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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office: P.O. Box 745, Windermere, FL 34786-0745 Web: General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated

News and Features 4

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

From AWWA: Cleaning Water and Cutting Budgets—G. Tracy Mehan III and Ian D. Gansler

6 6 7 21

Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando




Harley Takes Office as 2017-2018 FWEA President 2017-2108 FWEA Board of Directors 2017-2018 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors List Value of Water Campaign Materials Now Available New Technology Measures Small-Scale Currents Transporting Ocean Plastics, Oil Spills FSAWWA Delegates Promote National Water Policy Dialogue at Water Matters! Fly-In—Kevin Carter, Christopher Pettit, and Lisa Wilson-Davis


14 16 18 22 26 28 42 44 45

FWEA Focus—Tim Harley Contractors Roundup—Jonathan Fernald FSAWWA Speaking Out—Grace Johns Reader Profile—Terri Holcomb Spotlight on Safety—Doug Prentiss Sr. Test Yourself—Roy Trygar C Factor—Scott Anaheim Committee Profile: FWPCOA Historical Committee—Al Monteleone FWEA Committee Corner—Tyler Smith and Walt Schwarz

Departments 48 47 51

Service Directories Display Advertiser Index Classifieds

WEF HQ Newsletter: Building Better Water Quality One Job at a Time— Pallavi Raviprakash

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions

Technical Articles 10


FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

Alonso Griborio, Gregory Balicki, Ralph Aliseo, Persad Bissessar, and Janeen Wietgrefe

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Starting from Scratch: Commissioning the First Thermal Hydrolysis Fed Digesters in North America—Peter Loomis Lessons Learned From Start-Up of a Codigestion Process—Nandita Ahuja,

Education and Training 9 15 23 24 25 32 39 43

FSAWWA Fall Conference FWPCOA Short School FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers FSAWWA ACE Luncheon CEU Challenge FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibits TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Training Calendar

Volume 68

ON THE COVER: The new Broward County Water and Wastewater Services fats, oil, and grease (FOG) receiving station includes two truck unloading stations, a 165,000-gal stainless steel FOG receiving tank, FOG transfer pumping to an 18,500-gal blend tank, and dosing pumps. For more information, see page 34. (photo: Hazen and Sawyer)

June 2017

Number 6

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


AWWA Section Services has a new program that provides sections with content for their publications. These articles contain brand new information and will cover a variety of topics.

Cleaning Water and Cutting Budgets: A Case for the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act G. Tracy Mehan III and Ian D. Gansler We expect that when we make our morning coffee or mix a baby’s formula, we’re using water that is safe to drink. In reality, our nation is facing an investment crisis, with $1 trillion needed over the next 25 years if we are to maintain current levels of service for a growing population. The longer this investment is delayed, the more expensive it will become. This is truly a bipartisan issue, with Democrats and Republicans alike admitting it is time to find a solution. On the campaign trail, at a speech in Pittsburgh, then-presidential candidate Donald Trump called attention to the issue, promising to “refocus the EPA on its core mission of ensuring clean air and clean, safe drinking water for all Americans.” In his first address to Congress, President Trump reiterated his call for a $1 trillion infrastructure investment package. At the same time, the federal government faces immense budgetary constraints. According to the Congressional Budget Office report, “The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2017-2027,” federal debt is projected to rise from 77 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) today to an all-time high of 145 percent of GDP by 2047, exceeding record post-World War II levels of 106 percent of GDP. Entitlement spending programs, like Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, also loom in the future as crippling budgetary outlays, dwarfing the current levels of federal debt. Lawmakers face twin pressures to solve problems and save money. The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) is one solution that could strike


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

that balance. The WIFIA is a financing program, meaning its assistance comes in the form of loans, so that any money paid out for projects comes back to the government as the loan is repaid. Towns and cities undergoing infrastructure projects often do not have the cash on hand to pay for the work, so they look to loans and bonds to raise funds, paying it back over the years. Rather than taking out a high-interest loan, WIFIA allows borrowers to take out a loan from the U.S. Treasury, which offers the lowest interest loans on the market. The current appropriation for WIFIA is $20 million. While this is a drop in the bucket when it comes to the federal budget, that drop will go a long way. The $20 million is only the “subsidy cost” of WIFIA, meaning it covers infrastructure projects that will default and never pay back the loan. Fitch Ratings estimates that only about 0.04 percent of water infrastructure projects end in default, an extremely reliable rate. This means that every dollar appropriated to WIFIA can leverage $67 in investment. If Congress appropriates WIFIA the full $45 million that it authorized for FY2018, the program could leverage in excess of $2 billion in credit assistance. The WIFIA is set up to complement the State Revolving Fund (SRF), a long-standing federal grant program that gives funding to the states to distribute for water infrastructure projects. President Trump, on his campaign website under the “Infrastructure” heading, promised to “triple funding for state revolving loan fund programs.” Only 49 percent of a project can be funded through WIFIA; the other 51 percent must come from other sources, allowing space for the SRF and private equity investments.

The SRFs have a right of first refusal over WIFIA applications, allowing them to elect to fund a WIFIA project if they prefer to do so at the same interest rate as WIFIA. The SRFs can also apply for WIFIA loans themselves, bolstering their funds to finance one or a group of projects. Many state SRFs just don’t have the capacity to fund some larger infrastructure projects. The minimum project cost for a WIFIA loan is $20 million (or $5 million for a small community), which allows SRF to focus on a greater number of smaller projects. In a budget climate that puts every penny of taxpayer money under a magnifying glass, WIFIA makes a big impact at a small price, creating more than $2 billion in capital with only $45 million in expenditures. In a November 2016 New York Times interview, President-elect Trump said, “Crystal-clean water is vitally important.” Too often we take for granted that when we turn on the tap, the water that comes out is safe to drink. President Trump believes in the importance of clean water. The WIFIA would be a powerful tool to make it a reality for every American, and it’s a program that he can build upon to achieve his goal of infrastructure renewal. G. Tracy Mehan III is former assistant administrator for water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. He is now executive director for government affairs at the American Water Works Association, the world’s oldest and largest water association with 50,000 members. Ian D. Gansler is the legislative affairs intern for the American Water Works Association. S

Harley Takes Office as 2017-2018 FWEA President Tim Harley, P.E., is a native South Carolinian and holds both bachelor of science and master of science degrees from Clemson University in agricultural engineering and environmental systems engineering, with a focus on water and wastewater. He is a registered professional engineer in both Florida and South Carolina with over 25 years of progressive and diverse professional experience, including engineering consulting, and positions with federal, state, and municipal agencies. Harley is wastewater division manager with St. Johns County and has been with the county



since 2010. He directs and oversees the wastewater operations for the county utility department, which includes 10 wastewater treatment plants, over 350 pump stations, 50 employees, fleet vehicles and equipment, assets in excess of $160 million, and an annual operational budget of approximately $10 million. He has been active with FWEA since relocating to Florida in 2005 and has held multiple offices in the local chapter, including two years as chapter chair. He has been on the FWEA board of directors since 2014. S

Kristiana Dragash President Elect

Michael Sweeney Vice President

Joseph B. Cheatham Secretary/Treasurer

Lisa Prieto Past President

Ron Cavalieri WEF Delegate

Raynetta Curry Marshall WEF Delegate

George Cassady Director at Large

Gregory Kolb Director at Large

Sondra Lee Director at Large

Suzanne Mechler Director at Large

Tim Madhanagopal Director at Large

James Wallace Director at Large

Lisa M. Wilson-Davis Utility Council President

Bradley Hayes Operations Council Representative

Kartik Vaith Executive Director of Operations

Karen Wallace Executive Manager

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

2017-2018 FWEA Officers, Chairs, and Advisors The following officers, directors, committee chairs, chapter chairs, and student chapter advisors began their terms at the beginning of the FWEA annual meeting in April. BOARD OF DIRECTORS PRESIDENT Tim Harley, P.E. St. Johns County Utility Dept. 904-209-2626 PRESIDENT ELECT Kristiana Dragash, P.E. Carollo Engineers Inc. 941-371-9832 VICE PRESIDENT Michael Sweeney, Ph.D. Toho Water Authority 407-944-5129 SECRETARY/TREASURER Joseph B. Cheatham City of Tallahassee WRF 850-891-1009 PAST PRESIDENT Lisa Prieto, P.E., BCEE Prieto Environmental LLC 407-766-1478 WEF DELEGATE Ron Cavalieri, P.E. AECOM Technical Services Inc. 239-278-7996 WEF DELEGATE Raynetta Curry Marshall, P.E. JEA 904-665-7613 DIRECTOR AT LARGE George Cassady Hillsborough County Public Utilities Dept. 813-272-5977

DIRECTOR AT LARGE Gregory Kolb, P.E. CH2M 407-423-0030 DIRECTOR AT LARGE Sondra Lee, P.E. City of Tallahassee 850-891-6123 DIRECTOR AT LARGE Suzanne Mechler, P.E. CDM Smith 561-571-3800 DIRECTOR AT LARGE Tim Madhanagopal Orange County Utilities 407-254-9785 DIRECTOR AT LARGE James Wallace, P.E. Jacobs Engineering Group 904-636-5432 UTILITY COUNCIL PRESIDENT Lisa M. Wilson-Davis City of Boca Raton 561-338-7310 OPERATIONS COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVE Bradley Hayes City of Tavares 325-742-6485 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS Kartik Vaith, P.E. The Constantine Group 904-562-2185 EXECUTIVE MANAGER Karen Wallace 407-574-3318

COMMITTEE CHAIRS AIR QUALITY Joseph Paterniti, P.E. Boynton Beach Utilities 561-742-6423 AWARDS Nicole Quinby, P.E. Kimley-Horn 407-409-7005 BIOSOLIDS Jody Barksdale, P.E., ENV SP Gresham Smith & Partners 813-769-8948 COLLECTION SYSTEMS Joan Fernandez Arcadis 954-882-9566 EXECUTIVE ADVISORY COUNCIL Pam Holcomb CH2M 407-647-7275 MEMBERSHIP ACTION TEAM Michael Sweeney, Ph.D. Toho Water Authority 407-944-5129 OPERATIONS CHALLENGE Chris Fasnacht City of St. Cloud 407-957-7104 PUBLIC COMMUNICATIONS AND OUTREACH Chuck Olson Neel Schaffer 407-647-6623

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


MEMBER RELATIONS Lindsay Marten, P.E., LEED AP Stantec 941-365-5500 WATER RESOURCES, REUSE AND RESILIENCY (WR3) Lynn Spivey City of Plant City Utilities Dept. 813-757-9190, x105 SAFETY AND SECURITY W. Scott Holowasko Gainesville Regional Utilities 352-335-7359 STRATEGIC PLANNING Jason Sciadra, P.E. CDM Smith STUDENTS AND YOUNG PROFESSIONALS Tyler Smith Carollo Engineers Inc. 813-906-4606 TRAINING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION Kenneth Blanton, P.E. Black & Veatch 407-419-3570 UTILITIES MANAGEMENT Rick Nipper Toho Water Authority WASTEWATER PROCESS Laurel Rowse AECOM 813-471-7353 Tim Ware, P.E. ARCADIS 813-787-8466




BIG BEND James (Jay) Peterson Moore Bass Consulting Inc. 850-322-8580

FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY Dr. Daniel Meeroff 561-297-3099

CENTRAL FLORIDA Alyssa Fillippi CPH Engineers Inc. (407) 425-0452 FIRST COAST Samantha Hanzel Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. 904-442-2321 MANASOTA Mike Knowles, P.E. Greeley and Hansen 941-378-3579 SOUTH FLORIDA Juan R. Oquendo, P.E. Carollo Engineers Inc. 786-910-1660 SOUTHEAST Tara VanEyk, P.E. Hazen and Sawyer 954-967-7019 SOUTHWEST Erik Isern, P.E. GHD 239-215-3914 TREASURE COAST Christine Miranda, P.E. Holtz Consulting Engineers Inc. 561-575-2009 WEST COAST Ricardo Borromeo, P.E. Wade Trim 813-882-4373

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Dr. Fred Bloetscher 239-250-2423 FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Dr. Berrin Tansel 305-348-2928 UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Dr. Steven Duranceau, P.E. 407-823-1440 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Dr. John Sansalone 352-281-5806 UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI Dr. James Englehardt 305-284-5557 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH FLORIDA Dr. Chris Brown, P.E. 904-620-2811 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA Dr. Sarina Ergas 813-974-1119 Dr. James Mihelcic 813-974-9896 FAMU/FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Dr. Youneng Tang 850-410-6119 FLORIDA GULF COAST UNIVERSITY Dr. Simeon Komisar 239-590-1315


Starting From Scratch: Commissioning the First Thermal Hydrolysis Fed Digesters in North America Peter Loomis he 370-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) average daily flow Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant is operated by the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority and serves the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area. The facility has been undergoing a solids processing modification since 2011 that includes three primary projects: main process train (MPT), combined heat and power (CHP), and final dewatering facilities (FDF). The upgrades have reduced the volume of biosolids and provide a Class A product. The new $216 million biosolids MPT includes 5-millimeter (mm) sludge screening,


centrifuge predewatering, the first CambiTM thermal hydrolysis installation in North America, and mesophilic anaerobic digestion in four 3.8-mil-gal (MG) digesters, which are some of the largest in the world. The MPT is followed by belt filter press dewatering with beneficial use of the Class A biosolids product. The digester gas is used to fire three 4.6-megawatt gas turbines in the new CHP facility, which generates up to 10 megawatts of power to the plant and steam for the thermal hydrolysis process. The new MPT and ancillary facilities are capable of processing solids up to 450 dry tons per day (dtpd).

Figure 1. Anaerobic Digesters Level Chart


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Peter Loomis is vice president with CDM Smith in Fairfax, Va.

