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Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 8 22 26 29 56 58

Engaging Your Customers in Your Conservation Plan—Morrice Blackwell Spotlight on Safety: Keeping Workers Safe During Night-Time Repairs WEF HQ Newsletter—Corey Williams and Lisa McFadden In Memoriam Bonita Springs Utilities Receives Water Distribution Excellence Award News Beat Water Environment Federation Article Explores Benefits of Metagenomic Analysis

Technical Articles 12 Tampa Augmentation Project—Brad Baird, Chuck Weber, Seung Park, David Ammerman, and Sarah Burns 38 Can Reclaimed Water to Wetlands Serve as Alternative Wet Weather Discharge?—Brendan Brown, Lee Wiseman, Danielle Honour, and Benjamin M. Hayner

Education and Training 17 27 41 45 50 51 51 52 53

FWPCOA Online Training CEU Challenge TREEO Center Training FWPCOA Training Calendar FSAWWA Fall Conference FSAWWA ACE18 Luncheon FSAWWA Roy W. Likins Scholarship FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers FWPCOA Spring Short School

Columns Contractors Roundup—Jonathan Fernald C Factor—Mike Darrow FWEA Focus—Tim Harley FWRJ Reader Profile—James (Jamey) J. Wallace FSAWWA Speaking Out—Bill Young FWEA Chapter Corner—Jennifer Roque FWRJ Committee Profile: FSAWWA Utility Council— Lisa Wilson-Davis 36 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 47 FWEA Committee Corner—Timothy Ware 54 Let’s Talk Safety: Biohazards and Worker Safety 10 20 24 28 30 32 34

Departments 58 Display Advertiser Index 59 Service Directories 62 Classifieds

Volume 69

ON THE COVER: Emerald Coast Utilities Authority Bayou Marcus Wetlands Application System. Wetland application systems can receive and treat reclaimed water under wet weather conditions when other reuse alternatives have lower demand. For more information, see page 38. (photo: Larry Schwartz)

April 2018

Number 4

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

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Engaging Your Customers in Your Conservation Plan Morrice Blackwell According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the average household in the United States uses 300 gallons of water per day. With more than 126 million households in the U.S. alone, that represents close to 37.8 billion gallons of water flowing through the faucets, sinks, toilets, showers, dishwashers, and washing machines of American homes. That figure, however, is small compared to the volume of water consumed by the nation’s commercial properties, ranging from manufacturing and industrial processes, to food and beverage and pharmaceutical production, to name just a few. Life and business in this country require enormous quantities of water. For the water utility, whose job it is to measure and bill for the water consumed, wasted water is one of the most critical components of the business. Leaks account for an average of 10,000 gallons of water lost each year in homes, resulting in lost time and money—two resources utilities hold dear. The utility’s commercial customers are also concerned about how they manage their water use because water is often a significant cost in the production process. So, when water utilities look to successfully implement a water conservation program to ad-

dress leaks, inefficiencies, and water loss, the whole system needs to be addressed and engaged. Utilities need accurate water use measurements, obtained both through meters and reliable and fast meter reading solutions. Most significantly, utilities need to engage their customers in the process.

Getting the Water Utility Customer Involved Even with accurate and reliable data analytics, the water utility can only go so far to meet conservation goals. The rest relies on the active participation of the utility customer. Research has shown that common leaks are easily correctable and can save homeowners more than 10 percent on their bills; however, if a homeowner is unaware of a leak and the water utility only shares information monthly, the customer can have leaks that go on for days and lose hundreds of gallons of water. It’s been estimated that 10 percent of homes have leaks that waste 90 gallons or more per day. If a water utility did not have access to data that highlighted these large leaks, the utility (and more importantly, the consumer) could be looking at an average of 2,790 gallons of water lost in a month, resulting in an enormous spike in the water bill. Water utilities can help their customers avoid

Hourly, weekly, monthly, and annual views on a consumer app.

Indoor household use by fixture


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

such hassles and losses by using a consumer engagement tool, in addition to a managed meter reading solution that provides timely data to the utility. As part of many advanced metering infrastructure/advanced metering analytics (AMI/AMA) solutions, water utility customers have access to this kind of platform. These applications, available on smartphones, computers, and tablets, give customers the ability to take ownership and responsibility for their overall usage. For instance, after signing up for the application, consumers can regularly review their hourly, weekly, monthly, and annual usage, and can be proactively notified of any leaks in their homes. With this level of data access, water utility customers can even monitor their consumption when away from their homes, which allows them to identify potential leaks and proactively resolve the issue without having to be notified by the utility. Consumer engagement tools also provide the user with suggested actions to conserve water. For instance, fixing a leaky toilet, which accounts for 24 percent of residential consumers’ water use, on average, can help a homeowner save both water and time.

The Future of the Water Utility Customer Relationship Water metering technologies are continually evolving thanks to the Internet of Things (IoT) and the breadth of universal standardsbased networks, such as cellular networks. Water utilities can now track larger quantities of data, receive and act on water usage information more quickly, and be smarter about their systems overall. Because of these advancements, the relationship between water utility and customer, and how that relationship can impact conservation goals, is also changing. Self-service resources, such as the web and smartphone applications, are already becoming the transaction modes of choice for the consumer. When smart homes, smart cars, and smart devices, all powered by the IoT, are in demand by consumers, it only makes sense that “smart water” would follow suit; however, these resources have the potential to become even more robust than those already in existence. Gamified apps, where users could earn “points” by, for instance, conserving more water than the previous month or for fixing a leak, could become a part of the regular water utility customer experience. The proliferation of sensors that monitor numerous aspects of life as part of a move to the Continued on page 6

Continued from page 4 “smart city” could help water utilities monitor water consumption via a homeowner’s shower, toilet, dishwasher, and washing machine, along with much broader applications in the commercial realm. Other communications platforms a water utility could roll out include voice-based communications or messenger bots directed by artificial intelligence. Because self-service channels will be able to handle simple transactions, communication via these new tools will be crucial for solving challenging issues in the water system. In addition, social media’s pervasiveness will cross over more broadly to water utilities. Water customers are already on social media, so the water utility can use these channels to directly communicate with customers.

Conservation Starts with the Water Meter While engaging the customer is critical to achieving conservation goals, reducing nonrevenue water loss starts with the water meter. A utility may have the latest cellular technology and software, but if its water meters are not measuring accurately, revenues are lost. Inaccurate measurements can hide leaks or even greater breakdowns of the system, resulting in customers not paying for all of the water they actually use. According to the World Bank in 2006, “the total cost to water utilities caused by nonrevenue water worldwide can be conservatively estimated at $141 billion per year.” By using less than optimal meters, water utilities lose water, and therefore, revenues. An effective, state-of-the-art meter can reverse those losses. The “cash register” of the water utility, water meters are the foundation for

providing accurate billing data, as well as information to better manage the water system. Within the past decade, advancements in technology have helped to improve the accuracy and reliability of the water meter. Ultrasonic meters use high-frequency sound waves to measure flows, helping improve reliability and extend low-flow accuracy. Within each meter, electronic transducers send high-frequency sound signals consecutively in forward and reverse directions. Then, an on-board processor turns the data into actionable information for the water utility. These “smarter” and more advanced meters can also result in increased accuracy within 1.5 percent over the normal operating range of the meter, and 3 percent at extended low flows. The water meter’s ability to more accurately measure a variety of flow levels is the first key component to conserving water.

A Smarter System Helps Conservation Water utilities are being asked to do more with less. They are seeking innovative ways to use technology to share the workload and provide greater efficiencies and flexibility for their water metering systems. A growing number of water utilities are building a smarter water system through cellular connectivity and the IoT. With billions of devices expected to be added to the IoT, connectivity will impact every aspect of life, from your home, to your tablet and car, to the machines that manufacture the chair you’re sitting on. As cellular connectivity continues to evolve and grow, the IoT will also play an increasingly important role and provide a wealth of opportunities for the water utility industry. Once a water utility can trust that it has accurate and reliable data, the next step is putting

that data to work. Thanks to advancements in meter reading solutions, water utilities can apply data to numerous aspects of their operations, many of which impact conservation efforts. This means that water utilities, which may have historically read meters monthly or even quarterly, can read water meters automatically with reliable cellular or traditional data collectorbased fixed network reading solutions. When both the data and the communication networks used to relay that data are reliable, accurate, and up to date, meeting and exceeding conservation goals can be more achievable. Timely and accurate data are especially valuable for commercial and industrial customers who want to better manage how they use water to reduce costs and increase efficiency. Understanding how they use water can lead to improved production processes that reduce consumption, such as installing recirculating water systems.

A Multilevel Approach All of these resources–from proper consumer engagement tools and reliable water meters to strong and fast reading solutions–should be embraced as a multilevel approach to achieving conservation goals. Not one technology alone will accomplish the necessary results, and no one utility can achieve its goals without the active participation of its consumers. When regions across the U.S. and the world are facing threats of extended droughts, conserving water lies in the hands of all users, and it’s the water utility’s opportunity and responsibility to ensure that all users have the resources they need to do it easily and effectively. Morrice Blackwell is a senior solution architect national strategic accounts for Badger Meter in Milwaukee. S

An ultrasonic meter.

Advanced metering analytics solutions.


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Meters with good low-flow sensitivity.


Keeping Workers Safe During Night-Time Repairs Doug Riseden Working at night on pipe or other repairs is always more difficult than during the day. Workers are usually tired, many having already worked a full day, and visibility is greatly reduced due to shadows, darkness, and poor lighting at the worksite. Throw in drivers who are also tired, and perhaps driving faster than usual due to reduced traffic, and you have the makings of a high-risk situation. Your employees are your most valuable asset, so every precaution should be taken to make sure they go home safely every day. Here are six things to ensure your nighttime workers are safe and get the job done effectively. 1. Move carefully and deliberately at the worksite. Many times, workers will want to get the job done quickly and skip some steps. This is understandable, but it’s important to remind them to slow down, and work more cautiously than they do during the day. Even if they are very familiar with performing certain repairs, dark areas and shadows can hinder their perception of risk. Planning and communication become crucial during nighttime operations. Before the job starts, supervisors should have a brief meeting to ensure that all team members understand what will take place at the worksite, what their roles are, and where they will be located throughout the night. Plan your work and work your plan! Make sure everything is done with a focus on safety. This includes wearing reflective clothing in accordance with the law, and using a trench box or shoring to ensure that the trench doesn’t collapse while workers are inside. There are many who never use a trench box because it gets in the way of some repairs, but at night, the use of trench boxes and shoring is even more critical. Make trench boxes a normal part of every excavation, and never put speed ahead of safety. 2. Have the right repair products on hand for every possibility. Always make sure that you have the ap-


propriate repair products on hand for every situation. There is nothing worse than not having the right parts or tools during an emergency repair. Poor planning can result in the job taking longer to complete, delays in returning water service to normal, and disgruntled customers. 3. Keep a close eye on the crew. Supervisors need to keep a close eye on workers who may be tired from working a full day and prone to making mistakes. Supervisors should patrol their work areas to see how workers are doing, and offer food and drink on a regular basis. Flaggers in particular should be checked, as they play a critical role in making sure night-time operations are safe. Crews want to make the repair, and then get some rest before having to get up and do it all over again. A lack of rest or sleep accumulates over time. It’s important that crews are not run down to the point where they become exhausted and unable to perform.

4. Keep the work area lit and clear. In the interest of saving time, sometimes workers will use the lights of the backhoe to do a job, without auxiliary lighting and a generator. These lights will not supply enough illumination for the work site and compromise safety. Use floodlights to illuminate any equipment crossings and other areas where crew members will be working. Flaggers in particular should be well lit to ensure their own safety and the safety of the work zone. If drivers can’t see the flagger, his or her ability to slow down, divert, or stop traffic is hindered. Floodlights can also blind drivers entering a work zone. Once lights are set, a worker should drive through the area to observe the

April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

lights’ positioning and make adjustments as necessary. The use of self-righting work lights are a great way to provide light without causing it to shine in motorists’ eyes. Also, keep the work area clear of obstacles, tools, and equipment. The use of rotating or flashing amber lights on service vehicles is necessary and required by law in most states; however, these lights can be their own hazard. They can be very bright and blind drivers who are traveling the roadways and prevent safe driving. Wherever possible, direct these lights so drivers can see properly as they drive through the area to ensure worker safety. 5. Manage traffic. If possible, close the roadway where the repairs are taking place and direct traffic away. If you can’t close the roadway, place warning signs or lights in a way that will give motorists more time to react and slowdown before reaching the work area. Ensure that all signs are clean and have good reflectivity. Make the work zone as large as possible to give employees more of a buffer and to keep them safe. After the repair is completed and the roadway re-opened, do several drivethroughs to make sure that the road is clear and the road repair is safe for the public’s use. 6. Notify the public. Make every effort to contact law enforcement, fire and rescue services, emergency dispatch centers, and the general public about the night-time operation. Notify these organizations, and local radio and television stations, in advance by sending a concise email or text, and follow up by phone. Include information about where the repair is taking place, why it’s happening, and any roads that will be closed off. These agencies and media outlets will appreciate the information and keep the community aware of the repair. If you follow these simple steps for night-time repairs, your workers and the public will be safer, and the project will get done in the most timely, efficient, and costeffective way possible. Doug Riseden is technical support manager for Krausz USA in Ocala. S


Risk: It's Not a Four-Letter Word Jonathan Fernald

s the water/wastewater construction market continues to be in full swing, the upcoming Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) is a great opportunity for all of us to get together to share lessons learned. The Florida Section AWWA Contractors Council is always looking for ways to contribute, and this year we will be hosting a panel discussion on risk, “What Keeps Owners, Engineers, and Contractors Up at Night.” The workshop forum will consist of a panel of industry experts, including owners, engineers, and contractors, and we will have an open discussion on the various types of project risk, how they are identified, and who is best suited to handle them. On behalf of the council, I invite all of you to attend the conference and join us on Monday, April 16, at 3:00 p.m., in room 104 A/B for this exciting and informative session. I recently heard the phrase that “risk is not a four-letter word in the water and wastewater industry” and this couldn’t be more true. With each treatment plant being different, and with its own unique processes and compliance requirements, the design, construction, and operation within this industry is dynamic, to say the least. It’s this challenge that drives most of us; however, it’s also this challenge that leads to a multitude of risks.



It’s also been said that risk should be assigned to those best suited to handle it. Owners, engineers, and contractors have been passing risks back and forth—likely, since the beginning of time. As the Florida market continues to be robust, a collaborative and transparent conversation among all stakeholders will help to best assign specific project risks. Just a few of the risks that we encounter, and to be specifically discussed at the upcoming workshop, include: 1. Contractual Risks 2. Performance Specifications and Guarantees 3. Budget Escalation 4. Schedule Risks 5. Unknown Underground Utilities

Contractual Risks There are several contractual risks to be considered and discussed. Depending on the delivery method used, project owners may have a contract with one design construction firm, or several contracts with engineers and contractors. A few of the contractual risks to consider include: 1. Is the scope adequate and does it meet the core needs of the owner? 2. What type of delivery method best suits the proposed scope? 3. How are potential unknown risks identified in the contract and is responsibility clearly identified (contingency allowances versus contractors/engineers assuming the risk)? 4. Is completion duration included, and is it accurate? Has a contingency been included for unknown risks?

April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

5. Is liability and exposure being considered during negotiations?

Performance Specifications and Guarantees Performance specifications and guarantees are a great way to ensure that the equipment supplied meets the desired intent. In theory, equipment suppliers, through their contractual ties back to the owner, are obligated to finetune equipment to meet specific performance criteria. While this seems simple, there are several risks to consider: 1. Has a sole-source equipment model been specified? 2. Has the design been coordinated to facilitate the desired performance? For example, a headworks concrete structure, including the proper channel sizing and elevation changes prior to flow entering a grit removal system. 3. If performance cannot be met, what are the desired outcomes? 4. Are certain process expectations identified for manufacturers to base performance assumptions? This includes expected sewage characteristics or other items in the owner’s control, but that may affect equipment performance.

Budget Escalation Design and construction budgeting is a hot topic and one that has seen vast changes over the past several years. During the 20082014 building cycle, it was common for engineering cost estimates to be higher than construction bids. The market has changed over the past several years and it’s very common to see construction bids coming in higher than an engineer’s estimates. Some common questions to ask when evaluating the potential risk associated with budget escalation would be: 1. How much time has passed between budget estimates and construction bids? In an escalating market, this will likely lead to budgets overruns. 2. What delivery method best suits budget needs? Bringing the right contractor on early, via alternative delivery methods, can help with the creation of a more realistic budget. 3. When is the best time to release work? If the market has several large work programs being released at the same time by different

municipalities, market pressures can cause higher pricing.

