compliance with LCR since January 2017 when the reported 90th percentile lead concentration was 12 µg/L, compared to the action level (AL) of 15 µg/L; however, further analysis of the lead monitoring results from the extended monitoring conducted by EPA and MDEQ demonstrated the significant improvements that have been made since January 2016. Figure 7 presents the first liter tap lead concentrations for 126 homes for which data were available for four quarters of monitoring in

Figure 5. Comparison of Main Breaks and Ambient Temperature

Figure 6. Free Chlorine Concentrations at Total Coliform Rule Sites

2016. The data show that through the first half of 2016, more than 40 percent of the homes sampled had tap lead concentrations greater than the AL; by the end of 2016, less than 10 percent of homes exceeded the AL. The figure also shows the dramatic reduction in maximum lead concentrations in those homes. The city remains focused on corrosion control and is beginning an extensive corrosion testing program to re-establishing optimizing corrosion

control treatment. One of the primary objectives of the program will be to continue to reduce the maximum lead concentrations, with the goal of every home being less than the AL.

A Path Forward Approach As was stated previously, the ability of the Continued on page 52

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Continued from page 51 city to meet the partnership goals is influenced by a number of factors. Optimization through selfassessment of some or all of these factors (known as improvement variables) is another critical step in the program. The improvement variables most relevant to the city are presented in Table 2.

Figure 7. 2016 Maximum Lead Concentration by Season

(126 locations for which data were available for all four sampling events)

Table 2. Partnership for Safe Water Distribution System Improvement Variables Assessed


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Findings and Recommendations The city is in the process of implementing a number of actions in its quest for distribution system optimization. Immediate recommendations focused on those that directly impact the city’s ability to achieve compliance with current regulations or to minimize risks to public health over those that will achieve optimization, as outlined in the partnership program. Beginning in 2017, the number of routine chlorine monitoring sites was increased to 20, and each will be monitored a minimum of five times each month. The city is targeting a goal of 25 routine coliform samples, so this program is anticipated to expand in the near future. In the meantime, chlorine residual readings are being collected from five additional surveillance monitoring locations each week to provide a combined total of 35 chlorine readings from 25 unique locations each week. In addition, the following items are expected to be carried out in the short term: S Implement surge control at reservoirs and pump stations, and conduct analysis of future WTP operations on distribution system pressures. S Use hydraulic modeling to evaluate water age and opportunities for minimizing it. S Site and install distribution system pressure data loggers to verify pressure control. S Purchase and install online distribution system water quality monitoring panels. Prior to installation, use the hydraulic model to confirm optimal locations for installation. S Develop and implement a distribution system operator training program. S Develop and implement a unidirectional flushing program. S Develop standard operating procedures for routine maintenance activities and for those activities that impact water quality (flushing, chlorine residual maintenance, etc.). S Increase funding for main replacement activities. S Conduct a local utility salary survey and adjust operator salaries as necessary to be competitive in the local market. S Develop a hiring plan to fill vacant positions within the Water Service Center distribution department. S Provide “whole house” flushing guidance to residents and encourage them to flush their

homes regularly until water quality within the home is restored. While opportunities for improvement were identified for each variable, long-term actions focus on the following areas: S Rehabilitation and replacement (R&R) of valves and hydrants. S Pipeline R&R (exclusive of lead service lines that will be replaced entirely by 2020). S Pump station improvements to reduce pressure surges and main breaks. S Storage facility improvements to improve system reliability and water quality and reduce water age. S System operational improvements to reduce water age and improve distributed water quality.

Though considerable effort remains, the city is on a path to distribution system optimization. Its plan will result in continued water quality improvements, improved water system reliability, and more effective operation and management of the water system. Though it will take time, these efforts will go a long way to restoring public and private trust in the city and its water supply, and improving the quality of life for Flint residents.