Start-Up Methodology The goal of the start-up process was to ramp up the digesters to capacity in the most reasonable amount of time without risking souring. One of the difficulties with implementing a novel facility of this type and magnitude is that no seed sludge produced from thermally hydrolyzed sludge was available in North America at the time of commissioning. In addition, the size of the digesters results in a very high volume of biosolids required to seed even one digester, so shipping seed solids from Europe would have been very difficult and expensive. The seed sludge for the new digesters was provided from Alexandria Renew Enterprises (AlexRenew), since thermally hydrolyzed digested seed sludge was unavailable. AlexRenew uses a pasteurization process, followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion to produce Class A biosolids. The seeding process was initiated in late September 2014 and was started by filling each of the four digesters approximately 60 percent full with water. The water was heated to 38°C (100°F) using steam in preparation for feeding of seed biosolids. Filling to this level allowed recirculation pumps to be started, which began mixing of the digesters; however, complete mixing was not available from the draft tube mixers until the digester was nearly full. The head space of the digesters and the gas piping were purged of air using nitrogen. Approximately 3 MG of digested biosolids were transported from the AlexRenew facility to Blue Plains and were added to the heated water in two of the digesters. This seed volume provided approximately 40 percent of the volume of these two digesters. Once a digester was full, thermally hydrolyzed sludge was introduced. The introduction of thermally hydrolyzed sludge to the digesters presented several chal-

lenges. The digesters could not be mixed until the digester was close to or at the normal operating level due to utilization of draft tube mixers; Figure 1 shows various liquid levels within the digesters and the corresponding operations. It was imperative that thermally hydrolyzed sludge be added to a digester with the mixing system in operation; otherwise, the sludge would settle to the bottom of the digester and become very difficult to remove. Based on preparatory testing, it was determined that there would be significant reduction in time in the ramp-up gained by adding alkalinity to the digesters. Tests indicated that by adding alkalinity, the pH of the digester and acid/alkalinity ratio would allow increasing feed by as much as 5 percent solids per day. Without alkalinity, the increase of solids needed to be closely controlled as pH tended to drop below 7 standard units in the first two weeks, resulting in steady feed for a period of time, instead of ramping up. Thermally hydrolyzed sludge was added to the digester slowly based upon volatile solids (VS) in the digester, starting at a rate of approximately 20,000 lb VS per day (7 percent of the VS in the digester) to each of the first two digesters, and increasing approximately 3 to 5 percent per day. The feed rate was adjusted based on the digester performance. The pH, solids inventory, relative gas production compared to feed, and other parameters were monitored on a regular basis in order to determine if the feed should be increased, lowered, or suspended. The volume fed to the two full digesters was displaced to the remaining pair of digesters to provide the seed sludge for them. In this way, the system was brought online with all four digesters at full capacity approximately 140 days after the start of the seeding process. Figure 2 presents the forecasted solids loading in each digester.

Figure 2. Forecasted Total Solids Concentration in Each During Ramp-Up

Seeding Results As with any start-up, there were events that impacted the initial plan, such as lack of steam, digester performance, lack of sludge predewatering, and extreme cold weather, which resulted in reducing feed to certain digesters. While the original anticipation was that each digester would be on an individual track for the startup, variations in the seed sludge feed resulted in each pair of digesters being fed similarly during start-up. Upon the seeding of digester 1, it was found that significant steam was necessary to maintain digester temperature during the seeding process, resulting in a more diluted sludge concentration than expected. This was com-

Figure 3. Thermally Hydrolyzed Sludge Feed Rate to Digesters

pensated for in the seeding of digester 2 by lowering the water level by approximately 100,000 gal to compensate for the steam necessary during the initial seeding. Solids concentration in digester 1 was found to be approximately 0.8 percent solids at the conclusion of solids transfer, which was below the anticipated 1 percent solids. The feed rate to this digester of thermally hydrolyzed

solids was therefore initially below original expectations and was started at approximately 12,000 lb on the first day of seeding and ramped up at between a 2 and 3 percent increase each day during the first week. In this period, pH and alkalinity were observed to be dropping in the digester, which was predicted by earlier pilotscale testing. Continued on page 12

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Continued from page 11 The pilot-scale testing had also indicated that the addition of alkalinity could allow a faster and smoother ramp-up, so magnesium hydroxide was added to the digester approximately nine days after the first thermally hydrolyzed sludge was introduced. The addition

of magnesium hydroxide immediately increased the pH and alkalinity, improving digester health and preventing any need to suspend ramp-up of solids feed. During the ramp-up of this digester, it was found that digester stability could be maintained at daily solids feed increases exceeding 5 percent, and following the addition of

Figure 4. Digester pH During Commissioning

Figure 5. Actual Total Solids Concentrations in Each Digester During Start-Up


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

alkalinity until completing the ramp-up to average capacity, the digester feed was only reduced or suspended due to outside factors such as the loss of steam, unavailability of predewatered sludge, or loss of power. Digesters 1 and 2 were generally fed at the same rate throughout the start-up and digesters 3 and 4 were generally fed at the same rate during start-up. Once all digesters were operating at the expected normal capacity of 75 dtpd feed, the feed to each digester was the same, except during brief periods of concern for digester 1 and digester 3. The actual feed rates to each digester are presented in Figure 3. Note that feed to digesters 1 and 2 were equal, and feed to digesters 3 and 4 were equal through February 2015. At that time, feed to digesters 2, 3, and 4 were equal for the entire month, while feed to digester 1 was reduced due to concern related to the digester being in distress. Digester 1 distress appeared to be related to a single point of feed for the digester. The digester design includes two heat exchangers for each digester and each heat exchanger alternates between two digester feed points. During operations, one digester solids pump failed on digester 1, and one automatic valve on the opposite heat exchanger also failed. For a period of approximately 10 days, the digester was fed through only one location instead of the expected four and fed at the full throughput (75 dtpd) at this single location. While the temperature in the digester was controlled and did not vary from the expected +/-0.5°C from 38°C on any day, the digester began to have reduced gas production, reduced methane concentration, and a lower pH than the other equally fed digesters. While digester mixing testing demonstrated a well-mixed digester, with nearly 100 percent of the volume active, it is hypothesized that the feed to a single location resulted in pockets of poorly mixed or nonhomogeneous sludge. This occurrence leads to recommendations that digesters should be fed as consistently as possible and in as many locations as possible to allow the sludge to be fully homogeneous in the digesters. Figure 4 presents the digester pH tracked throughout the seeding process. As can be seen from this information, digesters 1 and 2 greatly benefited from the injection of alkalinity. The direct provision of alkalinity rapidly increased the pH and provided a source of alkalinity for the methanogens to develop rapidly. This figure also demonstrates that each period of concern for digesters corresponds to a period of pH lower than 7.5 standard units after seeding has been completed. While pH is often a lagging indicator of digester health, in the case of thermal hydrolysis process (THP)-fed digesters,

the higher operating pH of near 7.8 allows a greater warning of digester health before complete souring of a digester. Figure 5 presents the actual total solids seen in each digester. The total solids concentrations forecasted prior to the start-up have not yet been achieved in the digesters. It is believed that this is a reflection of the greater-than-expected volatile solids removal achieved in the digesters. The apparent volatile solids reduction (VSR) on a 22-day moving average is between 60 and 65 percent for each digester, which is in the range of other facilities utilizing THP. This VSR far exceeds the minimum 48 percent set as a process guarantee for the project and represents a significant reduction in the volume of solids for land application. As previously indicated, the seed sludge was provided from a pasteurization plant, and while the material is a Class A biosolid, this sludge does not have the same biological colonies as a fully hydrolyzed sludge. While both the pasteurized sludge and hydrolyzed sludge can be Class A, being different requires acclimatization of the digesters to meet Class A requirements for fecal coliforms. After the initial seeding and introduction of thermally hydrolyzed biosolids into the digester, the fecal coliforms were measured at nearly 2,000 most probable number (MPN)/dry gram, or nearly double the Class A standard. Figure 6 presents the fecal coliform results starting in February 2015 after all digesters are operating on hydrolyzed sludge. After approximately 150 days of processing from the start of seeding, the fecal coliforms were below 1,000 MPN/dry gram (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Class A standard) and continued to decline. Current levels are well below 100 MPN/dry gram and are continuing to decline.

solids, is captured separately from the belt wash water to minimize the solids content of the filtrate that will be sent to the DEMON process. During commissioning of the digesters, and throughout the interim period of operation until the filtrate treatment facility is commissioned, the belt press filtrate is returned to the secondary treatment process. The additional ammonia passes through secondary treatment to the separate stage nitrification and denitrification system where it is nitrified and then denitrified using methanol as the carbon source. The digesters were initially commissioned at low solids concentrations and the ramp-up occurred over a period of six months. The filtrate ammonia load was relatively low at the time the dewatering facility was commissioned in late November 2014, and the impact on the main plant was minimal. As the solids loading to the anaerobic digesters increased, the solids and ammonia concentrations inside the digesters also increased, and then stabilized at just over 5 percent total solids and 2,500 to 2,600 mg/L ammonia-N. Digesters 1 and 2 reached these conditions in February 2015, while digesters 3 and 4 did not reach these conditions until April of that year. Thus, the ammonia load returned to the liquid stream process increased slowly, and reached a total loading of about 15,000 lb/day in April. This increases the plant influent Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) load by 15 to 20 percent and additional aeration cells were placed in service in the nitrification/denitrification reactors. The corresponding increase in methanol consumption has been about 6,000 gal/day); however,

methanol dosing is expected to return to prior levels once the filtrate treatment facility is commissioned. It is noted that the digested solids are currently diluted with reclaimed plant effluent water from 5 to approximately 3.5 percent prior to feeding the belt filter presses. This dilution water, along with the polymer flow, increases the total filtrate flow, but decreases the observed ammonia-N concentration from 2,500 mg/L (in the digesters) to about 1,500 mg/L (in the filtrate).

Findings Overall, the performance of the thermal hydrolysis and digestion has been exceptional through the start-up and ongoing operations. Methane concentration in the digester gas have ranged between 60 and 65 percent methane, gas production has been approximately 0.28 m3 per kilogram of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fed (4.5 cu ft per lb of COD fed), and COD reduction has been approximately 48 percent. The digesters required approximately 140 days to become fully acclimated to the thermally hydrolyzed sludge, and since that time, all sludge has met Class A requirements for pathogen reduction. Once acclimatized, the digesters have been found to be extremely resilient to extreme changes in digester feed. While the digesters must be closely monitored during these periods, increases of as much as 10 percent feed per day for four consecutive days have been successfully digested by maintaining the approximate methane, gas production, and COD reduction that was noted. S

Sidestream Impacts As part of the solids treatment upgrade program, a new belt filter press facility was constructed for dewatering of digested solids. This facility consists of 16 belt filter presses, polymer day tanks and secondary dilution equipment, polymer dosing pumps, and solids feed pumps. In anticipation of high ammonia concentrations in the digested solids stream and the corresponding increase in ammonia load to the main plant, a new belt press filtrate treatment facility was designed and is currently under construction. This filtrate treatment facility will use the DEMONÂŽ process for deammonification of ammonia, and is scheduled for commissioning this year. The belt press filtrate, which is mostly comprised of digester liquor and is high in ammonia content but has relatively low suspended

Figure 6. Fecal Coliforms in Digested and Dewatered Biosolids Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017



New Year, New Challenges, New Goals Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA imes flies when you’re having fun! As we wrap up the past year and start a new one for the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), it hardly seems as if it’s been a year since the last Florida Water Resource Conference (FWRC). Seeing everyone at this year’s FWRC provided us with a time to reflect on the good times we had, the relationships we maintained, new friends we met, and the opportunity to continue learning about our environmental profession. This year’s FWRC was very special for me as I was nominated and elected as FWEA president. As I told the folks who were in attendance at Tuesday’s luncheon and annual meeting, thanks to each of you for providing me the op-



portunity to serve as your president. It’s a true honor to have been nominated and a privilege to serve. On behalf of the entire FWEA board of directors, we believe in a bottom-up organization: we are here to help you, to serve you, and to celebrate the successes—both big and small—with you. Participating in FWEA as an officer on a local chapter or committee, the Executive Committee, or as an active member in any of these, is voluntary. Most participants are members of FWEA because someone asked, but for those of you who are active in the association, it’s because you chose to be, you want to serve, and you want to contribute. So, to all of the volunteers who had a part in FWEA’s past successes, thank you! It comforts me that I am surrounded by great officers in FWEA with years of experience in the profession and with the association. The presidents preceding me led the organization forward through both good and challenging times and it’s strong leadership, and dedicated and involved members, that have allowed us to realize the successes these past years. Mark Twain said, “Thunder is impressive, but lightning does all the work.” While WEF, the national organization, and FWEA, as a state member association, may be the thunder spreading the message, you are truly the lightning piercing through your local communities—striving to be the best of the best. Each new day and each new year provide us with an opportunity to reflect on the past and to celebrate our successes, and to learn from our experiences so that we may build upon those successes. The things that we have learned along the way will make the next event even better. As I imagine is the case for many, the more that I see, do, learn, and experience makes me realize how little I knew to begin with. The beginning of wisdom is understanding, and I encourage each of you to seek understanding and to make wise choices in the coming year. As part on the coming year’s goals for the association we would like to start the following: S An Emerging Technology Committee, with a focus on committee members from the manufacturer and equipment representative sector. S An Operators Committee to better address the needs of that segment of our organization. S A Contractors Committee to take advantage of the experience that they bring to the table.

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As I mentioned, FWEA has come through some challenging times. We saw economic decline between 2007 and 2016; businesses struggled and so did FWEA. Despite being a little beaten and bruised, we survived and are now beginning to see revitalization in our industry and in our membership; however, we need to remember the lessons learned and be a bit better prepared for the next slump in the economy. So an additional goal is to provide for more networking opportunities for our members and to establish a more stable and diverse revenue stream to our association. To accomplish this, we will be introducing an Annual Membership Directory & Resource Guide. The FWEA is a people organization. It’s an assembly of individuals who are water professionals and whose life mission is aligned with FWEA’s mission. It’s because of the professionals in our industry that we can, with confidence, turn on a spigot for a drink of water, eat many of our favorite foods, or go for a swim without a fear of the plagues of our past. Please continue to be an active participant in FWEA and encourage others to join you; it’s through your and other’s service and participation that we will continue to be the go-to organization for water. Together, we can make an even bigger impact and are able to return more to our members and communities. It’s our belief that through the networking tool provided via the Annual Membership Directory & Resource Guide, the best is yet to come! Another goal for the coming year is to better embrace technology and social media. Someone once said that the world changes at such a fast pace that each day writes a fresh page of history before yesterday’s ink has even dried. The ways that we communicate today greatly differ from the ways we communicated just a few short years ago. Things have changed, and we as an organization need to be able to change and adapt. In closing, the coming year will have me traveling the state to meet as many of our members as I can at chapter events and at regional seminars. I will need to get started early in order to visit each area of our state, so please update the calendar on the FWEA website to include upcoming meetings and events, and check to make sure that the list of officers for your chapter or committee is updated with the correct contact information. Thank you again for electing me; I am looking forward to serving as your president of FWEA for the coming year. Please do not hesitate to contact me at to share your ideas or comments. S

Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association

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FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017



Alternative Delivery: Prequalification to Public-Private Partnerships Prequalification for a Lump Sum Bid Project Jonathan Fernald

y all accounts, this year’s Florida Water Resources Conference in West Palm Beach proved to be a productive and exciting event for the water and wastewater industry. The Florida Section AWWA (FSAWWA) Contractors Council is always looking for ways to contribute, and this year, in partnership with the South Florida Design-BuiId Institute of America (DBIA) Chapter, we hosted a workshop highlighting lessons learned when utilizing alternative delivery methods. All indications show Florida, as well as the water and wastewater industry nationwide, changing the mindset on project delivery from the traditional design-bid-build model to a more collaborative approach. On behalf of the council I would like to thank all who attended the workshop, and especially our six panel speakers who shared their intimate knowledge of project delivery: S Scott Kelly, P.E., City of West Palm Beach S Mikes Maillakakis, P.E., Lee County Utilities S Stephen McGrew, P.E., Palm Beach County Water Utilities S Victor Fernandez-Cuervo, P.E., Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Dept. S Colin Groff, P.E., City of Boynton Beach S John Cal, Florida International University


The workshop highlighted the fact that there is no “one size fits all” when it comes to choosing a project delivery method. Project owners have several choices other than traditional design-bidbuild when considering how best to complete a project. Those to consider include: 1. Prequalification for a Lump Sum Bid Project 2. Construction Management at Risk 3. Continuing/Maintenance Services 4. Lump Sum Design-Build 5. Progressive Design-Build 6. Public-Private Partnership Not only is it important to understand the benefits of each of these, it’s also important to understand the potential downsides and lessons learned from other owners who have utilized these methods.