Schedule Risks A realistic schedule is the framework for project success, which includes not only the construction schedule, but also the overall project schedule, including design and permitting. If compliance deadlines are driving work, spending too much time up front can lead to shortened and unrealistic construction schedules. Adding to this the current market trends, including a skilled workforce shortage, and schedules that are created in the dark can lead to big surprises and risks. Items to consider include: 1. Are schedules being created and updated frequently to accommodate changes and market conditions? 2. Is owner input being used for shutdown durations and other items that may impact plant operations? 3. Has the schedule not only accounted for submittal durations, but also contracts and procurement? 4. To accommodate front-end work, is the owner willing to work with the contractor on a delayed notice to proceed?

Unknown Underground Utilities Within the Florida market, greenfield development of new water and wastewater facilities is becoming few and far between; today’s needs have a majority of the work occurring as upgrades to existing aging plants. Modern field surveying and 3D modeling (see rendering) are making strides in documenting work so that an accurate record of what has been installed is obtainable; however, not too far in the distant past, this was not the case.

Including emergency repairs and additions that are often undertaken by plant staff over the years and you end up with the potential to encounter several undocumented utilities when construction commences. Not only is this a risk to construction progress, scheduling, and budgeting, but more importantly, these unknown underground utilities can be a risk to plant operations. An open and transparent discussion among all stakeholders at the onset of a project, well before construction, may be the best means to develop the right plan to mitigate this risk, and in doing so, several things can be considered: 1. Who is responsible for making sure all due diligence is undertaken during design to locate all known and unknown utilities? 2. Can less expensive and less intrusive locating methods be used and trusted? Typically, groundwater levels can influence groundpenetrating radar methods.

3. Have older as-builts been evaluated for potential datum changes? These are just a few potential items to be discussed at the upcoming FWRC workshop and we hope to see you there. The Contractors Council wants to continue to be a resource to the water industry. Should you have questions regarding this article or feel you could benefit from a builder’s perspective, please feel free to engage the council for expertise and advice. The council is looking forward to a successful 2018, so stay tuned for more informative and exciting workshops and articles to help you build your success. Jonathan Fernald is a project manager for the water infrastructure group at PCL Construction Inc. in Tampa. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018



Tampa Augmentation Project Brad Baird, Chuck Weber, Seung Park, David Ammerman, and Sarah Burns he City of Tampa's (city) Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFCAWTP) has a permitted capacity of 96 mil gal per day (mgd), making it Florida's fourth largest treatment plant. Current flows are approximately 60 mgd, with approximately 10 mgd delivered to the south Tampa area reclaimed system on an annual average basis for residential and commercial irrigation, the Tampa International Airport for its cooling tower, the MacKay Bay Refuse-to-Energy Facility for various purposes, or HFCAWTP for use onsite. The remaining flow, averaging over 50 mgd, is discharged to Tampa Bay. Both the city and the Tampa Bay area are growing and in need of additional water supplies. Although dual distribution systems have reduced potable water demands, they are expensive to construct and disruptive to install in the city's built-out service area. Seasonal variations in irrigation demands also make it difficult to achieve beneficial use of all the available reclaimed water supply. In June 2016, the city initiated the Tampa Augmentation Project (TAP), a feasibility study cofunded by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD). This project ini-


tially considered two alternatives to deliver up to 20 mgd of reclaimed water for regional beneficial reuse by improving groundwater and surface water levels. In turn, this project will allow the city or Tampa Bay Water (TBW), the regional water supply authority, to make additional surface water withdrawals. With preliminary results from this two-year project, the project team has been able to redirect investigations toward a more promising strategy. This article documents the project's evolution and summarizes the current state of investigations.

Brad Baird is administrator of public works and utility services, Chuck Weber is water department director, and Seung Park is chief engineer with City of Tampa. David Ammerman is project manager with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Orlando, and Sarah Burns is a project engineer with Carollo Engineers Inc. in Tampa.

Existing Regional Water Supply System

resources. An important element of the TAP project is determining how to integrate this new water resource into the existing regional water supply.

The city is a member government of TBW; however, its primary source of potable water is the Hillsborough River Reservoir. If needed to meet potable water demands, the city can receive more raw water supplies from the Tampa Bypass Canal through the Harney Canal. The city may also purchase finished water from TBW through an interconnect between the potable water systems. If needed, both raw water and potable water can also flow from the city's reservoir and finished water distribution systems back to TBW to provide additional water

Alternative I The first TAP alternative considered constructing a 15-mi transmission pipe from HFCAWTP to the SWFWMD-owned property. Facilities on this site were to include constructed and natural wetlands, as well as engineered rapid infiltration systems. Reclaimed water delivered to the SWFWMD site would then travel both above and below the land surface to the Tampa Bypass Canal, which is part of the regional surface water supply system. Continued on page 14

Figure 1. City of Tampa Existing Public Access Reuse System Figure 2. Regional Potable Water Supply System Considered in the Tampa Augmentation Project


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Continued from page 12 Ultimately, any additional flows to the Tampa Bypass Canal would be diverted to the city's Hillsborough River Reservoir via the Harney Canal, thereby increasing raw water availability to the city. Status of Alternative 1 Investigations Evaluating this alternative involved conducting site-specific hydrogeologic investigations, followed up by groundwater modeling and an environmental assessment of SWFWMD property. These investigations confirmed initial concerns that the site might not be able to accommodate the target flows

of 20 mgd. Subsurface investigations also determined that much of the site has a thick layer of clayey soils within 20 ft of land surface. Groundwater modeling set the site's upper limit capacity for receiving reclaimed water to infiltration systems at less than 4 mgd, with expected water recovery in the Tampa Bypass Canal being less than 1 mgd. Similarly, an evaluation of the existing wetlands onsite found them in good health and not hydrologically altered, a positive finding for the overall health of the property's ecology; however, the excellent condition of the wetlands actually limits their use as compo-

Figure 3. Alternative 1: Natural Treatment Systems on Property Owned by the Southwest Florida Water Management District

Figure 4. Alternative 2: Aquifer Recharge/Recovery System


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

nents of a land treatment system. Based on the ecological assessment, applying the appropriate wetlands rules and numeric nutrient criteria, the total capacity of the property's wetlands is on the order of 3 mgd. Given these limitations, Alternative 1 is infeasible. Because this determination was made relatively early in the study, the project team was able to redirect resources toward additional evaluations to support Alternative 2. The most significant change to the Alternative 1 activities was removing a pilot-scale wetland to be constructed at HFCAWTP. Funds for the pilot were repurposed into Alternative 2, which is also discussed. Alternative 2 The goal of TAP Alternative 2 was to add to the regional water supplies while reintroducing reclaimed water into the Hillsborough River Reservoir or to the raw water intake system of the David L. Tippin Water Treatment Facility (DLTWTF) using aquifer recharge/recovery wells. In this alternative, reclaimed water would be injected into the aquifer's Avon Park formation, facilitating withdrawals from the overlying Suwanee formation. This, in turn, will increase potable water supplies for the region. A notable difference between Alternatives 1 and 2 is the shorter transmission piping, which is approximately half of what Alternative 1 requires. Of equal importance, recharging the Avon Park formation can continue independently of surface conditions. Alternative 2 can also provide a transmission pipeline from HFCAWTP to DLTWTF, setting the city up for direct potable reuse in the future. Status of Alternative 2 Investigations During the original Alternative 2 investigations, three cores were completed in the potential recharge/recovery corridor to a depth of approximately 900 ft. This included collecting continuous cores from approximately 200 ft and performing pump tests every 50 ft to evaluate aquifer characteristics. A comprehensive set of water quality samples was taken between 300 and 350 ft and 800 and 900 ft below ground surface, corresponding to the recovery and recharge zones. The project team also used a handheld probe to take continuous measurements of pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity/salinity, and temperature throughout each depth. Additional Alternative 2 investigations included the following: S Constructing a full-scale recharge/recovery test well system using potable water.

• The city operates a series of aquifer storage recovery (ASR) wells as part of its potable water system, which includes the ASR-B site on the city's Woodland Terrace Park. The existing system consists of a single ASR well that injects potable water into the Avon Park formation when excess surface water is available. This water is then recovered and conveyed to the reservoir via the stormwater system. • The TAP Alternative 2 investigations include constructing a recovery well on the Woodlands Terrace Park site. This well takes water from the Suwanee formation at an approximate depth of 350 ft below ground surface. Water recovered is returned to the reservoir through the stormwater system using the existing yard piping originally constructed for the ASR system. • The recharge/recovery system went into operation in April 2017 and remained in operation through the end of February 2018. Water samples were collected weekly to monitor water quality changes in response to pumping. The hydrogeologic information collected in the cores and recharge/recovery system was then used to develop a groundwater model to evaluate the alternative's feasibility of increasing regional water supplies. S Enhanced modeling efforts included two enhancements to the groundwater modeling effort that will also be made to the Alternative 2 analysis. • Variable density modeling will be included in the Alternative 2 analysis. This change was made in direct response to the additional information on the groundwater quality in the recharge and recovery zones made possible by the cores taken in the TAP study's recharge corridor section. • Geochemical modeling was also added to the groundwater modeling efforts. This will help determine the changes in reclaimed water quality as it moves from the injection zone to the recovery zone in response to pumping. Water Quantity Considerations As previously noted, the original TAP authorization targeted up to 20 mgd of reclaimed water. To verify the volume of water potentially available for TAP, approximately three years of hourly flow data were evaluated for the TAP feasibility analysis. A statistical evaluation of historical discharges to the bay was conducted, assuming the flows represent Continued on page 16

Figure 5. Drilling an Exploratory Core at the Woodlands Terrace Park Site

Figure 6. Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant Historical Hourly Flows to the Bay Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Continued from page 15 the water available for a future TAP project. As Figure 6 shows, the hourly flow varies significantly over the period of record, primarily in response to rainfall and the rise and fall of groundwater levels in the service area. A spreadsheet model was developed to consider flows that could be transmitted to TAP as a function of design pumping capacities, the results of which are shown in Figure 7. As the figure shows, hourly flows are consistently greater than approximately 30 mgd,

meaning a TAP pumping station with a design capacity of 30 mgd would theoretically run at its design rate 100 percent of the time; however, a 30-mgd pumping station could only use approximately 50 percent of the flow now going to the bay. As pumping capacity increases, TAP can receive more water currently being discharged to the bay, but the available water supply will sometimes be less than the pumping station's design capacity. Based on the results shown in Figure 7 and Table 1, the TAP project team selected a

Figure 7. Results of Pump Station Analysis

design capacity of 50 mgd for the TAP pumping station, more than twice the original target flow of 20 mgd. This will use nearly 80 percent of the water now going to the bay, while also reducing nutrient loadings to surface waters. Water Quality The TAP project assembled historical water quality data from HFCAWTP, selected elements of the city's ASR program, and raw water quality data from the Hillsborough River Reservoir. Additional water quality data specifically for the TAP project were also generated, including detailed analysis of groundwater quality in the recharge and recovery zones collected for the TAP cores and time series water quality data that will be generated from the full-scale recharge/recovery system under construction at the Woodlands Terrace park site. The current water quality database includes over 70,000 observations from both time series and grab samples. Table 2 summarizes water quality data collected to date. The data are currently being analyzed, focusing on primary and secondary drinking water standards, selected constituents of emerging concern (CEC), and Class I surface water standards. Transmission Piping The TAP team completed a route analysis for the Alternative 2 transmission piping, the results from which are shown in Figure 8. The recharge/recovery system will consist of the following elements: S A 48-in. transmission pipe from HFCAWTP to DLTWTP, which will use abandon transmission piping rehabilitated by slip lining or Insituform. Continued on page 18

Table 2. Summary of Water Quality Parameters Included in the Tampa Augmentation Project Analysis Table 1. Tampa Augmentation Project Pumping Capacity and Resulting Flows


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 16 S Stub-outs as required to access recharge/recovery sites located on city-owned parcels within the recharge corridor, which are primarily parks and stormwater management facilities. As Figure 8 shows, the city is considering converting the existing Rome Avenue ASR system into a future TAP recharge/recovery system. S In this phase, recovered water will be returned to the Hillsborough River Reservoir via the existing stormwater system. In some locations, this will require extending pressure mains to access stormwater systems within the reservoir drainage basin. Water recovered from the Rome Avenue system is anticipated to be delivered to DLTWTF's intake using existing transmission facilities. The proposed TAP transmission system will facilitate delivery of reclaimed water to DLTWTF for a potential direct potable reuse project in the future, if needed. Public Outreach At project start-up, public outreach for TAP was a unique concern because no project had been selected, meaning no details could be made available to the public; however, the city took a proactive approach and planned on interacting with the public and laying the groundwork for a consistent, accurate message of its efforts to meet future potable water demands. One of the most likely interactions be-

tween TAP and the public would occur when field crews worked on SWFWMD property for Alternative 1 and the cores were being completed for Alternative 2. To prepare for communication with anyone approaching the field crew and asking about these activities, the TAP team developed a notice and posted it on a billboard at the park's entrance and also developed a "quick facts" card that field crews could carry and distribute if approached. All fieldwork is complete on SWFWMD property and on the cores, and public interaction has been unexpectedly low; however, the proactive approach was the preferred strategy. The TAP team has prepared a series of outreach materials that will lay the foundation for interacting with the public while TAP is implemented. These materials are: S A stakeholder database S Project information sheets (Figure 8) S Key messages plan S TAP frequently asked questions (FAQs) S A rapid response plan

Summary and Project Look Ahead The TAP project was authorized in June 2016 and the final feasiblity report is scheduled for completion in May 2018. The project team has documented the finding that the Alternative 1 option is not feasible. The project team is completing the overall feasibility report. Evaluating the reclaimed water quality and geochemical modeling helped determine what, if any, additional

treatment will be required at HFCAWTP before recharge. Ultimately, this option's feasibility depends on the yield and the associated costs, which will combine to calculate the cost per gal of new water provided. These results will then be compared to the costs of other alternative water supplies now being considered in the Tampa Bay area. Stay tuned.

Acknowledgments The TAP project team is led by Carollo Engineers Inc. and includes the follow subconsultants: ASRus AquaSciTech Consulting DB Environmental Laboratories Ecological Consulting Solutions Electrical Design Associates Greeley and Hansen HydroGeo Consulting H.R. Gray, A Haskell Company Huss Drilling Johnson. Mirmiran & Thompson Katz & Associates Lane Engineering Mirecki Geoscience REA Remedial Solutions SDI Environmental Services Vistra Communications

Figure 8. Alternative 2 Transmission Pipeline Analysis and Tampa Augmentation Project Information Sheet


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal



Conservation and the Future of Water Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA

oday’s water demands are ever changing in Florida. By using conservation techniques and current technology, consumers are saving more water then ever, in term of usage. This is a multifront approach, using many different paths: S Flow devices in application for homes and industry S Lawn and garden best management practices S Natural plant and vegetation plantings S Rain collecting S Aquifer recovery projects S Regional planning S Industry using reclaimed water cool towers and processes S Sustainable farming operations S Tailwater ponds S Soil moisture temperature devices to control application of irrigation S Water rate structures for high demands S Minimum flow and level practices from water management districts S Alternative supplies and reclaimed water projects S Leak detection and repair S Monitoring of systems to optimize pressures and flow S Optimizing backwashing and plant usage


Using of all these means that our gallons


per capita per day (gpcd) will continue to decline. In fact, we are at our lowest gpcd in the last 30 years at a lot of utilities around the state. This measure indicates that we all are conservation-minded—and it’s working! Yet, I just read a news feed that lists 10 major global cities that will run out of drinkable water in the next 20 years. This is the future we have all been trying to avoid—a future with limited source water and options (by the way, on that list the City of Miami was number 11). Although, with all of the “fake news” out there, I’m not really sure where Miami does rank, or if this is even true, but salt water intrusion is a big problem for us all, with increased groundwater withdrawals and the proximity of many of us to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. This is one scary future for some coastal cities. Rainfall in Florida is very cyclical and will recharge the aquifers to some degree, so rain is a good thing here and I’m glad to see it. We receive approximately four times the amount of rainfall as the drought-laden state of California—what’s up with that? So, why is there a problem with future water supplies? Well (no pun intended), demand is going up! Like my old economics classes at Eastern Illinois University taught me, when the demand starts to exceed the supply it causes upward reactions in price, and then technologies develop to increase supply. Then, as demand grows and the gap widens, choices will be made to move the lines closer together. This has been happening to a limited extent for some time here in Florida, even with regional and city planning efforts. California uses 60 to 70 percent of its water in most areas for agricultural use, while in Florida we use only 30 to 40 percent. The per-