References • American Water Works Association (AWWA) (2011). “Partnership for Safe Water Self-Assessment Guide for Distribution System Optimization.” AWWA, Denver, Colo. • Friedman, M., Kirmeyer, G., Lemieux, J., LeChevallier, M., Seidl, S., and Routt, J. (2010). “Criteria for Optimized Distribution Systems.” Water Research Foundation. Denver, Colo. S

Next steps include development of a riskbased pipeline R&R program, prioritization and scheduling of optimization program recommendations, and creation of a capital improvement plan.

Summary and Conclusions As a result of a change in source water, the city experienced a well-publicized water quality crisis. It has emerged from the crisis with a wellthought-out plan to achieve distribution system optimization. The AWWA Partnership for Safe Water distribution system optimization program was utilized to develop the plan, and is an effective means for any utility to assess and improve operations of its water distribution system. The city has taken a number of steps to improve distribution system water quality, including operational changes to reduce water age and chlorine and orthophosphate residual boosting. In addition, it has expanded distribution system water quality monitoring to evaluate changes in water quality throughout the distribution system and identify and respond to water quality upsets in a more proactive manner. As a result of these changes, there has been a marked improvement in the city’s water, most notably, that it is in compliance with LCR, lead concentrations continue to decline, and free chlorine residuals have improved. With all of the progress that has been made, there remains significant opportunity for improvement. The city continues to re-establish optimized corrosion control treatment and standard operating procedures are being reviewed and developed for valve and hydrant repair, pipeline maintenance, system operation, and water quality maintenance functions, such as flushing. Next steps include development of a risk-based pipeline R&R program, prioritization of long-term actions, and development of a capital improvement plan. Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Workshop to Help Women in Water and Wastewater Achieve Professional Goals Despite the fact that working women contribute significantly to organizational, project, and team success, their upward progress is frequently blocked in some industries. Many women possess the skill, knowledge, and expertise to be key contributors and successful leaders, but they continue to encounter gender-biased behaviors and backlash, especially in traditionally male-dominated professions like water and wastewater. Gender backlash occurs when women enter mostly male professions and behave in ways that challenge traditional female stereotypes. They often encounter the backlash effect and face “push back” professionally, personally, and socially. Recent studies have shown that there are certain “buffering behaviors” and strategies that attenuate backlash reactions against women who enter nontraditional professions and when they encounter men who do not want to work with them. The buffering behaviors that have been found to successfully counter biased behavior include self-monitoring, impression management, political skill, and performance. The “Solving for X in the Y Domain” workshop provides insight into, understanding of, and practices with, the strategies, behaviors, and skills that have been shown to be successful in overcoming gender bias and backlash. These strategies have enabled women to achieve leadership positions and to succeed in their chosen profession.

Learning Objectives The workshop focuses on the following: S Recognizing gender bias, backlash, and the gender double-bind. S Helping women understand their unique strengths, as well as the barriers they often encounter in maledominated professions. S Creating action plans to overcome barriers and enhance leadership skills. S Learning buffering behaviors that are critical to career success. A specific focus of the workshop will be on teaching the following buffering behaviors: S Self-monitoring: being self-aware and alert S Impression management: perceive, analyze, modify, evaluate, and adjust S Political skill: networking, negotiating, communicating, interpersonal savvy S Performance: overprepare, overachieve, and overdeliver S Projecting confidence and credibility


Workshop Presenter Gae Walters, Ph.D., is an organizational psychologist and executive coach, with expertise in leadership development, team effectiveness, and behavioral sciences. By incorporating behavioral psychology and organizational research, she has built a worldwide reputation for delivering training programs and consultation services. Dr. Walters completed her undergraduate degree summa cum laude at the University of Florida, and upon completion of her master’s degree in behavioral science and postgraduate studies in the field of psychological assessment and research, she became a licensed psychologist in the state of Florida. She earned her Ph.D. in organizational leadership from the Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Dr. Walters was board chair for the Center for Psychological Type and is a member of the board of directors for CDM Smith in Cambridge, Mass. Her dissertation, “Solving for X in the Y Domain” was nominated for the Emerald/EFMD Outstanding Doctoral Research Award.