The design-bid-build delivery is a tried-andtrue procurement method that has been the staple for project delivery. This does not mean that this method cannot be tweaked to reduce risk and also increase project quality. Often, as project complexity increases, it may be worth prequalifying the pool of bidding contractors so that only those best suited are submitting proposals. The goal here is that ultimately the project is being built by those with the correct technical understanding so that quality, schedule, and cost are not impacted. There are several items to take into account when prequalifying: S A multifaceted prequalification can be used to evaluate contractors. It’s important to balance prequalification needs with the ability to source and incentivize multiple proposals. S Contractors typically invest between $500 and $2,000 per million dollars of project value pursuing and submitting bids. S Consider not just experience with similar project scope, but also key personnel experience and availability, safety record, ability to self-perform, personal reference letters for key staff, and, of course, price, to name a few. S A weighted scoring system can be used. This allows the project owner to give more scrutiny to those that are important to the project and the municipality. An important caveat here is that this may not always result in the lowest upfront price, but the overall risk to the project owner can be ultimately reduced.

Construction Manager at Risk Construction manager at risk (CMAR) is a great choice when a project owner wishes to retain separate control over design and construction, but also looks to improve construction costs and schedule by seeking upfront preconstruction services from contractors. This procurement method is similar in many ways to the designbid-build system, in that the project owner still has separate contracts with designers and contractors. With this method, the contractor is brought on board and provides services prior to construction, and in many cases, in advance of final design. Evaluation criteria similar to those used with lump sum bid prequalification can be used for contractor selection, but a final project price is not included during selection. With CMAR, there are several items to be aware of:

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S The contractor is typically brought on board well before final design. As construction costs make up a majority of project costs, this allows contractors to lend their expertise to increase constructability and reduce cost. This will also contribute to expediting the overall project schedule and to increasing project quality. S The contractor can provide a guaranteed maximum price (GMP) well before the overall design is completed, which allows for total price certainty. If costs exceed the GMP, the contractor is on the hook, exclusive of scope, for any unforeseen conditions. S The project owner still retains the risk associated with having separate contracts for design and construction; however, an experienced CMAR contractor will work during preconstruction to help fine-tune the design for constructability. S It’s important to get past the historical prejudice between owner/engineer and CMAR so that an environment of trust is created.

Continuing/Maintenance Services When a utility foresees an upcoming need for several relatively small projects over several years, continuing services and maintenance services contracts may be the best fit. There are several ways to select the pool of contractors who will be utilized for this procurement method. One option is to create a set list of unit needs to which bidders apply unit pricing. Another is to request markup multipliers and use the eGordian® system, which is a construction estimating tool, for project pricing. With each system the two or three contractors with the most competitive pricing/multipliers are chosen. An upfront top-end program value can be determined, and as projects are generated, funding can be sourced from this total contract value. This is similar to cash allowances on lump sum contracts; however, pricing is based off of the upfront multipliers or unit pricing. S When multiple projects are foreseen it reduces the time and expense to bid each out separately. This also reduces the chances of bid protests. S This system can also be applied to design-build.

Lump Sum Design-Build Lump sum design-build differs from all procurement methods previously discussed in that the project owner only has one contract, with one firm, for both design and construction.

Most often, a design criteria professional is hired prior to request for qualifications or request for proposals (RFQs/RFPs) to create a set of criteria (design criteria package) for which design-build firms will generate proposals. Based on the package, firms create a project design, schedule, and pricing as part of their proposal. This ultimately reduces risk to the project owner as design and construction issues are not passed back to the owner for resolution and are ultimately the responsibility of the design-build firm chosen. One unique benefit to this method, different than all others, is that it truly creates a competition of design. Several key points to consider when evaluating if lump sum designbuild is the right choice include: S How prescriptive does the design criteria need to be and is the project owner ready to give up a good portion of design control? S It’s important that a clear design criteria package be developed that addresses the project owner’s ultimate goals. This can be costly and involve hiring additional consultants upfront. S There is still inherent risk based upon the quality of the criteria package. S It includes an upfront fixed price, which reduces cost risk. Note that for all methods, this does not apply to owner scope additions or unforeseen conditions. S Contractor and designer are one team. This can greatly help increase constructability and quality, while reducing overall project costs. This also reduces risk associated with the project owner being the liaison between the two. S This method drives innovation and can greatly reduce the construction schedule.

Progressive Design-Build This delivery method is very similar to lump sum design-build, with the project owner retaining only one contract for design and construction; however, the main difference is that selection of the design build-firm is based solely on qualifications and final GMP pricing is formulated after selection. This is useful when the project owner wishes to maintain control of the design and/or when a specific technology—and expertise with this technology and its complexities—is desired. Within progressive designbuild there are several advantages and potential disadvantages to take into account: S Similar advantages to CMAR, with the added benefit of single-source responsibility. S Construction can begin while design progresses, which can speed up overall project schedule. S Project owner must have resources and staff available to review design as it progresses. S Project owner can set up allowances as the GMP is developed and shift risk as the design progresses. S As the design is developed, work and testing can be completed to help minimize risk and unforeseen conditions.

Public-Private Partnership A public-private partnership (P3) is a design-build project that also contains at least one, or any combination of, finance, operate, and/or maintain. This delivery method is the rarest in the water and wastewater industry, but it’s gaining interest. A few items to consider when de-

termining if this is the right procurement method include: S When choosing to include the finance option, private finance rates are on average higher than those that a municipality can get through public means. This risk can be offset if public financing is not obtainable due to bond capacity or other shortages. The project, as a whole, may cost less considering the P3 firm is carrying greater risk, and this will drive innovation. S If life cycle costs are important, the P3 option may be best as overall costs can be determined upfront. S The P3 delivery is well suited for unique facilities that are not the norm for the majority of municipalities, with a good example being pelletizing facilities. S The P3 can also be a good option for municipalities that find themselves maxed out on capital expenditures, but that are looking to increase capacity to drive commercial or industrial growth. The FSAWWA Contractors Council hopes to be a continuing resource to the industry. Should you have questions regarding this column, or feel you could benefit from a builder’s perspective, please feel free to engage the council for our expertise and advice. We’re looking forward to a successful 2017, so stay tuned for upcoming workshops, columns, and articles.

Jonathan Fernald is a project manager for the water infrastructure group at PCL Construction Inc. in Tampa. S

Attendees at the Contractors Council workshop at the Florida Water Resources Conference. Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017



The Many Ways to Make a Positive Difference Through FSAWWA ISA Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium in August

Grace Johns Chair, FSAWWA

would use the term "productively busy" to describe the Florida Section AWWA’s first half of 2017. I am happy and impressed with the diverse and effective ways that our volunteers made a positive difference in the lives of our members, our customers, and the residents of Florida. We have presented numerous awards to deserving water utilities, led effective public outreach, provided a variety of learning opportunities, and donated to communities that are in need of sustainable water and sanitation services. This month I would like to recognize eight of these activities as examples of how we make a better Florida through better water.


Outstanding Water Distribution System Award FSAWWA is proud to be a technical cosponsor of the 2017 ISA Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium to be held at the Wyndham Lake Buena Vista Resort August 8-10. Control systems are so critical to the operation of our nation’s utilities. As such, our FSAWWA members have much to gain from this gathering of automation professionals. Attendees earn FDEP-approved CEUs and PDHs while networking with their peers and hearing about the latest automatic control applications within the industry. For more information, go to See you in Orlando!

Each year, the Florida Section presents its distinguished Outstanding Water Distribution System Award to one deserving Florida utility in each of up to eight size classes. The 2016 award recipients are: S Division 1 – Seminole Tribe of Florida, Broward County, Region VI S Division 2 – City of Zephyrhills Utility Dept., Pasco County, Region IV S Division 3 – City of Coral Springs, Broward County, Region VI S Division 4 – Town of Jupiter, Palm Beach County, Region VI S Division 5 – City of Miramar, Broward County, Region VI S Division 6 – Broward County Water and Wastewater Services, Broward County, Region VI S Division 7 – Lee County Utilities Water Distribution, Lee County, Region V S Division 8 – Hillsborough County Public Utilities Dept., Hillsborough County, Region IV This award recognizes the employees of


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

these utilities as outstanding performers and leaders in the following areas: S Maintaining high water quality and reliable operations S Keeping excellent records S Promoting professionalism, safety, and emergency preparedness S Implementing a sound cross connection control program This award was presented to the governing bodies of six of these utilities. We congratulate and thank each utility and its employees as they provide safe and reliable water supplies to their residents and visitors 24 hours a day, seven days a week—with no time off.

Outstanding Water Treatment Plant and Operator Awards The 2016 FSAWWA Outstanding Water Treatment Plant and Operator awards were presented to deserving utilities and recipients at the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) in April. The awards are based on exemplary performance in plant operations, maintenance, cost-efficiency, plant safety, training, and achieving consistently high drinking water quality. The water treatment plant awards are based on three size classes. We congratulate and thank Paul, Wally, and the award-winning utilities for their hard work in providing safe and reliable water to residents and visitors. S Marvin N. Kaden Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Operator - Paul Haskins, Hillsborough County Water Resource Services S Meritorious Drinking Water Treatment Plant Operator - Wallace "Wally" Reed, Hillsborough County Water Resource Services S Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Class A Peace River Manasota Regional Water S Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Class B City of Tarpon Springs Reverse Osmosis Facility S Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Class C Seminole Tribe of Florida, Hollywood Water Treatment Plant S Most Improved Water Treatment Plant Class A - Coral Springs Improvement District S Most Improved Water Treatment Plant Class B - Lithia Water Treatment Plant S Most Improved Water Treatment Plant Class C - Lake Park Water Treatment Plant

AWWA Landmarks Award The AWWA Landmarks Award “recognizes and preserves an American, Canadian, or Mexican water landmark at least 50 years old that has had a direct and significant relationship with water supply, treatment, distribution, or technological development.” This year two Florida water utilities received this award at FWRC. City of Dunedin - The City of Dunedin’s Well No. 1 is over 100 years old. The first of Dunedin’s freshwater wells, it was dedicated in 1915 and is still in operation, providing fresh water to Dunedin residents. Destin Water Users - Destin Water Users Water Tower No. 1 is over 52 years old, having been dedicated on Oct, 23, 1964. The tower is still fully operational as it maintains local water pressure in Destin’s water distribution system and is monitored via the utility’s supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. We congratulate the City of Dunedin and Destin Water Users for their sound maintenance of these water landmarks.

Water Conservation Month April is Water Conservation Month in Florida, thanks to the efforts of the FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED), and its chair, Lisa Krentz, and vice chair, Dave Bracciano. The section, in collaboration with Florida’s water management districts, requests local governments, water utilities, and other organizations to adopt a resolution or proclamation declaring April as Water Conservation Month. This year, the 19th anniversary since Florida first proclaimed April as Water Conser-

Left to right: Richard Anderson, system operations manager, and Mike Chell, operations supervisor, accept the 2016 FSAWWA Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Class A Award presented to the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority.

vation Month, 172 Florida governments and organizations adopted the proclamation and confirmed their adoption to FSAWWA. Over the years, Florida has made great strides in understanding and achieving the positive impacts of water use efficiency and water conservation programs in preserving our precious water supplies. Each year FSAWWA requests that the state governor and Cabinet proclaim "April as Water Conservation Month.” This year’s state proclamation was adopted on April 11 at the state’s Cabinet meeting. Representatives from the WUED were present to accept the proclamation and to present the list of local governments and organizations throughout Florida that proclaimed April as Water Conservation Month.

FSAWWA Finance and Rates Committee Activities The most significant challenge facing utility systems across the county is the funding of needed infrastructure renewal, repair, and replacement. It’s important for local industry professionals to have access to and understand what other organizations are experiencing in terms of funding, financing, and developing rates and charges. Managers in the water and wastewater industry must address regulatory challenges, capital funding needs, succession planning, water supply shortages, elimination of effluent discharge options, and a declining industrial customer base. The FSAWWA Finance and Rates Committee is a resource for members to discuss these issues and understand how the water and wastewater industry is reacting and adapting. The committee was formed in 2015 under the section's Technical and Education Council. Led by Chair Tony Hairston of Raftelis Finan-

cial Consultants and Vice Chair Robert Ryall of Arcadis, this committee discusses, collaborates on, and shares information concerning best practices for financing water and wastewater utilities and establishing water and wastewater rates and charges. Other topics discussed include the impacts of state laws, regulations and regional and national issues on Florida rate setting, and the impact of management issues on the water and wastewater industry. Two in-person meetings are held each year at the two FSAWWA conferences: the FWRC held in the spring and the FSAWWA Fall Conference. From 12 to 23 members have attended the five meetings held since 2015. As a participant in each of these meetings, I have enjoyed the free exchange of ideas and solutions on a variety of finance, rate, and management topics. The committee has held three workshops: S “Funding Infrastructure Improvements” was held at the FSAWWA Fall Conference in 2015. The five speakers focused on State Revolving Fund (SRF) and Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) developments, SRF drinking water new rule development, infrastructure and capital funding, municipal market update, and a legal update on tiered water rates. The speakers provided up-to-date and pertinent information to an audience of over 30 attendees. S “Utility Financial Lessons Learned and Roundtable” was the second workshop held at the 2016 FSAWWA Fall Conference last November. This well-attended workshop included presentations and discussions on creative funding for utility infrastructure programs, customer service improvements in municipal utilities, assessment to accelerate Continued on page 20

Florida’s governor and Cabinet proclaim April as Water Conservation Month on April 11, 2017. From left to right: Attorney General Pam Bondi, Gov. Rick Scott, WUED Vice Chair Dave Bracciano, WUED Chair Lisa Krentz, WUED member Diedre Irwin, Commissioner Adam Putnam, and Chief Financial Officer Jeff Atwater. Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Continued from page 19 high-density redevelopment, and combining utility systems for financial strength. S “Utility Rates 101 Workshop” was held this year at FWRC. Four speakers shared their professional experiences with capital planning considerations, understanding customer billing data, and utility rate structure and design. A fourth workshop is planned at the FSAWWA Fall Conference this November. The theme of this workshop is “The Value of Water” and its application to rates, impact fees, and customer service. If you want to join this committee or learn more about its activities, please contact our chair, Tony Hairston, or vice chair, Robert Ryall, using the contact information provided at under “Committees” or

Women of Water (WOW) Forum The FWRC held in April hosted the Women of Water Forum featuring a facilitated panel of seven successful women in the water and waste-

water industry. This distinguished group discussed relevant issues facing women in a maledominated profession. The two-hour forum was very well-attended and the interaction among the panelists, facilitator, and audience produced a lively and informative discussion. Some of the discussion topics included: S Did you choose the industry or did it choose you? S What advantages have you seen as a result of being a woman in the engineering field? S What small changes make the most impact? S What has been your biggest career challenge? S What tools would you recommend to help others maintain “balance” in their work/ home life? S What/who influenced you the most to enter the industry? S What have been your challenges in balancing home and work life? S What have been your tradeoffs between work and potential promotions versus family responsibilities? S Are glass ceiling barriers a perception or reality? The forum was organized and moderated by FSAWWA board member Marjorie Craig and

provided a unique opportunity to learn from others who have “been there, done that.” The wealth of expertise and information that the panelists provided was enhanced by the style of the forum encouraging interaction between the facilitator/panelists and the audience, allowing the audience members to contribute their experiences, suggestions, observations, and questions. The audience included those who are new to the industry, seasoned professionals, and somewhere in between. The takeaways gained are intended to help young and seasoned female (and male) professionals navigate through workplace challenges and politics. One of the suggestions for next year’s forum is to add men to the panel! The attendees recognized that building understanding, trust, and solid working relationships among all genders are critical to an effective workplace and achieving career and industry success. There can be gender-specific timing, cues, and reactions that men and women should and can better understand so that we can better leverage our differences and use them as strengths. The FWRC planning committee is committed to presenting this forum at every conference.