April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

centage of land use for farm production around the United States has been decreasing yearly since the 1960s, but an increase in housing and commercial development has caused public supply to be the number one reason for an increase in demand. That’s why public suppliers have to work together to plan a path in meeting and treating water for development growth. The cost and availability of source water will also drive which treatment will be used for public supply. I live by the I-4 corridor, near the wonderful City of Plant City, which is where I work. The city is home of the Strawberry Fest, which is going on as I write this, and it wouldn’t be happening without abundant water to grow the fruit! The state’s population in the next 20 to 30 years is expected to grow 40 to 50 percent here in central Florida alone. Florida’s growth is very dependent on our supply of water and our ability to treat wastewater to accommodate this growth. Florida leads the nation in reclaimed water production for rapid infiltration basins and irrigation usage, but lately, production is leveling out for purple piping projects. Investments in different areas are drawing money into aquifer recharge salt water barriers and groundwater injection projects. At some point, the gap will widen again and drive it to a more direct method of reuse or indirect reuse to recharge potable supplies. Currently, many good city and utility leaders are leading the charge for this cause for Florida’s water future. They have been working with the agencies and different associations around the state to develop rules and acceptable practices in rule making for the usage of potable reuse and other options. Another issue is going to be the future cost of water, as compared to today. As we move to more concentrated water sources, the cost of treating water will increase. Most of the time it will be when demand far exceeds supply, which is why potable and indirect potable water reuse is a good choice. In my humble opinion, this really is the only option for most interior cities and counties to sustain growth and supply in the future when the less-expensive-to-treat water is gone and other options are not there. Why not recycle water to its highest quality and reuse it for years to come? This would then lower the withdrawal amount and aquifers could actually sustain themselves. Groundwater would be left for natural and current uses. Which all leads to this question: What is our role in this growth as operators, technicians, and mechanics? My thought is that our role is to use water and technology wisely so we can

continue to service our communities now and in the future. We also need to educate our employees in advanced technologies, instrumentation, and cross training of disciplines. The future development plans for your area could be resting on our ability to supply adequate amounts of clean drinking water or treating waste streams. Using advanced technologies, we will need the treated reuse or recycled water from our wastewater plants or treat water from brackish or salt water sources. We must stay on our game of water and wastewater treatment and be equipped for the future and aware of all the options out there. This means keeping your training skills honed in advanced technologies for whatever discipline you are in. The FWPCOA will be looking at more training options for future recycled water methods and technologies. Also, a question I’ve heard is: Who should be operating these facilities? Well, I think the answer is water and wastewater operators. In the City of Plant City our staff is dual-certified, which is a rarity in our business. The role the staff members play in working with both wastewater and water, and by changing roles daily, is a future that many facilities in our state will emulate. This insight has given me the opinion that all operators will have to be dualcertified to do their functions properly and understand that source water requires advanced treatment for it to become high-purity water for direct potable reuse. Our organization will be looking to work with all aspects of future recycled water resources. As some rules and guidelines are being devolved by the state, at some point operators and technicians should get involved in this process to have some input and participate with other professions to make good decisions for the industry and our consumers. So I encourage you to get involved in your local utility or at any level in the state regulatory process and get in on the conversation. If you have any suggestions or concerns on this topic, make sure you attend the Operators Showcase at the upcoming Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC), being held on April 15-18 in Daytona Beach. We will be discussing these issues, as well as other topics relevant to our profession. The FWRC is an event where many professionals in many of the disciplines involved in our industry come together at the educational seminars, technical sessions, and exhibit hall to share ideas and learn about new technologies and equipment used for the future of our profession. It’s a place to network with folks who do the same things you do. I encourage you to attend if you can and I hope to see you there. And finally, as a big hockey fan: Go Bolts! S Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Resources Abound for Understanding Intelligent Water Systems making or performance management approach. How far each utility or facility chooses to take the IWS concept will vary, but many water sector organizations have produced resources to help guide these choices.


Key Mechanisms Corey Williams and Lisa McFadden ntelligent water systems (IWS) are built to link together sensors, control systems, information management, and communications systems. They emphasize the water sector’s opportunity to take advantage of advanced technologies and dramatically shift management decision making. While there are varying ideas of what an IWS may be, there’s not one singular definition. Some see the concept as a small piece to help analyze and process data, both historical and realtime data; others see this integration as an opportunity to overhaul their entire decision-


The Water Science & Engineering Center within the Water Environment Federation (WEF) issued a technical report that identifies the key mechanisms needed for utilities to start and run a successful intelligent water systems program. Titled, “Intelligent Water Systems: The Path to a Smart Utility,” the report explores the following 10 topics: S Data prioritization — First and foremost, utilities must decide what data are needed and how the data collected will fit into the ultimate strategy and goal of the utility. Data should not be collected for the sake of collection; collecting data takes time, staff, and money. The right data, at the right time, need to be captured. This critical data must




S Figure 1. Most desired benefits of intelligent water systems


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

be accurate, complete, and aligned with business and operational management requirements. Data governance — Prior to data capture, system managers need to formulate a data governance approach. This includes identifying data stewardship, storage and access rights, and archiving and deletion protocols. For example, by deciding these responsibilities ahead of time, data processing issues can be ironed out. Developing a data management and governance plan also can help reveal gaps in the system. Data capture — This aspect is probably the most notable component of the process. With all the new and emerging technologies, utilities have vast options for how to capture data and how much to capture. With many new technologies promoting real-time data capture, it is important to note the difference between real-time data and data frequency. While real-time data deals with how quickly the user receives measured data, data frequency refers to how often the data is gathered. Data validation — With speed and an abundance of tools choices, data validation becomes an important component. While collecting data is easy, the goal is to be confident in the data being received. Data processing, storage, and access — Organize your data! Historically, data organization is sometimes forgotten. With newer platforms and easier accessibility, the storage, query, and transfer of data is now more manageable than ever. Data organization includes the formulation and upkeep of database table structures that fit the needs for analytics (as distinct from the database table structures for transaction processing). Data integration — By prioritizing and organizing data, users can integrate this data into existing systems and processes more





easily throughout the utility and its networks. Remembering the prioritization and overall purpose of the data can help ensure that they are being applied in a useful way. Data analytics — With big data come big opportunities. By incorporating data analytics, utilities can transform what’s been collected into information. Utilities can choose many types of data analytics tools to use. The ultimate performance goal or outcome helps choose the right platform or tools to perform the analytics. Business intelligence and decision support — With the information provided, utility personnel can make operational and business decisions. By incorporating the information provided from the data analytics into modeling, optimization, and even predictive analysis tools, utilities can look at many different scenarios and find the best solution. By utilizing IWS, water sector agencies can get a big-picture view, with the goal of making an informed decision. These decision support tools are not just for big capital improvement projects (CIP), but can also be applied to real-time situations and scenarios, through dashboards and cloudbased operations. Knowledge sharing — Once useful information has been attained, it can be integrated throughout the utility’s system and utilized in cloud-based systems, allowing the information to be centralized and used across all utility functional groups. By sharing information throughout a utility, data silos fall away. This enables all stakeholders to incorporate the same information into their decision-making processes. Further, data sharing can encourage its use for beneficial purposes that might not have been intended originally. Performance reporting and visualization — The IWS is not always just for predictive and decision-making tools; it also can show how efficiently a water sector agency is operating. Coupling tools for performance data and visualization, such as interactive mapping or geographic information systems (GIS), dashboards, or chart pop-ups, can provide useful insight into areas of need and improvement. Once performance gaps are identified via these visualization methods, water sector agencies can use optimization tools to improve operations, reduce energy usage, lower costs, and develop adaptive master planning and CIP. The IWS provides the data and information that utilities need to take a step back and look at where improvements may be needed.

Figure 2. Largest resource needs for intelligent water system implementation

Intelligent Water Systems Drivers Similar to the concepts identified by WEF, the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA; Washington, D.C.) identified several IWS drivers and published these findings in its white paper, “Envisioning the Digital Utility of the Future.” The paper lists eight drivers for utilities, which include: S Reduce operational costs S Manage and mitigate risks S Enhance the customer experience S Improve financial execution S Optimize asset performance and uncover hidden value S Leverage existing communications and computing platforms S Maximize the engagement and efficiency of employees S Integrate water quality, policy, and performance

Wanted Results and Simple Framework At the 2018 AWWA/WEF Utility Management Conference (UMC), participants in the workshop, “Demystifying the SMART Utility,” shared their opinions on where IWS can help most. Fully two-thirds of the attendees believed cost reduction and asset optimization to be the most important result of IWS implementation. Figure 1 shows the full results of their voting. The Smart Water Networks Forum (SWAN) is a nonprofit organization that seeks to be the leading global hub for the smart-water sector. This group, a WEF partner, seeks to accelerate the awareness and adoption of data-driven technologies in

water and wastewater networks worldwide. To help communicate the critical components of IWS, SWAN has developed a fivelevel framework to clearly define the components: S The Physical level comes first. This includes components such as its pipes, pumps, valves, reservoirs, and tanks. As physical water infrastructure only, without data collection or analysis, this layer is often not considered “smart.” S The Sensing and Control level includes the initial components enabling IWS. These include sensors, meters, pressure-reducing valves (PRV), and automatic meter reading (AMR) and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). S The Collection and Communication level includes technologies that enable storage and transmission of data. Examples include fixed cable network, radio, cellular, and WiFi. S Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, cybersecurity, and customer information systems (CIS) and geographic information system (GIS) are prime examples of the Data Management and Display level. S Data Fusion and Analysis is the ultimate IWS level. These technologies perform data analytics and modelling to help operators by assessing effects of changes, responding to them in real time, optimizing operations, and planning for enhanced decision making. Based on these five levels, the same UMC workshop participants who identified cost savings and asset optimization as primary drivers claimed that the largest resource gap Continued on page 24

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018



Run the Race bined impact that each of you contribute on a daily basis has made—and continues Tim Harley, P.E. to make—this organization stronger. Please keep up your efforts, for our job is President, FWEA not done. Although we have started all that I have mentioned, we have only begun this relay s we began this year, your FWEA race. We are rounding the track, the timeboard had one simple overreaching clock is ticking away, and soon the baton will goal: to leave this great organiza- be passed to the next runner. Now is not the tion better off than when we started. We time to stop, but now is the time to keep bewanted to increase the strength of our as- lieving and to keep running the race, ever faster and ever quicker! Today, make a resosociation. We wanted to better reach you lution to write the ending to this year that through the various social media plat- you’d be proud of. Continue to recruit new FWEA members, forms, to increase continue to grow both our membership by personally and professharing our association with more peo- You can’t rewrite your past, sionally, and if you hold an office within ple, to expand our but you can grab a clean FWEA, then complete base by creating a Manufacturer and sheet of paper and write the goals that you set—or even go beRepresentative Comyour future. yond those goals! mittee and a ConYou get to detractors Committee, termine how this year to update our logo, and to provide our members with a net- will be remembered. As for the epitaph of working resource guide that, through ad- this year, you get to determine what people vertisements, will made FWEA’s financial say about you once you are gone; you get to decide what you want on your tombstone. future more secure. As this year passes away, it is up to you Currently, FWEA has more than 1,500 members, and each of our nine profes- as to what kind of departure you will have sional chapters, nine student chapters, and and what type of legacy you will leave. 20 committees have been busy throughout Again, I encourage each of you to keep on the past months sharing FWEA, network- believing, finish strong, and finish the race ing, providing professional development that’s before you. In the end, I hope it can be said that I for our members, educating the public, and promoting our mission of a clean and have fought the good fight, I have finished sustainable water environment. The com- the race, and that I have kept the faith. S


Continued from page 23 existed at the data fusion and analysis and collection and communications levels. The implications are that, in general, water and wastewater utilities appear to have SCADA (level 4) for data management and display, and instrumentation and sensors (level 2), in place; however, the need to communicate the data from the sensors to management platforms and the lack of ability to perform analysis for enhanced decision making are the areas of greatest needs to take full advantage of IWS. Figure 2 shows the workshops participants’ full opinions on the needs for IWS implementation.

Changing Workforce and Skills With the implementation of IWS, utilities will start to see a rise in the need for some new skill sets, including data science and data engineering. While current utility personnel may hone some of these skills, these are things that the utility engineer of the future will need to possess. It’s important to make students aware of resources that exist outside the “typical” water engineering realm, and that is evident is the large mix of water personnel being seen today. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Corey Williams is CEO of Optimatics (Overland Park, Kan.) and chair of the Interoperability Task Force for WEF’s Intelligent Water Technology Committee, and Lisa McFadden is director of integrated technical programs and associate director of the Water Science & Engineering Center at the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). S


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

In Memoriam

Richard Sheldon 1936 - 2018 Richard “Santa” Sheldon, 81, passed away on Jan. 31, 2018. He was employed by the City of Clearwater at the wastewater treatment plant that is now the Clearwater Aquarium. He then worked for the City of Largo. Sheldon was a wastewater treatment plant operator instructor at the Pinellas County Technical Education Center for more than 20 years and trained most of the treatment plant operators in Region IV of the Florida Water Pollution Control Operators Association. He was a past president of that organization. He was very active in Region IV as director, chair, and vice chair, and served as an instructor for the region’s short schools. He was an avid golfer and he and his wife, Mary, dressed as Santa Claus and Mrs. Claus at charity events in Pinellas County. Sheldon was preceded in death by his wife. He is survived by his children: Barbara, Cheri, Charles, and Judy; eight grandchildren; nine great-grandchildren; and siblings John, Ann, and Bennett. S


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may ___________________________________ earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print) published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 Article 1 _________________________________ percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded are available. This month s editorial theme Conservation is and Reuse. Look above each set of questions Article or 2 _________________________________ to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), wastewater LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental If paying by credit card, fax to Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 (561) 625-4858 foreach set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to YouFWPCOA). MUST providing the following information:

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

Can Reclaimed Water to Wetlands Serve as Alternative Wet Weather Discharge? Brendan Browne, Lee Wiseman, Danielle Honour, and Benjamin Hayner (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. The modified interconnected channel and pond routing model used the 1992–1994 period for simulation because it represents ___________ rainfall period. a. a heavy b. a light c. an average d. a completely random 2. In which of the following is the use of wetland reclaimed water application systems permitted? a. Hydrologically altered wetlands b. Class I waters c. Class II waters d. Unaltered herbaceous wetlands with less than 50 percent nuisance species 3. Often ___________ is the nutrient that requires the greatest area for treatment in wetland application systems. a. nitrate b. ammonia c. potassium d. phosphorus 4. For the City of Cocoa project, the Dynamic Model for Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas (DMSTA2) model indicated that pretreatment of total phosphorus to a maximum of ______ mg/l application of reclaimed water is feasible during the wet season. a. 0.2 b. 0.5 c. 1 d. 2 5. In 2009, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s established Indian River Lagoon total maximum daily load limits required an 86.5 percent reduction in effluent _____ concentration from the previous limit. a. dissolved oxygen b. total nitrogen c. total phosphorus d. carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5)

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Tampa Augmentation Project Brad Baird, Chuck Weber, Seung Park, David Ammerman, and Sarah Burns (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW/WW)

1. The Tampa Augmentation Project (TAP) Alternative 1 was deemed to be infeasible, in part because target wetlands were a. in good health. b. badly impaired. c. populated by species that cannot tolerate reclaimed water. d. located above a porous limestone strata 2. Reclaimed water would be injected into the _________ in TAP Alternative 2. a. Lower Floridan aquifer b. Suwanee River c. Avon Park formation d. Boulder zone 3. __________ modeling associated with Alternative 2 will help determine changes in reclaimed water quality as it moves from the injection zone to the recovery zone. a. Variable density b. Hydraulic c. Geochemical d. Particle transport 4. Which of the following is not listed among the applications of Tampa’s current 10-mil-gal-per-day reclaimed water program? a. Air conditioning cooling tower b. Onsite wastewater plant uses c. Commercial irrigation d. Wetland hydration 5. Statistical evaluation of historical discharges to Tampa Bay reveals that peak hourly flows are primarily a response to a. wastewater flow generated during sporting events. b. dry weather and elevated water use. c. the rise and fall of groundwater levels. d. seasonal population increases.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


FWRJ READER PROFILE Florida. Before Jacobs, I joined the Atlanta office of Jordan, Jones and Goulding Inc. (acquired in 2010) in 1999, followed by a return trip to Florida in 2003, where I spent four years in Palm Beach Gardens. Ultimately, my career with Jacobs moved me to Jacksonville in 2007, where I still reside today.

James (Jamey) J. Wallace, P.E.

Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., Jacksonville Work title and years of service. My current position for Jacobs as manager of the water group in north and central Florida began more than 11 years ago when I moved to Jacksonville. Overall, my career has spanned 23 years. Beginning in 1995, with a full-time project engineering role with another consulting firm in Orlando (my hometown), my career has always remained focused in the Southeast, the majority of which has been specifically in

What does your job entail? First and foremost, my job entails successfully delivering water, wastewater, and reclaimed water projects for utilities and their customers throughout north and central Florida. On any given day, this involves many different job functions. In the past year I have been the engineerof-record, project manager, lead quality assurance/quality control reviewer, manager of projects, designated project executive, operations leader, proposal manager, and/or business development leader for projects and pursuits. The diversity of roles is matched by the diversity of projects, as they include the planning, design, and/or construction management of raw and finished water, wastewater and reclaimed water pipelines, pump stations, and treatment plants. Overall, this variety of projects and roles has provided a uniquely challenging and exciting facet to the job. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of science in environmental engineering and a master’s in business administration, both from the University of Florida. I am also a professional engineer, registered in both Florida and Georgia. What do you like best about your job? There is no question that the people I have

been lucky enough to work with over the years have been a driving force behind my career fulfillment. There have been so many mentors along the way, both within my company and the clients I have served, as well as others in the industry, and also from the organizations where I have volunteered. Additionally, each day I come to work, I’m reminded of the dedication and professionalism of those who I work with most closely. Without such a great team, solving the most challenging problems would be hard to envision. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m actively involved in both the Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) and the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA). There are a number of other organizations that I have participated in over the years to great benefit, primarily the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) and the North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT); however, FSAWWA and FWEA have both been a consistent force throughout the entirety of my career. How have the organizations helped your career? The opportunity to stay current on many key aspects of our continually developing industry through the excellent training opportunities (offered through local chapters, and statewide through committees and conferences). Additionally, the ability to network and serve at the local and state levels has provided an opportunity to support our industry and also many charitable endeavors.

Celebrating New Year’s Eve in Vienna.

Jamey golfing with Julia. From left to right: Jamey, Katherine, Julia, and Erika.


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Bonita Springs Utilities Receives Water Distribution Excellence Award

Jamey and Katherine.

What do you like best about the industry? The fact that water, in its many forms, is essential for life. What we do in this industry is vitally important! What do you do when you’re not working? I enjoy spending time with my family, golfing, supporting my daughters in their many sporting events, and traveling. My daughters, Katherine (now 13) and Julia (nearly 16), are competitive in cross country, softball, lacrosse, and golf, and each has taken great pride in taking their old man down at one point or another. My younger daughter’s penchant for long-distance running proved more challenging for me at an earlier age than I was ready to accept, as I went from pacesetter to anchor quickly enough to relegate me to the sidelines. My older daughter has her sights set on consistently beating her father on the golf course (only two times thus far, but who’s counting!). Traveling is definitely a passion I share with my wife, Erika, sparked by a honeymoon trip to Europe 20 years ago. Last year we took the trip of a lifetime to experience Europe during the holidays (specifically Budapest, Vienna, and Prague). While Prague was our favorite, New Year’s Eve in Vienna is something I’ll never forget (and not to be missed!). Closer to home, we travel mostly to softball, lacrosse, and golf tournaments, but I sneak in the occasional Gator basketball game with my girls to keep them “balanced.” This is the part where I inform you that my lovely wife graduated from a school a little to the west of Gainesville. Yes, Thanksgiving is always fun in our house, and our daughters are thoroughly confused (FSU football fans/Gator basketball fans). Naturally, they’ll probably up the ante by going to Miami and Georgia, respectively, to increase our holiday fun! S

The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) named Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. (BSU) the winner of the 2017 Division 4 Outstanding Water Distribution Award for the sixth time since 2009. The award recognizes excellence in water quality, operations records, maintenance, professionalism, safety, emergency preparedness, and cross connection control programs. “The utility is recognized for the outstanding work of its hard-working water distribution system professionals,” said Mike Bailey, chair-elect of FSAWWA. “BSU has demonstrated that it provides a safe and reliable water supply to the residents and visitors of Bonita Springs and Estero in an excellent and professional manner.” With more than 2,500 members representing 175 Florida water utilities, FSAWWA began the award program in 1997. Six utilities received this award in 2017, one per designated size class. BSU also won the award in 2015, 2014, 2012, 2011, and 2009. “Every day, BSU staff strives to deliver reliable, excellent water service to our members,” said John R. Jenkins, BSU executive director. “It’s gratifying to have the hard work and dedication of our employees recognized by FSAWWA.” Drinking water production at BSU starts with raw water from two sources. The

Lower Tamiami Aquifer is a relatively shallow groundwater source that is treated through lime softening. The deeper water source is poorer quality water that is treated through the reverse osmosis process. The water from the two processes is blended for optimum taste and purity. During 2017, BSU produced 3.51 billion gallons of potable water. A not-for-profit water and wastewater utility cooperative, BSU was founded by local citizens in 1971. The member-owned utility provides service in the City of Bonita Springs, the Village of Estero, and unincorporated South Lee County. The utility is recognized as an industry leader, with additional awards from the American Water Works Association, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association. For more information, visit the BSU website at S

Front row, left to right: BSU employees Valerie Villanueva, Andy Koebel, Mike Prescott, Lance Reighter, and Adriana Ayala; and Mike Bailey, FSAWWA chair-elect. Back row, left to right: BSU directors Vincent Marchesani, Ben Nelson Jr., Brian Farrar, Bob Bachman, Jim Strecansky, Mike Malloy, Paul Attwood, Robert Sharkey, and Frank Liles Jr.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018



Our Florida Section Has a First-Rate Staff! Bill Young Chair, FSAWWA

n my first Speaking Out columns, I have attempted to highlight certain aspects of the Florida Section that make it such a tremendously successful organization. Obviously, it all starts with the dedication and sense of volunteerism that exists in every one of our 2,600 members. From an organizational perspective, we also looked at our regions, which are, in my opinion, the backbone of our success. But there is yet another important reason for the success of our section over the past few years. We are blessed with a very talented and committed staff to assist us in reaching our goals. Our staff has grown in both experience and value over the years to answer the needs of the section and I know our professional staff is the envy of many similar volunteer organizations in our area of the country.


One of the best decisions ever made by section leadership was to hire a professional executive director to help coordinate day-to-day operations of our organization. Since 2007, the section has been very well-served by our executive director, Peggy Guingona. I have known Peggy over this entire period and know her to be as effective and competent as she is positive and helpful. There is no doubt in my mind that Peggy has been a huge part of our success over the past decade and I hope that everyone in the section has an opportunity to work with her. Peggy is responsible for carrying out the policies, procedures, and goals of the section under the overall supervision of its officers. Fortunately for us, Peggy handles these everyday activities with little need for supervision. Her strength, in my opinion, is her communication with all councils, regions, and major committees, while coordinating with section leadership. Peggy attends and organizes all section board meetings and represents us at AWWA headquarters in Denver and other important meetings wherever we need her. She sees her mission as “maximizing the effectiveness of the section through communication, training, and face-toface interaction.” I can tell you that she succeeds on all fronts!

The FSAWWA staff (left to right): Donna Metherall, Casey Cumiskey, Jenny Arguello, and Peggy Guingona.


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Another strength of Peggy’s is the ability to attract and retain key staff members to assist her in meeting our goals. These other three coworkers each hold specific duties and specialties, but as we all know, when it’s time to plan, organize, and produce one of our meetings, training sessions, or semi-annual conferences, it’s always “all hands on deck.” The success of our conferences is a testament to their committed team approach! Again, Peggy, as our executive director, is responsible for assuring that the team succeeds. I would like to briefly say a little about each one of Peggy’s team: Casey Cumiskey has been our membership specialist/training coordinator, since July of 2009. Casey deserves a lot of credit for the great gains our section, under the Membership Committee, has made over the past few years, which has been recognized nationally. I also know that Casey has been very valuable in coordinating our very successful mentor program. Please feel free to contact Casey at (407) 957-8447 or Donna Metherall has been with us since 2010. She is our training coordinator and oversees our “on demand” training processes, continuing education units, and professional development hours, and works closely with the regions to assure successful networking and educational events. Donna can be reached at (407) 957-8443 or Jenny Arguello has worked with us since 2009, but was recently promoted to a full-time employee because of her proven value to the section. Jenny has shown herself to be valuable in many areas at our headquarters, but is especially visible at our conferences where she is obviously a critical member of our team. You can contact Jenny at (407) 957-8448 or As you can see, we are fortunate to have such an excellent administrative team and I believe that Peggy deserves a lot of credit for building a team that has stayed together through several of the section’s most challenging and expansive years. Please take the time to introduce yourself to one of these team members next time you see them. I have always found each one of them to be professional and helpful. We wouldn’t be the tremendous section we are without them! S

FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details to Lindsay Marten at

FWEA Central Florida Chapter Holds Luncheon, Helps Local Food Bank Jennifer Roque he FWEA Central Florida Chapter held its third quarterly technical luncheon on February 27, featuring Brian Karmasin from CDM Smith on the topic, “Doing More with Less: Emerging Wastewater Treatment Technologies.” As always, the luncheon was hosted at the Second Harvest Food Bank, a nonprofit organization that collects, stores, and distributes donated food to more than 550 feeding partners in central Florida. Last year, with the help of numerous donors, volunteers, and a caring, committed community, the food bank distributed nearly 56 million meals to partner programs, such as food pantries, soup kitchens, women’s shelters, senior centers, daycare centers, and Kids Cafes, an after-school meal service program that provides food to children in Orange, Seminole, and Osceola counties.. The chapter also volunteers once a year to help organize the donations the food bank receives. At the luncheon, the chapter offered something new to attendees: an extra raffle ticket to win the regular luncheon giveaways was given to all attendees who brought donated items to help support the bank’s mission statement. More than 80 pounds of donated items were received, including canned vegetables, soups, and other critical-need items, as well as 40 dollars in monetary donations. On behalf of the chapter and Second Harvest Food Bank, we extend a gracious thank you to all the attendees who donated.


Central Florida Chapter Officers: 2017-2018 (FY) Chair – Alyssa Filippi, Carollo Engineers Vice-chair – Tonya Kay, Carollo Engineers Treasurer – Megan Nelson, Orange County Utilities Technical coordinator – Jennifer Roque, Tetra Tech Jennifer Roque, P.E., is a project engineer with Tetra Tech in Orlando. S


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

FSAWWA Utility Council (FSAWWAUC) Amendment One and Alternative Water Supply Funding, as well as other funding mechanisms/opportunities. • Reclaimed Water – Brief history of reclaimed water in Florida, SB 536 (2014’s large water reuse bill), FDEP 2016 workshops, and utility operation. • Regulatory Framework – Water quality and water quantity regulations related to springs/Everglades, also including a brief description of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), best management action plans (BMAPs), minimum flows and levels (MFLs), recovery/prevention plans, consumptive or water use permits (CUPs or WUPs), and impacts on regulated entities as a result of these regulations. • Drinking Water Quality – Description of water quality controls at Florida utilities and discussion of the relevance of Flint, Mich. issues.

Affiliation: FSAWWA Current chair: Lisa WilsonDavis, operations and environmental compliance manager, City of Boca Raton Year group was formed: 1988 Scope of work: The Utility Council consists of utilities providing drinking water to more than 9 million residents of Florida. The council membership covers the entire state, from small water utilities serving a few hundred customers to those serving over a million customers. While membership in the council is separate from that of the Florida Section, it’s available to all utilities and associated companies with an interest in the legislative and regulatory issues facing the water industry. The council takes an active role in assisting the section to meet the challenges facing the water supply industry. A key element of the section's strategic plan is to increase its involvement, credibility, and effectiveness with legislators and regulatory agencies. To meet this objective, FSAWWAUC will continue to: S Expand its advocacy efforts at both the state and federal levels. S Develop effective alliances with other organizations. S Develop legislative and regulatory policies that clearly define positions on specific issues related to drinking water utilities. Recent accomplishments: S The 2017 Session FSAWWA Tallahassee FlyIn on Jan. 24-25, 2017. The Fly-In included a workshop, “Legislative Introduction to Water Policy,” for legislators and their staff that was extremely well-attended. • Presentations were given by FSAWWAUC members to legislators and staff; agenda topics included: • Introduction and Utility Overview – FSAWWA, water treatment, and sources. • Water Supply Planning – The water supply planning process, changes from Senate Bill (SB) 552 (2016’s large water bill), and ongoing regional water supply plan updates. • Water Project Funding and Amendment One – The process for water project funding under SB 552, language and relevance of


The workshop was followed by a social where members were able to discuss pertinent policy issues with key legislators and staffers. During the two days in Tallahassee, FSAWWAUC and section members met with more than 25 different legislators who are personally interested in or sit on committees that hear bills related to water and utility policy. Members also attended several committee meetings to hear debate on bills that impact the industry. S The 2017 AWWA National Washington D.C. Fly-In was held on March 21–23. Council member participation included Mark Lehigh, Kim Kunihiro, Jan McLean, Kevin Carter, Grace Johns, Peggy Guingona, and Lisa Wilson-Davis, where members conducted visits to 18 congressional members, including both Florida U.S. senators. Topics discussed included “Tools in the Tool Box” for water infrastructure funding: • Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Funding • State Revolving Fund (SRF) Funding • Maintaining Tax Exemption for Municipal Bonds • Expanding Private Activity Bonds to Cover Multi-Year Projects S 2017 Associated Industries of Florida (AIF) Florida Water Forum in Orlando held September 21-22. On behalf of the council, Jan McLean (Reuse Projects: Recent

April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Successes panel), and Marjorie Craig and Lisa Wilson-Davis (Reuse Policy: What’s Ahead and How Do We Get There? panel), gave presentations and participated on the two different panels as noted. S Members of FSAWWAUC participated in the AWWA outreach call to state section water utilities, where there was discussion of having a function/forum for council interaction on a national level. The group discussed possibly combining the event with the AWWA National Fly-In. S The FSAWWAUC participated in the development and presentation of the Inaugural Florida Forest and Drinking Water Forum held at beautiful Wakulla Springs. More than 40 people participated and the program included a riverboat tour of Wakulla Springs, followed by a reception social. Presentations included “The Connection Between Forests and Drinking Water: A Drinking Water Overview,” presented by FSAWWAUC member Kim Kunihiro. The program’s main topics were: Florida Forest–Water Collaboration Opportunities, Watershed Management Perspective, and Forestry Sector Overview and Perspectives. The day concluded with a brainstorming session for a path forward. S The 2018 Session FSAWWA Tallahassee Fly-In was held Nov. 14-15, 2017, and included visits with more than two dozen legislators, including Sen. President Joe Negron and House Committee Chair Rep. Matt Caldwell. Sen. Aaron Bean was the keynote speaker at the FSAWWAUC breakfast on November 15 and spoke highly of the industry and the need to continue funding vital water resource and infrastructure projects. Lisa Wilson-Davis from the City of Boca Raton, chair of FSAWWAUC, gave a well-received presentation to the House Energy and Utilities Subcommittee on challenges facing the industry. Current projects: S Working with FWEA Utility Council (FWEAUC), WateReuse, and other stakeholder groups to address direct potable reuse opportunities in Florida. S The FWEAUC, FSAWWAUC, and FWEA Water Resources, Reuse, and Resiliency (WR3) Committee are collaborating on a legislative, regulatory, and reclaimed water update for the upcoming Florida Water Resources Conference, to be presented on

Monday, April 16, from 1:30–4:30 p.m. S Support the Blue Star Utility legislation proposed by Sen. Jeff Brandes (Senate Bill [SB] 22) and Rep. Katie Edwards (House Bill [HB] 837). S Support the aquifer recharge language in the environmental regulation legislation proposed by Sen. Keith Perry (SB 1308) and Rep. Payne (HB 1149). S Monitor and provide comments on other state and federal legislation that could positively or adversely affect drinking water utilities. S Monitor and provide comments on the federal Lead and Copper rulemaking process. S Preparing for the 2018 AWWA National Washington D.C. Fly-In being held April 18-19. Future work: S Continue to work on current projects. S Continue to monitor and amend, as needed, national and statewide rulemaking and legislative efforts that impact the members, including the federal Lead and Copper rulemaking process. S Continue current workgroup collaboration efforts and utilize new workgroups as needed. New members wanted: We continue to seek new members, so

please consider joining us today! Group members: Chair: Lisa Wilson-Davis, City of Boca Raton Utility Services Vice-chair: Kevin Carter, Broward County Water and Wastewater Services Secretary-Treasurer: Monica Autrey, Destin Water Users Regulatory Policy Committee Chair: open Legislative Committee Chair: Christopher Pettit, Palm Beach County Water Utilities Legislative Policy Team: Gunster and Little John Mann & Associates S Greg Munson, Gunster S Joanna Bonfanti, Gunster S Mark Thomason, Little John Mann & Associates Current Members: The FSAWWAUC currently has more than 100 utility members that are part of the Florida Section. The 25 voting members (or members in “good standing”) and associate members include: S Hillsborough County Water Resource Services S JEA S Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Dept. S Orange County Utilities


Palm Beach County Water Utilities Dept. Pinellas County Tampa Bay Water Tampa Water Dept. Broward County Water and Wastewater Services City of Boca Raton City of Cocoa City of Lakeland Lee County Utilities Toho Water Authority City of Cooper City City of Margate City of North Miami Beach City of Palm Bay Utilities City of Sanford Destin Water Users Marion County Utilities Okaloosa County Water and Sewer Gasparilla Island Water Association Liquid Solutions Group LLC Parkland Utilities AECOM Bay Laurel Center CDD CH2M (now Jacobs Engineering) Garney Construction HDR Engineering Inc. Manson Bolves Donaldson Varn P.A. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Test Yourself What Do You Know About Reuse and Reclaimed Water? Donna Kaluzniak

4. Per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse, environmental reuse primarily includes the use of reclaimed water to a. b. c. d.