Workshop Information The workshop will be held August 29, from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., at: Second Harvest Food Bank 411 Mercy Drive Orlando, Fla. 32805 The cost is $125 (lunch included). The workshop will be limited to the first 130 people. All are welcome and men are encouraged to attend. A portion of each ticket will be used to send local students to the Orlando Science Center to see the film, Dream Big. For more information, and to register, contact Donna Friis, P.E., at S

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

New Products Magnetrol International has launched the PULSAR Model R86 Non-Contact Radar transmitter, an advanced-level control solution that offers radar technology with improved performance for a wide range of level measurement applications. The model is designed to provide outstanding accuracy, reliability, and safety for virtually all process industries. The 26GHz radar signal has a smaller wavelength, resulting in smaller antennas and improved 1-mm resolution. This is an important distinction for demanding process conditions because the smaller beam angle allows for installation into process connections as small as 1-½ in. As a result, there is precise, dependable control for a complete spectrum of level applications. The user interface experience is driven by advanced diagnostics that transforms the way that radar level measurement is used. Automated echo capture conveys real-time waveform and trend data so users can assess the situation at a glance. In addition, the event history shows up to 20 events, including diagnostic and configuration data to pinpoint any issues. Troubleshooting tips are also given to provide practical solutions that can help companies reduce downtime. The product uses circular polarization, which means there’s no need to rotate the antenna to ensure proper orientation. This simplifies installation and delivers proper alignment in virtually every application. High-temperature antennas are designed for use in extremely demanding applications and punishing conditions up to 750oF. There are also nozzle extensions ranging from 10 cm to 1.8 meters (4 to 72 in.). That means nonstandard nozzle lengths and buried vessel standpipes are not an issue for this advanced solution. ( S

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! August 28-30 ..........Backflow Repair* ............................St. Petersburg ..........$275/305

September 11-14 ..........Backflow Tester ..............................St. Petersburg ..........$375/405 11-15 ..........Wastewater Collection B................Osteen ....................$225/255 18-20 ..........Backflow Repair ..............................Osteen ....................$275/305 29 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115

October 2-6 ..........Water Distribution Level 3 ............Osteen ....................$225/255 2-6 ..........Reclaimed Water Distribution C....Osteen ....................$225/255 16-20 ..........Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ....................$350/380 16-20 ..........Wastewater Collection C, B ..........Orlando ..................$225/255 27 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115

Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the Wastewater Process Committee! Each year, the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) gives the Earle B. Phelps Award to wastewater treatment facilities in recognition for outstanding operations.

Earle B. Phelps Award Winner: City of Plant City Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant

Lynn Spivey

Steve Saffels

Patrick Murphy

Tim Ware

onsistency is the key to success in a great many endeavors. Whether it’s an NFL team, NASCAR pit crew, or America’s Cup sailing crew, getting a group of people to work together with a common goal can be a challenge. The team of employees at the City of Plant City Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant has figured out how to do exactly that. As this year’s Earle B. Phelps Award winner for advanced treatment, the team has demonstrated its dedication to its craft with a focus on protecting the environment. What shouldn’t be lost is the fact that this is the sixth year in a row that the team at Plant City has placed in the top three for the award. As can be seen by the number of awards on the city’s treatment plant operations building wall, the team has a history of outstanding service. Steve Saffels, the city’s operations superintendent, who has more than 40 years of experience, has seen the city’s plant through multiple upgrades, including the current advanced treatment facility project. According to city staff members, the Earle B. Phelps Award is their crowning achieve-



ment. The staff sees this award as recognition of its efforts to maintain the highest removal of major pollution-causing constituents prior to discharge. Nominees for the award are evaluated against treatment facilities of the same relative size and treatment type. This award is a reflection of an excellent operations team, led by Saffels and Patrick Murphy, the city’s chief plant operator. Beginning in 2010 with a plant upgrade designed by Arcadis, the Plant City team has worked to deliver high-quality effluent through all seasons and in all types of loading, and it’s the team that makes the difference. While doing the bare minimum required to meet state requirements may work for some, it’s the additional attention to detail that makes the difference for the city. The operations team members regularly take sludge samples, look at the quality and quantity of microorganisms in the plant, and then adjust the process to dial it in exactly where it needs to be. The operations at the plant consist of: S Headworks structure, including a mechanically cleaned fine bar screen. S Backup manual bar screen. S Pista grit removal system. S Parshall flume for measurement system, with an odor control system.

