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News and Features 4 26 27 30 45

President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority


Vice President: Greg Chomic (FWEA) Heyward Incorporated


Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

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For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

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FWEA Committee Corner—Larry Hickey Reader Profile—George B. Cassady FSAWWA Speaking Out—Grace Johns C Factor—Scott Anaheim Test Yourself—Ron Trygar Contractors Council—Mike Alexakis Process Page: JEA Southwest Water Reclamation Facility Focuses on Automation, Optimization, and Safety— Tim Mechum, Roz Matthews, and Caitlin Klug

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Committee Profile: FSAWWA Public Affairs Council—Scott Richards Legal Briefs—Gerald Buhr FWEA Focus—Lisa Prieto


Findings of a Statewide Evaluation and the Long-Term Implications for the Future of Water Reuse—Christopher Hill Innovative Potable Water Saving Techniques at Cape Coral—Hubert B.

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New Products Service Directories Classifieds Display Advertiser Index

Stroud and Mary K. Kilmer


Reuse Evolution: Operational and Hydraulic Improvements for Pasco County—Kerstin Kenty, Richa Srivastava, Matt Sellers, and Kyle Hall

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

Water Conserv II Celebrates 30 Years WEF HQ Newsletter—Steve Dye NARUC Responds to ASCE Infrastructure Report Card Technology Spotlight Facts About US Water Policy and Infrastructure Bonita Springs Utilities Announces Board Selection Report Finds Closing Investment Gap in Water Infrastructure Would Create 1.3 Million Jobs, $220 Billion in US Economic Activity News Beat

Technical Articles

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340


Education and Training 11 19 22 25 33 35 37 47 51 53

WEF Nutrient Symposium CEU Challenge FSAWWA ACE Luncheon FWPCOA Training Calendar FSAWWA Fall Conference FSAWWA Roy Likins Scholarship ISA Water/Wastewater and Automatic Controls Symposium FWPCOA Online Training FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers TREEO Center Training

ON THE COVER: Two 2,570-gpm mist-eliminating degasifiers at the low-pressure reverse osmosis facility at Coral Springs Improvement District. These degasifiers, which were placed into service in October 2013, are used to remove dissolved gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, from drinking water. (photo: Coral Springs Improvement District)

Volume 68

April 2017

Number 4

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


Water Conserv II Celebrates 30 Years Over the past 30 years, Florida's Water Conserv II project has helped recycle more than 200 bil gal of reclaimed water, making the state a national leader in water reuse.

The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) joins the city of Orlando, Orange County, and area representatives in celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Water Conserv II project—the largest cooperative water reuse project of its kind in the world. Since 1986, Water Conserv II has helped recycle more than 200 bil gal of reclaimed water, which is an amount that would fill 10 million residential swimming pools. The FDEP provided a $100 million grant toward the total cost of $180 million for this state-of-the-art project. This long-term partnership was formed when Orlando and Orange County faced a need to expand wastewater treatment service and a state requirement to eliminate discharge to sur-

face waters. This partnership led to the development of an innovative water reclamation program that combined agricultural irrigation with aquifer recharge. Water Conserv II combines agricultural irrigation with aquifer recharge via rapid infiltration basins (RIBs). The primary focus is agricultural irrigation. The RIBs are used for recharge of Florida’s primary drinking water source, the Floridan aquifer, with daily flows that

Water Conserv II distribution center.

Reclaimed water is refined as it travels from the rapid infiltration basin to the Floridan aquifer below.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

are not needed for irrigation and excess flows during wet weather periods. Water Conserv II is also the first reuse project in Florida permitted by FDEP to irrigate crops produced for human consumption with reclaimed water. The project’s reclaimed water meets FDEP’s public access reuse standards and is permitted for use on all public access sites, including residences and golf courses, food crops, foliage and landscape nurseries, tree farms, pasture land, and the production of soil cement, and can also be used for fire protection. “Providing grants for water reuse projects that will benefit our environment and communities remains a priority for FDEP,” says Jon Steverson, FDEP secretary. “We are proud to celebrate this partnership, and look forward to continuing to work with local governments, the agricultural community, and other partners to protect and preserve our precious water resources.” Water Conserv II and its staff have received more than 30 awards, including the David W. York Water Reuse Award from the Florida Water Environment Association, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Region IV Municipal Water Use Efficiency Award, and the Orange County Environmental Protection Department's Environmental Excellence Award. “I am so proud to have been involved in this project from the very beginning,” says Phil Cross, Water Conserv II project manager. “It started out as just an idea of a partnership between the Orlando and Orange County. With the help of FDEP, the idea became a reality, and 30 years later the project continues to be a great example of water conservation practices in the state.” For the past 20 years, Florida has been recognized as a national leader in water reuse, with domestic wastewater facilities increasing their reuse capacity by approximately 465 percent since 1986. Currently, approximately 720 mil gal per day of reclaimed water are reused statewide for beneficial purposes, such as landscape irrigation and aquifer recharge. Reusing this reclaimed water is estimated to save more than 130 bil gal of potable-quality water annually. For more information about Florida’s water reuse program, go to S


Findings of a Statewide Evaluation and the Long-Term Implications for the Future of Water Reuse Christopher Hill lorida Senate Bill (SB) 536 required the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to conduct a comprehensive study and submit a report on the expansion of the beneficial use of reclaimed water, stormwater, and excess surface water in the state by Dec, 1, 2015. The study required FDEP to: S Identify factors that prohibit or complicate the expansion of the beneficial use of reclaimed water, stormwater, and excess surface water and recommend how these factors can be mitigated or eliminated. S Identify measures that would lead to the efficient use of reclaimed water. S Identify the environmental, engineering, public health, public perception, and fiscal constraints of such an expansion, including utility rate structures for reclaimed water. S Identify areas in the state where traditional water supply sources are limited and the use of reclaimed water, stormwater, or excess surface water for irrigation or other purposes is necessary. S Recommend permit incentives, such as extending current authorizations for long-term consumptive use permits for all entities that substitute reclaimed water for traditional water sources, that become unavailable or otherwise cost-prohibitive. S Determine the feasibility, benefit, and cost estimates of the infrastructure needed to construct regional storage features on public or private lands for reclaimed water, stormwater, and excess surface water, including the collection and delivery mechanisms for beneficial uses, such as agricultural irrigation, power generation, public water supply, wetland restoration, groundwater recharge, and waterbody base flow augmentation.


In the course of completing the study, FDEP is required to hold a minimum of two public meetings to gather input on the study and provide an opportunity for the public to submit written comments before submitting the report. While the FDEP study includes beneficial use of reclaimed water, stormwater, and excess surface water, this article focuses on the use of reclaimed water.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

There has been much discussion and progress made in recent years regarding potable reuse, with several significant indirect potable reuse (IPR) and direct potable reuse (DPR) efforts being implemented throughout the United States. This follows decades of resistance to potable reuse by the public; however, the water supply urgency in some of the most arid regions of the country, as well as more extensive research and better consumer education by utilities and professional associations, have helped sway public opinion. With regard to potable reuse, the conclusions of the SB 536 report will significantly impact future implementation of reuse in Florida, as well as the rest of the U.S. The bill rightly seeks to identify impediments and incentives to reuse, and ideally will result in implementation of incentives within the state of Florida that increase the potential for future potable reuse opportunities and expand the role of reuse in the future of the state’s water supply. Similar incentives could ideally be implemented in other regions of the U.S., and potable reuse would play a role in solving their respective water supply crises as well. On the other hand, should FDEP make recommendations that unintentionally inhibit the future implementation of potable reuse, it could set the state and other regions back years or even decades. While there is no indication at the moment that this will occur, it is nonetheless a potential concern when legislatures get involved in water policy issues.

Methodology Approach Overview To complete the study, FDEP has developed a stepwise approach that includes a number of public meetings and extensive stakeholder engagement prior to preparation of the final report. The SB 536 workgroup consisted of representatives from a number of state agencies, including: S Florida Department of Environmental Protection S Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Christopher Hill is vice president at Arcadis U.S. Inc. in Tampa.