1. Reclaimed water is defined in FAC 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application, as a. water that has received at least advanced treatment and high-level disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility. b. water that has received at least secondary treatment and basic disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility. c. water that has received at least tertiary treatment and high-level disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility. d. water that has received at least tertiary treatment and basic disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility. 2. FAC 62-610 requires a document approved by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) before the reuse system begins operation. This document describes how a domestic wastewater facility is to be operated to ensure that only reclaimed water that meets applicable standards is released to a reuse system. It is a detailed set of instructions for the operators of the facilities. This document is a(n) a. b. c. d.

engineering report. maintenance schedule. operating protocol. start-up checklist.

5. Per FAC 62-610, for Part III Slow-Rate Land Application Systems, Public Access Areas, reclaimed water shall not contain more than how many milligrams per liter of suspended solids before the application of disinfectant?


b. 5 d. 20

6. The importance of public engagement when planning a reuse project is discussed in the 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse. What item is critical to develop at the earliest stage of the project for public participation? a. A final budget b. A communication plan c. Detailed design drawings specifications d. Regulatory permits


b. Lettuce d. Tobacco

9. Per FAC 62-610, what type of reuse system involves the planned use of reclaimed water to augment surface water resources that are used or will be used for public water supplies? a. b. c. d.

Augmented reuse system Direct potable reuse system Indirect potable reuse system Wetland recovery system

10. Per FAC 62-610, reclaimed water may be used to irrigate landscaped areas around the wastewater treatment plant. What is the minimum level of treatment and disinfection required for this? a. All requirements of FAC 62-610, Part III Slow-Rate Land Application, Public Access Areas b. Primary treatment and basic disinfection c. Secondary treatment and basic disinfection d. Secondary treatment and high-level disinfection Answers on page 67

7. Per FAC 62-610, for Part III Slow-Rate Land Application Systems, Public Access Areas, the public shall be notified of the use of reclaimed water using advisory signs, notes on scorecards, and other methods. Advisory signs next to reuse storage ponds or decorative water features must include what text?

3. What is the minimum size for a treatment facility to produce reclaimed water made available for reuse by slow-rate land application in public access areas, per FAC 62-610? a. b. c. d.

a. Citrus c. Potatoes

irrigate crops. make snow. provide irrigation for parks. support wetlands.

a. 3 c. 10

8. Per FAC 62-610, direct contact of reclaimed water is prohibited for which of the following edible crops?

0.1 mil gal per day (mgd) 0.5 mgd 1 mgd 5 mgd April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

a. “Do Not Drink” in English. b. “Do Not Drink” and “Do Not Swim” in English and Spanish. c. “Do Not Drink” and “Do Not Swim” in English, with international symbols. d. “Do Not Drink” and “Do Not Swim” in English and Spanish, with international symbols.

References used for this quiz: • FAC 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application • U.S. EPA 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to


Can Reclaimed Water to Wetlands Serve as Alternative Wet Weather Discharge? Brendan Brown, Lee Wiseman, Danielle Honour, and Benjamin M. Hayner Wetland Application Systems as Reuse In the state of Florida, the application of reclaimed water to wetlands qualifies as “reuse” under 62-610.810(2)g, Florida Administrative Code (FAC), when the project creates, restores, or enhances wetlands. Throughout Florida, these systems either supplement existing disposal locations or receive 100 percent of the discharge from the reclamation facilities (Figure 1). The application of reclaimed water to wetland systems is regulated pursuant to Chapter 62611, FAC, which is known as the wetland application rule. These systems can provide multiple benefits to reclamation facilities and provide an additional reuse option. Wetland Application Rule The wetland application rule defines the quality and quantity of wastewater applied to wetlands, the quality of water subsequently discharged from these wetland systems, and the monitoring required for permit compliance. Pursuant to this rule, wetlands are categorized

as natural receiving wetlands, natural treatment wetlands, hydrologically altered wetlands, or man-made treatment wetlands. The regulatory requirements of the reclaimed water quality discharged to and from the wetland, the hydraulic loading rates, and monitoring vary according to the wetland category. In general, wetland application systems constructed using man-made and hydrologically altered wetlands are allowed to receive more water with higher nutrient loads for a given area than systems using natural, unaltered wetlands. Less monitoring is also required for systems using man-made and hydrologically altered wetlands compared to natural wetlands. The use of wetland application systems is not permitted within outstanding Florida waters, Class I (potable water supplies) or Class II (shellfish propagation or harvesting) surface waters, or unaltered herbaceous wetlands unless the entire wetland has greater than 50 percent coverage of cattail (Typha spp.) or other nuisance exotic vegetation species. Also, reclaimed water to wetland systems cannot have adverse effects on endangered or threatened species.

Figure 1. Wastewater to Wetland Treatment Systems in Florida as of 2007 (FDEP, 2016)


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Brendan Brown, PWS, is an environmental scientist; Lee Wiseman, P.E., BCEE, is an associate water resource engineer; and Danielle Honour, P.E., DWRE, is principal water resource engineer with CDM Smith in Maitland. Benjamin M. Hayner, P.E., is engineering division manager with City of Cocoa.

Pursuant to the wetland application rule, annual average hydraulic loading rates cannot exceed 2 in. per week, except in hydrologically altered wetlands (where the annual average hydraulic loading rate cannot not exceed 6 in. per week). This 2-in. annual average loading rate is equivalent to the application of 1 mil gal per day (mgd) of reclaimed water to 130 acres of wetlands; however, once the system is operational, this limit can be increased based on operational performance data. Wetland Application Benefits and Challenges While wetland application systems require

Figure 2. Emerald Coast Utility Authority Bayou Marcus Wastewater to Wetland Treatment System

upfront design and capital costs, once operational, the cost–benefit ratios are favorable and decrease with time. The initial costs include feasibility studies, hydrologic and hydraulic (H/H) modeling, background wetland monitoring, permitting, preliminary and final design, operations and maintenance, property ownership/agreement(s), opinion of probable costs, funding, and construction. Wetland application systems can benefit reclamation facilities by providing alternative disposal locations, higher levels of treatment, and operational flexibility by providing an alternative disposal location from direct point discharges to rivers, bays, lakes, and lagoons. Wetland application systems can also receive and treat reclaimed water under wet weather conditions when other reuse alternatives have lower demand (Figure 2). Even in areas with a high percentage of traditional reuse, such as in central Florida, wetland application systems are a vital component of many reclamation facilities. Approximately 100 mgd are successfully treated by wetland application systems every day in central Florida, according to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP, 2017), with an average system capacity of 9 mgd. Typically, wetlands application can enhance treatment by reducing nitrogen, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5), and sometimes phosphorus, thereby helping to protect surface water resources that are part of alternative water supplies by reducing nutrient loads to these receiving surface waters. Reclaimed water to wetland projects can be eligible for grant funding and provide opportunities to partner with multiple agencies, while improving water quality. Total Maximum Daily Loads Reduction of discharges to surface waters has become a focal point to improved water quality in Florida with the establishment of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and the implementation of Florida’s numeric nutrient criteria standards. The required reductions assigned under a TMDL can result in significant reductions in wasteload allocations to point source discharges, such as municipal water reclamation facilities. This can present challenges to municipalities meeting water quality standards and limiting discharges to impaired surface waters. The application of reclaimed water to wetlands can help reclamation facilities adapt to changes in wasteload allocations (WLAs) associated with TMDLs by providing an alternative discharge location under wet and dry weather conditions, while also providing a higher level of treatment prior to discharge. These wetland

Figure 3. City of Cocoa Jerry Sellers Water Reclamation Facility Proximity to Indian River Lagoon and 166-Acre Conservation Area Property

systems can be incorporated into existing ones to provide wet weather backup and additional operational flexibility. Due diligence should be performed to identify any impaired waters downstream of a proposed wetlands application system. Antidegradation Florida’s antidegradation policies are a component of its water quality standards that function to prevent the degradation of the state’s waters (Chapters 62-302.300 and 624.242, FAC); therefore, FDEP cannot permit a project that “will reduce the quality of the receiving waters below the classification established for them.” Thus, a permit applicant must first demonstrate that the proposed project will not degrade water quality within the receiving water. While a wetland application system can meet background concentrations when sized and designed correctly, net nutrient loading can increase due to the additional hydraulic and nutrient loads added to the systems; however, there are several provisions within the water quality standards that allow for new or expanded dis-

charges when the discharge is in the public interest. Therefore, if wetland application systems cannot demonstrate no degradation of surface waters, it still may be possible to permit these types of projects when they work to reduce total nutrient loading to sensitive waterbodies and are in the public interest because they benefit the environment, wildlife, and recreational value of Florida’s waterways.

Wetland Application System Evaluation Every water reclamation facility has its own unique operational constraints, effluent treatment levels, water quality requirements, and reuse options. Wetland applications may not be able to provide the necessary level of treatment or be able to receive the necessary volume of flow that is required by a reclamation facility; therefore, feasibility studies should be used to determine if a wetland application system could meet the particular needs of a reclamation facility. Continued on page 40

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Continued from page 39 Feasibility studies can determine if a particular site is suitable or assess the best site from several possible alternatives prior to moving into the design phase. These studies are vital to identifying critical success factors and typically include evaluating the extent of the wetlands and uplands onsite, background water quality, protected species concerns, preliminary hydraulic and nutrient modeling, potential offsite impacts, and permitting feasibility. Identifying the nutrient that requires the greatest wetland area for treatment is important in a feasibility study to determine if pretreatment is necessary. Often, phosphorus is the nutrient that requires the greatest area for treatment in wetland application systems. Pretreatment to reduce the concentrations of phosphorus prior to wetland application can help the overall performance of wetlands from a water quality perspective. Information gathered in a feasibility study is then used to determine how much reclaimed water could be treated by a wetland application sys-

tem pursuant to Chapter 62-611, FAC, for a particular site. Determining if the wetland application system can meet the requirements of state and federal permitting is also a vital component of a feasibility study. Several state and federal permits are typically required to implement a wetland application system, including modification to a reclamation facility’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater discharge permit, a state Environmental Resource Permit (ERP), and a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 404 (dredge and fill) permit. The ERP program regulates any project that changes the landscape affecting surface water flows and/or wetlands and generally restricts the increase of offsite flood stages under various storm events. The components of the ERP program include stormwater and wetland impact evaluation. Wetland application projects permitted under the ERP program must meet the management requirements for surface waters regu-

lated under Florida Statutes, sections 373.403 to 313.468. City of Cocoa Objectives and Goals The City of Cocoa’s (city) Jerry Sellers Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) is currently permitted to discharge 4.5 mgd annual average daily flow using a slow-rate public access irrigation reuse system. The typical annual average daily reclaimed water flow from the WRF is approximately 2 mgd and the facility has a permitted wet weather discharge of 0.99 mgd annual average daily flow to the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). A TMDL was established for the IRL in 2009 by FDEP. The IRL’s TMDL identifies nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) as the parameters of concern that have contributed to the excessive loss of seagrasses within the IRL system. Required reductions for both point and nonpoint source loads in the IRL system are addressed by the TMDL. As part of the TMDL, existing permitted WLAs were modified by FDEP to point source discharges into the IRL. As a result, the city's WRF NPDES Permit No. FL0021521, identified as a major point source discharge, had its previous WLA adjusted by FDEP, as follows: S Permit annual load for total nitrogen (TN) – reduced from 41,007 lb/yr to 5,556 lb/yr (86.5 percent reduction) S Permit annual load for total phosphorus (TP) – reduced from 13,669 lb/yr to 1,423 lb/yr (89.6 percent reduction) Once the TMDL was adopted by FDEP, the city's wastewater facility permit was subsequently modified to reflect these more-stringent WLA limits. The city has proactively worked to eliminate some of the wet weather discharge to the IRL though alternative disposal methods (e.g., temporary storage in the Bracco Reservoir system and recovery of the reclaimed water for reuse when needed) that would help the city in meeting its reduced WLA. The city wanted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a wetland application system that could serve as an alternative wet weather discharge location to further reduce its discharge to the IRL (Figure 3). The potential system would need to be able to receive and treat approximately 0.5 to 1 mgd of advanced wastewater treatment (AWT)-quality reclaimed water (CBOD5 = 5 mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) = 5 mg/L, TN = 3 mg/L, and TP = 1 mg/L).

City of Cocoa Site Evaluation Figure 4. City of Cocoa Property Considered for a Wastewater to Wetlands Treatment System

The city identified a 166-acre parcel that it Continued on page 42


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Continued from page 40 owned (Figure 4), with natural wetlands and uplands known as the City of Cocoa Conservation Area (site), that could potentially serve as an alternative wet weather discharge location. A feasibility study was conducted by CDM Smith to determine if the site wetlands could accept reclaimed water under the wetland application rule. The feasibility study included evaluation of wetland and upland extents, wetland conditions, H/H constraints of the site and downstream receiving waters, background water quality and quantity, analysis of hydraulic and nutrient loading, regulatory permitting, and initial consultation and coordination with regulatory agencies. Site Assessment Site data were collected, including limited topographic survey data, surface water elevation data, and background water quality data, in support of H/H modeling and wetland treatment performance evaluation. A wetland assessment was conducted to determine the extents and conditions of the site wetlands, as well as to confirm tributary areas and surface water flowpaths through the site. During field visits, the natural vegetative communities were mapped and evaluated concerning the potential for protected species to occur within the parcel.