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Master pumping station with six pumps that lifts the water to an anoxic tank subdivided into three parallel trains with a total volume of 376,000 gal, which is followed by three oxidation ditches with a combined volume of approximately 12.5 mil gal (MG). Flow is then split among three final clarifiers, providing a combined volume of approximately 5.25 MG. S Reject storage system that includes three concrete basins of 2.5 MG and one 15-acre pond, with a total capacity of 29 MG. After clarification there are 13 Parkson continuous backwash upflow filter cells, with a combined surface area of 3,250 sq ft, followed by a four-channel chlorine contact chamber, with a total volume of 332,000 gal. Finished water is stored in one of three reclaimed water ground storage tanks, with a combined capacity of 12 MG, and distributed to the reclaimed system by a highservice pumping station. All disinfection is accomplished using liquid chlorination. S Solids treatment, which consists of four aerobic digesters with a combined capacity of 2.8 MG and two belt filter presses with a capacity of 2,000 pounds of dry residual per hour. The stabilized residuals are landapplied.

The AWTP is well designed, but it’s the consistency and the excellence of the team that runs it that makes it award-winning. Whereas many of the operations staff has received a variety of personal awards from FWPCOA, FSAWWA, and the Florida Rural Water Association, the FWEA Earle B. Phelps Award is highly coveted by the city, and proudly displayed. The Plant City team also reaches out beyond the city limits and across the state. The team has supported the University of South Florida engineering capstone class, helping with design projects that won the FWEA Student Design Competition in 2016. The team participates in FWEA committees, taking on leadership roles and providing tireless support. It also is involved with FWPCOA, as well as teaching operations classes for different associations. The members are a fantastic resource with unparalleled knowledge and experience, and they always have a smile on their faces! One additional part of this team that shouldn’t be overlooked is that it also manages the water system, with most operators being dual-licensed. The ability of the members to work together, using their combined knowledge, allows them to provide excellent service to their community and the surrounding areas. Lynn Spivey is director of utilities, Steve Saffels is operations superintendent, and Patrick Murphy is chief plant operator with City of Plant City. Tim Ware is a client manager with Arcadis in Tampa. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Accelerating Resource Recovery Biosolids can be used to create valuable products at water resource recovery facilities Energy Recovery Patrick Dube

iosolids produced during wastewater treatment are commonly land-applied. While this method is a great option to provide an excellent fertilizer that helps promote healthy soils, biosolids also hold much potential to help mitigate climate change, foster sustainability, and achieve zero waste. Resource recovery from biosolids represents an exciting opportunity and can potentially provide additional value, while promoting meaningful change. Utilities hoping to recover resources face questions and roadblocks when seeking the best decisions for their communities. Policies and regulations vary among states and the national level and may hinder recovering resources from biosolids. Likewise, many current resource recovery technologies are not yet established and present more risk than utilities are accustomed to. And lastly, communicating the value of a product derived from biosolids to the public can be challenging. But solutions exist and others have already blazed many of these trails. To help utilities overcome these challenges and to promote recovering resources from biosolids, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) has updated the 2013 publication, Enabling the Future: Advancing Resource Recovery from Biosolids. The 2017 update, released in April, is titled, Accelerating Resource Recovery: Biosolids Innovations and Opportunities ( 251&productId=58093345 or This guide aims to help promote biosolids as a valuable resource to help meet renewable energy needs, promote innovative technologies, and accelerate resource recovery.