Panel members engaged the attendees in lively conversations. The panel is seated at the front table and includes, from left to right: Maria Loucraft, utility compliance and efficiency manager for City of Pompano Beach; Marjorie Craig (standing), director of Polk County Utilities; Eileen O’Neill, executive director of the Water Environment Federation; Jacqueline Torbert, manager of Orange County Utilities Water Division and a vice president on the AWWA board of directors and past FSAWWA chair; Lisa Prieto, owner of Prieto Environmental and P3 Electrical and FWEA president; Lisa Wilson-Davis, utility services operations and environmental compliance manager for City of Boca Raton; and Dr. Poonam Kalkat, director of Public Utilities for City of West Palm Beach.

Judges for the drinking water taste test included (left to right) Grace Johns, senior associate economist with Hazen and Sawyer; Barbara Powell, former water resources manager for Broward County and lead planner for South Florida Water Management District; and Harold Fravel, executive director of the American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA).


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Dozens of spectators observe the judging of Florida’s Best of the Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest at the Florida Water Resources Conference on April 25 in West Palm Beach.

Best of the Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest The Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest is intended for fun and to recognize an industry often taken for granted. This year all 12 of our regions participated and chose a regional winner through activities ranging from dinner banquets to luncheon events. The 2017 winners are: S Region I - City of Tallahassee S Region II - City of St. Augustine S Region III - City of Sanford S Region IV - City of Wildwood S Region V - Cape Coral Utilities S Region VI - Seminole Tribe of Florida Hollywood Treatment Plant S Region VII - City of North Miami S Region VIII - Seminole Tribe of Florida Brighton Water Treatment Plant S Region IX - People’s Water Service S Region X - Charlotte County Utilities S Region XI - City of Belleview S Region XII - Bay County Utilities Our Best of the Best Tasting Drinking Water Contest judged all 12 winners at FWRC and chose City of North Miami as the Florida champion that will participate in the national competition at the AWWA Annual Conference and Exhibition (ACE17) in Philadelphia in June.

Water For People Exhibitor Fundraiser This year’s Water For People Exhibitor Fundraiser at FWRC raised a net $6,700 to support its mission: “Seeing communities break free from the cycle of poverty and spend time growing, learning, and thriving, instead of walking for water and fighting off illness. We're working

to reach Everyone Forever with safe water and sanitation.” Many thanks to our participating exhibitors who donated to the cause and received from 60 to 120 raffle tickets to give out to their booth visitors for a chance to win gift cards worth $300, $200, and $100. All tickets were deposited at the Water For People booth and “Gold” participants were featured in poster displays that highlight a Water For People project. Additional raffle tickets were sold for five dollars each. This fundraiser, which has been implemented by FSAWWA at its two conferences since 2007, provides Water For People learning and fundraising opportunities, while attracting visitors to the participating exhibitor booths. Our Gold participants were: S Custom Controls Technology Inc. S Delta Products Corp. S Environmental Operating Solutions Inc. S Hazen and Sawyer S Hydra Service Inc. S Kimley-Horn S Moss Kelley Inc. S Reiss Engineering Our Silver participants were: S Classic Controls Inc. S Primex Controls S S S S

Our Bronze participants were: CH2M Evoqua Water Technologies Jones Edmunds & Associates Inc. MTS Environmental

This fundraiser would not have been a success without the leadership of Juan Aceituno, FSAWWA Water For People chair, and volunteers Carla Erazo, Daisy Hernandez, Natalie McCudden, and Pamela London-Exner. S

Value of Water Campaign Materials Now Available

The Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the American Water Works Association (AWWA) have released the first set of no-cost materials to help their respective members communicate about the value and importance of water. The materials are designed to complement and work in collaboration with the national Value of Water Campaign messaging and resources. As two of the founding partners of the campaign, WEF and AWWA are working together to provide supplementary tools and resources to further support WEF member associations, AWWA sections, and utilities in their efforts to educate and inform consumers, public officials, decision makers, and stakeholders about the value of water, water and wastewater services, and the need for infrastructure investment. This staggered rollout begins with a series of United States infographics. Additional materials will be added to the toolkit and released through June, including a communications plan to assist with implementing these materials according to specific needs and target audiences. The materials are available for download at Federation and association members are asked to share these resources with their members and others in the water and wastewater industry. Please contact Lori Harrison in the WEF Communications Department at with any questions. S

Dona Luisa (center) is president of El Negrito’s Water Board Association in Honduras. She is on a quest to make sure everyone across the municipality has access to safe water forever. (photo: Water For People) Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


FWRJ READER PROFILE job responsibilities. Execution of the planning, design, and implementation phases of projects to address these challenges is another aspect of my responsibilities as a project manager. And lastly, I oversee the internal controls of project management, ensuring that each project’s schedule, budget, and quality deliverables are met. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from the University of South Florida (Go Bulls!) and am a licensed professional engineer in Florida. What do you like best about your job? Without question, it’s the people I am fortunate enough to work with in this industry. Working together with people who are dedicated to public health, safety, and environmental stewardship is extremely rewarding.

George Terri Holcomb HDR, Sarasota Work title and years of service. I have been a senior project manager with HDR since 2005 and began my career in the water/wastewater industry over 23 years ago as a water supply engineer with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. What does your job entail? As a senior water/wastewater project manager, my responsibilities fall generally into three categories: business development, project delivery, and internal controls. In this industry, each utility faces challenges unique to its region, services provided, and regulatory drivers. Collaborating with utility managers and operations staff to identify short- and long-term solutions to these challenges is a big part of my

What professional organizations do you belong to? I am a member of the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) and stay actively engaged as Region X chair. I am also a member of the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) and am an active member in the Manasota Chapter. How have the organizations helped your career? I joined AWWA in 1993 as a student member and immediately benefited from the opportunities that networking events and access to published manuals and articles provided. Early in my career, active involvement in AWWA helped me understand regulatory and governmental processes, as well as providing valuable technical

Terrie and husband Donnie. Holcomb family outing.


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

direction on industry standards and design practices. Throughout my career, it has been the relationships and friendships that I have made from my involvement in FSAWWA/FWEA that have created the most opportunities for both professional and personal growth. What do you like best about the industry? The people! Let’s face it, the water/wastewater industry is not glamorous; there aren’t TV reality shows about treatment plant operators, laboratory technicians, or even distribution/collection system workers, and yet we are entrusted to protect and manage the single most important natural resource—water. The people who work in this industry are humble, down to earth, and hardworking. I enjoy the pride and sincere honor I feel whenever I have an opportunity to educate, inform, or advocate for it! What do you do when you’re not working? On the domestic side (yes I have one), my time away from work revolves around the schedules of three very important people and two very furry canines. My husband Donnie (also an engineer) and I have been married 19 years and have two beautiful and active teenage daughters, Taylor and Victoria. Taylor is on the rifle team at her high school and Victoria is a competitive swimmer. Weekends are typically spent in the “divide and conquer” mode with Donnie and I each taking a daughter to her respective competitions and meets. We also tag-team to tackle our other two “dependents” named Jasmine and Scout—our golden retrievers. As a family we love the water (go figure) and spend vacation time on the west coast beaches whenever possible. S

New Technology Measures Small-Scale Currents Transporting Ocean Plastics, Oil Spills UM Rosenstiel School-led study provides new remote technique to aid in disaster response Researchers at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science have developed a new technology to measure the currents near the ocean’s surface that carry pollutants, such as plastics and spilled oil. This new technique, which includes a specialized video camera to remotely sense currents in the upper few centimeters of the water column, can help scientists more accurately predict the fate of spilled oil or other marine pollutants that are transported at the surface layer by providing these measurements, which were previously unattainable. “The health and economic impacts of spilled oil and marine debris have the potential to be profoundly negative,” said Nathan Laxague, Rosenstiel School postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the study. “Improving our ability to measure near-surface ocean currents can aid in disaster response


and provides for greater context in understanding the dynamics of marine pollutant transport.” Laxague and his colleagues conducted two experiments—one in a laboratory and one in the field at the mouth of the Columbia River—to test their new technique. In the laboratory study, the researchers imaged the water surface in the SUSTAIN (SUrge-STructure Atmosphere INteraction) facility using a specialized camera that simultaneously records three polarizations of reflected light off the ocean surface to determine the current profile for a range of wind speeds. In the field study, a research vessel was stationed in the mouth of the Columbia River along the Oregon-

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Washington border to verify the results from the laboratory experiment in a real-world setting. The data gathered from the experiments showed that the innovative optical technique is ideal to measure currents within the first few centimeters at the ocean’s surface. “This slice of the water column is important because it is where oil, larvae, and other drifting and floating objects are, and until now, scientists had no good way to measure it using existing technologies,” said Brian Haus, Rosenstiel School Ocean Science professor and a co-author of the study. The study was conducted as a part of the Consortium for Advanced Research on Transport of Hydrocarbon in the Environment (CARTHE) and RIVET (RIVerine and Estuarine Transport) projects. Based at the Rosenstiel School, CARTHE has a research team dedicated to predicting the fate of the oil released into the environment as a result of future oil spills. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative and the Office of Naval Research provided funding for the study. S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Biosolids and Bioenergy Management. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

Lessons Learned From Start-Up of a Codigestion Process Nandita Ahuja, Alonso Griborio, Gregory Balicki, Ralph Aliseo, Persad Bissessar, and Janeen Wietgrefe (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. The project described in this article was aimed at using ___________ as a renewable fuel. a. return activated sludge b. waste activated sludge c. flared biogas d. secondary process off-gas 2. To equalize fats, oil, and grease (FOG) loading and dampen variations in incoming strength, the FOG is blended with ____________ prior to introduction into the digester feed line. a. digested sludge b. clarifier settled sludge c. plant effluent d. potable water 3. Higher FOG ____________ content results in higher biogas production. a. carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand b. suspended solids c. volatile solids d. fixed solids 4. Brief ___________ flushing of FOG unloading and piping equipment was found to be highly beneficial. a. cold water b. hot water c. solvent d. acid 5. Hot water from the cogeneration system is beneficially used to heat the digesters to maintain necessary ___________ conditions. a. cryophilic b. mesophilic c. thermophilic d. pyrophilic

Starting From Scratch: Commissioning the First Thermal Hydrolysis Fed Digesters in North America Peter Loomis (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. The seed sludge for commissioning these digesters was from a nearby facility that uses a(n) ____________ process. a. thermal hydrolysis b. thermophilic digestion process. c. aerobic digestion d. pasteurization

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________

2. In the case of thermal hydrolysis process (THP)-fed digesters, the higher operating pH of near ___ allows a greater warning of changes in digester health. a. 7.4 b. 7.6 c. 7.8 d. 8.0

LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:


3. To increase alkalinity, _____________ was added to digester 1 approximately nine days after thermally hydrolyzed sludge was introduced. a. calcium hydroxide b. calcium oxide c. sodium hydroxide d. magnesium hydroxide 4. A(n) ______________ treatment system for belt press filtrate has been designed and is currently under construction. a. ammonia b. nitrate c. carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) d. suspended solids

(Credit Card Number)

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

5. After 150 days of processing from the start of seeding, fecal coliforms were _____ most probable number (MPN)/dry gram. a. 2000 b. below 1000 c. 100 d. below 100 Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017



Summer Safety: Tips for the Heat Doug Prentiss Sr.

in as an emergency—and that he didn’t fall into the street when he passed out. Review the following information with your staff before the real dog days get here.

Understanding Heat Illness hings are heating up as we head toward the dog days of summer. Chemicals are becoming more active; pressures increase; vaporization of gases, such as hydrogen sulfide and methane, become more aggressive; and these same chemicals simply become more irritating to human skin at high temperatures. Pollen, mold, spores, and allergies are widely disbursed during hot summer months, which fatigue respiratory systems, aggravate sinuses, and hamper clear vision. Intense sun exposure leads to increased skin cancers, such as basal cell and melanoma, which can spread to other parts of the body and is a deadly type of cancer. Snakes, spiders, ticks, chiggers, fire ants, and ground hornets are all out now and more of a threat to workers during the hottest summer months. The focus of this article is for workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments and may be at risk of heat-related illness. I recently presented this information to the City of Newberry and had utility workers, firefighters, line personnel, plant operators, and support staff in the audience. The firefighters there had just worked on a heat illness emergency a few days before where the victim fainted in the heat while doing minor repair work on a trailer just outside a hardware store where he had purchased a part for the trailer. He was lucky that his incident was witnessed and called


Prolonged or intense exposure to hot temperatures can cause heat-related illnesses, such as heat exhaustion, heat cramps, and heat stroke (also known as sunstroke). As your body works to cool itself under extreme or prolonged heat, blood rushes to the surface of the skin. As a result, less blood reaches the brain, muscles, and other organs. This can interfere with a person’s physical strength and mental capacity, leading, in some cases, to serious danger. By reducing excessive exposure to high temperatures and taking other precautionary steps, most heat-related illnesses can be avoided. Working in the following conditions can result in heat illness: S Extreme heat (indoors and outdoors) S Direct sun exposure S High humidity S Poor air circulation Heat Stroke or Sunstroke These are usually caused by dehydration and high temperatures when the body temperature hits 104°F. Signs and Symptoms Altered mental state or behavior Confusion, agitation, slurred speech Irritability, delirium, seizures, coma Throbbing headache Dizziness and light headedness Lack of sweat despite the hot conditions Red, hot, and dry skin Muscle weakness or cramps Nausea and vomiting Rapid heartbeat that may be strong or faint Rapid and shallow breathing Treatment Remove clothing Cool body as quickly as possible Apply wet towels to skin, take a cool shower, find some shade Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation Severe heat-related illness may require a doctor’s care and intravenous fluid rehydration 911 should be contacted immediately for severe symptoms


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Heat Exhaustion Usually caused by sweating more fluids than have been replaced, resulting in dehydration. Signs and symptoms Rapid pulse Muscle or stomach cramps Excessive sweating Weakness and fatigue Clammy and pale skin Nausea or vomiting Fainting Treatment Go to a cooler location Rest Rehydrate May require doctor treatment for severe symptoms Heat Syncope Sudden dizziness, feeling faint, or fainting; also called orthostatic dizziness. Signs and symptoms Rapid pulse Muscle or stomach cramps Excessive sweating Weakness and fatigue Clammy and pale skin Nausea or vomiting Fainting Treatment Wet towels, cold shower, shade Monitor airway, breathing, and circulation Call 911 for unresponsiveness or other severe symptoms Heat Cramps These are usually caused by mineral loss, such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium, which are known as electrolytes and can be sweated out during activity in hot environments. Signs and symptoms Muscle spasms that are: S Painful S Involuntary S Brief S Intermittent S Usually self-limited Treatment Rest in a cool place Drink replacement fluids

Discontinue the activity that prompted the cramping Go to cooler environment Gently stretch the muscles that are cramping Usually clears with electrolyte replacement fluids

Employer Heat Illness Prevention Practices

S Sprinkle water over skin or clothing or place a damp cloth on face and neck While many other preventions and recommendations are available to prevent heat-related illness, the basic information covered in this article should be shared with all workers and field supervisors.