S Florida Department of Transportation S Northwest Florida Water Management District S St. Johns River Water Management District S South Florida Water Management District S Southwest Florida Water Management District S Suwannee River Water Management District At the onset of the study, FDEP established five work teams for each of the major study areas: 1) Reclaimed water 2) Stormwater 3) Excess surface water 4) Reservoirs 5) Aquifer storage and recovery The study began in the summer of 2014 with a stakeholder survey. The survey was followed by a series of public meetings in each of the five Florida water management districts, which concluded in late 2014. The FDEP and the work teams spent the majority of 2015 preparing the draft study, which is anticipated in August of this year. Following additional opportunity for public and stakeholder comment, FDEP issued the final report by Dec. 1, 2015, as required. Survey Construct The survey included nine statements or questions: five related to the beneficial use of reclaimed water and four related to the beneficial use of stormwater and excess surface water. The five statements or questions related to use of reclaimed water are: 1) Please evaluate the degree of importance of the following factors in prohibiting or complicating the expanded use of reclaimed water. 2) Please evaluate the importance of the following incentives that could further the expanded use of reclaimed water.

3) Please evaluate the importance of the following methods for increasing storage of reclaimed water in your area. 4) Please evaluate the degree of importance of the following factors in prohibiting or complicating the indirect potable reuse of reclaimed water. 5) Are there other issues concerning reclaimed water that you’d like to discuss? For each of the first four statements, the survey identified a number of factors related to each area of interest and asked the respondent to rate the importance of that factor on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). Each question also allowed the respondents to add and rate their own factors. Question 5 allowed for an open-ended response (up to 2000 characters) of additional factors a respondent thought should be given consideration by FDEP.

Of particular significance in the construct of the survey was the specific mention in statement 4 of “indirect potable reuse” rather than simply “potable reuse” or also including “direct potable reuse.” As has been stated previously, DPR is being implemented in various locations throughout the U.S. Its apparent deliberate exclusion from this survey could be a significant shortfall of the final report and prevent future consideration of DPR as a viable alternative water supply in Florida.

makes parsing of the responses difficult. However, it is reasonable to state that a diverse array of interests and knowledge levels were represented by the respondents. Table 2 summarizes the sectors of interest for the survey respondents. Again, it’s difficult to parse the sectors of interest of a given individual as multiple sector choices were allowed; however, based on the responses, it is possible to say that the majority of sectors were well represented in the responses.

Results and Discussion

Impediments to the Expanded Use of Reclaimed Water Table 3 summarizes the survey results relative to impediments to the expanded use of reclaimed water. Of particular note is that potable reuse, specifically whether indirect or direct potable reuse is allowed or considered, is listed Continued on page 8

Survey Respondents A total of 949 individuals responded to the online survey, as summarized in Table 1. Respondents were allowed to identify themselves by more than one descriptor (e.g., both an “individual water user” and a “consultant”), which

Table 1. Florida Department of Environmental Protection SB 536 Survey Respondents (FDEP, 2014)

Table 3. Impediments to the Use of Reclaimed Water (FDEP, 2014)

Table 2. Florida Department of Environmental Protection Survey Respondents Sectors of Interest (FDEP, 2014) Table 4. Incentives to Encourage Beneficial Reuse of Reclaimed Water (FDEP, 2014)

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


Continued from page 7 as a potential impediment to expanded use of reclaimed water. Therefore, when one considers the survey response, the results may or may not be indicative of the opinions of the noted factors with regard to expanded potable reuse, but the results are promising with regard to possible acceptance of potable reuse. In the case of both IPR and DPR, the fact that these are not allowed or considered was determined to be either a very important or important impediment to expanded use of reclaimed water by more than 50 percent of respondents. This would seem to indicate that the majority of respondents would be accepting of potable reuse. The least significant impediment noted was “engineering constraints/technology not available.” Again, though the survey did not specifically mention potable reuse, the results would seem to indicate that the respondents generally believe the technology exists to safely implement potable reuse. Infrastructure availability and fiscal constraints–not public perception or public health issues–were the most significant impediments to expanded use of reclaimed water. Nearly 70 percent of respondents noted that infrastructure availability was either an important or very important impediment, while nearly 64 percent noted the same about fiscal constraints; only half noted public perception as a significant impediment, and fewer than half noted health concerns. Incentives to Encourage the Expanded Use of Reclaimed Water Table 4 summarizes the survey results relative to incentives needed to encourage expanded use of reclaimed water. Similar to the impediments to expanded use of reclaimed water, the survey focused on incentives to encourage the expanded use of reclaimed water; it does not specifically mention potable reuse. Funding assistance (70 percent of respondents) and regulatory changes (52 percent) were identified as the

most-needed incentives to encourage expanded use of reclaimed water. It is also worth noting that better public education is also perceived as needed (50 percent) to encourage expanded use of reclaimed water. Storage Alternatives for Reclaimed Water With regard to storage of reclaimed water, survey respondents identified natural storage systems (wetlands and aquifers) as the preferred storage alternatives, rather than man-made features, such as reservoirs (Table 5). This could be perceived as significant because it indicates a tendency for respondents to desire that reclaimed water be returned to the environment and could indicate a higher level of acceptance for IPR, thought that is just one interpretation. It’s worth noting that “salt water barrier” was identified as important or very important by less than 40 percent of respondents. There are several major efforts within the state to use reclaimed water to provide a saltwater barrier and it’s possible that this concept or the degree or potential degree of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers was not clearly understood by the respondents. Factors Prohibiting or Complicating Indirect Potable Reuse of Reclaimed Water There was only one survey question that specifically addressed potable reuse and it focused on the factors prohibiting or complicating the IPR of reclaimed water. The implications of the fact that the survey addressed only IPR are discussed in the conclusion section of this article. The results are presented in Table 6. Fiscal constraints were viewed as the most significant factor limiting the potential for future IPR by 56 percent of respondents, followed by public perception (52 percent), regulations (48 percent), environmental constraints and public health issues (41 percent each), and engineering constraints/technology (29 percent). Based on the results of the survey, it appears there is a general belief by the respondents that IPR is techni-

Table 5. Preferred Storage Alternatives for Reclaimed Water (FDEP, 2014)


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

cally feasible, if the public perception, regulatory, and financial barriers to its implementation could be eliminated. Direct Potable Reuse Constraints, Opportunities, and Recommendations The majority of FDEP’s recommendations with regard to potable reuse focused on IPR. Specifically, FDEP recognized ongoing groundwater recharge and surface water augmentation efforts and concluded this was likely the most viable and acceptable method of potable reuse for Florida. With regard to DPR, FDEP concluded that it was a viable alternative water supply; however, there were a number of barriers to future DPR implementation, including: S Relative availability of lower-cost groundwater/surface water S No clear regulatory structure S Sustained reliability S Impacts of commercial and industrial discharges S “Yuck” factor Despite these constraints, it’s recognized that potable reuse, and specifically DPR, presents many opportunities with respect to future water supply alternatives. Notably, despite the large volume of nonpotable reuse currently practiced in the state, there are still many areas or geographies with large uncommitted reclaimed water supplies that were estimated to be more than 883 mil gal per day (mgd) in 2013. There are also a number of areas in the state with limited groundwater and surface water supply availability. In these areas, potable reuse has great potential to augment existing water supply portfolios and meet future water supply needs. The FDEP-recommended development of a regulatory framework for potable reuse and appropriation of funding through the water management districts could aid in future implementation of DPR.

Table 6. Factors Prohibiting or Complicating Indirect Potable Reuse

Conclusion The FDEP SB 536 study is an impactful first step to expanded use of reclaimed water and future potable reuse efforts in the state of Florida. Results of the survey of nearly 1000 individuals indicate a willingness to accept both IPR and DPR as a possible future alternative water supply. In both instances, the fact that these alternatives are not allowed or not considered was thought to be a serious impediment to future implementation by more than half of survey respondents. Fiscal constraints and public perception were viewed as the most significant factor limiting the potential for future IPR by the majority of respondents. Regulatory barriers and environmental constraints were also viewed as significant limiting factors by nearly half of survey respondents. It is interesting that more than 40 percent of respondents viewed public health issues as a limiting factor, yet less than 30 percent felt engineering constraints or technology limitations were a limiting factor. This suggests a disconnect of the link between technology and protection of public health. Based on the results of the survey, it appears there is a general belief by the respondents that IPR is technically feasible, if the public perception, regulatory, and financial barriers to its implementation could be eliminated. Perhaps a significant shortfall of the FDEP survey is that it does not go far enough with regard to opinions related to DPR. While the survey specifically addresses IPR, the exclusion of DPR from the survey and some of the opinions regarding future DPR implementation seem to indicate an uncertainty or unwillingness to accept it as a method to expand the use of reclaimed water in the future. Lack of sufficient consideration of DPR represents a missed opportunity to identify public and industry concerns regarding the future implementation of DPR and develop a strategy to address these concerns. Such a decision is counter to recent trends in the industry and lacks the foresight needed to assure future sustainable water supplies for the residents of Florida.

References • Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2014). SB 536 Workshop, Southwest Florida Water Management District. Oct. 29, 2014; Tampa, Fla. • Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2015). Report on Expansion of Beneficial Reuse of Reclaimed Water, Stormwater, and Excess Surface Water. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Public Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details via email to Lindsay Marten at

Odor Control Seminar Hosted by Air Quality Committee Larry Hickey

he FWEA Air Quality Committee held its annual one-day seminar in Ft. Myers on February 9. This year’s continuing education event included presentations from some of the top odor control consultants in the


United States who graciously volunteered to share their industry expertise. Attendees benefited from a multitude of presentations, which is typical of a national WEF odor control conference. Most of the participating consultants are long-standing members of the WEF Air Quality Committee. The topics for this seminar included the following: S Comprehensive Initial Odor Investigation S Collection System Odor Evaluation S Latest Odor Control Issues and Solutions

Lee County Emergency Management Situation Room being used as a classroom.

Past chair Larry Hickey (left) presents the service appreciation award to outgoing chair Darryl Parker of Lee County Utilities.


S Chemical Addition for Odor Control S Biofiltration S Biofiltration Media Considerations The program also included documented case studies from various odor control projects implemented within the U.S. This year’s event was hosted by the Lee County Emergency Management Center, which provided attendees with a first-class facility experience throughout the entire day. The success of these seminars is due to the use of public venues, volunteer speakers, corporate sponsors, and the dedicated teamwork of the members of the FWEA committee. A primary objective of the committee is to pay it forward through education for the betterment of the industry, and FWEA as a whole. Following two years of dedicated service as committee chair, Darryl Parker passed the responsibilities on to the incoming chair, Joe Paterniti, P.E., with the City of Boynton Beach. Be sure to keep an eye on the FWEA website for information on the dates and location for next year’s seminar. Larry Hickey is past committee chair and president S of Equipment Plus Solutions Inc. in Ocala.

Speakers (left to right): Chris Easter, P.E.; Bob Bowker, P.E.; chair Darryl Parker; Ryan McKenna, P.E.; Dick Pope, P.E.; Bruce Singleton, P.E.; Philip Wolstenholme, P.E.; and Chris Hunniford, P.E. (Tim Matheis not shown).

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Innovative Potable Water Saving Techniques at Cape Coral Hubert B. Stroud and Mary K. Kilmer he demand for fresh water began to increase dramatically in Florida in association with significant increases in population after World War II. The state’s population had grown to 2.8 million by 1950 and it ranked 20th among the lower 48 states in total population. By 1970, the state had increased to more than 6.7 million people, making it the ninth most populous state. Rapid growth continued, and today Florida ranks third in the nation with nearly 20 million people (Figure 1). As population totals continued to increase, many cities across the state began to experience problems associated with potable water supply. Obviously, this large and expanding population places an ever-increasing demand on basic services that include water supply and waste disposal. For these and other reasons, water resource management is extremely important, even in a waterrich state like Florida. The large demand for potable water supplies prompted the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) to encourage local utilities and municipalities to explore alternative water sources for future needs, and options included desalination, reverse osmosis (RO), and recycled water. One of the most widely used technologies has been RO, which forces brackish water through a network of membrane cells to remove the salt. Sev-


eral cities in south Florida, including Cape Coral, currently use RO as a way to meet the growing demand to potable supplies. Cape Coral is a newly emerging pre-platted community that was established during the 1950s by the Gulf Guaranty Land and Title Company. It began on a large parcel of land across the Caloosahatchee River from Fort Myers, the county seat of Lee County. The city is located on a large peninsula that is virtually surrounded by water (Figure 2); the Gulf of Mexico is to the west and south, the Caloosahatchee River is to the east, and the city has over 300 mi of internal freshwater canals (Figure 3). Despite the abundance of nearby and adjacent bodies of water, the city has a limited supply of water that is suitable for human consumption. In addition, rapid population growth has created an enormous demand for potable supplies. Prior to development, the peninsula that is now the location of Cape Coral was covered by interior forests that were vital to groundwater recharge. Pine forests and palmettos grew on higher elevations, while extensive mangrove swamps and tidal marshes were found near the shoreline. These ecologically fragile and valuable environments stored and purified large volumes of water that drained into them from higher elevations. The peninsula was also the location of wildlife habitat

Figure 1. Population growth by decade for the state of Florida. (source: U.S. Census Bureau)


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Hubert B. Stroud is professor of geography at Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, Ark., and Mary K. Kilmer is assistant professor in the department of biology and environmental health at Missouri Southern State University in Joplin, Mo.

and vital fish nurseries (Allan et al., 1977). Unfortunately, the development of Cape Coral resulted in extensive environmental degradation. Cape Coral became one of the largest preplatted communities (subdivisions), not only in Florida, but in the entire United States. It extends across more than 65,000 acres and has been subdivided into over 138,000 lots. Unfortunately, many of the ill-conceived land development practices proved to be detrimental to both surface and groundwater resources (Allan et al., 1977). Developers installed a gridiron pattern of roads and canals by dredging and filling, particularly in the southern and eastern sections of the subdivision. These extensive drainage-and-fill techniques, de-

Figure 2. Map indicating location of Cape Coral in relation to nearby bodies of water. (source: Geographic information system data layers obtained from City of Cape Coral and the Florida Geographic Data Library)

Figure 3. Ground view of internal fresh-water canal. (photo: Hubert Stroud)

signed to create an elaborate system of coastal and upland canals, caused many problems, including significant damage to the uppermost freshwater aquifer (Stroud, 1995, p. 105). Phased development was not used, and less than 1 percent of the total land area was provided for open space and parks. Other problems included soil erosion, urban runoff, sewage from septic tanks, and stagnating and weed-choked canals. While some of these problems have been corrected, they remain as potential problems for groundwater and surrounding water bodies, including the Caloosahatchee River and the Matlacha Pass. Water pollution was intensified by an absence of retention basins for stormwater, an absence of buffer zones along streams and canals, an absence of vegetation within and adjacent to disturbed land, and an absence of seawalls to stop erosion along canal banks. The developers also removed 90 percent of the tree canopy and damaged fish nurseries and wildlife habitat (Stroud, 1991).

Water Supply For many years, water use at Cape Coral was minimal and the need for a sophisticated water supply system was nonexistent. Individual lot owners simply dug wells, most of which were relatively shallow, into the water table (surficial) aquifer and the Mid-Hawthorn Formation to obtain an adequate water supply. The wells were few in number and did not overtax potable water supplies. As water use began to increase, the most readily available and feasible aquifer was the MidHawthorn, a water-bearing layer found in a series of rocks ranging in depth from less than 100 ft to as much as 150 ft. The trouble-free situation with water supply began to change rapidly during the 1970s, coinciding with a dramatic increase in water use across southwest Florida. As Cape Coral grew in population, some lot owners continued to dig wells, while

Figure 4. Ground view of reverse osmosis plant at Cape Coral. (photo: Hubert Stroud)

others were connected to the city’s relatively small central water system. The first treatment facility, a lime softening treatment plant, had a supply capacity of 2 mil gal per day (mgd). Both individual wells and city-controlled central systems were tapping the same relatively shallow Mid-Hawthorn aquifer. This aquifer, with a moderate to slow recharge rate, also served as a source of supply for commercial and industrial uses at Cape Coral and as a major source of water for the city of Fort Myers (Stroud, 1991). The aquifer soon became overtaxed and the water level began to decline rapidly (more than 50 ft in some locations). This precipitous decline prompted Cape Coral officials to look for an alternative source of supply.