The energy contained in wastewater and biosolids is five times the amount of energy needed to treat it; this means that water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are potential energy generators. The latent energy in wastewater solids, combined with energy management and conservation in the facility, offers an excellent opportunity for WRRFs to save money by producing energy onsite to offset facility costs. Anaerobic digestion is a long-established technology that can turn solids to energy by converting digested sludge to biogas via microorganisms. The process has many different designs and can be varied by adjusting temperature, implementing a pretreatment step, codigesting the solids with other wastes, and more. The generated biogas has an excellent energy potential and can be burned for electricity or upgraded to other fuels. On the other hand, thermal conversion is a developing technology that uses heat to generate energy from biosolids. While thermal conversion has a higher energy output potential than anaerobic digestion, it requires more energy to remove the moisture from the solids, resulting in a lower net energy recovery. New technologies currently in development are looking to incorporate thermal conversion with higher moisture solids. This combination, it is hoped, will reduce energy costs and derive a higher energy potential.

Nutrient Recovery Currently, most agricultural nutrients— specifically, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)— come from nonrenewable, energy-intensive sources. Yet, at WRRFs, utilities remove these nutrients from wastewater to meet discharge limits. The utilities face high resource and energy costs to remove them, as well as a waste stream that must be disposed of. Herein lies an opportunity to recover instead of remove these nutrients. The result would be a renewable,

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

valuable product that can help offset costs and generate money for the utility. To recover nutrients, N and P must first be concentrated either biologically (using microorganisms to accumulate N and P), physically (implementing a process like adsorption or ion exchange), or chemically (using a metal salt addition to precipitate out P). The concentrated nutrients are then released (typically, biologically) before being extracted. One example of a potential recovered product is struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate), which is generated by controlling pH and then adding a chemical precipitant. The process removes high concentrations of N and P and generates a product that can be sold as a commercial fertilizer. Each nutrient removal method has positives and negatives and each utility must determine how economically feasible each technology would be for it to adopt these systems.

Potential Roadblocks Though the potential rewards of resource recovery are great, so are the challenges. Regulations and policies have the potential to help or hinder biosolids resource recovery. Some federal regulations, such as the 40 CFR Part 503 Biosolids Rule, have helped outline the importance of biosolids and set in place incentives for their beneficial use. On the other hand, regulations can also hinder. Examples include limiting where biosolids can potentially be applied (USDA Code 590) or changing the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and lowering the value of renewable identification numbers (RIN) for biogas. Likewise, state regulations and policies can either help or hinder. Elements of solids handling, such as odors, phosphorus content, and codigestion, all can be specific to states, and therefore, regulated differently—both positively and negatively.

One of the best ways to ensure that regulations and policies help biosolids usage is to have interagency cooperation to help address the issues. This could mean joining voluntary programs to promote biosolids, such as the National Biosolids Partnership (NBP) or pollution prevention programs, and encouraging research into topics that could become issues in the future. New and innovative technologies are needed to enhance resource recovery from biosolids. There are many promising companies attempting to generate valuable products from biosolids and wastewater. These products include fertilizers, biodegradable plastics, and biofuels, but many are still in their infancy. Not only does the high moisture content make it difficult to develop an economically viable technology, but the variable nature of the solids means a universal technology isn’t possible; each utility must find its own solution. Research into a typical utility’s efficiency, cost, energy balance, and recovered product is nonexistent; this means each utility must do this on its own. This increases costs and makes the barrier to entry higher. Both WEF and the Water Environment & Research Foundation have developed the Leaders Innovation Forum for Technology (LIFT) program to help fill this gap. The LIFT program promotes research into resource recovery technologies, creates a clearinghouse of information, and takes away some of the risk, but there are more hurdles to clear to bring these solutions to market.

own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes

only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Patrick Dube, Ph.D., is the biosolids program manager in the Water Science & Engineering Center at the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). He manages the Residuals and Biosolids Committee and the Air Quality and Odors Control Committee. He can be contacted at S