Topographic Survey Topographic survey data were collected along select transects to capture wetland and floodplain elevation information. A survey reconnaissance was also conducted to determine downstream flowpaths leaving the site. Surface flows from the site discharge to offsite wetlands, and then to ditches and canals, which eventually flow into Lake Poinsett. The topographic survey also included onsite culvert inverts and diameters, and offsite (downstream) culvert inverts and diameters, for incorporation into the H/H model. Staff gauges and water level data loggers were installed and surveyed at two locations within the site wetlands to evaluate wetland hydroperiods and provide site data for H/H model calibration. Seasonal high-surface water elevations and normal pool elevations were field-marked and surveyed in support of the wetland assessment. Water Quality Surface water quality samples were collected from a stream channel, which flows through the site wetlands, on four separate dates representing wet season and dry season conditions. Water samples were collected at the downstream discharge point from the site and near an upstream discharge point to the site wetlands. Samples were analyzed for ammonia as nitrogen, nitrate as nitrogen, nitrite as nitro-

Figure 5. 2016 Photo of the Wetlands at the Cocoa Site Showing the Dominant Canopy Species


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

gen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), TN, TP, CBOD5, TSS, and fecal coliform. These background water quality data were incorporated into the nutrient model. Wetland Types and Extents The site wetlands consist of a mix of forested and scrub shrub wetlands that would be classified as natural woody wetlands under the wetland application rule. The dominant canopy species throughout the forested wetland is red maple (Acer rubrum), shown in Figure 5. Wetland groundcover consists primarily of wetland ferns, including royal fern (Osmunda regalis) and swamp fern (Blechnum serrulatum). Normal pool elevations were generally 2 to 6 in. above ground surface, while seasonal high water levels ranged from 1 to 2 ft above land surface. While approximately 112 acres of wetlands cover the site, it was determined that the entire area of wetland acreage would not be useable for treatment due to topography and preferential flow paths towards a stream that runs through the site. Within the site, there were 91 acres of wetlands that could provide treatment as part of a wetland application system. These 91 acres were subdivided into four wetland treatment areas (WTA) for wetland treatment performance modeling (Figure 6). Subdividing the total wetlands area allowed for a more detailed evaluation of wetland treatment area performance, including a more robust evaluation of potential hydraulic impacts. In support of the evaluation, potential locations of reclaimed water application were identified. These application locations provide the longest wetland flow paths and help promote sheet flow, which increases nutrient transformation and uptake within the wetlands. Wetland application systems have points of regulatory compliance under the wetland application rule and ERP program. The likely points of compliance for a wetland application system were determined and incorporated into the model to evaluate if the wetlands were providing treatment to the applicable regulatory levels. Protected Species A desktop review of protected species was conducted in state and federal databases, followed by a field evaluation of suitable habitat at the site. Based on the field assessments and habitat present at the project site, it was determined that four protected species have a high likelihood of occurring on the site, or were observed during the field visits, including wood stork (Mycteria americana), eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon corais couperi), Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), and gopher tortoise

(Gopherus polyphemus). While protected species have the potential to inhabit the site, design alternatives and/or mitigation measures should be possible to avoid adverse effects to these species. These mitigation measures could include surveying and avoiding gopher tortoise burrows, avoiding the destruction of Florida scrub jay habitat, and following the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service standard protection measures for the eastern indigo snake. Thus, protected species concerns would not preclude the implementation of a wetland application system at the site. A wetland application at the site could benefit the federally listed wood stork by enhancing wetland habitat in some areas. Potential impacts and benefits to protected species would be further evaluated, mitigated, and permitted during the design phase. Hydrologic and Hydraulic Evaluation A comprehensive H/H evaluation of the project area and the surrounding watershed was performed to determine if a wetland application system would cause offsite flooding impacts, and to provide input data for incorporation into the wetland treatment performance model, including flows and water levels. Using an existing regional interconnected channel and pond routing (ICPR) model and available topographic, meteorological, soils, and land use data, a long-term continuous simulation of the existing conditions H/H model was developed and evaluated, the results of which were used to support the wetland treatment performance modeling and evaluate compliance with the ERP program. An ICPR model of the west Cocoa watershed, which covers the project area, was originally developed by others for Brevard County (Pegasus, 2012), which was updated and further refined to support the feasibility study. Modifications included adding detail to the hydraulic model based on the topographic survey and other existing data, converting the hydrologic portion of the model from the Technical Release 55 (NRCS, 1986), or “curve number” method, to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stormwater management model (SWMM) method (EPA, 2015), and refinement of sub-basin boundaries to provide appropriate resolution to support the modifications of the hydraulic model. These model refinements allowed the development of a long-term continuous simulation (LTCS) that demonstrates how the system responds to local runoff conditions on a seasonal basis and how sensitive the system will be to the addition of water from the city’s reclaimed system. This effort provided a more accurate evaluation of the existing and proposed

Figure 6. The Four Potential Wetland Treatment Areas Within the Potential Cocoa Site Reclaimed Water to Wetland Treatment System

condition flood stages (onsite and offsite) and provided inputs for the wetland treatment performance modeling. Three years of LTCS modeling were performed to assess the quantities (flows) and depths of flow in the project area. The three-year period (1992 through 1994) was selected as the simulation period as this represents a typical average (1992), dry or low rainfall (1993), and wet or high rainfall (1994) year per the records available from the Melbourne National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather forecast office. Nutrient Modeling Two different models were used to evaluate predicted wetland treatment performance at the potential site: the k-C* model and the Dynamic Model for Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas (DMSTA2) model. The k-C* model, developed by Kadlec and Knight (1996), provides gross-scale estimates of predicted wetland treat-

ment for planning purposes and incorporates wetland size, inflow rate, inflow concentrations, and background wetland concentrations to determine predicted effluent concentrations using first-order areal rate constants. This model has been used to predict treatment performance of multiple wetland application systems permitted under the wetland application rule in Florida. The k-C* model was initially used to evaluate treatment performance for all target nutrients at the site: TP, TN, CBOD5, TSS, and fecal coliform. Initial model results indicated that TP would be the nutrient that requires the greatest area for treatment at the site in terms of treatment efficiency; therefore, the DMSTA2 model, developed by Drs. William W. Walker and Robert H. Kadlec, was used to determine treatment of TP. The DMSTA2 was developed specifically to simulate phosphorus dynamics in wetland Continued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Continued from page 43 stormwater treatment areas and allows for a more robust evaluation of phosphorus treatment capacity, not only during average conditions, but also during wet and dry season conditions. The model simulates daily water and mass balances for reservoirs and wetland treatment cells, each with specified morphometry, hydraulics, and phosphorus cycling parameters, to provide estimates of phosphorus treatment performance. The DMSTA2 has been calibrated to 35 datasets, with data from October 1974 through March 2005 derived from full-scale STAs, wetland treatment areas, lakes and reservoirs, and natural wetlands located in Florida. The DMSTA2’s calibration to full-scale systems with dynamic inflows and depths makes it a powerful tool for evaluating phosphorus treatment performance of wetland areas.

pacity to treat TN, CBOD5, and TSS at an application rate of 0.7 mgd under the likely range of seasonal conditions. Predicted treatment of these parameters was to background the wetland concentrations currently leaving the site at the likely points of compliance. The DMSTA2 modeling results indicated that application of reclaimed water at TP concentrations of 1.0 mg/L or higher would not be feasible due to the inability of the wetlands to provide treatment to background concentrations currently leaving the site; however, with pretreatment of TP to 0.5 mg/L, the application of reclaimed water is feasible during the wet season, but not the dry season. With pretreatment of TP to 0.2 mg/L, application of reclaimed water is feasible during the wet season and in portions of the wetlands in the dry season. Permitting

Model Configuration Model Results Existing loads entering the wetland were combined with the proposed reclaimed water application loads for modeling purposes. Figure 7 shows the conceptual load models for k-C* and DMSTA2 for the proposed wetland application system. The models were used to evaluate treatment performance in the four WTAs for an average-, dry-, and wet-year period, with the proposed reclaimed water application rate of 0.7 mgd allocated to the four wetland areas based on acreage. This application rate of 0.7 mgd represented the maximum allowable discharge rate to the wetlands. The application of reclaimed water to the onsite wetlands is feasible based on the H/H and wetland treatment performance modeling. The modeling results indicated that a wetland application system at the site would have a high ca-

Environmental Resource Permitting Results of the H/H modeling indicated that the proposed reclaimed water applications should meet the water quantity requirements of the ERP program. As typically required for ERP applications, existing and proposed condition models were run for the mean annual, 25-year, and 100-year, 24-hour design storms. Floodstage results indicated that no offsite increases in flood stages are expected for any of the design storms. The pre- and post-application peak discharge rates into the receiving water were compared for site flows. The results indicate that no measurable increase in peak discharge rates from the project area is expected for any of the design storms, and only a negligible 0.4 percent increase in discharge volume is expected for the 25-year event. These results suggest that there

are no water quantity issues that would preclude permitting a wetland application system at the site under the ERP program. Pollutant Load Analysis The site is part of the west Cocoa watershed that ultimately discharges to Lake Poinsett. The overall pollutant load from the watershed to downstream receiving waters was estimated under both existing and proposed conditions to determine if the wetland application system would have a significant effect on pollutant loading to this receiving water. Runoff pollutant loads for TN and TP were estimated based on annual runoff volumes simulated for the average rainfall year (1992) and published event mean concentrations (EMCs) composited over the applicable land uses in the watershed (FDEP, 2013; ERD, 1994). As a conservative estimate, the proposed project would result in a slight increase in overall TN and TP loading to the watershed based on a continuous (year-round) 0.7 mgd application rate of reclaimed water to the proposed WTAs. The increase in loading represents a less than 2 percent increase in TN and a 2 percent increase in TP watershed-wide loading. Therefore, if the potential wetland application system was operated only as a wet weather discharge, then the loading impact would be even less. Benefits to the Indian River Lagoon A wetland application system at this site would also function to reduce TN and TP loading to the IRL. Under the city’s current permit, there is a limited wet weather discharge allowed to the IRL as a backup to the public access reuse system. This allows for surface water discharge of 0.99 mgd of reclaimed water to the IRL, for a total of 91 days per year. Given that the proposed project has the potential to accept 0.7 mgd of reclaimed water application, it is estimated that the project has the potential to remove 1,826 lb of TN and 670 lb of TP from the IRL over the 91 days the city is allowed to discharge during wet weather conditions.


Figure 7. Conceptual Water and Mass Loading to the Cocoa Wetland Treatment System and Modeling Tools Used to Evaluate Wetland Treatment Performance


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

City of Cocoa Wetland Application Site The application of reclaimed water to the wetlands at the city’s conservation area was determined to be feasible based on the H/H and wetland treatment performance modeling. Feasibility evaluation included analysis of wetland treatment performance, offsite water quantity and quality impacts, project permitting, and impacts to protected species. The wetland treatment performance modeling results indicated Continued on page 46

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Continued from page 44 that a wetland application system at the site would have a high capacity to treat TN, CBOD5, and TSS under the likely range of seasonal conditions and application loads. The DMSTA2 modeling results indicate that the application of reclaimed water at TP concentrations of 1 mg/L would not be feasible due to the inability of the wetlands to provide treatment to existing background concentrations; however, with pretreatment of TP to 0.5 mg/L prior to wetland discharge, the application of reclaimed water is feasible during the wet season, but not the dry season. With pretreatment of TP to 0.2 mg/L, the application of reclaimed water is feasible during the wet season in all WTAs. Results of the H/H modeling indicate that a reclaimed water application system at the site is feasible under the ERP program. No measurable increase in peak discharge rates from the project area are expected for any of the design storms. Likewise, flood-stage results indicate that no offsite increases in flood stages are expected for any of the design storms. The project is also feasible with regard to state and federal permitting. The wetland treatment performance data indicate that the system would be able to treat to or near background concentrations, and thus are not anticipated to contribute to downstream water quality degradation. While some protected species have been observed onsite, such as the gopher tortoise, avoidance and mitigation measures should be able to be implemented during design to avoid potential impacts to protected species.

Grant Funding for Wetland Application Systems Numerous opportunities exist to receive grant funding to implement wastewater to wetland projects. The St. Johns River Water Management District and FDEP have cost-share funding programs for projects that result in nutrient load reduction to springsheds and other water bodies, such as the middle and lower St. Johns River, IRL, and Northern Coastal Basin. This funding totaled more than $24 million in fiscal year 2015–2016 for projects that promote water conservation, improvements in water quality, and nutrient load reductions (SJRWMD, 2017). Projects that would reduce loads to impaired water bodies with adopted TMDLs are scored higher and are more likely to be funded; therefore, wetland application systems could be strong candidates to receive funding. Wetland Application System Opportunities Reclaimed water to wetland systems present a unique opportunity for Floridians to protect environmentally sensitive and economically important water bodies within the state. This can be achieved by providing a higher level of treatment to reclaimed water, thus reducing net nutrient loading to waterways, while allowing water reclamation facilities more flexibility during wet weather conditions. While upfront costs are higher, state funding opportunities and lower long-term operation and maintenance costs can make reclaimed water to wetland application systems more economical. The goals of these systems are consistent with the overall objectives of the state and water quality mandates; therefore, wetland application systems should be considered environmentally beneficial projects.

Figure 8. Indian River Lagoon Near the City of Cocoa


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

References • CDM, 2001. CDM Southeast U.S. EMC Database. • CDM Smith, 2015. Reclaimed Water Application to Wetlands Preliminary Feasibility Study. Prepared for City of Cocoa, Fla. • ERD, 1994. Estimation of Stormwater Loading Rate Parameters for Central and South Florida-Revised. Prepared for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. • FDEP, 2013. NPDES Phase I Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) Permitting Resource Manual. • FDEP, 2017. Domestic Wastewater to Wetlands Program. Accessed March 18, 2017. • Florida Natural Areas Inventory. Biodiversity Matrix Report. Accessed Dec. 1, 2014. • Kadlec, R. and R. Knight, 1996. Treatment Wetlands. First Edition. CRC Press. • Kadlec, R. and S. Wallace, 2009. Treatment Wetlands. Second Edition. CRC Press. • Knight, R.L., Ruble, R.W., Kadlec, R.H., and S.C. Reed, 1993. Database: North American Wetlands for Water Quality Treatment. Phase II Report. Prepared for USEPA. • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1942-2015. Annual Climatological Summary for Florida, Volumes 46-119. U.S. Department of Commerce. • Pegasus Engineering, 2012. West Cocoa Watershed Evaluation. Prepared for Brevard County, Fla. • St Johns River Water Management District. 2017. Accessed March 18, 2017. • Streamline Technologies Inc., 2002. ICPR - Interconnected Channel and Pond Routing Model, Version 3; Winter Springs, Fla. • U.S. Department of Agriculture National Resource Conservation Service, 1986. Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. NRCS Technical Release 55. • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2015. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), Version 5. • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2009. Proposed Total Maximum Daily Loads for Lake Poinsett and the St. Johns River Above Puzzle Lake, WBIDs 2893K & 2893I, Dissolved Oxygen and Nutrients. Document dated Sept. 30, 2009. S

FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association committee activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your committee, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at

FWEA Wastewater Process Committee: What It Does and How to Get Involved Timothy Ware hen people think of wastewater process, an infinite number of topics come to mind. The FWEA Wastewater Process Committee attempts to cover this diverse set of topics by providing the best and most relevant information to our membership. Something we often lose sight of in Florida is how far advanced we are compared to other areas of the United States due to things such as the Grizzle-Figg Act, which requires high levels of treatment and nutrient removal. The skill and talent within our membership, including the national process leaders who call Florida home, make our committee unique in the resources available to us. Within FWEA, the committee is best known for the annual Process Seminar and the Earle B. Phelps Award, which is given to the best-operating wastewater plants. These two items, along with other committee responsibilities, highlight our membership interaction.


Process Seminar

for later this year on October 18 in Orlando, at the Second Harvest Food Bank, and is titled, “Planting the Seed: Plant Design From Owner Concept to Operation.” The seminar will be geared to young professionals and those unfamiliar with what goes into implementing a new or upgraded process, but it will have a wide appeal to everyone within the industry. Speakers will include owners, procurement, regulators, contractors, operators, designers, and others who are involved in the plant process.

Earle B. Phelps Award Another facet of the committee is the Phelps Award, presented each year to the top plants in the areas of secondary wastewater, advanced secondary wastewater, and advanced wastewater treatment. Award applications are submitted by the plants based on the previous year’s performance, with the winners announced annually at the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC). Committee members work together evaluating the paper submittals and conducting site visits to determine a winner based on a variety of criteria. This is a high honor signifying that the plant has achieved the highest treatment level possible.

Getting Involved Presently, the committee is looking for new and interested members to assist in some of our future endeavors and join in the work of the steering committee. The committee is provided with article space in this magazine every month to provide history and background on the Phelps awardees. This is a great opportunity to get published and work directly with these amazing plants and their teams. We would also like to start having an annual process workshop at FWRC. Developing topics and putting together the workshops is a fun and rewarding endeavor that allows you to delve deeply into process topics and connect with some of the brightest minds in our industry. Wastewater process is ever changing and growing. Staying at the forefront to provide the best possible quality to our friends and neighbors is our responsibility and, let’s be honest, a whole lot of fun! Please check us out at and find out how you can get involved. Timothy Ware, P.E., is operations and maintenance engineer with Arcadis in Tampa and is chair of the Wastewater Process Committee. S

The most recent seminar was held in February in Jacksonville and was hosted by JEA. The audience of more than 80 spent the day learning about process ephemeralization. This term was coined by Buckminster Fuller, an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor, and translated it means learning how to do more with less—a challenge facing everyone today. The speakers were all experts in their fields and covered a wide range of topics, from sustainability to effective carbon use. The photo shows the engaged group listening intently while earning professional development hours and continuing education unit credits for their respective licenses. The next seminar is tentatively scheduled Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


FW&PCOA Region VIII 2018 Operations Short School May 8th, 9th & 10th – The Best Instructors – – The Best Courses – – Water / Wastewater Operators – Location: Collier County South Regional WTF 3851 City Gate Dr. Naples, FL 34117

SPACE IS LIMITED $285 Members - $285 Non-Member Payment can be made day of event or within two weeks following the event. Credit cards will be accepted by registering online

Name ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Address __________________________________________________________________________________________________

Phone Number __________________________________

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Employer ________________________________________________________________________________________________

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For More Information Contact: Nigel Noone (239) 986-4528 See Our Website WWW.FWPCOA-8.ORG for other Workshops Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Biohazards and Worker Safety hat are biohazards? Simply put, they are biological agents and/or conditions that pose a risk to human health. Animal feces from dogs, rodents, and birds can all transmit diseases to humans if not handled and cleaned up properly. Bloodborne pathogens, human waste, and drug paraphernalia are also considered biohazards and can pose a significant health threat. The five sources of biohazard risk to human health are: S Bacteria (e.g., E. coli and Salmonella) S Fungi (e.g., mold and yeast) S Viruses (e.g., hepatitis, HIV) S Pathogens (e.g., Giardia and Cryptosporidium) S Endotoxins (from decaying debris)


The four ways in which the human body can be affected by a biohazard are: S Ingestion (eating, swallowing) S Inhalation (breathing or smelling) S Contact (through broken skin or mucous membrane) S Injection (stuck with a sharp object such as a needle)

Workplace Preparedness If your work typically brings you into close proximity to biohazardous materials, you likely already know the potential safety and environmental risks and the safe handling procedures that are necessary. It’s essential, however, that everyone in the area knows what

to do in a biohazard emergency, both during the emergency and afterward, during cleanup. A properly outfitted work area contains a safety shower, an eye wash station, and a handwashing sink as permanent fixtures. There should also be at least one well-stocked biohazard spill kit containing: S Goggles S Gloves S Shoe covers S Breathing masks S Biohazard waste bags S Disinfectants S Sharp-instrument containers S Instruments for picking up sharp tools or objects (broken glass, needles, etc.) The kit should also contain absorbent material designed specifically for handling common biohazards, such as blood. Be sure everyone is familiar with the biohazard safety procedures, the contents of the spill kit, the instructions for using the kit, and any safety data sheets that may be included.