Take the bite out of the dog days of summer by staying hydrated and learning to identify the signs and symptoms of heat-related illness. S Doug Prentiss Sr. is a member of the FWEA Safety Committee.

Employers and supervisors can implement the following workplace practices to prevent and mitigate heat illness in their employees: S Change scheduling to avoid work in hot environments S Allow workers to acclimatize to the hot conditions S Reduce work pacing S Special staffing requirements may be needed S Hydrate employees S Modify and increase rest breaks S Monitor the work environment S Monitor workers who are at risk of heat stress S Alternate workers as needed Other prevention strategies include: S Wear cool work clothing S Use CamelBak, sweat bands, cool cloth, and air suits S Constant hydration S Use fluid loss supplements S Drink cold beverages, but avoid alcohol and caffeine S Eat cold food, salads, and fruit with high water content S Take a cool shower

Environments and work activities where workers are at greater risk of heat stress: • • • • • • •

Outdoor work Construction Mowing Water and wastewater utility Stormwater treatment Electric transmission and distribution Lift stations Personal factors that can lead to heat illnesses:

• • • • • •

Age Weight Medications Heart disease High blood pressure Overall health

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Test Yourself General Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations attached to the media, calcium chloride will enter the product water. c. Calcium and magnesium will remain on the media, sodium will enter the product water. d. Trihalomethane will remain on the media, sodium and nitrate will enter the product water.

7. The use of soda ash (sodium carbonate) in the lime/soda water softening process is used primarily to remove what? a. Temporary hardness b. Carbonate hardness c. Bicarbonate alkalinity d. Noncarbonate hardness

4. Which activated sludge process is better able to handle short-term shock loads of toxic waste and elevated influent hydraulic loading from inflow and infiltration, but may not produce the highest effluent quality (as compared to other processes) over longterm time periods? a. Conventional activated sludge b. Contact-stabilization activated sludge c. Two-stage Bardenpho activated sludge d. Completely mixed activated sludge

8. Which of the process control calculations shown requires the total pounds of solids inventory of the activated sludge system divided by the total pounds of solids lost in the effluent per day and added to the pounds wasted from the system per day? a. Gould sludge age (GSA) b. Solids retention time (SRT) c. Food-to-mass ratio (F/M ratio) d. Sludge volume index (SVI)

Ron Trygar

1. Many utilities are modifying their disinfection method to eliminate the storage, use, and handling of 100 percent gaseous chlorine. In order to prevent the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts, chloramination is gaining popularity, especially in the production and use of monochloramine. What is the necessary ratio of chlorine to ammonia to form monochloramine? a. One part of ammonia to one part of chlorine b. One part of ammonia to three parts of chlorine c. One part of chlorine to three parts of ammonia d. One part of ammonia to ten parts of chlorine 2. Regarding the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process for biological nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment, which statement below best describes the treatment plant flow scheme? a. The anoxic basin is situated after the main aeration basin to allow nitrification and phosphorus release using return activated sludge (RAS) to enhance the nitrogen degasification. b. The anaerobic (fermentation) basin is situated after the aeration basin and postanoxic basin to allow efficient phosphorus and nitrogen uptake. c. The aeration basin blowers or mechanical aerators are operated in an on-and-off cycle, which allows both nitrification and denitrification simultaneously. d. The anoxic basin is situated ahead of the aeration basin and an internal recycle pump system sends nitrate-rich mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) back to the anoxic basin for denitrification. 3. In the ion exchange process of water softening using a salt/brine solution for media regeneration, which ions are exchanged on the softener’s media and which ions will enter the product water during the service cycle? a. Calcium will remain on the media, iron and magnesium will enter the product water. b. Magnesium and sodium will remain


5. The operator of the permanganategreensand filter water treatment plant is experiencing pink-colored water leaving the filters. What could cause the pink-colored water and what can be used to remove it? a. An overdose of chlorine is the cause and sulfur dioxide can be used to remove the color. b. An underdose of potassium permanganate is the cause and soda ash can be used to remove the color. c. An overdose of chlorine is the cause and sodium bisulfate will remove the color. d. An overdose of potassium permanganate is the cause and powdered activated carbon can be used to remove the color. 6. During the luxury uptake method of phosphorus removal, microorganisms known as phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are given a selective advantage over non-PAOs to consume volatile fatty organic acids while releasing phosphorus from their cells. In which basin of the advanced biological nutrient removal waste treatment plant does this happen? a. The anaerobic (fermentation) basin b. The post-anoxic basin c. The pre-anoxic basin d. The re-aeration basin

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

9. A step in the treatment process of a surface water for turbidity, color, microbe removal, and taste and odor contaminant removal that allows small, discrete particles to form larger, denser particles is called a. flash mixing. b. coagulation. c. flocculation. d. sedimentation. 10. During the biological nitrogen removal process, bacteria known as nitrifiers convert ammonium to a final product of nitrate. Which statement below best describes the two-step process? a. Nitrosomonas convert ammonium to nitrite, then Nitrobacter convert nitrite to nitrate in the aeration tanks. b. Nitrobacter convert ammonia to ammonium, then Nitrosomonas convert ammonium to nitrate in the aeration tanks. c. Nitrosomonas convert nitrate to nitrite, then Nitrobacter convert nitrite to nitrogen gas in the anoxic basin. d. Nitrobacter convert nitrate to nitrogen gas, then Nitrosomonas convert nitrite to nitrate in the anoxic basin. Answers on page 54

Send Us Your Questions – Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to or by mail to: Ron Trygar , CET, Senior Training Specialist, UF TREEO Center, Gainesville, Fla. 32608


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FSAWWA Delegates Promote National Water Policy Dialogue at Water Matters! Fly-In Kevin Carter, Christopher Pettit, and Lisa Wilson-Davis

federal issues we all should be watching closely in the 115th Congress.

Washington, D.C.! Our nation’s capital, and a global economic, political, and cultural nexus. Within the Beltway backdrop, nationally significant water resources policy, regulatory, and funding decisions are made each year. The American Water Works Association (AWWA), through its Government Affairs Office in Washington, D.C., maintains a solid presence “on the Hill” to keep our collective interests front and center for our federal legislators. The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) also supports our national leaders, primarily through the FSAWWA Utility Council and its coordination on major issues (see FSAWWA Chair Grace Johns’ column; Florida Water Resources Journal, March 2017, p. 48) and participation in the annual Washington, D.C., Water Matters! Fly-In. This article describes the AWWA office in Washington, the 2017 Fly-In, and the current

AWWA’s Government Affairs Office and Water Matters! Fly-In One of the key mottos of the AWWA Government Affairs Office team is “We watch Washington, D.C., so you don't have to!” ( The office staff does an outstanding job of tracking legislative and regulatory activities emanating from the capital, coordinating targeted responses, and advocating on behalf of AWWA member utilities. The office receives oversight from the AWWA Water Utility Council (WUC), which is comprised of senior staff members from municipal and private water utilities who represent diverse geographical regions in North America. The staff coordinates legislative and regulatory activities and is led by its executive director, G. Tracy Mehan III. One very recognizable staff member is Tommy Holmes,

Our nation’s newly refurbished capitol building shone beautifully during the recent FSAWWA delegate trip to Washington, D.C., to the AWWA Water Matters! Fly-In.


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

legislative director, who is a frequent participant at the FSAWWA Fall Conference and coordinates the annual Fly-In. Formally started in 2002, the Fly-In involves coordinated congressional briefings given by AWWA section delegates (for example, FSAWWA members). The briefings target key water utility issues and also serve to have AWWA recognized as the national leader on drinking water issues.

115th Congress: Water Infrastructure Funding Front and Center The 2017 Fly-In occurred on March 22-23 near the beginning of the 115th Congress, which started on January 3. Of course, with a presidential transition occurring this year, our nation’s capital was anticipating the winds of change; however, one national constant is our industry’s infrastructure maintenance and replacement needs. The association has been at the forefront in educating congressional members on drinking water infrastructure’s critical nature, and to facilitate the national discussion, AWWA released a report in 2012 entitled, “Buried No Longer: Confronting America’s Water Infrastructure Challenge.” The report contains numerous statistics and recommendations, including a major finding that puts the national price tag of infrastructure repair and replacement at $1 trillion over the next 25 years to maintain our current water-service levels (AWWA report, p. 3; In some respects, many federal legislators have listened to our industry and are beginning to work toward solutions. Some key bills were passed in the 114th Congress that our current congressional members will hopefully build upon. These include: S A continuing resolution bill (H.R. 2028) to keep the federal government open for business also provided $20 million to the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) program ( The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced that this initial funding will now provide approximately $1 billion in credit assistance. S The comprehensive 2016 Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act (WIIN S. 612) contains many drinking water infrastructure components, including

$100 million from the State Revolving Fund (SRF) for drinking water emergencies, such as in Flint, Mich. It makes WIFIA a permanent fixture, expands its eligible project types, and gives authorization for the $20 million in funding provided by H.R. 2028.

AWWA Fly-In Strategy to Address Infrastructure: Four Big “Asks” The AWWA D.C. team is seeking to build upon 2016’s successes and started the year by writing infrastructure support comments to Congress (Feb. 14, 2017) and sending a similar letter to President Trump (Feb. 28, 2017; see For the 2017 Fly-In, AWWA’s strategy was laser-focused on four infrastructure funding mechanisms, with section delegates briefing their respective congressional members. The four big “asks” included: S $1.8 billion for Drinking Water SRF for FY 2018 S $45 million for WIFIA S Maintain full tax-exempt status for interest earned on municipal bonds S Removal of the cap on tax-exempt private activity bonds for water and wastewater infrastructure

FSAWWA Contributes at High Level to Fly-In Success During the Fly-In, over 145 AWWA members visited more than 400 congressional offices to urge Congress to reinvest in the nation’s infrastructure. Prepared issue packets were distributed during congressional visits and section members were encouraged to discuss local issues of importance to their representatives. Importantly, the Fly-In was coordinated with Water Week activities ( held by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies, Water Environment Federation, and other water and wastewater organizations that comprise valuable pieces of a united water industry team in D.C. The FSAWWA delegates played an important role communicating the overall AWWA infrastructure message within the halls of Congress. They also brought some Florida-specific information to demonstrate that what happens in D.C. directly affects utilities back home ( The FSAWWA delegation this year was led by Florida Section Chair Dr. Grace Johns, Hazen and Sawyer; Utility Council Chair Lisa

FSAWWA delegates visiting with Rep. Kathy Castor. From left to right: Chris Pettit, Jeff Nash, Lisa Wilson-Davis, Mark Lehigh, Rep. Castor, Grace Johns, Kim Kunihiro, Peggy Guingona, Jan McLean, and Kevin Carter.

Wilson-Davis, City of Boca Raton; Utility Council Legislative Chair Christopher Pettit, Palm Beach County; and FSAWWA Executive Director Peggy Guingona. Additional FSAWWA delegates included Past Section Chair Kim Kunihiro, Orange County; Past Section Chair Mark Lehigh, Hillsborough County; Jan McLean, City of Tampa; Jeff Nash, AECOM; and Kevin Carter, Broward County. Working as a team, the group visited sixteen different congressional offices over two days. The FSAWWA delegation met personally with Rep. Kathy Castor, Rep. Brian Mast, Rep. Stephanie Murphy, Rep. Darren Soto, and their respective staffs. They also had individual staff appointments with the offices of Sen. Bill Nelson, Sen. Marco Rubio, Rep. Charlie Crist, Rep. Carlos Curbelo, Rep. Ted Deutch, Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart, Rep. Lois Frankel, Rep. Alcee Hastings, Rep. Francis Rooney, Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Rep. Debbie WassermanSchultz, and Rep. Frederica Wilson.

Looking Forward Overall, the AWWA message was well received by all congresspersons and their staffs, who now better understand the importance of water. Hearing about local successes and chal-

lenges promoted much dialogue and many questions were asked. The congresspersons and staff were appreciative that they received some specific project information, costs, and funding needs for the upcoming sessions. Time will now tell where our issues land during the 115th Congress. It’s paramount to remember that the education process is a yearlong endeavor—not just a two-day Fly-In. Continuing its efforts, AWWA recently led in the writing of two congressional letters to support additional SRF funding (April 26, 2017; The FSAWWA Utility Council is your leader in legislative affairs and welcomes your participation and questions as the federal process moves forward. If you have more interest in this topic, please contact a Florida delegate, and until the next D.C. report, stay tuned to C-SPAN! Kevin Carter is assistant to the director at Broward County Water and Wastewater Services. Christopher Pettit is water supply policy and legislation manager at Palm Beach County Water Utilities Dept. Lisa Wilson-Davis is utility services operations and environmental compliance manager for City of Boca Raton. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017



Lessons Learned From Start-Up of a Codigestion Process Nandita Ahuja, Alonso Griborio, Gregory Balicki, Ralph Aliseo, Persad Bissessar, and Janeen Wietgrefe roward County Water and Wastewater Services (utility) owns and operates the 95-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (plant), located in Pompano Beach. Its liquids processing systems include preliminary treatment, secondary treatment through an activated sludge process, and disinfection. Waste activated sludge is thickened by dissolved air flotation and stabilized in a conventional anaerobic digestion process consisting of seven primary digesters and one secondary digester. Class B biosolids are dewatered by belt filter presses and dewatered cake is hauled to either land application sites or to landfills. The plant utilizes 5.5 megawatts (MW) of electricity, making it one of the largest single-point electrical consumers in Broward County. Under efforts to reduce carbon emissions to 1997 levels by 2015, the utility adopted a climate action plan. As a part of the plan, it teamed with OpTerra Energy Services (formerly Chevron Energy Solutions) and its partners, including Hazen and Sawyer through a performance contracting approach, to implement a biogas-to-energy project using the digester gas waste product from the existing anaerobic digestion process. The project was aimed at reducing the plant’s energy footprint and carbon emissions by using the flared biogas as a renewable fuel. Historically, approximately 25 percent of digester gas has


been recovered for digester heating and the remaining 75 percent of digester gas production was flared to the atmosphere. The goal of this project was to harness the energy of the existing biogas production, as well as maximize biogas production to generate additional energy onsite. Two major components of this project included installation of a new 2-megawatt (MW) engine generator for conversion of biogas to electricity and construction of a fats, oil, and grease (FOG) receiving station. The station was constructed to collect and introduce the additional feedstock to the digesters to enhance biogas production. This FOG material was formerly directed to the plant influent, resulting in increased aeration energy demands for the liquid stream and adverse operation and maintenance impacts, including accumulation of FOG within underground pipelines. Redirecting this waste to the anaerobic digesters for resource recovery reduces other energy demands at the plant by an additional 250 kilowatts. As a result of this project, the biogas from anaerobic digestion at the plant is now used to generate power through an engine generator. Using the electricity generated and the waste heat produced from the engine generator is commonly referred to as cogeneration, or combined heat and power (CHP). The electricity generated, in addition to other savings, is used to offset purchased electricity, allowing these

Figure 1. Fats, Oil, and Grease Facility Process Flow


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Nandita Ahuja, Alonso Griborio, and Janeen Wietgrefe are with Hazen and Sawyer in Hollywood. Gregory Balicki, Ralph Aliseo, and Persad Bissessar are with Broward County Water and Wastewater Services in Pompano Beach.

savings to be applied to fund the project. The CHP system utilizes the biogas produced from the existing anaerobic digesters for generation of energy. Hot water from the cogeneration system is beneficially reused to heat the digesters to maintain the necessary mesophilic conditions via new connections to existing hot water boilers and heat exchangers. This reduces the frequency with which the boilers need to operate, thereby reducing the plant’s electrical demand.