Looking to the Future Recovering resources from biosolids represents an exciting opportunity for utilities to promote the beneficial use of biosolids, while generating valuable consumer products. It begins at utilities, where professional development and skills must be developed and fostered. With this knowledge, biosolids programs can thrive and increase the quality of their products for consumers. Effective communication with consumers is paramount; when they understand the benefits of biosolids, they will rightfully translate that into a better perception of the products. A commitment to research and development is key to developing technologies that can expand the resource recovery of biosolids. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017



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The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Water Plant Operator – Class A, B, & C - Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee - Solid Waste Worker II & III - Public Service Worker I - Streets - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

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Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

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Water Wastewater Manager Responsible for mgmnt of Water/WW plants. Responsible for staffing, budgeting & ops. REQ: college grad or equiv. MIN. "A" in Water &/or WW with MIN. 8 yrs of exp. as licensed oprt plus MIN. 4 yrs mgmt/supervisor role. Lesser oprt’s lic. may be accepted if combined w/ PE lic. or EI. Apply EOE Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


Deputy Utilities Director, City of Deltona Assists in operations of Water Dept & ensures compliance w/ all state, local & federal regulatory criteria. REQ Bachelor’s & 3-5 years of exp. in admin of water resources & water/wastewater systems. Apply EOE

Career Opportunities at one of Orlando’s Top 100 Employer Toho Water Authority Kissimmee, FL If you are seeking a career opportunity consider Toho Water Authority. Who we are: Toho Water Authority is the largest provider of water, wastewater and reclaimed water services in the Osceola County and serves over 100,000 customers. Our mission is to provide reliable, cost effective and responsive water services to our customers while protecting public health and the environment. This is accomplished at TWA by promoting teamwork in the workforce and utilizing the diverse strengths of our community to achieve a common goal; acting with integrity; treating everyone as a customer; striving for excellence through innovation and continuous improvement; and respecting our most valuable asset - our employees. What we have to offer: TWA offers competitive employee benefits, including retirement match, HRA medical contributions, tuition reimbursement, health and wellness incentives, on-site Wellness Clinic, and more! Where to learn more about us: Visit the TWA webpage today to learn more about our organizations, available job openings, and to submit an employment application online! Go to Toho Water Authority is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

InDyne, Inc. – Supervisor Water/Waste Water Systems Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL Requires an Associate’s degree plus six (6) or more years’ experience in industrial/commercial/municipal water and or waste water systems. Previous supervisory experience in a union environment highly desired. Proficient with MS Office applications. MAXMO competency a plus. Waste Water Treatment and Water Treatment or Distribution certification (minimum level C) necessary. Working knowledge of SCADA systems, back flow prevention, waste water collection systems and industrial plumbing principles. Capable of lifting 40 lbs, walking, standing, stooping, sitting and climbing. Equivalent education/experience is applicable. Current security clearance or ability to obtain. US Citizenship required for security clearance. Apply on-line at EOE/AA/ADA/VET Employer

City of Margate The City of Margate is currently accepting applications for the following positions: • Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator • Senior Engineer Please visit our website at – Job Opportunities - for complete job descriptions. Applications may be downloaded from the website. Completed, original applications must be submitted to City of Margate, Human Resources Department, 5790 Margate Blvd., Margate, FL 33063.


August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Deputy PW Director, City of Deltona Manages daily operations of public works & utility depts. REQ: Master’s in Civil Eng, Construction Mgmt or closely related field, 10 yrs civil eng, public works, or closely related exp. Apply EOE

City Engineer Plans, directs & coordinates the design & inspection of construction projects to ensure compliance with engineering plans, City code & other regulations. Min. Bachelor’s in Civil Engineering or related field. Florida Professional Engineer license required. Apply at

Field Technician Utilities, Inc. of Florida is seeking a Field Technician to work in the Clermont area. This person would be responsible for the accurate and timely reading and recording of water meters to facilitate customer billing; to identify water meter equipment problems; and to perform minor water meter and/or system maintenance. An FDEP Distribution License is a plus. For a complete job description, requirements and to apply please visit our website, and click on “Employment Opportunities” which is located under “Contact Us”.