Water Supply Problems Due to the increased demand for a reliable water supply, Cape Coral decided to explore alternative water sources. Although the region has a relatively large potential water supply from both surface and subsurface sources, the problem lies in providing potable supplies at a reasonable cost to customers. The city chose to dig deeper wells that would tap into the Lower Hawthorn, an aquifer with a relatively large volume of water and fewer competing interests. Unfortunately, the water from this source has a relatively high mineral content, rendering it unpotable. The Lower Hawthorn aquifer is within the Floridan aquifer system, which typically has chlorides of approximately 1,000 mg/L (Rectenwald et al, 2008). To account for this, the city invested in an RO water treatment plant to remove some, if not most, of the undesirable minerals (Figure 4). This first RO plant was built in 1977, to supplement the supply provided by the lime softening plant. In 1980, the RO facility was expanded, enabling it to treat up to 5 mgd. Shortly thereafter, it was observed that the wells supplying water to the lime softening plant were deteriorating

from salt water intrusion, while the demand for a potable supply was escalating rapidly. Consequently, the city abandoned the lime softening plant in favor of a further expansion of the RO treatment plant. This decision meant that Cape Coral became the first major city in the U.S. to rely solely on RO treatment as its source of potable water (City of Cape Coral, 2014). Surprisingly, the RO facility proved to be very efficient and the cost of water was less than the supply that was provided by the “old” lime softening plant. Expansion continued, and by 1985 the city had the largest low-pressure RO plant in the world, with a capacity to produce 15 mgd. This facility, named the Southwest Reverse Osmosis Plant, is supplied by 33 wells ranging in depth from 700 to 800 ft, which are located in the southwestern part of the city. Although the RO plant is the oldest of its kind, technological upgrades have made the plant a state-of-the-art facility that produces high-quality water at a reasonable cost (City of Cape Coral, 2014). These upgrades and retrofits include more-efficient low-pressure membranes, variable frequency drives, and computer automation of treatment processes (Figure 5). In response to the ever-increasing demand for water associated with a rapidly increasing population and the utility’s expansion plan, the city chose to increase the capacity of the existing RO plant from 15 to 18 mgd and to build an additional RO plant in the northern part of the city. The new north RO plant was completed in March of 2010 and has a production capacity of 12 mgd. This facility is supplied by 23 wells on property located near the new facility.

Dual Water Systems As the city continued its phenomenal population growth, the demand for potable water Continued on page14

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


Continued from page 13 had once again outstripped production capacities in Cape Coral. In view of the ever-increasing demand for water and limited options for finding additional sources of supply, the city decided to implement a dual water system that would eliminate the need to use potable supplies for lawn irrigation. The idea of a dual system was supported by the United Nations Economic and Social Council as early as 1958 when it promulgated the following principle: “No higher-quality water, unless there is a surplus of it, should be used for a purpose that can tolerate a lower grade.” This means that high-quality water resources should not be used to flush toilets or irrigate lawns when reclaimed wastewater can be made readily available for those purposes (Okun, 2002). Historically, dual water systems of one kind or another have been used for a long period of time. One of the earliest examples is the ancient Romans to supply water for fountains. More recent examples include the use of dual systems to supply cooling water for steel mills in Baltimore, for toilet flushing in Hong Kong during the 1950s, and many other examples, such as industry and power plant cooling applications (Grigg, Rogers, and Edmiston, 2013). Dual Water The plan to implement a dual water system at Cape Coral (Figure 6) was very controversial and triggered considerable public debate over the cost and the type of dual system that should be installed. Eventually, the city decided to use a gravity system rather than a less-expensive above ground method. The utilities expansion program that was implemented divided the city into segments or phases that, when completed,

would eventually provide a dual water supply for the entire community. The first Cape Coral home was connected to the new irrigation system in March 1992. Having the new system in place prompted the utility director at the time to declare that this marked the beginning of the end of water shortages at Cape Coral, and the city’s mayor stated that it was a model community and would be nationally recognized. Cape Coral is the only Florida city that has a detailed utility master plan that includes a citywide nonpotable irrigation system. Currently, approximately 50 percent of the city is connected to the dual system (Godman and Kuyk, 1997). Water Reuse The dual water system is important because it allows the city to use reclaimed water as its source of supply for the nonpotable water line. Access to this nonpotable supply is extremely important in Cape Coral as it is recognized as having one of the largest municipal residential irrigation demands in the country, with a daily average use of 26.54 mil gal (City of Cape Coral Water Reclamation Division, 2017). The major components of the reclamation system include two wastewater facilities (the 13.4-mgd Everest Water Reclamation Facility and the 15.1-mgd Southwest Water Reclamation Facility), 277 wastewater pump lift stations, and five freshwater canal pump stations that are used to sustain the irrigation system. Wastewater at Cape Coral is collected through more than 500 mi of sewer lines, transported through several lift stations, and treated at the Everest Parkway and Southwest water reclamation facilities. The Everest plant uses a five-stage Bardenpho process and has recently been expanded to 13.4 mgd. Expansion has also

Figure 5. View of membranes in use at the reverse osmosis plant in Cape Coral. (photo: Hubert Stroud)


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

occurred at the southwest plant where 15 mgd are treated using the three-stage Bardenpho process. Reclaimed water from these plants is distributed to more than 40,000 homes, 17 parks and playgrounds, 11 schools, several commercial buildings, and a limited number of fire hydrants (Long, 2016). As the city grew in population, demand for residential water rose from approximately 4.8 mgd in 1980 to more than 13 mgd by 1990. In that year, for example, 351 gal of potable water were used per connection per day, often for activities such as lawn irrigation, which did not require potable water. This amount began to decline significantly as an increasing number of customers were connected to the new dual system. By 2015, the single connection use per day had dropped to 171 gal of potable water. This represents a potable water use savings of at least 16 bil gal between 1993 and 2015. Potable water use per person has also decreased from a peak in 1990 of 161 gal per day (gpd) prior to the implementation of the dual system to only 78 gpd in 2015 (Fenske, 2016). Furthermore, in recent years, no surface water discharges into the Caloosahatchee River have been made. Implementation of the dual water system, water reclamation, and expansion of the system’s storage capacity has enabled the utility to avoid discharges into the river, since all of the reclaimed water is being used to sustain the dual system. Because of Florida’s stringent discharge regulations, avoiding surface water discharge allows the utility to save on treatment costs. Currently, the average daily use of reclaimed water is 21 mgd, most of which is used for lawn irrigation. Water use is controlled through city-imposed restrictions on lawn irrigation and an increasing block rate structure for potable water Continued on page 16

Figure 6. Illustration of the dual water system used in Cape Coral. (source: modified from Godman and Kuyk, 1997)

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


Continued from page 14 consumption. Reclaimed water is not metered; instead, residential customers are charged a fixed rate of $9.50 per month and $0.50 per 1000 gal for commercial use. In terms of water conservation, it is unfortunate that residential use of reclaimed water is not metered (Long, 2016). It is also unfortunate that the city’s utility department does not have sufficient personnel to enforce citywide watering restrictions. While it is illegal to water on restricted days and times, the city does not have the additional staff that would be needed to monitor and to write citations for water use violations (Fenske, 2016). Reclaimed water is playing an important role in Florida as an increasing number of cities are implementing water reuse as part of their water resource management strategy. According to the water reuse workgroup that was established as part of a water conservation initiative in 2003, Florida is a national leader in water reuse (Water Reuse Workgroup, 2003). The state has been remarkably successful in moving toward water reuse, and it has become an integral part of wastewater management, water resource management, and ecosystem management. In the 16-county area of SFWMD, for example, more than 110 wastewater facilities are reusing 278 mgd, and the remainder of the wastewater (590 mgd) is being sent to the ocean or injected 3000 ft underground (SFWMD, 2017). Incentives for water reuse include the everincreasing demand for water, particularly within urban areas and the increasingly stringent wastewater discharge regulations. Disadvantages or hindrances associated with water reuse are the capital investment that is required to build a wastewater treatment plant and the ongoing operation and maintenance costs. Other concerns include the availability of grants, perceived risks and social attitudes, and regulatory difficulties (Grigg, Rogers, and Edmistor, 2013).

Summary and Conclusion Cape Coral is a good example of a Florida city that took the lead and has implemented a dual water delivery system that uses reclaimed water as its source of supply for the nonpotable water line. The effectiveness of this system illustrates the importance of implementing innovative approaches to water resource management. The dual water system and wastewater reclamation have extended the life of potable supplies and provide an example of what can be done to preserve vital and very limited water resources. It’s interesting that a city built in a very inefficient manner (in regards to water resources) is now serving as a model city in terms of water resource management.