Fats, Oil, and Grease Facility Overview The FOG receiving facility is designed for an average daily flow of up to 60,000 gal. The receiving operations are designed for five days per week, with an average of 15 to 16 deliveries per day. The process flow for the FOG facility is shown in Figure 1. As shown in the figure, the FOG received at the facility is unloaded from the trucks into the FOG receiving tank, which equalizes FOG volumes and dampens the loadto-load variations and strength, thereby providing a consistent FOG loading rate to the digestion process. The FOG from the receiving tank is then mixed with the digested sludge, which is recirculated from the digesters, to the blend tank at a 2.5:1 ratio (sludge/FOG). The sludge/FOG blend is sequentially dosed from the blend tank into each digester’s feed line, with no more than 300 gal fed to each digester per cycle to prevent shock loading to the digesters. The sequential dosing cycle is continued until the preset FOG dosing targets for the day are reached. The new FOG receiving station includes two truck unloading stations, a 165,000-gal stainless steel FOG receiving tank, FOG transfer pumping to an 18,500-gal blend tank, and dosing pumps, as shown in Figure 2.

Fats, Oil, and Grease Facility Start-Up and Operation Start-up and commissioning activities for the FOG facility commenced in late December 2015. Functional testing of the facility was completed in March 2016, which was followed by the process start-up in April of that year. The facility has been in service since start-up, except for an approximately two-week period in mid-January when it was removed from service due to construction activities to increase the length of the unloading pads for the FOG receiving trucks.

Fats, Oil, and Grease Characteristics The FOG samples are collected by the utility biweekly at a sample collection port on the transfer line between the FOG receiving tank and the blending tank. The location of the sample port enables collection of equalized samples that are representative of the FOG entering the solids stream. Overall, characteristics of the FOG received at the plant are highly variable, with the total solids (TS) ranging from 0.5 to 37 percent and total volatile solids (VS) ranging from 74 to 99 percent. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranges between 3,500 mg/L to 100,000 mg/L and between 6,900 and 150,000 mg/L, respectively. Additionally, the FOG received also contains plastics and debris in higher quantities than previously anticipated. Utility staff is working with haulers to reduce such waste, as it can damage the internal components of the system.

Figure 2. Fats, Oil, and Grease Receiving Station at the North Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant

Fats, Oil, and Grease Dosing

Figure 3. Fats, Oil, and Grease Dosing During Start-Up

Microorganisms within the anaerobic digesters require time to acclimate to the increased organic loading from high-strength wastes such as FOG or food wastes. Overdosing lipid-rich material can lead to accumulation of long-chain fatty acids, which in turn can cause a drop in pH, stress the microbes, and inhibit methane formation. Based on relatively limited industry experience, the “safe” limit for FOG dosing is generally considered to be 30 percent by weight of total VS in the digester feed. Recent research has demonstrated that if FOG dosing is increased slowly and gradually, digester microorganisms can adapt and support higher FOG loading, potentially increasing the ultimate “ceiling” and maximizing ultimate biogas production. Since maximum sustained FOG dosing can exceed historically “safe” limits for codigestion, the initial FOG dosing during the start-up of the FOG facility was controlled in multiple steps, with each step increasing VS loading by no more than 5 percent. During the start-up phase, the utility implemented this step process, where FOG dosing was continuously increased, while allowing the diContinued on page 36

Figure 4. Volatile Solids to the Digesters Since Start-Up of the Fats, Oil, and Grease Facility Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Continued from page 35 gesters to acclimatize to the change in substrate and VS loading. Figure 3 illustrates the volumetric FOG dosing and the VS loading from FOG to the digesters during each step of the start-up phase. As shown in the figure, VS loading from FOG was gradually increased from approximately 4 to 28 percent throughout start-up. The FOG dosing was maintained constantly during each step, which lasted approximately one to two weeks. Figure 4 shows the total VS loading to the digesters and VS loading from FOG following the start-up of the FOG facility in April 2016, which was completed in June 2016. The fluctuations in VS loading following the start-up were primarily

due to variations in the supply of FOG trucks at the facility and high variability in characteristics of the FOG received. The low VS loading in early October was primarily due to very diluted FOG (total solids [TS] <1 percent) received at the facility, while the spike in VS loading in late November was primarily due to very high solids content in FOG (>19 percent). The FOG dosing was also reduced and subsequently halted in January 2017 due to construction activity onsite for expansion of the concrete pad for the FOG trucks. The pad expansion will accommodate larger FOG trucks with the intent of minimizing variations in FOG supply. Despite these variations in FOG feed, the digesters continued to per-

Figure 5. Volatile Acids/Alkalinity Ratio During Start-Up

form well, which is likely due to acclimatization of the microbes in the digesters.

Digester Performance Digester performance was closely monitored and analyzed during the start-up of the FOG facility to preempt any digester upset conditions. Key codigestion process parameters monitored included: S Thickened waste activate sludge (TWAS) loading (flow, total solids, and VS) S FOG quantities (unloaded volume, TS, VS fraction, pH, COD, and BOD) S FOG/digested sludge blend ratio and blended feed stock digester dosing rates S FOG VS loading as percentage of total VS loading S Individual digester liquid levels and hydraulic retention times S Individual digester organic loading rates S Individual digester volatile acids (VA), alkalinity, VA/alkalinity ratio, pH S Digester gas production Among several parameters analyzed for monitoring digester performance, the VA/alkalinity ratio was found to be most sensitive to fluctuations in VS loading to the digesters. With each increment in VS loading/FOG dosing during start-up, the VA/alkalinity ratio exhibited an instant spike, which stabilized over a period of one to two weeks. Figure 5 shows these variations in VA/alkalinity ratio with FOG dosing during the start-up. Despite the fluctuation, VA/alkalinity values were consistently less than the maximum recommended value of 0.35. Additional digester performance indicators, such as pH and total alkalinity, remained relatively stable during the start-up phase (Figure 6). The pH in the digesters remained within 7 and 7.5 and the total alkalinity ranged between 3,300 mg/L and 3,800 mg/L. The decrease in total alkalinity when FOG dosing was increased from step 1 to step 2 is indicative of sensitivity of the digester to increase in FOG VS loading. The magnitude of increase in FOG VS loading was reduced in the subsequent steps to avoid “shock loading” the digesters. Overall, the analysis of the digester parameters indicates that VA production did not exceed VA consumption and that the digesters had adequate buffering capacities to maintain suitable pH levels to avoid upset conditions.

Volatile Solids Reduction

Figure 6. The pH and Total Alkalinity During Start-Up


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

One of the primary goals of the digestion process is volatile solids reduction (VSR). Due to the high FOG VS content, higher VSR is expected during codigestion, which in turn results in higher biogas production. The ability of the digesters to achieve higher VSR is contingent upon the capac-

ity of digesters to handle high VS loading without going into “shock” (buildup of VA in the digesters), ultimately inhibiting the methanogenesis phase of the digestion process. As discussed previously, measures were taken to prevent “shock” loading of FOG to the digesters during the startup by incrementing the FOG feed in steps. Digesters showed an increase in VSR, with an increase in FOG dosing during the start-up. The average VSR increased from 38 percent (July 2015 to December 2015) before FOG codigestion to 45 percent (April 2016 to Feb 2017) after start-up of the FOG codigestion process.

Biogas/Energy Production The increase in VSR was accompanied by improvements in biogas production with an estimated increase of about 35 percent after FOG facility start-up, and monthly average electricity production ranged between 1 and 1.4 MW from the cogeneration/CHP system. Figure 7 shows the daily energy generated from the biogas produced. Due to the unavailability of direct biogas data, biogas production was estimated using the energy output of the cogeneration facility combined with the biogas utilized by the boilers for heating the digesters. Based on the available data, the average biogas production from the digesters is estimated to be approximately 35,000 cu ft per hour (ft3/h) since the commencement of the cogeneration/CHP system in August 2016. The monthly average biogas production per unit of VS destroyed ranged from 16 cu ft per pound (ft3/lb) of VS destroyed to 23 ft3/lb. This value is higher than the anticipated value of 15 ft3/lb based on the literature review of similar systems.

Operational Considerations and Lessons Learned From Start-Up The start-up of the FOG facility provided some useful lessons: S The step-feed approach for FOG dosing during start-up allowed for the digesters to acclimatize to the change in substrate and VS loading and to achieve stabilization of the VA/alkalinity ratio. S After initial start-up of the codigestion process, the digesters appear to be very resilient to variations in VS loading from FOG. This was particularly significant due to the variations in FOG supply and characteristics. S Availability of FOG is an important consideration for successful operation of a FOG codigestion process. Several FOG suppliers also haul FOG comingled with septage (from portable toilets and septage facilities). Comingled loads are not accepted due to relatively lower VS content in septage and other operaContinued on page 38

Figure 7. Electricity Production From the Cogeneration Facility

Figure 8. Basket Strainer Before (left) and After (right) Hot Water Flushing

Figure 9. Volatile Solids Reduction Before and After Fats, Oil, and Grease Codigestion Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Continued from page 37 tional considerations (such as impact on dewatering). As such, consideration should be given to acceptance of haulers that do not mingle FOG loads with other waste streams. S The FOG trucks received at the facility may contain larger solids, such as plastic forks, napkins, etc., which may clog the screens or pretreatment facilities. Haulers should be required to provide “clean” FOG (i.e., FOG should not contain extraneous items). Unloading activities should include a review of the contents of the trucks and, if possible, the prevention of miscellaneous debris from entering the FOG stream. S One of the key lessons learned from the operation of the FOG facility was the positive impact of brief hot water flushing of the pipe and equipment used for unloading the FOG from the trucks (to the FOG storage tank) after unloading operations. The benefits of the flushing are twofold: it prevents clogging of pipes due to solidification of grease, and the flushing helps the removal of smaller particles trapped between the larger materials in the screens. Flushing enables this trapped material to be released and drained into the storage tank, resulting in reduced cleaning frequency for the basket strainers/screens and disposal of otherwise use-


ful material, along with the disposal of screenings from the strainer. Figure 8 shows the basket strainer subsequent to FOG truck unloading before and after hot water flushing operation. S Liquid level sensors are key instrumentation components for regulating the FOG receiving and dosing operations; as such, redundancy of these devices is important. From the startup experience, liquid level monitoring devices based on laser technology were found to be better suited for such applications than sensors based on ultrasonic technology. Adequate clearance from the walls and liquid streams entering or exiting the tanks should be provided for installation of such sensors to minimize interference and improve accuracy.

Conclusions Analysis of the digester performance data indicates that digesters responded well to codigestion of sludge with FOG. Digesters performed especially well in terms of stabilization of VA/alkalinity ratio. The step-feed approach for FOG dosing during start-up allowed for the digesters to acclimatize to the change in substrate and VS loading and to achieve stabilization of the VA/alkalinity ratio. The addition of FOG to the digesters also

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

appears to offer significant benefits in terms of VSR, with an increase in VSR from 38 percent without FOG codigestion to 45 percent after implementation of FOG codigestion (Figure 9). The FOG addition also resulted in a boost in overall biogas production. The total biogas production increased by approximately 30 percent when comparing the average amount produced between April and July 2016 to the average amount produced prior to FOG addition (July to December 2015 baseline). The resultant energy production from the digester biogas yield ranged from 1 to 1.4 MW in the months following the start-up. To increase the biogas generation, and subsequently, the energy production, the utility plans to continuously increase the FOG dosing to the digesters. Furthermore, it anticipates that the recently lengthened unloading areas will allow for larger FOG haulers to utilize the facility. This increase in FOG supply will ultimately provide higher FOG VS loading to the digesters. The utility is also considering the introduction of an additional source of codigestion feed, such as high-strength food waste, which would further maximize the biogas production of the plant. Additional increases in biogas production will correspondingly increase the energy production of the facility. S

Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;¢ June 2017


Building Better Water Quality One Job at a Time National Green Infrastructure Certification Program celebrates a first year of successes

Pallavi Raviprakash

National Green Infrastructure Certification Program Founding Partners S DC Water, Washington D.C. S Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD), Wis. S Montgomery County, Md. S Kansas City Water Services Department, Mo. S Fairfax County, Va. S City of Baltimore Department of Public Works, Md. S Louisville Metropolitan Sewer District, Ky. S San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, Calif. S Capital Region Water, Harrisburg, Pa. S Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Ill. S New Orleans Delegation, La. S Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority, Pittsburgh, Pa. S Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati, Ohio S Boston Water and Sewer Commission, Mass.


he National Green Infrastructure Certification Program (NGICP) has two main purposes: to encourage water quality improvements via green infrastructure (GI) projects, and to create jobs for those who know how to build them. The NGICP took several major steps in the past year toward achieving these goals and has several more in the works. Initiated under the leadership of DC Water and the Water Environment Federation (WEF), NGICP sets certification standards for GI construction, inspection, and maintenance workers. The program takes a different tone than most GI and water quality programs because it focuses on the “how” of GI. The program’s certification establishes green workforces to give utilities and private customers confidence in their choice of landscape and construction providers. It also provides a credential to certified workers who meet international best practice standards. Because the program is national in scope, the same certification will apply from coast to coast, providing a “portable” credential that will eventually expand beyond the United States.