SCADA Network Administrator Responsible for the configuration and support of the City’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network, and networked systems. Responsibilities include installing and maintaining control network hardware and software, monitoring and troubleshooting systems to insure availability and performance, maintaining user authentication and authorization, planning and implementing network security measures. Apply at under City Jobs.

Chief Water Plant Operator The Town of Jupiter Island is looking for a chief water plant operator. Florida Class B Water Plant Operators Certification is required; Class A preferred. Five years of experience required. Go to for complete job description/application. Submit Resumes/Applications to DFWP/EOE/Non-exempt. Open until filled.

Wastewater Plant Operator A-B-C for Utilities Water Reclamation Department The city of Cape Coral is seeking a Wastewater Plant Operator A-B-C for Utilities Water Reclamation Dept. Salary range is $39,520.00 - $71,593.60 annually. Please visit our website at for more details and learn how to apply. Open until 8/30/2017.

Utilities Engineer $72,894 - $102,572/yr.

Utilities Storm Water Foreman $46,515 - $65,451/yr.

Reuse Outreach-Water Conservation Coordinator $46,515 - $65,451/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $38,267 - 53,847/yr.; $40,182 - $56,539/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

Senior Construction Inspector Utilities Department Salary: $45,094.40 - $69,492.80 Please view posting and download application at

Operator Trainee – Wastewater Entry-level work leading to certification in Wastewater Treatment by the State of Florida. General manual work in various maintenance activities. Apply at under City Jobs.

Senior Project Engineer Under general direction, coordinates, oversees and participates in the preparation of plans and specifications for capital projects and rehabilitation including buildings, parks, roads, and all infrastructure utilities including water and waste water treatment plants, lift, water resources, storm water, water distribution, sanitary collection and stations public works; and will perform related duties as assigned. Performs construction related management duties as assigned. Salary - $63,678 - $75,000 (Depending on qualifications) Excellent Benefits! Qualifications - Bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university with a major in Engineering or closely related field and five (5) years progressively responsible civil engineering experience, including one (1) year of supervisory experience, or equivalent combination of training and experience required. Experience in the design of water and wastewater system improvements including lift stations preferred. Licensed as Professional Engineer (PE) by the State of Florida is required. A valid State of Florida driver's license is required. A valid driver's license from any state (equivalent to a State of Florida Class E) may be utilized upon application, with the ability to obtain the State of Florida driver's license within 30 days from day of employment. For additional information and to apply for this position please visit our website at

Public Wastewater Utility Maintenance Supervisor- Key West Manage, lead, motivate team to carry out all technical maintenance activities for Utility’s treatment plant & collection system. Experience in water/wastewater industry or equivalent knowledge required. WWTP Operator License a bonus. Plan, prioritize, review, manage in-house staff and work w/outside contractors. Execute a program of preventative and predictive maintenance. Establish strong field presence to ensure quality and safety. Excellent communications skills, valid DL, lift 40lbs, work on call & OT. Company truck, phone, paid vacation &holidays& personal time, health medical/dental/vision, retirement, paid golf membership, $60K-$90K commensurate w/skills& experience.

Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.