Cape Coral has made significant progress in expanding its water supply capacity and in incorporating reclaimed water into its water delivery system. Now that the north RO plant has been completed, Cape Coral is well on its way to providing an adequate supply of potable water for its build-out population of more than 350,000 people (Stroud and Graff, Florida Water Resources Journal, 2009). Sustaining future fresh water supplies may require even more innovation and conservation techniques. The success of these practices will in part depend on climate change and the extent to which precipitation patterns vary in the future. Extended periods of drought, for example, will exacerbate the current need to increase water supplies. Water management strategies will more than likely need to include both supply-side and demand-side changes. Adaption options that would expand the water supply include greater extraction capabilities, increases in storage capacity by building reservoirs and dams, expansion of rainwater storage, and the transport of water to areas of greatest need. One of the most important areas of improvement is associated with water demand and conservation. Much more is needed to improve water efficiency, and areas of emphasis should include recycling and irrigation practices. While the city has made substantial progress in water reuse, it could and should be expanded. A particularly important area of concern is the amount of recycled water that is used for irrigation; far too much water is used for watering grass. Reduction options include changes to lawn grasses that require less water and changes in the timing and the amounts of water used for lawns. The city should also restructure the rates charged for water use to encourage water conservation and tax those that “waste” large volumes of water on nonessential uses. While the increasing population and the predicted stresses of climate change will likely continue to challenge water resources globally, Cape Coral has shown itself to be a leader in the adoption of water conservation and management strategies. The implementation of a dual water system, using reclaimed water for nonpotable uses, and the subsequent reduction in demand for potable water indicates the potential for dual water systems to be effective in other cities, both in Florida and beyond.

References • Allan, Leslie et al., 1977. Promised Lands. Vol. 2, Subdivisions in Florida’s Wetlands. Inform Inc., New York; pp. 117–157. • City of Cape Coral, 2016. Open Data Portal for a Smarter Community. GIS layers available at

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• City of Cape Coral, 2014. “2014 Annual Consumer Report on the Quality of Tap Water.” Utilities Dept., Cape Coral, Fla. • City of Cape Coral Water Reclamation Division, 2017. Available at es_water_reclamation.php#.WKNtZX-JSyE. • Fenske, Andrew; manager, water production. Cape Coral, Fla., personal communication, August 2016. • Florida Geographic Data Library, 2016. GIS layers available at • Godman, Robert R., and Kuyk, David D. “A Dual Water System for Cape Coral.” Journal American Water Works Association, July 1997; pp. 45–53. • Grigg, Neil S.; Rogers, P.; and Edmistor, S. “Dual Water Systems: Characterization and Performance for Distribution of Reclaimed Water.” Water Research Foundation, 2013. • Long, Patrick; manager, water reclamation. Cape Coral, Fla., personal communication, May 2016. • Okum, Daniel A., 2002. “Running Out of Water: Dual Systems May Be Answer for Small Communities.” National Drinking Water Clearinghouse, Morgantown, W.V.; pp. 1–6 ( ual Systems.html). • Restenwald, E. Edward; Kennedy, Gordon; Weatherly,Michael; and Reilly, George. “Significant Water Quality Trends Observed in the Lower Hawthorn Aquifer of Southwest Florida: Occurrences and Solution.” Florida Water Resources Journal, April 2008; pp. 40–48. • South Florida Water Management District, 2017. Available at page/portal/xweb%20-%20release%203%20 water%20supply/reuse. • Stroud, Hubert B. “Water Resources at Cape Coral, Florida: Problems Created by Poor Planning and Development.” Land Use Policy, April 1991; pp. 143–157. • Stroud, Hubert B., 1995. “The Promise of Paradise: Recreational and Retirement Communities in the United States Since 1950.” Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 103–111. • Stroud and Graff, 2009. “Cape Coral’s Approach to Water Resource Management.” Florida Water Resources Journal, September, 2009, pp. 41–44. • Water Reuse Work Group, Water Conservation Initiative. “Water Reuse for Florida: Strategies for Effective Use of Reclaimed Water.” Reuse Coordinating Committee, June 2003. • United States Census Bureau, 2016. Census Data for Florida. Available at quickfacts/table/PST045215/12. S

FWRJ READER PROFILE George B. Cassady, P.E. Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department

Work title and years of service. I’ve been director of the department for five years and have a total of 34 years of professional experience in the industry. What does your job entail? I have overall responsibility for department operations. We provide water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services to nearly 600,000 residents in Hillsborough County. The department has an operating budget of $210 million and over 700 employees.

My role is to provide leadership and direction for the department, ensuring highquality services and a sustainable operation. The team is focused on maintaining customer satisfaction at the highest level and doing it at a great value What education and training have had? I have a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Auburn University and a master’s degree in environmental engineering from the University of South Florida. I’m a registered professional engineer in the state of Florida. What do you like best about your job? I really enjoy the day-to-day interaction with people and the fact that no two days are ever the same! We have a great team that is focused on customer satisfaction, which makes my job very easy! What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to WEF, AWWA, WERF, and FWEA, where I am a director at large. How have the organizations helped your career? There are a couple of very important benefits. One is keeping current with technology and trends in the industry, which are changing rapidly; it’s essential to keep pace with progress. Also, the networking opportunities are amazing. Getting to know others in the profession helps to build understanding of the issues and how to better work together to solve problems. What do you like best about the industry? There are many conveniences in life, but a few things you can’t live without; providing drinking water and treating wastewater is one of those. It is an essential service that we take pride in providing day in and day out—and not just providing it, but doing so in a quality manner. What do you do when you’re not working? Outside of being the director, my spare time is filled with family activities. My wife is an artist and my number one hobby is being the assistant to the artist! With six kids there is never a dull moment (school, athletics, and miscellaneous activities). In between there is garden work, and maybe a little time for S pottery. Life is good!


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Conservation and Reuse. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!


Innovative Potable Water Saving Techniques at Cape Coral Hubert B. Stroud and Mary K. Kilmer (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS)

1. In the 1970s, a ___________ prompted Cape Coral officials to look for an alternative water supply source. a. regulatory enforcement action b. contamination incident c. precipitous decline in aquifer water levels d. lawsuit

2. Water from the Lower Hawthorne aquifer typically contains ______ mg/L of chloride. a. 250 b. 500 c. 1,000 d. 5,000

3. To eliminate the need to use potable water for irrigation, the city implemented a. a dual water system. b. reverse osmosis concentrate recycling. c. mandatory private irrigation wells. d. a ban on St. Augustine grass.

4. Both Cape Coral wastewater treatment facilities use the _________ treatment process. a. trickling filter b. Modified Ludzack-Ettinger c. Bardenpho d. coagulation

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ________________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information:

__________________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

__________________________________________ (Expiration Date)

5. Water reclamation and reclaimed water storage enhancements have reduced discharge to the Caloosahatchee River a. to zero. b. by 50 percent. c. to an average of one per month. d. to 21 mil gal per day (mgd).

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017



Florida Proud to Host AWWA/WEF Young Professionals Summit and Utility Management Conference Grace Johns Chair, FSAWWA

record-setting 1,073 participants. The great success of these events is due in large part to the many FSAWWA volunteers, including members of the Young Professionals (YP) Committee, who worked hard as the Local Host Committee to plan and implement event logistics and activities.

Young Professionals Committee his year’s AWWA/WEF Young Professionals (YP) Summit and Utility Management Conference were held in Tampa on February 6-10 and attracted a


AWWA’s YP Committee plans activities and events to actively promote the advancement of students and younger professionals in

All the Florida young professionals from FSAWWA and FWEA in attendance.

During the YP Summit welcome, Grace Johns, FSAWWA chair, shares her experience providing expert-witness testimony as a young economist.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the water industry. This committee leads the local sections, including FSAWWA, to engage younger members to take an active role in the Association. By participating in the Association’s and/or the Florida Section’s YP Committee, members can create a professional network, enhance their resumes, and become industry leaders.