Major Development During the development phase of the program in 2016, NGICP took several major steps to carefully conceive a nationally relevant certification program. Fourteen founding partners were convened by WEF (see sidebar) to create the necessary governance and foundational materials. Representatives from the founding partner organizations participated in both the Technical Advisory Group (TAG) and the Strategic Advisory Group (SAG). The TAG oversees the development of the program’s technical components, while SAG develops the vision and the implementation plan for the national rollout of the NGICP. A separate Certification Council

June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

oversees the program’s governance elements. These groups conducted a job task analysis survey to determine what components the program needed to cover. They fed these survey results into an exam blueprint, which led to an official curriculum. Training support materials came next as the first exam was developed.

First Exam This progression led to the inaugural NGICP exam on Dec. 13, 2016. Seven locations—corresponding to many of the founding partners—hosted the exam for more than 90 applicants. Exam locations included: S Washington, D.C S Baltimore S Rockville, Md. S Harrisburg, Pa. S Pittsburgh S Fairfax County, Va. S Milwaukee The three-hour exam tested applicants on their knowledge of entry-level green infrastructure fundamentals, construction methods, inspection techniques, and maintenance procedures in accordance with the exam blueprint.

First Class and Continued Improvement On Jan. 26, 2017, NGICP announced its first class of 62 certified individuals who passed the exam. Now, NGICP will use this year to refine policies and procedures and continue to build the exam database. For 2017, training and exams will be available only through the NGICP founding partner organizations. Plans are underway to offer additional NGICP training sessions and exams in

the spring and fall. The first exam date in 2017 is set for June 6 and the second in November (specific date to be determined).

National Debut In 2018, NGICP will celebrate another milestone: the national launch of the program. This expansion will broaden the partnership and enable other utilities and municipalities to join. Affiliate partners could include nongovernmental organizations, workforce centers, government entities, trainers, and training providers—all sharing a common goal of developing a GI workforce. Through this nationwide program, certified individuals can set foot on a long-term and sustainable path for living-wage jobs—often in dense, urban areas where such opportunities can be scarce. By design, these are the same communities where utilities are investing in GI projects. The NGICP will help to ensure a beneficial cycle of employment, water quality improvement, and community development: the workers benefit from employment; the utilities benefit from low-impact, distributed stormwater management; and the community benefits from the ancillary advantages of GI, such as more green spaces and neighborhood beautification, as well as air quality and habitat improvements. For more background on NGICP, as well as the latest news, visit Pallavi Raviprakash, technical programs manager at WEF, has provided technical support on several stormwater initiatives and has been involved with the development and management of NGICP. She has over ten years of experience working in the water resource field, both in the private consulting and nonprofit worlds, and holds a bachelor’s and master’s degree in environmental engineering. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017



Another Successful Florida Water Resources Conference; Now It’s Time to Turn Our Focus to Storm Season Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

Florida Water Resources Conference The Florida Water Resources Conference held this year in West Palm Beach had a record number of vendors and attendees. It was great seeing all the teams compete in the Operations Challenge and Top Ops; I love that there were more teams competing this year and the competition was very close. I’m going to be a homer here and give a shout-out to the team from the utility where I retired this past January because I promised if either team placed first or second I would recognize them in my column, so “way to go” to JEA’s team Fecal Matters on placing second overall by the smallest of margins. I remember when we first decided to send a couple of teams to the conference back in 2014 we let them pick their name, and this is what they wanted! Anyway, good luck to both teams— first-place St. Cloud and second-place JEA— as they move on to the nationals. Tom King again did an excellent job of hosting the Operators Showcase on Sunday afternoon, which covered topics that affect operators, such as the latest update on the operator license computer-based testing and where the Florida Department of Environ-

mental Protection (FDEP) is with it right now. I will be asking everyone to go to our website later in this column to assist us with collecting information on costs, so please do this. The showcase was right next door to the FWEA Student Design Competition, and the idea that popped into Tom’s head as we were waiting to get started and watching the college students sneak in to grab a beer was to have them present their projects to us. It really was a great idea and I believe they got a lot out of it too, because we’re the people who operate and make the systems work, so who better to “beat them up” on a bad design! Next year, the conference will be held in Daytona Beach and, hopefully, we can keep the momentum going and have another great and successful conference.

Storm Season We have made it through both the license renewal cycle and the conference, so what’s the next big item coming our way? Yep, it’s time to get ready for storm season. This year has already started with such dry weather and fires throughout the state, which doesn’t help as we move into June and the start of the season. Florida has been lucky over the decade when it comes to the severity of storms that we have faced. Last year’s storm, Hurricane Matthew, which scraped northeast Florida, was not what you would have called a major storm, but it showed that many utilities weren’t as prepared as they thought they were. One problem management makes when reviewing what went right and wrong after a

storm response is not involving the field employees who are the ones trying to move pumps and generators to the right locations to provide service. Many times, utilities end up wasting money on creating contracts and emergency plans for staged equipment, when it’s so much more effective to sit down with the operations folks to work out standard operating procedures that will work ten times better and save the utility money and embarrassment when the vendors cannot react as they promised. Now is the time to look at contingency plans, dust off old contact information, and ensure that the same people still work at the utility that are the contacts for FlaWarn, Florida's Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network, which is the formalized system of "utilities helping utilities" to address mutual aid during emergency situations. Operators also need to update their contact information and look at their family action plans so they’re ready, because many times we don’t get a ton of lead time before responding. There is not a perfect answer or plan that can be used to prepare for a storm, especially when it can crisscross the state and equipment and manpower can become limited. The best option is to work with each other to address the needs, and when equipment or manpower can be spared, to relinquish it so another community can get service restored to their customers and avoid environmental impacts as much as possible. Take advantage of any hurricane exercises in your area and send a representative, because they can come back with a wealth of knowledge that could be very useful for future storm responses.

License Exam Costs Survey As I stated earlier, FWPCOA needs your help in collecting information on costs associated with the FDEP operator license exams. Please go to our website ( and complete the survey, and the information will be used to assist us with getting our computer-based testing back on track. S


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! June 5-9 ..........Wastewater Collection C ................Osteen ....................$225/255 12-26 ..........Stormwater C, B** ..........................Pembroke Pines ........$260/290 12-26 ..........Stormwater A* ................................Pembroke Pines ........$225/255 12-26 ..........Wastewater Collection C, B, A** ....Pembroke Pines ........$225/255 12-26 ..........Water Distribution 3, 2, 1** ..........Pembroke Pines ........$225/255 19-21 ..........Backflow Repair* ............................St. Petersburg ..........$275/305 19-22 ..........Backflow Tester ..............................Osteen ....................$375/405 30 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115

July 10-13 ..........Backflow Tester*..............................St. Petersburg ..........$375/405 10-14 ..........Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ....................$350/380 17-21 ..........Water Level 1 ..................................Osteen ....................$225/255 17-21 ..........Wastewater Collection A ..............Osteen ....................$225/255 17-21 ..........Stormwater A ..................................Osteen ....................$275/305 28 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115

August 28-30 ..........Backflow Repair* ............................St. Petersburg ..........$275/305

September 11-14 ..........Backflow Tester ..............................St. Petersburg ..........$375/405 11-15 ..........Wastewater Collection B................Osteen ....................$225/255 18-20 ..........Backflow Repair ..............................Osteen ....................$275/305 29 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115 Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal â&#x20AC;¢ June 2017


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Historical Committee Affiliation: FWPCOA Current chair: Al Monteleone, retired Year group was formed: Early 1950s Scope of work: The purpose of the Historical Committee is to keep us in touch with the past. Too often we forget the hard work and long hours spent by our predecessors in FWPCOA. Recent accomplishments: S Preserve the History of the Association The Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association is an organization made up of members who are actively engaged in or deal with the production, treatment, or distribution of water and/or the collection, treatment, or disposal of wastewater, be it industrial or domestic. The association was created to advance the professional status of water and wastewater operators, provide a system for licensing operators, and arrange educational and training programs.

The organization works closely with the Florida Section American Water Works Association, Florida Water Environment Association, Florida State Department of Health, Florida State Department of Environmental Protection, and the state education system—in particular, the University of Florida—to accomplish these goals. A history of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association begins in 1929, when the organization first came into being as the Water and Sewage Plant Operators Association. It was during this time that a group of individuals from the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association approached the University of Florida to put on a short course for water works operators. This resulted in the first short course, which was organized by Dr. A.P. Black in April 1930. Dr. Black’s advice contributed much to the planning and recruitment of instructors, and he was responsible for the schools for the next ten years.

With the growth of Florida and the demand for more and better water supplies, the value of the operator training provided by the short schools was recognized and encouraged by the Florida Board of Health. S Our Most Famous Collection Systems Worker In 1954 it was unanimously passed by the board of directors that Art Carney, of the Jackie Gleason TV show “The Honeymooners,” be granted an honorary life membership in the association in recognition for his constant humorous reminders to the American public that sewage systems do exist. Mr. Carney gratefully accepted this honorarium, as reflected in his letter to the association that November where he stated: "Honestly, it pleases me so much to receive this award and I get a real kick out of it. It has a place of honor on the wall right next to my desk here at home. I accept with great pleasure and pride the honorary life membership in your wonderful organization and will try to live up to the rules and regulations!" He has had many noteworthy achievements as an actor, but he will always be dear to our hearts in the role he made famous in the classic series as Ed Norton. Ed may have been Ralph Kramden's second banana, but his performance never was. Carney passed away on Sunday, Nov. 9, 2003, at 85 years of age. We would like to take this chance to recognize him once again as a proud contributor to the history of both our industry and FWPCOA. He is still missed. Current and future projects: S Maintain the Historical Documents and History of the Association In 2008, the association opened its first headquarters office in Port Saint Lucie. The organization started electronic filing and archiving of its numerous paper records. It developed a master guidance manual for its certification programs.

Dr. A.P. Black


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Art Carney as Ed Norton.

S Committee History The committee wrote a history of the association that was published in the August 2014 issue of the Florida Water Resources Journal to celebrate the magazine’s 65th year of publication. S

FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at

Student Design Competition Held at Conference Tyler Smith

he Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA) Student and Young Professional Committee (SYPC) hosted the 21st Annual Student Design Competition (SDC) on April 23 at the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) in West Palm Beach. The competition is intended to promote real-world design experience for students interested in pursuing a career in water/wastewater engineering and sciences. This year, nine teams from five different universities and colleges across Florida participated and competed in one of two categories: wastewater or environmental. The two winning teams received a $4,250 travel allowance to go on to represent Florida at the national Water Environment Federation Technical and Exhibition Conference (WEFTEC) SDC competition to be held on October 1 in Chicago. Additionally, each first-place team received a $1000 Norm Casey Scholarship. All other teams received a $500 participation bonus. We're proud to announce this year's winner for the each category: S First Place, Wastewater Competition: University of South Florida team, for its design, "Snead Island Septic Alternatives," working with the City of Palmetto and with team members Peter Zydek, Tyler Brenfleck, Manual Delgado, Michael Tavlin, and Stephen Rosseau. S First Place, Environmental Competition: Florida A&M University and Florida State University teams, for their design, "Designing a Facility to Treat Industrial Wastewater Containing Phenol," with team members Simeng Li, Cale Madden, Jacob Prout, Ryan Hill, Emma Rivers, and Kadeem Rowe.


In addition to the SDC, a poster competition was held in which 11 participants competed for first- and second-place prizes of $300

University of South Florida wins first place in the wastewater category.

Florida A&M University and Florida State University takes first place in the environmental category.

and $200, respectively. Congratulations to firstplace winner Charlotte Haberstroh, from the University of South Florida for her poster on "Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for Water Quality Analysis and Impact Assessment in Placencia, Belize," and second-place winner Yue He, from the University of Florida for her poster on "Combined Ion Exchange

Process for Simultaneous Multiple Contaminants Removal for Small Water Systems.” This year the SYPC, in conjunction with FWRC and FWEA, hosted a 'Show Your Colors Social' on Sunday evening at the conference, which included tailgate-style lawn games, hors d’oeuvres, drinks, and lots of school spirit! We Continued on page 46

Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Continued from page 45 had over 50 people attend, from students to YPs to seasoned professionals, and we hope you join us at next year's social. This year's conference included its firstever Social Media Contest using Twitter and Instagram with the hashtag #FWRC17. A live feed was set up at the FWEA booth to showcase all posts and we're proud to announce that Tim Ware from Arcadis swept the competition with a whopping 289 points and received a $250 Visa giftcard! Thank you to all who participated and made it a huge success. The SYPC would like to recognize the students, faculty advisors, professional mentors, and the SDC planning committee and volunteers (George Dick, Samantha Hanzel, Kristen Waksman, Mike Semago, Lindsey Short, Fernando Pleitez, Nandita Ahuja, Maria Reed, Kristiana Dragash, and Holly Hansen), for all of their hard work and dedication. And a special thank you goes out to all of the judges who read and reviewed the design reports and judged the presentations. We would also like to thank our 2017 sponsors: S TOHO


Stantec Arcadis CES Consultants Calvin, Giordano and Associates Hazen and Sawyer Moss Kelly Flygt TSC Jacobs Tom Evans Environmental Barney's Pumps Carollo Engineers Advanced Drainage Systems Wade Trim CDM Smith Florida Water Resources Conference

The SYPC is a great way to get involved and get connected with others in your field. For more information or to become a sponsor for next year, please reach out to me at: Tyler Smith, SYPC chair or to: David Hernandez, SYPC vice chair Samantha Hanzel, Poster Competition chair

Collection Systems Committee Holds Seminar

Attendees enjoying the presentations.


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Live Twitter and Instagram feed at FWEA booth at the conference.

Tyler Smith, EI, is a water/wastewater engineer with Carollo Engineers in Tampa.

Walt Schwarz he FWEA Collection Systems Committee (CSC) held its annual seminar at the Second Harvest Food Bank in Orlando on February 9. The program, entitled “Extreme Makeover: Optimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation of Lift Stations and Force Mains,” provided the 101 attendees with current and focused presentations on such topics as: S Pump station rehabilitation programs S Force main condition assessment and rehabilitation S Pump vibration problems S Arc flash considerations S Trenchless pressure pipe rehabilitation


The seminar provided valuable professional development hour/continuing education unit (PDH/CEU) credits for engineers and system operators and is one of the ongoing series of programs promoted by CSC. The committee also hosts National Association of Sewer Service Companies (NASSCO) training workshops for certification on pipeline, manhole, and lateral inspection and assessment at locations throughout the state. Last year’s session was held on November 8, 9, and 10, in St. Petersburg, with the next session planned for midsummer in the south Continued on page 47

Editorial Calendar

Exhibitor Larry Ruffin (L J Ruffin and Associates) describing his product to the attendees.

Speaker Juan Bedoya (Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Dept.) educating the attendees on MiamiDade’s pressurized system.