Recognizing the Threat Most people don’t know what type of condition is considered a biohazard and are unprepared to safely deal with it. Let’s say for example that a coworker receives a serious cut while on the job; exposure to the blood from that cut could be a problem. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in the general population:


One in 300 people is HIV positive One in 20 has hepatitis One in five has herpes One in three has some type of bloodborne disease

What’s more, the CDC says that the hepatitis B virus can survive for at least one week in dried blood and may survive on environmental surfaces, contaminated needles, and/or instruments. Diseases from airborne and bloodborne pathogens or feces are spread most often to humans during cleanup because of improper safety equipment. For example, Hantavirus is transmitted by infected rodents, and individuals can become infected with this virus by breathing aerosolized urine, droppings, saliva, or nesting materials. A specialized respiratory mask (one that filters viruses) should be used when cleaning suspected nesting areas and rodent feces.

Proper Cleanup Procedures It’s especially important to adhere closely to the biohazard cleanup laws, which are imposed by multiple agencies to protect the public’s health and safety. The Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) is one of the agencies that sets standards in biohazard cleanup laws. According to OSHA, “Personnel associated with biological cleanup must be trained, immunized, and properly equipped to do so.” Biohazard restoration includes cleaning not only the visible, but also the invisible. The

The 2017 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2017 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

standard for cleaning and restoration of biohazards is set by the American Bio-Recovery Association. As a general rule, for any blood or fluids, all visible areas should be cleaned, including all materials surrounding the affected area. When it comes to porous material, such as drywall, sometimes it’s necessary to replace the drywall in that area. Cleaning of biohazard areas should include all surfaces—walls, ceilings, carpets, flooring, fixtures, switches, railings, and trim—using chemicals produced specifically to kill microorganisms. Disposing of biohazard materials after cleanup is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, OSHA, and state and local governments. All of the guidelines and regulations are written with the specific intent of lowering infectious risks and keeping workers from contracting or spreading disease.

A Growing Concern Urban and suburban expansion, infrastructure repair and replacement, and growing environmental awareness have greatly increased the need for construction work for new and existing sewers and wastewater treatment plants

(WWTPs). Most sewage collection and treatment systems in the United States are 30 to 100 years old, with a total estimated value exceeding $1 trillion. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that in 2000, more than 1.2 billion gallons of raw sewage poured into waterways due to overflow, blockage, leakage, or other system faults. The construction projects needed to correct these problems will be many and enormous. As a result, more construction contractors and workers will be exposed to the hazards associated with working in these environments. Most construction contractors are aware of the obvious health hazards of working in sewers or WWTPs. For many, it’s standard procedure to monitor them for combustible gas, oxygen deficiency, and hydrogen sulfide, and to take appropriate precautions to minimize these hazards. But because of diseases, such as AIDS and the hepatitis B virus, as well as regulations, such as OSHA’s bloodborne pathogens standard, new concerns and questions are being raised about the biohazards that may be present in these locations. Construction safety professionals must also be aware of the potential for exposure to chemicals used in WWTPs, such as chlorine

and ozone, or those that may contaminate raw sewage, like solvents and heavy metals. In some cases, these may pose a greater risk to workers than the biohazards. In general, however, studies to date have not shown higher infection rates for sewage workers compared to similar populations of workers not exposed to sewage. One study compared the rate of parasitic organism infections between 125 sewage workers and 125 highway workers, and after one year, no differences in infection rates were found. Another study involving 150 wastewater treatment workers found no cases of polio, salmonellosis, leptospirosis, shigellosis, typhoid fever, hepatitis A, giardiasis, or amoebiasis.

Other Sources For more information, go to the OSHA website on biological agents,, or the CDC website on biosafety, See also the American Water Works Association book, Environmental Compliance Guidebook: Beyond U.S. Water Quality Regulations. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


News Beat Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. has announced the completion of its acquisition of CH2M via a cash and stock transaction. The combination has received broad affirmative support from CH2M shareholders. “This is a transformative step-change that brings together the industry’s foremost expertise and services to fulfill our vision to provide leading-edge solutions for a more connected, sustainable world,” said Steve Demetriou, Jacobs chair and chief executive officer. “Since our announcement, we have held meetings with thousands of CH2M and Jacobs employees, and I cannot overstate the enthusiasm we share about our future together. Today, we are celebrating the creation of a new company with even greater aspirations to do meaningful work around the world, and are heartened by clients who have eagerly anticipated this combination.” Demetriou stressed the combined firm’s continuing emphasis on talent retention and hiring as a top priority. “People are the heart of our organization, and we are calling on the best and brightest to join us to drive our growth strategy and be part of our exciting future.” Jacobs formed an integration management office (IMO) to begin integration planning following the announcement of the proposed CH2M acquisition. The IMO identified rigorous processes and protocols to drive realization of cost and growth synergies, for which Jacobs’ executive team and board of directors will continue to provide active oversight. "We are applying lessons learned from past integration experiences and adopting best practices for critical factors, such as talent retention, and building on the excellent cultural foundations of both organizations,” said Demetriou. “We are well-positioned to capitalize on the differentiated value proposition created by this combination, and our continued efforts to drive incremental focus and accountability will be supported by a simplification of our operating model. Most important, our clients will be able to better realize the benefits of our industryleading, innovative capabilities.” Both organizations reported strong performance in 2017, bolstering confidence in prospects for enhanced value creation in the newly combined firm and reinforcing the expectations for integration synergies and returns on the transaction. S Reaffirms fiscal 2018 outlook. The company reaffirms its previous fiscal 2018 outlook for both Jacobs as a stand-alone business and the expected contribution from CH2M, which translates to fiscal 2018 adjusted earnings per share of $3.55 to $3.95. This guidance includes a negative impact from the amortization from CH2M purchase intangibles. The outlook also incorporates standalone revenue growth ramping






during the fiscal year in line with the company’s previous expectations. Given the timing of the close, the company does not expect any material benefit from CH2M in its first-quarter results. Significant cost savings. Jacobs expects to achieve an estimated $150 million of annual run-rate savings by the end of the second year after closing, primarily from real estate, optimized organizational alignment, and systems integrations. Jacobs expects to incur approximately $225 million in one-time costs to achieve these ongoing savings. In addition, the company expects to incur other one-time costs associated with the acquisition, such as change in control payments, banking, and legal fees. Earnings accretion. The transaction is expected to be 15 percent accretive to Jacobs’ adjusted earnings per share in the first full year after closing and 25 percent accretive when further excluding the impact of amortization from CH2M purchase intangibles. Upside for profitable growth. The broader, combined solutions offering of the combined company, including CH2M’s proven leadership in program management and construction management, presents potential for longer-term revenue upside, extending both companies’ complementary offerings across their combined client base and broader global footprint. Sustained financial flexibility. Jacobs is maintaining its investment-grade credit profile upon closing. Attractive risk profile. Jacobs expects that after closing, approximately 85 percent of combined revenues will be derived from lowerrisk and reimbursable contracts.

The company expects to move to reporting results by three global business lines by the second half of fiscal 2018: S Aerospace, Technology, Environmental, and Nuclear (ATEN). Serving global aerospace, automotive, defense, telecommunications, nuclear clients, and the U.S. intelligence community, led by Terry Hagen. S Buildings, Infrastructure, and Advanced Facilities (BIAF). Serving broad sectors, including buildings, water, transportation (roads, rail, aviation and ports), and advanced facilities for life sciences, semiconductors, data centers, consumer products, and other advanced manufacturing operations, led by Bob Pragada. S Energy, Chemicals, and Resources (ECR). Serving energy, chemicals, and resources sectors, including upstream, midstream, and downstream oil, gas, refining, chemicals, and mining and minerals industries, led by Vinayak Pai. There will be accelerating opportunities for profitable growth in high-margin industries:

April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Enhances position in infrastructure, including water and transportation. Water represents an approximately $100-billion-a-year opportunity, expected to grow at a 4 to 5 percent compounded annual rate, presenting significant potential to extend CH2M’s leadership in design, management, and life cycle services for government and industrial clients, including operations and maintenance and resiliency services mitigating climate threats. Jacobs is expected to benefit by expanding these capabilities globally, backed by its strong operating and project delivery platform. The combined company will have a leading global water business with the scale, critical mass, and experience to capitalize on infrastructure and industrial growth trends. Jacobs already is a global leader in the $300billion-a-year transportation sector, which includes highways, roads, and bridges; rail; aviation; and ports; growing at 4 to 5 percent on a compounded annual rate. This sector’s significant investment momentum hinges on population growth and unprecedented demands for infrastructure development and improvement in all transportation modes and geographies, particularly in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and the United Kingdom. The combination is expected to make the company an employer of choice in the sector, where talent remains in high demand, forged on a breadth of opportunities advancing the quality, dependability, and sustainability of infrastructure around the world. S Bolsters top-tier position in nuclear and environmental services. Nuclear projects require specialized capabilities that are difficult to replicate and represent approximately $145 billion in annual opportunities, growing 2 to 3 percent on a compounded annual basis. The preeminent position of CH2M in program management of large-scale environmental and nuclear remediation programs and Jacobs’ complementary experience with government agencies in nuclear decommissioning together create significant business expansion opportunities. Environmental work represents an approximately $160 billion annual opportunity, growing 4 to 5 percent on a compounded annual rate. The combined company will have among the broadest and deepest environmental technical and project delivery capabilities in the industry. In addition, CH2M’s environmental expertise complements Jacobs’ existing business with the U.S. federal government, positioning the combined company with leading capabilities for government clients that also are transferable to private-sector clients, creating opportunities for substantial upside potential for the company.

S Expands leadership in growing industrial sectors. The combination brings together preeminent engineering expertise and proven programand construction-management capabilities delivering advanced manufacturing and industrial technologies for diverse sectors, including consumer products, life sciences, pharmaceuticals, material sciences, and semiconductors. S Enhances energy, chemicals, and resources portfolio. The transaction combines both firms’ proven engineering and construction management capabilities to establish a differentiated, life cycle services offering for clients in these sectors. It further enhances Jacobs’ position, effectively moderating cyclical exposures, with additional operational and maintenance capabilities for upstream, midstream, and downstream clients, including critical infrastructure for major projects in the oil, gas, refining, chemicals, and mining industries.

vice president with AECOM, one of the largest engineering firms in the world. He had regional responsibility for financial performance, project delivery, strategic direction, profitable growth, and client engagement of a 300-person group within that organization. “As McKim & Creed’s first-ever chief growth officer, Rick’s responsibilities will include top-line growth, profit and loss financial performance, project delivery, strategic direction, performance management, and direct client engagement,” said

Lucey. “We are excited to have someone with his experience and expertise to guide our continued growth in services, technologies, and our geographic footprint.” Said Prosser, “I’m excited to join such a great group of people at McKim & Creed. I look forward to ramping up quickly and working alongside the team to continue our amazing growth. It’s truly an exciting time to work in our industry and I’m confident our excellent people, culture, and great reputation will propel us into future growth.” S

Jacobs increased the size of its board of directors to 11 members and appointed Barry Williams, former CH2M director, to serve as a director of Jacobs. Williams, who also serves as a director of Navient and several nonprofit organizations, is the retired managing general partner of Williams Pacific Ventures Inc. and retired director of the PG&E, Simpson, and Northwestern Mutual boards. He also previously served as president and CEO of American Management Association International; senior mediator for JAMS/Endispute; visiting lecturer for the Haas Graduate School of Business, University of California; general partner of WDG, a California limited partnership; and general partner of Oakland Alameda Coliseum Joint Venture. For more information, visit


McKim & Creed Inc. announces that Rick Prosser, P.E., has joined the firm in the newly formed position of chief growth officer. “As McKim & Creed continues to expand, it has become apparent that we need someone on our leadership team dedicated to driving sustainable growth PROSSER throughout the company,” said John T. Lucey, P.E., president and chief executive officer of McKim & Creed. According to Lucey, in the last two years the company has increased revenue by 33 percent, nearly doubled bookings, and added more than 100 employee-owners throughout its geographic footprint. Prosser has 22 years of experience in the engineering industry. Most recently he served as a Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Adverser Display Index American Ductile Iron Pipe....................................................35 Blue Planet ............................................................................68 CEU Challenge ........................................................................27 Data Flow Systems ................................................................49 FJ Nugent & Associates ........................................................31 Florida Aquastore ..................................................................21 FSAWWA Call for Papers........................................................52 FSAWWA Fall Conference ....................................................50 FSAWWA Las Vegas ACE18 ......................................................51 FSAWWA Likins Scholarship..................................................51 FWPCOA Online Training ........................................................17 FWPCOA Region VIII ..............................................................53 FWPCOA Training....................................................................45 Gerber Pumps ........................................................................55

Grundfos ................................................................................9 Homa Pump ............................................................................37 Hudson Pump & Equipment ..................................................13 Hydro International ..............................................................5 InfoSense................................................................................67 Lakeside Equipment ..............................................................7 Mead & Hunt ..........................................................................57 Miller Pipeline ........................................................................33 Moss Kelley ............................................................................48 PCL Construction ..................................................................19 Reiss Engineering ..................................................................58 Stacon ....................................................................................2 Star Controls ..........................................................................25 Stantec ..................................................................................26

UF Treeo ..................................................................................41 Xylem......................................................................................69 FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES CONFERENCE Aqua Products........................................................................4 Gannett Fleming ....................................................................22 Matthews Consulting ............................................................7 Merrell Bros............................................................................9 Raven Linings ........................................................................14 Smart Cover Systems ............................................................23 US Submergent ......................................................................16 Willo USA ................................................................................25

Water Environment Federation Article Explores Benefits of Metagenomic Analysis The open access article in the March 2018 issue of Water Environment Research (WER), published by the Water Environment Federation (WEF), discusses the ways metagenomics analysis aids the study of microbial populations at wastewater treatment plants. “In this open access paper, Rosso et al. utilized metagenomic analysis (MGA) to characterize the microbial community of an activated sludge plant experiencing a foaming incident and compared those results to a database from seven other healthy activated sludge systems,” said Tim Ellis, WER editor in chief. “The authors were able to identify the populations potentially responsible for the upset and propose that MGA can be used as a relatively inexpensive tool for characterizing microbial populations in an effort to improve wastewater treatment plant operations.” Metagenomics is defined as the study of the metagenome, which is total genomic deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, from environmental samples. Metagenomics has long been one


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

of the major research tools in microbial ecology since the term was first used in 1998. Metagenomics has become an indispensable tool for studying the diversity and metabolic potential of environmental microbes, whose bulk is as yet noncultivable. Due to the differences between the metagenomic data obtained from whole genome sequencing and amplicon sequencing methods, there are significant differences between the corresponding bioinformatics tools for these data. Selected WER articles such as this one are available free to the public on a monthly basis through an open access program. In addition, authors can pay a fee to make their accepted articles open access. To download the article, “Tools for Metagenomic Analysis at Wastewater Treatment Plants: Application to a Foaming Episode,” by Gretchen E. Rosso, Jeffrey A. Muday, and James F. Curran, go to Published by WEF since 1928, WER is a professional journal that features peer-reviewed research papers and research notes, as well as state-ofthe-art and critical reviews on original, fundamental, and applied research in all scientific and technical areas related to water quality, pollution control, and management. Available in both print and online formats, WER receives approximately 400 new research submissions each year. S


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CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

P osi ti ons Ava i l a b l e CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee - Solid Waste Worker I, II & III - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or pluming abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.