P o s itio ns Wanted JOSEPH HEWITT – Holds a Florida C Wastewater license with one year experience. Has passed the C Water test and applied for license but needs time in plant. Has experience in maintenance, pumps and lift stations. Prefers the northeast area of the state. Contact at 4565 Mayflower Street, Middleburg, Fl. 32068. 904-760-2694

Florida Water Resources Journal • August 2017


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Editorial Calendar January ..........Wastewater Treatment February..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ................Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ..................Operations and Utilities Management June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ............Disinfection; Water Quality September ......Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ..........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November........Water Treatment December........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Acipio ........................................................................38 Blue Planet ................................................................67 Cascade Consulting ....................................................5 CEU Challenge............................................................21 CROM..........................................................................57 Data Flow ..................................................................35 FSAWWA Customer Service Seminar ..................41,53 FSAWWA Registration................................................24 FSAWWA Exhibit ........................................................25 FSAWWA Poker ..........................................................26 FSAWWA Golf ............................................................27 FSAWWA Competitions..............................................28 FSAWWA Water Award ..............................................29 FWPCOA State Short School......................................11 FWPCOA Training ......................................................55 FWRC Call for Papers ................................................59 Hudson Pump ............................................................15 Lakeside ......................................................................9 Stacon ..........................................................................2 Treeo ..........................................................................45 Water Science ............................................................20 Xylem ........................................................................68

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 31 1. C) preliminary treatment. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.1): “. . . an important part of a wastewater treatment plant is the equipment used to remove rocks, large debris, grit, and other materials as early as possible. These items of equipment . . . are called ‘pretreatment or preliminary treatment’ facilities.”

2. C) screening. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.1): “Screening is that part of the pretreatment or preliminary treatment facilities that removes the larger debris (rocks, cans, bottles, rags).

3. A) 3/8 to 2 in. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.2): “Parallel bars may be placed at an angle or set vertically in a channel in such a manner that the wastewater will flow through the bars, but large solids and debris will be caught on the bars. These bars are commonly called ‘racks’ when the spacing between them is 3 to 4 in. (7.6 to 10.2 cm) or more. When the spacing is about 3/8 to 2 in. (0.96 to 5.1 cm), they are called ‘bar screens.’”

4. A) detritus. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4 Words): “Grit is the heavy material present in wastewater, such as sand, coffee grounds, eggshells, gravel, and cinders. It is also called detritus.


5. D) comminutor. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.3): “Comminutors are devices that act both as a cutter and a screen. Their purpose is to shred (comminute) the solids and leave them in the wastewater.”

6. A) 1 ft per second Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.40): “The simplest means of removing grit from the wastewater flow is to pass it through channels or tanks that allow the velocity of flow to be reduced to a range of 0.7 to 1.4 ft/second (0.2 to 0.4 m/second). The objective is to allow the grit to settle to the bottom, while keeping the lighter organic solids moving along to the next treatment unit. Experience has shown that a flow-through velocity of 1 ft per second is best.”

8. B) primary vortex. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.41): “The velocity of the slurry as it enters along the wall of the cyclone causes the slurry to spin or swirl around the inside of the cyclone. This is called the ‘primary vortex,’ which causes the heavy particles to move toward the wall of the cyclone and out the bottom.”

9. B) grit washer. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.42): “Organic matter may be separated from the grit by washing the detritus to resuspend the organic matter . . . Figure 4.21 shows a typical grit washer . . . grit settles to the bottom and is removed by a screw conveyor (or other device), while the velocity created by the impeller suspends the lighter organic materials so they flow over the outlet weir.”

7. B) lower specific gravity than water. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.40): “An aerated grit chamber is actually a tank with a sloping bottom and a hopper or trough in the lower end. Air is injected through diffusers located along the wall of the tank above the trough. The mixture of air and water has a lower specific gravity than water, so the grit settles out better. The rolling action of the water in the tank moves the grit along the bottom to the grit hopper.”

August 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

10. B) pre-aeration. Per Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants (Volume 1, Chapter 4.45): “Pre-aeration is a wastewater treatment process used to improve grit removal efficiency, to freshen wastewater, to remove gases, to add oxygen, to promote flotation of grease, and to aid coagulation. The freshening of wastewater improves the effectiveness of downstream treatment processes. The pre-aeration process is usually located before primary sedimentation.”

Florida Water Resources Journal - August 2017  

Disinfection and Water Quality

Florida Water Resources Journal - August 2017  

Disinfection and Water Quality