Young Professionals Summit The AWWA/WEF YP Summit is a workshop that focuses on the professional development of new entrants into the water and wastewater industry. This year, 164 AWWA and WEF members joined us in Tampa. The summit featured a panel on “Leadership in Water and Wastewater Emergency Management,” with panelists Christine Owen (Tampa Bay Water), Jonathan Reeves (DC Water), and Scott Holowasko (Gainesville Regional Utilities). Each spoke about their specific emergency management experiences in the water and wastewater industry and lessons they learned. An engaging audience question-and-answer session followed, and the panel concluded with group scenario discussions about interacting with participating agencies during an emergency situation. The afternoon session focused on interactive professional development that provided participants with skills to improve workplace communication. Linda Kelly of WEF led the discussion on improving emotional intelligence, and Bill Stowe of Des Moines Water Works shared his experience as he addressed cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in Des Moines raw water sources caused by phosphorus loading from farm fertilizer runoff. Both AWWA and WEF held training sessions to equip YPs with new ideas, plans, and materials that can increase YP participation in their local sections. Two networking receptions were held on Monday and Tuesday evenings and were very well attended. Jordan Walker, FSAWWA’s YP Committee chair, led the FSAWWA volunteers as Local Host Committee chair, with assistance from Tyler Smith as co-chair. Volunteer activities included marketing, sponsorship, reception

Shelby Hughes, who received the FSAWWA 2016 Young Professional of the Year award, leads a group scenario discussion during the emergency management panel.

David LaFrance, AWWA chief executive officer, speaking at the AWWA YP training session.

Peggy Guingona, FSAWWA executive director; Grace Johns, FSAWWA chair; Alysse Ness, 2016 FSAWWA Likins Scholarship recipient; Ji Im, with New England AWWA; and Rebecca Olivo, FSAWWA member, enjoy the Monday evening networking reception at the Florida Aquarium.

events, reception packet, and a post-summit event. According to AWWA, the support provided by Jordan and his team made a huge positive impact on the summit. The Association thanks Jordan and the following FSAWWA volunteers for the high-quality services they provided: S Jordan Walker, Kimley-Horn S Tyler Smith, Carollo Engineers S Catherine Kiever, ADS Inc. S David Yonge, Jones-Edmunds S Hillary Weber, Hillsborough County S Jose Cueto, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Dept. S Katherine Williams, Hazen and Sawyer S Kristen Waksman, Carollo Engineers S Kunal Nayee, Atkins S Lizeth Mora, King Engineering S Mike Semago, Kimley-Horn S Nelson Perez-Jacome, Hazen and Sawyer S Nicole Smith, McKim & Creed S Paul Biscardi, Hazen and Sawyer S Phil Walker, Tetra Tech


Lively conversation at the YP reception held at the Florida Aquarium.

Jeanne Bennett-Bailey, AWWA president; Jordan Walker; David Yonge; and Kyle Tryan, with Michigan AWWA, at the YP training session.

Rachel Fogarty, RC Associates Sean Menard, Jones-Edmunds Sharmeela Khemlani, King Engineering Shelby Hughes, Kimley-Horn Tyler Tedcastle, Carter & Verplanck

We thank these volunteers for their help in making this year’s YP Summit a success.

AWWA/WEF Utility Management Conference This is the 28th year of the AWWA/WEF Utility Management Conference, and it has earned a stellar reputation as one of the most informative of management conferences. The conference facilitates AWWA’s mission to advance and disseminate knowledge to improve water utility management and leadership practices. A record-setting 959 people attended the four-day program. Topics addressed included succession planning, asset management, effective business practices, customer communica-

tion, fostering innovation, rate making from a conservation perspective, infrastructure project management, cybersecurity, climate change, and utility benchmarking. Pamela London-Exner, the FSAWWA Technical and Education Council (TEC) chair, led the FSAWWA volunteers as the Local Host Committee chair. Association members and staff extended “many, many thanks to Pam; she was an amazing support, both in the planning phase and during the conference, by coordinating the room monitors, helping with registration, and being available at any moment to offer assistance.” The AWWA members from Florida who provided volunteer services as room monitors were: S Bina Nayak, Pinellas County Utilities S Richard Anderson, Peace River Manasota Regional Water Authority S Dave Bracciano, Tampa Bay Water S Nichole Reeves Thomas, Tampa Bay Water Continued on page 22

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


At left, Jacqueline Torbert, with Orange County Utilities and FSAWWA past chair, presents her utility’s succession planning efforts and positive outcomes.

Continued from page 21 S Michael Condran, GHD S Terri Holcomb, HDR S Shelby Hughes, Kimley-Horn S Nick Makris, Southwest Florida Water Management District S Emilie Moore, Tetra Tech S Rebecca Oliva, CDM Smith S Tonya Simmons, GPI S Laureen Busacca, Amber Kiger, Melanie Lasch, Pamela London-Exner, Hannah Slowey, and Jack Thornburgh, all with Veolia North America.

We thank these FSAWWA volunteers for their dedicated service that resulted in a very successful Utility Management Conference. If you are interested in volunteering or in learning more about the FSAWWA YP Committee and/or the Technical and Education Council, please contact our executive director, Peggy Guingona; our YP chair, Jordan Walker; or our TEC chair, Pamela London-Exner, using the contact information provided at S

Utility management professionals from across the United States attend the Utility Management Conference opening general session.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal


It’s That Time of Year Again Scott Anaheim President, FWPCOA

h, here comes spring, which is time for us to converge on the campus of Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce for the Spring Short School. Many of you saw the familiar faces teaching courses at the school in March, such as Tom King and Dave Pachucki, but this year there were also some new faces around. I’m always appreciative of the folks who are willing to give up their time (both leave and personal) to volunteer at the short schools. In last month’s column, I talked about FWPCOA’s need to work on succession planning. Training was one area that we were looking at and what we need to do to assist



instructors who are called upon at the last minute to fill in. It’s amazing how quickly this issue raised its ugly head, but as always, this organization met the challenge head on and kept moving. We know that there is more work to do in this area, but the work is already in place to have the material for training, so anyone who is willing to instruct a class can use it. I remember years ago, when I took my first short school course, we just read out of the book. Now, with the use of PowerPoint presentations and videos, it not only helps the instructors filling in to teach the courses, it also makes the classes a little more appealing to the students. Let’s face it—most folks don’t even crack the book open until they get to the school, and some never even receive it until right before then in the first place. Many utilities don’t purchase the most current volume for the employees or they require them to use another employee’s book, so having the relevant material in training is important. The training material in the manuals doesn’t really change, just the location from one volume to the next. So, if the material is covered, then it’s up to the students to locate it in the books. I believe this is more beneficial because it requires them to open the book. We will be looking at ways to improve our training material and having off-the-shelf training ready for anyone to use when teaching a

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

course, or at least as a guide. I don’t want to get to the point where we tie someone hands who may have a better approach, so as long as the correct information is being taught, our material is there for assistance. If anyone has any suggestions on this please let us know, or if you’re looking at instructing and just need help with course material, just remember that we’re here to help.

License Renewal Deadline The deadline to renew your drinking water, wastewater, or distribution systems operator license is less than a month away. Remember, it isn’t your employer’s responsibility to renew your license—it’s yours. The FWPCOA has a vast selection of online courses that can meet your continuing education needs in an economical and efficient way. Please visit our website ( to see which courses are right for you.

Florida Water Resources Conference The Florida Water Resource Conference will be held in West Palm Beach at the Palm Beach County Convention Center on April 2226. Please stop by our booth in the exhibit hall and see what we have to offer. I hope to see you there! S


3-6 ..........Backflow Tester ..............................Pensacola ................$375/405 10-14 ..........Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ....................$350/380 17-21 ..........Wastewater Collection C ................Orlando ..................$225/255 28 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115


1-3 ..........Backflow Repair ..............................Osteen ....................$275/305 1-5 ..........Water Distribution Level 3 ............North Miami Beach....$225/255 15-18 ..........Backflow Tester*..............................St. Petersburg ..........$375/405 15-19 ..........Water Distribution Level 2 ............Osteen ....................$225/255 15-19 ..........Reclaimed Water Distribution B......Osteen ....................$225/255 26 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115


5-9 ..........Wastewater Collection C ................Osteen ....................$225/255 12-26 ..........Stormwater C, B** ..........................Pembroke Pines ........$260/290 12-26 ..........Stormwater A* ................................Pembroke Pines ........$225/255 12-26 ..........Wastewater Collection C, B, A** ....Pembroke Pines ........$225/255 12-26 ..........Water Distribution 3, 2, 1** ..........Pembroke Pines ........$225/255 19-21 ..........Backflow Repair* ............................St. Petersburg ..........$275/305 19-22 ..........Backflow Tester ..............................Osteen ....................$375/405 30 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115


10-13 ..........Backflow Tester*..............................St. Petersburg ..........$375/405 10-14 ..........Reclaimed Field Site Inspector ......Osteen ....................$350/380 17-21 ..........Water Level 1 ..................................Osteen ....................$225/255 17-21 ..........Wastewater Collection A ..............Osteen ....................$225/255 17-21 ..........Stormwater A ..................................Osteen ....................$275/305 28 ..........Backflow Tester recert*** ..............Osteen ....................$85/115 Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


2016 Legislative Year in Review Great accomplishments—with more changes in 2017 Steve Dye

he Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) Government Affairs Department spent a very busy 2016 advancing the WEF agenda before Congress and building a robust grassroots program for the future. Thank you to all WEF members who contributed to our fruitful efforts in 2016. We look forward to your continued participation in 2017. Here are highlights of the many critical events and policy changes from the past year.