Continued from page 46 Florida area. Classes are limited to 15 participants and are offered at a discounted rate. Other activities of CSC include: S Hosting an annual Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) collection systems-oriented workshop. This year’s workshop was entitled “Clogs and Frogs in the Collection System” and focused on the problems caused by nondispersables and roots. S Career development for future collection systems employees. S Annual Collection System of the Year, Golden Manhole, and Pretreatment awards. S Public outreach on collections-related issues. If you are interested in participating and helping to grow the CSC, please join us. We meet once a month by phone and annually at FWRC. For additional information, please visit our website at, or contact the committee chair, Joan Fernandez, at Walt Schwarz is a senior program manager at CH2M in Key West. S

January ........Wastewater Treatment February ......Water Supply; Alternative Sources March............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..............Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May................Operations and Utilities Management June..............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..........Disinfection; Water Quality September ....Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ....Water Treatment December ....Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index Blue Planet ................................................................................................55 CEU Challenge............................................................................................25 CROM..........................................................................................................41 Data Flow ..................................................................................................29 FSAWWA ACE ............................................................................................24 FSAWWA Call for Papers............................................................................23 FSAWWA Conference ..................................................................................9 FSAWWA Exhibits ......................................................................................30 FWPCOA State Short School ......................................................................15 FWPCOA Training ......................................................................................43 Hazen and Sawyer ....................................................................................38 Hudson Pump ..............................................................................................5 Lakeside ....................................................................................................33 Penn Valley Pump ......................................................................................27 Stacon ..........................................................................................................2 Treeo ..........................................................................................................39 Xylem ........................................................................................................56 Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017



Tank Engineering And Management

Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983





Showcase Your Company in the Engineering or Equipment & Services Directory Contact Mike Delaney at


Motor & Utility Services, LLC CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

Reiss Engineering, Inc. Looking for an opportunity to make a difference? Looking for a dynamic team environment where you can manage and lead projects to success? Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to contribute and make a difference for our people, our clients, and our community! Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. To see open positions and submit a resume to join our team, visit

Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Make Orange County Your Home for Life. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to over 500,000 citizens and 66 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions:

Industrial Electrician I $36,733 – $43,035/ year Apply online at: Positions are open until filled.


Water Plant Operator – Class A, B, & C Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee Solid Waste Worker II & III Public Service Worker I - Streets Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III Public Service Worker II - Stormwater

Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary Range: $39,893.88 - $67,004.60/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP. Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Electronic Technician

Utilities CIP SCADA Manager Position Available

The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $40,890.98 - $68,680.30/yr, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Accepting applications for a Utilities CIP SCADA Manager in Polk County,FL.Background check and drug screen required. -Apply directly @ or to obtain further information call Sherry @ 863877-5143.

Electrician The City of Tampa is seeking a full-time Electrician. Responsible for performing routine and highly technical skilled electrical maintenance and repair work of more than average difficulty on specialized industrial water treatment equipment, control systems and instrumentation. Must be qualified and capable of working with voltages up to 13,800 volts. Minimum Qualifications: Graduation from an accredited high school supplemented by courses in basic electricity and three (3) years of working experience in industrial electrical maintenance and repair;valid Florida Driver's license. To apply, please visit: R2=332300&R3=001

Wastewater Operator Needed CH2M the leader in Operations and Maintenance of Wastewater facilities is seeking FL “C” or higher licensed wastewater operator for its Crestview, FL Project. CH2M has operated the City of Crestview WWTP for 22 Years. Operators must have a valid Florida “C” or higher Wastewater License, and a valid driver’s license, and pass a background check as well as a drug screen. Salary based off of experience and skillset. Send resumes to

Environmental Services Director – City of Clermont The City of Clermont has a population of 32,000 and is the largest city in Lake County. This picturesque city, which sits among rolling hills and 14 lakes, is known as the "Choice of Champions" due to its international reputation as a training ground for Olympic medalists and other elite athletes. Clermont is seeking a highly motivated progressive leader for its Environmental Services Department. The Environmental Services Department provides sanitation, water service, wastewater collection and treatment services in addition to reclaimed water production and distribution services to our utility customers. Salary: Dependent upon qualifications and experience. Closing date: Open till filled.


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Join Our Team! Water Wastewater Engineer III Wanted! Mathews Consulting, a Baxter & Woodman company, has a rewarding opportunity for a full-time Water/Wastewater Engineer III in our West Palm Beach, FL office. We are looking for a Water/Wastewater Engineer III with 5+ years experience in managing projects, developing business, serving clients and designing pump stations, water and wastewater projects. The successful applicant will be provided with a rewarding combination of design and fieldwork assignments and excellent career development opportunities. To apply visit

City of Fort Myers Water Plant Maintenance Supervisor The City of Fort Myers, located in beautiful Southwest Florida, is seeking a Maintenance Supervisor for our 6.5 MGD Reverse Osmosis Water Plant. Extensive experience working with pumps, motors, instrumentation, and electrical equipment is required. Prefer experience in HMI/SCADA. Excellent benefits package. Please see additional requirements and apply at

City of Groveland Class C Wastewater Operator The City of Groveland is hiring a Class "C" Wastewater Operator. Salary Range $30,400-$46,717 DOQ. Please visit for application and job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP

CITY OF HOLLYWOOD, FL SCADA OPERATIONS SPECIALIST Performs responsible technical work and directs work in maintaining a computer-based process control system (Supervisor Control and Data Acquisition – SCADA) for the Department of Public Utilities. Employee reports to the Instrumentation, Controls & Electrical Manager. Salary range starts at $52,900.80 to a maximum of $84,641.28. Starting salary depends on qualifications and includes an excellent benefit package. Must have a Bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university with a major in Computer Science and six (6) years of progressively responsible experience in network and/or programming, electrical power systems, RTUs, PLCs, and real time control systems; or an equivalent combination of training and experience. EOE M/F/D/V Apply ASAP to:

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $45,379. - $85,932. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority’s WASTEWATER DIVISION IS GROWING, and we need a WWTP Operator with a Florida “C” license or higher. You will perform skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant (the majority of our plants are new, state of the art plants). Must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at: &ccId=19000101_000001&type=MP&lang=en_US EEO, VPE, ADA

City of Wildwood Wastewater Class C Plant Operator One of the fastest growing cities in Fl. Valid Driver's license a must. Pay Range: DOE. Full Ad and Apply EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

SCADA Specialist Polk County BoCC - Utilities SCADA Specialist For more information and to apply online visit: or call Sherry @ 863-877-5143 for more information

Water Treatment Plant Operator The City of Edgewater is accepting applications for a Water Treatment Plant Operator, minimum Class C license required. Valid FL driver license required. Annual Salary Range is $33,280 - $49,920. Applicants will be required to pass a physical. Applications and information may be obtained from the Human Resources Dept or, and submitted to City Hall, 104 N Riverside Dr, Edgewater, FL 32l32 or Faxed to 386-424-2474. EOE/DFWP

Pinellas County Utilities Utilities Maintenance Specialist 3 $33,342.40 - $51,688.00 This is skilled technical work involving specialized testing, maintenance, and repair of utilities systems equipment, lines, or devices. Employees in this class perform routine and preventive maintenance on a variety of utilities systems and devices. Duties may include supervising skilled and semiskilled employees, and work is performed in accordance with established procedures, but requires initiative and independent judgment. The position reports to a division supervisor, unit supervisor or designee. Minimum Qualification Requirements: High school graduate and 4 years of skilled utilities field experience; or an equivalent combination of education, training, and/or experience. Florida Commercial Driver's License "B". Possession and maintenance of a valid Level 3 Water Distribution System Operator License obtained in accordance with Florida Administrative Code, Chapter 62-602, Drinking Water and Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Candidate may be required to perform manual labor for extended periods occasionally in adverse weather conditions. Apply by: June 18, 2017 To apply visit: EOE/AA/ADA/DFW/VP Certain service members and veterans, and the spouses and family members of the service members and veterans, receive preference and priority in employment by the state and are encouraged to apply for the positions being filled.

City of Boynton Beach Water Treatment Plant Operator City of Boynton Beach is seeking a Florida WTPO with a valid C Drinking Water Licensed or higher for our Water Treatment Plant(s). Starting salary is based on level of license: Class A License - $21.29; Class B License - $19.08; Class C License - $17.60. To review the job posting and to apply for the position, please visit our website at:

P o s itio ns Wanted JEFF MARTINEZ – Holds a Florida double C Water/Wastewater licenses with three years experience. Prefers Osceola or Orange counties. Contact at 2925 Michigan Ave., Kissimmee, FL 34744 321–750–6631 BRIAN WEIGHTMAN – Holds a Florida C Wastewater license with 1.5 years experience. Has passed the Florida B Water test with a high score. Needs additional hours to upgrade to level B license. Has experience in conventional activated sludge treatment, running contact stabilization and oxidation ditches. Contact at 1363 Wayne Ave. New Smyrna Beach, FL 32168, 386–847–7138

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • June 2017


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 28 1. B) One part of ammonia to three parts of chlorine A ratio of three parts of chlorine and one part of ammonia will produce monochloramine, the most common chloramine used in water treatment. Monochloramine produces the least amount of chlorine-like taste and odor complaints, but may not be as powerful as dichloramine to kill pathogens. Nitrogen trichloride, or trichloramine, is produced at a higher chlorine-toammonia ratio at lower pH values.

6. A) The anaerobic (fermentation) basin The PAOs found in the RAS are able to take in and store food in the form of volatile fatty acids produced in the anaerobic basin during fermentation of the influent waste stream. The PAOs produce energy to do this by breaking apart an internal molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP), where the phosphate is released from the cell, along with potassium and magnesium. The amount of measurable phosphate can be quite high in the anaerobic basin due to this release, sometimes two to four times higher than the influent phosphorus.

7. D) Noncarbonate hardness 2. D) The anoxic basin is situated ahead of the aeration basin and an internal recycle pump system sends nitrate-rich MLSS back to the anoxic basin for denitrification. The MLE process flow scheme is a popular treatment method for nitrogen removal and can be found as separate unit processes or as a part of the Carrousel/oxidation ditch process with predenitrification. Nitrification takes place in the aeration basins that follow the anoxic tanks and nitrate-rich MLSS is pumped or otherwise diverted to the preceding anoxic basin. Denitrification of the nitrate takes place with the addition of influent wastewater containing carbon, the nitrate recycle stream, and the return sludge from the clarifiers. The MLE process takes advantage of the carbon found in the influent waste stream to avoid the use of other carbon sources, like methanol or acetate, that must be purchased.

3. C) Calcium and magnesium will remain on the media, sodium will enter the product water. Inside the ion exchange softener during a service cycle, specialized media called resin can be used to allow the hard raw water containing calcium and magnesium to cling to the media along with chloride, while sodium will leave the media and join the product water. Once the media’s ability to retain calcium and magnesium is consumed, the media is backwashed and then regenerated with a salty brine solution that forces accumulated calcium and magnesium chloride to leave the media and wash from the unit with the excess brine flow. The unit is rinsed with clean product water, leaving fresh sodium chloride (salt) ions on the media, ready for another service cycle.

4. B) Contact-stabilization activated sludge While not commonly used in today’s activated sludge treatment facilities, the contact-stabilization process is known for its ability to withstand short-term toxic influent loadings, or hydraulic overloads, due to rain events. Since the majority of the treatment bacteria are contained in the stabilization or reaeration tanks and separate from the influent waste stream, short-term toxic loads will affect only a small portion of the total biomass used for biological secondary treatment. The flow rate through the stabilization part of the process is dictated by the RAS flow, and can be shut off to retain all the active biomass in the tanks, away from toxic waste or for prevention of excessive secondary solids loading during rain events that cause inflow and infiltration (I&I). The contact stabilization process is limited in its ability to promote nitrification and provide biological nutrient removal. Due to the short retention time in the contact portion of the plant, overall effluent quality may be poorer than other processes with longer aeration retention times.

5. D) An overdose of potassium permanganate is the cause and powdered activated carbon can be used to remove the color. Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent used to convert soluble iron and manganese to insoluble particulate form that can be caught on a filter media and removed from the water. When overdosed, potassium permanganate can turn the water a slight pink color, and if dosed too high, can turn the water purple or brown-purple. The powdered activated carbon (PAC) can be used to remove the pink color, but could turn the water a dark color itself. Dark-colored water containing PAC must be returned to the plant for retreatment and filtration. Some operators may believe that the problem is due to chlorine overdose since the reagent used for chlorine residual (DPD) also creates a pink color, but this is a false answer.


June 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Sodium carbonate (soda ash) is commonly used to remove noncarbonate hardness, also known as permanent hardness. Permanent hardness can be in the form of calcium sulfate, magnesium chloride, or sulfate, which are noncarbonate forms of hardness. The amount of noncarbonate hardness can be calculated by subtracting the total hardness from the total alkalinity of a raw water sample. Any hardness in excess of the total alkalinity is considered permanent, or noncarbonate hardness. The addition of soda ash converts calcium sulfate to insoluble calcium carbonate, which can be settled out.

8. B) Solids retention time (SRT) The SRT is calculated using the total pounds of solids inventory of the unit processes and effluent and waste sludge flow streams. Total pounds of solids inventory are calculated using the MLSS mg/L and volume of all unit processes in operation in mil-gal (MG) units. Clarifier solids inventory can be included in the total solids inventory if the sludge blankets are continually high (>5’). The total suspended solids (TSS) values in mg/L are used to calculate the effluent solids per day and waste activated sludge pounds per day can use the waste activated sludge (WAS) or RAS suspended solids values as mg/L. Solids retention time (SRT), days = Total solids inventory, lb (Effluent solids, lb/day) + (WAS solids, lb/day) Similar to SRT, mean cell residence time (MCRT) is also used as a process control tool and the formula looks very similar to the SRT equation shown. Research done by this author has found that the MCRT calculation historically used the volatile portion of the solids mentioned as mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), effluent volatile suspended solids (VSS), and WAS VSS mg/L.

9. C) flocculation. Flocculation typically follows the addition of the coagulant chemical in the flash mixing/coagulation step of the conventional filtration surface water treatment plant. Flocculation tanks provide gentle mixing of the water column that allows the small, discrete particles formed upstream in the coagulation process to bump into each other, forming a larger, denser floc particle that will readily settle in the sedimentation tank. Flocculation tanks use paddle-type or propeller-type mixers that rotate slowly, but thoroughly mix the tank contents, allowing the coagulated colloidal particles to grow in size and density.

10. A) Nitrosomonas convert ammonium to nitrite, then Nitrobacter convert nitrite to nitrate in the aeration tanks. Aerobic organisms known as nitrifiers are responsible for the conversion of influent ammonium and ammonia to nitrite, then nitrate, as a final form of oxidized nitrogen in the process called nitrification. These bacteria can be found in soil and water, and are considered strict aerobes. Nitrifiers perform the conversion of ammonia to nitrate in aerated portions of the activated sludge process, trickling filters, and rotating biological contactors (RBCs). Classic training and operation manuals state the need for elevated levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) to effectively nitrify with DO levels between 1 to 3 mg/L. Interestingly, in today’s nutrient removal facilities, operators have shown the ability to simultaneously nitrify and denitrify if DO levels are kept below 1 mg/L, and in some cases, below 0.5 mg/L.

Florida Water Resources Journal - June 2017  

Biosolids and Bioenergy Management

Florida Water Resources Journal - June 2017  

Biosolids and Bioenergy Management