Lead Wastewater Operator The Coral Springs Improvement District is accepting applications for the position of Wastewater Lead Operator. Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license and pass a pre-employment drug screening. The Lead Operator operates the Districts wastewater plant, assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. This position reports directly to the WWTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Excellent benefits and compensation including a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match of up to 6%. EOE. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at and fax resume to 954-7536328 attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources

CHIEF WATER/WASTEWATER PLANT OPERATOR Salary: $27.59 Per Hour Department: Water Utilities/Plant Operations and Maintenance Location(s): Utility-Wide Hours: 7:00 A.M. to 3:00 P.M., Monday - Friday; may be required to work overtime and stand-by weekend, nights and holidays. Other: Must be able to lift 50 pounds. Valid Florida Driver’s License and PBC Risk Management Department driving history approval prior to appointment. Supervises and coordinates the operation and maintenance of a large water treatment plant. Develops and maintains operating reports as well as operational protocol. Directs technical and manual labor staff in the daily operations of the water treatment plant. Work is performed under the supervision of the Plant Superintendent. The Palm Beach County Board of County Commissioners provides an excellent benefits package, including medical, dental and life insurance as well as vacation and sick leave, tuition reimbursement and participation in the Florida Retirement System. QUALIFICATIONS: Graduation from high school or an equivalent recognized certification; minimum of four (4) years of experience in the operation and maintenance of a water treatment/wastewater treatment plant that includes one (1) year of experience in directing the work of others.

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to a population of over 500,000 citizens and 62 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions: Assistant Manager, Utilities Engineering Annual Salary $88,962 – $114,380/ year Apply online at: Position closes April 11, 2018


City of Groveland Class “C” Water Operator

: Must possess a valid ecessary Special Requirement The City of Groveland is hiring a Class "C" Water Operator. Salary Range Florida Class A Plant Operator s License in Water ? Treat $ 29,203-43,805 DOQ. Please visit for application and ment (copy of license must be received in PBC HR within job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. three (3) business days of application submittal). Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP PREFERENCE FOR EXPERIENCE: Operating/maintaining a five (5) Million Gallons Daily (MGD) or larger automated water treatment plant; with mechanical/electrical/structural basics (must specify on application); training new employees in plant safety/operations/maintenance; using MS Office Suite programs and iFIX software. Also desirable: Capital Project Manager Knowledge of modern laboratory techniques/procedures as related to De$66,8340.00 - $100,328.54/yr. partment of Environmental Protection (DEP) requirements (must specUtilities Service Worker/Equipment Operator II ify on application). $12.90 per hour NOTE: It is not necessary to submit another application for this position Utilities Service Worker II if you applied 2/12-16/18. $11.54 per hour Chlorine Repair Technician Visit for job description and to apply online. May sub$14.28 per hour mit scannable application/resume with any Veteran’s Preference docuUtilities Mechanic mentation to Palm Beach County Human Resources, 100 Australian $14.98 per hour Avenue #300, West Palm Beach, Florida 33406 Info 561/616-6888 Fax Apply Online At:, Open until filled or send re561/616-6893 (No e-mail applications/resumes accepted). Applicasumes to tions/resumes must include Job ID number, and will be accepted until filled. EO/AA M/F/D/V (DFWP), Drug Free Work Place; All employees of Palm Beach County may be required to work before, during and/or after a natural or man-made disaster or hurricane.

Polk County - Positions Available

City of Neptune Beach – Positions Available

Water/Wastewater Operator Must possess a valid Florida Drivers License. Valid class “C” certification in water and wastewater treatment. Please go to our website – – to apply.

The City of Neptune Beach is currently accepting applications for the following positions: • WWTP Operator Class C and Up • Pump Mechanic Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and how to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to (904)270-2418 Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


Career Opportunity

Operator A, B, and C for Wastewater Treatment Plant Toho Water Authority This is your opportunity to work for the largest provider of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services in Osceola County. A fast-growing organization, Toho Water Authority is expanding to approximately 95,000 customers in Kissimmee, Poinciana and unincorporated areas of Osceola County. You can be assured there will be no shortage of interesting and challenging projects on the horizon! As an Operator, you will be expected, among other specific job duties, to have the ability to do the following: • Maintain compliance and operations of Wastewater Treatment Plants; • Conduct facility inspections, perform maintenance on equipment, and ensure normal operations; • Evaluate water systems; and • Fulfill recordkeeping, documentation, and reporting requirements. Candidates are required to hold the following certifications: Class “A”, “B or C” Wastewater Operators License, and Valid Class E Florida Driver’s License. Toho Water Authority offers a highly competitive compensation package, including tuition reimbursement, on site employee clinic, generous paid leave time, and retirement 401a match. If you are a driven professional, highly organized, and looking for a career opportunity at a growing Water Authority, then visit the TWA webpage today and learn how you can join our team! Visit to review the full job description and submit an employment application for consideration.

Utility Compliance/Efficiency Manager $78,836 - $110,929/yr.

Analytical/QA Specialist $52,821 - $74,325/yr.

Utilities Electrician $52,821 - $74,325/yr.

Utilities Storm Water Foreman $47,911 - $67,414/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $39,415 - 55,463/yr.; $41,387 - $58,235/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

The City of Edgewater is accepting applications for the following positions. Water Plant Operator “C” $33,779 - $50,877 Wastewater Plant Operator “C” $33,779 - $50,877 Plant Operator Recruits $25,334 - $36,026 Distribution System Operator $31,782 - $49,691 Distribution System Operator Recruit $23,504 - $34,216 Stormwater Canal Maintenance Specialist $27,165 - $42,453 Stormwater Maintenance Worker $23,504 - $34,216 Apply online at Open until filled

Wastewater Operator/Field Technician Utilities, Inc. of Florida is seeking a Wastewater Operator/Field Technician in the Charlotte & Lee County area. A minimum Class C license is required but a dual license is preferred. The position requires a clean driving record. For details please visit our website, and click “Employment Opportunities” & “Job Openings”. There you can search for and apply for the position. We offer excellent benefits and are a DFWP.


Lantana Chief Water Plant Operator Salary: $24.051-$30.064


Responsible for the supervisory and technical work related to operation of a Class B water treatment plant and auxiliary facilities. Please see for complete job description and application. Apply by 4/20/18.



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Village of Wellington - WATER OPERATOR – Midnight Shift Level and Rate of Pay Dependent on Licenses and Qualifications Salary $15.82 - $31.88 hourly The Village of Wellington is a "Great Hometown" that strives to provide high quality services that create economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Our Wellington vision balances a unique hometown, family atmosphere with an attractive natural environment and recreational, cultural, and educational activities and facilities for all ages. The Village of Wellington is a family-oriented community located in Western Palm Beach county and is a great place to live, work, and play. Water Operator performs lead level or senior level technical work (depending on license) in water treatment. QUALIFICATIONS: High School Diploma/GED required; supplemented by three (3) or more years of professional Water operator experience; demonstrated computer literacy with standard software packages (e.g., word processors, basic spreadsheet applications, email, Internet usage) required (must be able to generate spreadsheets). Florida Water Operator's Certification Class "B" minimum required; or an equivalent combination of education, training and/or experience. Possession of a valid Florida driver's license required. To learn more about the Village of Wellington, comprehensive benefits offered, and to apply, please visit: government/departments/human-resources

City of St. Petersburg – SR Plant Maint Coord IRC4198 Technical, Supervisory & Admin work in the procurement, maint & repair of equip used in water treatment. Requirements: 2 Yrs related college or HS diploma/GED equiv with experience; St of FL DL; must have experience in electronics and/or mechanical equip repair. Open until 4/13/18; $50,981 - $78,229 DOQ; See details at EEO-AAEmployer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets' Pref

Senior Utility Service Worker Ready for an exciting new chapter in your career? Join our team of Utility professionals at the City of Tavares, America’s Seaplane City, in beautiful Central Florida and enjoy these advantages! • Salary range: $27,000 - $40,500 • Excellent health, dental, life, disability and Florida Retirement System benefits • Generous time off and holiday plans • Positive and progressive work environment, with active focus on staff development The ideal candidate will possess: • High school graduate or accredited equivalent • Minimum of three (3) years experience in Water Distribution • Valid and insurable Florida Class “B” CDL with “N” Tank Endorsement • Traffic Work Zone Safety Certificate • Distribution Class II license, (Class I Distribution or Backflow Tester a plus) For more detailed information and access to our employment application, please visit our website at APPLY TODAY! We welcome your resume or application in person by email to APPLY TODAY@; by mail to City of Tavares Human Resources, 201 East Main Street, Tavares, FL 32778, or by fax to 352-7426351. We are an EOE, ADA, E-Verify and Drug-Free Workplace!

UTILITIES TREATMENT PLANT OPERATOR On Top of the World is now accepting applications for a State certified treatment plant operator, seeking full time employment to join our team. All applicants must hold at least a minimum FDEP Class “C” Wastewater Treatment Operator’s License. Must be able to work weekends. Valid FL driver’s license with acceptable driving history is required. Salary ranges from $16.57 to $26.44 based on experience. Please forward resume to Please apply in person or visit our website at On Top of the World Parkway Maintenance 2025 Denmark Street Clearwater FL 33763 Phone: 727-799-3270 Hours of applications Monday to Friday from 8am to 1pm.

Reiss Engineering, Inc. Looking for an opportunity to make a difference ? Looking for a dynamic team environment where you can manage and lead projects to success? Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to contribute and make a difference for our people, our clients, and our community! Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. To see open positions and submit a resume to join our team, visit

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018


North Springs Improvement District

Cross Connection Control Technician

Water Plant Operator The North Springs Improvement District is searching for a licensed water plant operator. Applicant must be licensed by the Florida Department Environmental Protection with either a C, B, or A water plant license. Please email Mireya Ortega at with your application or you can apply at Benefit and pension packages are offered.

Utilities, Inc. of Florida is seeking a Cross Connection Control Technician in the Pasco & Pinellas County area. A FDEP Distribution System Operator License is required and a State Certified Backflow Prevention License is preferred or must be obtained in the first 6 months. The position requires a clean driving record. For details, please visit our website, Under “Contact Us” please click “Employment Opportunities” & “Job Openings”. There you can search for and apply for the position. We offer excellent benefits and are a DFWP.

Water Distribution Field Operator The North Springs Improvement District is searching for a water distribution and wastewater collection field operator. Applicant must obtain a level 3 water distribution license within 24 months or already be licensed by the Florida Environmental Protection Agency. Please email with your application or you can apply at directly. Benefit and pension packages are offered. Aquatic Weed Technician The North Springs Improvement District is searching for an Aquatic Weed Technician. Individual must be willing to obtain their aquatic license. Must possess a valid Florida driver’s license to drive our district vehicles and pass a pre-employment drug test. Individual needs to physically be able to operate boats, lawn equipment, apply herbicides, and other chemicals to the District waterways. Please email Mireya Ortega at with your application and resume. Benefit and pension packages are offered. Utility Billing Customer Service The North Springs Improvement District is seeking a Utility Billing Customer Service Rep. Must answer high volume calls, be able to problem solve, enter data entry, and be able to multi-task. Must be able to have professional communication with our customers verbally and written. This is a FT position with benefits and pension. Please email your application to or you can apply at directly.

Electronic Technician The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary commensurate with experience. Salary Range: $40,890.98 $68,680.30/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

City of St. Petersburg – Plant Maintenance Technician IRC41916 Technical work involving maintenance and repair of water pumping instrumentation and equipment. Requirements: high school diploma/GED equivalency; State of FL "B" CDL (or within 5 ½ months); must have journeyman level electrical/mechanical experience. Open until filled; $45,157 - $64,688 DOQ; See details at EEO-AA-EmployerVet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets' Pref

Water Production Superintendent The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for a Water Production Superintendent at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or GED. Must possess a Class "A" Water Treatment Plant Operator's certificate issued by the State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and five (5) years experience in the management, operation, and maintenance of a water treatment facility. Two (2) years of experience in both surface and ground water treatment processes. Must possess a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess a valid out of state driver's license must obtain the Florida driver's license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $56,369-$94,676/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference/EOE/DFWP.

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary commensurate with experience. Salary Range: $39,893.88$67,004.60/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 36 1. B) water that has received at least secondary treatment and basic disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility. Per FAC, 62-610.200(46), Definitions: ‘“Reclaimed water,’ except as specifically provided in Chapter 62610, F.A.C., means water that has received at least secondary treatment and basic disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility.”

2. C) operating protocol. Per FAC, 62-610.320(6)(a), Operating Protocols: “An operating protocol is a document that describes how a domestic wastewater facility is to be operated to ensure that only reclaimed water that meets applicable standards is released to a reuse system. It is a detailed set of instructions for the operators of the facilities. It may be part of the operation and maintenance manual or it may be a separate document.”

3. A) 0.1 mgd Per FAC, 62-610.451, Minimum System Size: (1) No treatment facility with a design average daily flow of less than 0.1 mgd shall have the produced reclaimed water made available for reuse by slow-rate land application in public access areas. (2) No treatment facility with a design average daily flow of less than 0.1 mgd shall have the produced reclaimed water made available for reuse by slow-rate land application on residential properties or on edible crops. (3) A minimum system size is not required if reclaimed water will be used only for toilet flushing or fire protection.

(4) The permitted capacity of the overall domestic wastewater treatment facility shall be used in determining compliance with the minimum system size requirements, even if only a small percentage of the wastewater treated is used for beneficial purposes.

4. D) support wetlands. Per EPA 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse, Chapter 3.4: “Environmental reuse primarily includes the use of reclaimed water to support wetlands and to supplemental stream and river flows.”

5. B) 5 Per FAC, 62-610.460, Waste Treatment and Disinfection: “(1) Preapplication waste treatment shall result in a reclaimed water that meets, at a minimum, secondary treatment and high-level disinfection. The reclaimed water shall not contain more than 5 milligrams per liter of suspended solids before the application of the disinfectant.”

6. B) A communication plan Per EPA 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse, Chapter 8.4.3: “Regardless of project scope, it is critical to develop at the earliest possible stage a comprehensive strategic communication plan that identifies how the utility will present information and solicit involvement of stakeholders. This plan should pre-identify and provide training for those who will speak on behalf of the project, especially. The plan must consider consistent messaging, including the long-term implications of reuse messages.”

“(5) Advisory signs shall be posted adjacent to lakes or ponds used to store reclaimed water that are not located at the domestic wastewater treatment facilities. Advisory signs shall be posted at decorative water features that use reclaimed water. Advisory signs at storage ponds or decorative water features shall include the following text in English and Spanish: “Do Not Drink” and “Do Not Swim” together with the equivalent standard international symbols.”

8. B) Lettuce Per FAC, 62-610.475, Edible Crops: “(1) Irrigation of edible crops that will be peeled, skinned, cooked, or thermally processed before consumption is allowed. Direct contact of the reclaimed water with such edible crops is allowed. (2) Irrigation of tobacco or citrus is allowed. Direct contact of the reclaimed water with tobacco or citrus is allowed, including citrus used for fresh table fruit, processing into concentrate, or other purposes.”

9. C) Indirect potable reuse system Per FAC, 62-610.550, Description of System: “(2) Indirect potable reuse. This type of reuse system involves the planned

use of reclaimed water to augment surface water resources that are used or will be used for public water supplies. Indirect potable reuse systems include: (a) Discharges to Class I surface waters, as described in Rule 62610.554, F.A.C. (b) Discharges to other surface waters that are directly or indirectly connected to Class I surface waters, as described in Rule 62-610.555, F.A.C.”

10. C) Secondary treatment and basic disinfection Per FAC, 62-610.669, Use of Reclaimed Water at Wastewater Treatment Plants: “(2) Reclaimed water may be used to irrigate landscaped areas at the wastewater treatment plant. (a) If the reclaimed water has received secondary treatment and basic disinfection, the requirements of Part II of this chapter, including setback distance requirements, shall be met. Reclaimed water meeting the secondary treatment definition contained in subparagraph 62600.420(1)(b)2., F.A.C., may be used for this irrigation. Storage shall not be required.”

7. D) “Do Not Drink” and “Do Not Swim” in English and Spanish, with international symbols. Per FAC, 62-610.468, Access Control and Advisory Signs:

P os i ti o ns Wa nt e d MICHAEL DILELLO – Holds a Florida C Wastewater license with 14 years experience plus ground water experience. Prefers the south Florida area, Palm Beach, Miami or Broward Counties. Contact at 1813 Taylor St, Apt 2, Hollywood, Fl. 33020 954-652-8044 PAUL T JONES – Passed C Wastewater test and holds certification and needs in plant hours for license. Will be sitting for C Water test in March. Prefers the Orange, Volusia, Seminole or Osceola County area. Contact at 5632 Lunsford Dr., Orlando, Fl. 32818. 407-915-1529

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference


April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018



April 2018 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2018


Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2018  

Conservation and Reuse/Florida Water Resources Conference Issue

Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2018  

Conservation and Reuse/Florida Water Resources Conference Issue