New President, New Direction The year ended with one of the most monumental (and unexpected) political events in the history of the United States with the election of Donald J. Trump as president. While what the future of a Trump presidency will mean for our nation is unclear, there are some early, clear indications of how his agenda may affect the water sector. Mr. Trump spoke on the campaign trail about a massive infrastructure investment package, reforms to the tax code, and curtailing the reach of federal agencies on matters of regulation and oversight. In early December 2016, WEF wrote a letter to the then-president-elect detailing WEF’s priorities and recommendations for our nation’s water policies. The key points in the letter were: S Advancing smart regulations and policies by using sound science and technical merit S Accelerating and expanding water infrastructure investment S Bolstering research and development to find solutions to pressing challenges in water S Developing high-skill construction and water sector jobs S Ensuring local water systems are affordable and robust


The organization also pledged to provide reliable and expert input to the next administration to help solve the nation’s water challenges. The full letter is available at

WEF Testifies Before Congress on Infrastructure Funding Bill Despite admirable bipartisan efforts by some key members of Congress, for the last decade Congress has struggled to advance major legislation to expand funding resources for water infrastructure investments. While no far-reaching legislation was passed last year, several significant policies advanced deep into the legislative process, only to be cut from final bills. This sets the stage for 2017, which is expected to see a sizable infrastructure package. On several levels, WEF contributed to these efforts. In April 2016, WEF testified at a Senate Environment and Public Works (EPW) Committee hearing. Rudolph Chow, Baltimore public works director and the new WEF Government Affairs Committee chair, testified on behalf of WEF (an archived hearing webcast and a transcript of Chow’s testimony can be accessed at The Senate committee heard the results of an analysis that the committee had requested that WEF and the WateReuse Association (Alexandria, Va.) conduct. The results show the full economic benefits to the economy, job creation, and federal tax revenues from funding the Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (SRF) programs. The data show that: S Every dollar of SRF spending results in $0.93 of federal tax revenue. S Each $1 million in SRF spending produces 16.5 jobs, with an average salary of $60,000 per year. S Every $1 million in SRF spending results in $2.95 million in output for the U.S. economy.

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Following the hearing, the Senate EPW Committee introduced its version of the 2016 Water Resources Development Act (WRDA), which cited the WEF/WateReuse report and called on Congress to increase SRF funding significantly. The final WRDA bill included a version of the Senate provision (further detailed in this article).

2016 Fly-In a Success; Setting the Stage for 2017 The annual Washington, D.C., Fly-In event in April 2016 drew nearly 200 water professionals from across the nation to carry the message to Capitol Hill about the need for increased funding and support for water infrastructure. In addition to meeting with congressional offices, attendees participated in regulatory briefings and roundtables with program directors from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other agencies. The fly-in event was part of Water Week, which was organized by WEF and its partners.

Congress Finishes 2016 With New Funding for Water Infrastructure As the 2016 calendar year drew to a close, Congress took several actions benefitting water infrastructure investments. A continuing resolution that will fund the federal government through late April includes $20 million to start the Water Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (WIFIA), which is a new loan and loan guarantee program that WEF helped create. It’s estimated by EPA that the $20 million may provide more than $1 billion in credit assistance and may potentially finance more than $2 billion in new water infrastructure investments. Organizations interested in applying for low-interest loans and loan guarantees have until April 10, 2017, to submit a letter of interest (LOI) to EPA, which issued a notice of funding availability (NOFA) in the Federal

Register on Jan. 10, 2017. Further details about WIFIA and the NOFA are available at In addition, Congress passed and President Obama signed into law the Water Infrastructure Improvements Act for the Nation (WIIN) Act, which includes WRDA. The bill authorizes port, waterway, and flood protection projects, and drinking water and wastewater provisions. While WRDA authorizes mostly U.S. Corps of Engineer projects and programs, the WIIN Act also features WEF-supported provisions, including a ‘Sense of Congress’ urging robust funding for the Clean Water and Drinking Water SRF programs. This provision is a result of the Senate version of the WRDA bill previously mentioned. The WIIN Act contains provisions to assist the city of Flint, Mich., including authorization to allocate $170 million through the Drinking Water SRF program and grants to reduce lead in drinking water. The bill also includes a ‘Sense of Congress’ to provide $20 million to Flint through the WIFIA program. Sixty million dollars per year also are provided until FY 2021 to help small and disadvantaged communities reduce lead in drinking water at a cost-share of 45 percent. In addition, the bill permits WIFIA loan applicants to finance fees for the loan application process. The bill also changes the WIFIA program to allow applicants to receive credit for any costs and in-kind contributions they incur prior to the loan award.

EPA Advances Combined Sewer Overflows Public Notification in Great Lakes In late December 2016, Gina McCarthy, EPA administrator, signed a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), implementing Section 425 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This section requires EPA to work with the Great Lakes area to establish public notification requirements for combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges. The following is stated on the EPA website: “This NPRM addresses signage, notification of local public health departments and other potentially affected public entities, notification to the public entities, notification to the public, and annual notice provisions for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permittees authorized to discharge from a CSO to the Great Lakes Basin.”

The rule affects NPDES permits within the Great Lakes watershed that include a CSO. The public comment period was open until March 14 ( at Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2016-0376).

Water Advocates Gain a New Home A new online grassroots advocacy website was launched by WEF last year to support the Water Advocates program. WEF members and water sector professionals can access the website ( for important legislative and regulatory matters and calls to action on issues affecting the water sector. A number of grassroots tools on the site help WEF members engage with their elected officials. It’s easier than ever to become a WEF Water Advocate and receive notifications about legislative and regulatory issues and calls to action by visiting A recent successful Water Advocates campaign led to nearly 200 emails and letters sent to Congress during final negotiations over the WRDA bill and continuing resolution. With a newly elected president and the start of the 115th Congress, 2017 is shaping up to be a monumental year for the water sector. WEF will continue to push policies, regulations, and support that reflect the interests of its members. Your input and involvement is greatly appreciated as we work to advance the interests of water professionals before policymakers and the public. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Steve Dye is the legislative director at the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). S

NARUC Responds to ASCE Infrastructure Report Card Failing grade is a wake-up call to action Robert Powelson, president of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), issued the following statement in response to the newly released 2017 Infrastructure Report Card from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE): “On behalf of NARUC and its members, the state of the infrastructure in the United States is nearing a crisis level. The D+ grade should serve as a wake-up call that we must attend to the condition of America’s drinking water, wastewater, and energy infrastructure, all of which are essential to our individual and collective health, well-being, and prosperity. The members of NARUC regulate these critical areas and we support ASCE in its call for more investment, innovation, and planning. We are committed to redirecting the course of our failing national infrastructure. We hope to bring members of ASCE into our national dialogue this year, which is focused squarely on infrastructure, innovation, and investment. As public servants, we need to work collectively with stakeholder groups, businesses, and the government to invest the time and money needed to develop effective solutions that serve the public interest and safety. This will be a long-term effort, and we are prepared to create the infrastructure for the twenty-first century that this country needs and deserves.” Issued every four years, the latest report card calls for infrastructure investment to increase from the current level of about 2.5 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product to 3.5 percent by 2025. The report states that the cumulative needs for water and wastewater infrastructure for 2016 through 2025, based on current trends, is $150 billion. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


Test Yourself

Regulations on Reuse of Reclaimed Water 1. According to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Chapter 62-600.440 (5) (f) FAC, regarding high-level disinfection, any one sample shall not exceed how many fecal coliform values over a 30-day period? a. 10 fecal coliform values per 100 ml sample b. 25 fecal coliform values per 100 ml sample c. 200 fecal coliform values per 100 ml sample d. 800 fecal coliform values per 100 ml sample 2. According to FDEP Chapter 62-610 FAC, the definition of “Water that has received at least secondary treatment and basic disinfection and is reused after flowing out of a domestic wastewater treatment facility” describes what? a. Reclaimed water b. Chilled water to an ice manufacturing facility c. Distilled water d. Potable water

Ron Trygar

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: or by mail to: Ron Trygar, CET Senior Training Specialist UF TREEO Center Gainesville, Fla. 32608

3. Reclaimed water distribution piping is commonly color-coded using what light-stable colorant? a. Gunmetal grey 347D b. Seafoam green 12-87 c. Sch-40 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) white, SDR-20 d. Pantone purple 522C 4. Which of the following is a document that describes how a domestic wastewater facility is to be operated to ensure that only reclaimed water that meets applicable standards is released to a reuse system and includes a detailed set of instructions for the operators of the plant? a. Facility performance report b. Facility operations and maintenance manual c. Facility discharge permit d. Facility operating protocol 5. Filtration serves to increase the ability of the disinfection process to inactivate viruses and other pathogens by doing what? a. Increasing the flow rate to the chlorine contact tanks. b. Removing total suspended solids (TSS) before the chlorine contact tanks. c. Increasing the detention time of the chlorine contact tanks. d. Removing nitrate before the chlorine contact tanks.

6. For treatment systems designed for high-level disinfection, compliance with the TSS limitation shall be achieved and sampled when? a. After final effluent disinfection. b. After the required contact time has been met, but before application of the dechlorinating agent. c. After final clarification, but before filtration. d. After filtration, but before final disinfection. 7. In order to show compliance with the highlevel disinfection criteria for fecal coliform monitoring, what percent of monthly (30day) fecal coliform samples must be below detection limits? a. 25 percent b. 50 percent c. 75 percent d. 90 percent 8. Where chlorine is being used as the disinfectant, new or newly expanded facilities must meet specific design criteria for total residual chlorine and contact time. For design purposes, if the reclaimed water or treated effluent will contain 1,000 fecal coliforms or less per 100-ml sample, then the product of the total chlorine residual and the contact time in minutes, at peak hourly flow, shall be at least what value? a. 15 b. 25 c. 40 d. 120 9. As an alternative to using chlorine as a disinfectant, ultraviolet (UV) light can be used as part of achieving high-level disinfection. Using criteria found in the National Water Research Institute manual, “Ultraviolet Disinfection, Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water Reuse,” Aug. 2012, the design UV dose shall be at least 100 mj/cm2, and what filtered effluent UV transmittance (UVT) percent is required? a. 25 percent at 60 newton-meters (nm) b. 44 percent at 254 nm c. 55 percent at 254 nm d. 95 percent at 500 nm 10. Membrane filtration is a method of removing solids from treated effluent and producing highquality reclaimed water. What are the two most common methods of membrane treatment used for reclaiming water from wastewater? a. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration b. Reverse osmosis and super filtration c. Nanofiltration and gravity sand filtration d. Reverse osmosis and microfiltration Answers on page 67


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal



Standing Tall in Sopchoppy: Aquastore Tank is Built to Last Deep in the Apalachicola National Forest in the Florida panhandle, where US 319 makes a crank-handle turn, lies the community of Sopchoppy. It’s an Indian name that means “dark water” or “twisted river.” In fact, the Sopchoppy River is one of the most pristine in the whole state and it attracts a crowd for boating, kayaking, and fishing. Just 40 miles southwest of Tallahassee, but a world away from the hustle and bustle, Sopchoppy is home to about 400 people who prefer the peaceful life and look forward to the annual Worm Grunting Festival, where worms are coaxed to the surface of the earth and harvested for bait. Years ago the Carrabelle, Tallahassee, and Georgia (CT&G) Railroad rumbled through here, but it shut down and was later replaced by a scenic trail. All that remains today is the old depot, built in 1891 and lovingly restored in recent years. In fact, Sopchoppy is one of only a few communities that can boast of a school gymnasium on the National Register of Historic Places. A good chunk of Wakulla County’s utility needs are served by the Sopchoppy River. Leonard Tartt, the public works director, figures that about 10,000 individuals get their water from his district via 4,000 connections. The district pumps about 21 mil gal of water each month—sourced from seven wells fed by the Floridan aquifer, which lies deep below the state, replenished by rainwater filtering through hundreds of feet of sand and rock. Not quite as old as the Floridan aquifer, but just as critical to the area’s needs, is the city’s Aquastore glass-fused-to-steel storage tank. Built in 1985, and at 23 ft tall and 42 ft in diameter, the tank has withstood the test of time and the elements, but looks and performs like new. Sopchoppy has four other tanks—all steel—and Tartt says they don’t compare to the Aquastore tank when it comes to durability, appearance, and the low cost of maintenance. “The Aquastore tank has more than performed as advertised in every aspect,” says Tartt. “By comparison, the steel tanks fade over time and need to be repainted, and they need more repair.” The Florida Department of Environmental Protection requires that tanks be inspected and pressure-washed every five years, and Tartt says the only repairs made to the Aquastore tanks are recaulking some seams. During the

same period, the steel tanks have had to be sandblasted and repainted several times to ward off corrosion. “At 80 dollars a gallon, the cost of paint really adds up,” he says. Aquastore tanks are built by CST Storage, the world's largest provider of modular, factorycoated bolted storage tanks for dry bulk and liquid applications for many markets. The tank is made of glass and steel fused together at 1,500ºF. With its inert, inorganic coating, the tank withstands heat, cold, and moisture, and maintains its luster compared to steel tanks that require painting. The Aquastore tank is easier to clean and maintain than concrete tanks, which are susceptible to corrosion of reinforcing steel, cracking, and mildew. “The Sopchoppy tank is among the first Aquastore water tanks our company built in Florida and it continues to make us proud,” says John Viale, territory manager at Florida Aquastore, CST’s exclusive turnkey provider of Aquastore tanks throughout Florida, southern counties in Georgia, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. “It looks and performs like new and I know Leonard gets the most out of its 239,000-gallon capacity.” In fact, during the warm months the district uses the tank almost to capacity day in and day out. “I’ve never had problems with it, even though in the peak of summer the turnover will be 225,000 to 230,000 gallons a day,” says Tartt. “Then we’ll throttle it back a bit during the winter.”

Compared to elevated tanks, erecting an Aquastore tank is a snap. The geodesic dome is hoisted into place, while panels are assembled underneath. Jacks are used to lift the tank higher to make room for additional panels. No one has to leave the ground and the tank can be installed in the tightest of spaces. Tartt also prefers the Aquastore tank for its compatibility with other specialized systems. For example, the district installed an aerator on the top of the tank to help remove hydrogen sulfide. Other elements, like iron and calcium, are easier to deal with because they’re easy to wash off the tank surface. Tartt has lived in Wakulla County all of his life. He served on Sopchoppy’s city council and was the mayor before taking over the public works role. He’s seen quite a bit in his time and has a good perspective on what’s built to last. “Everybody looks at the bottom line nowadays, but I also look at quality and historical performance—what’s worked and what hasn’t,” says Tartt. “You can get a fire hydrant that will pass codes and is less costly, but will it last 50 years? It’s basically the same thing. You have a little added cost with ground storage because you need service pumps, but when you consider the tradeoff, the Aquastore tank comes out ahead every time.” The CT&G Railroad may not have survived in these parts, but odds are good for the Aquastore tank, which is still performing at a superior level, even after thirty-one years. S

Technology Spotlight is a paid feature sponsored by the advertisement on the facing page. The Journal and its publisher do not endorse any product that appears in this column. If you would like to have your technology featured, contact Mike Delaney at 352-241-6006 or at


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Contractors Council: The Year Ahead Mike Alexakis icking off the new year with the water and wastewater industry in


full swing, and the downturn in the Florida economy in the rearview mirror, the Florida Section AWWA Contractors Council has a renewed commitment and purpose to re-establish a strong presence in the state. Under the guidance of Mark Kelly, the council chair, we are staying true to our mission statement, which is as follows:

“We will endeavor to partner with all components of the water industry to ensure we maximize the use of our water resources while minimizing impacts to our environment and community. We shall work to disseminate the latest information on project delivery trends and practices for infrastructure needs. We will look at the long-term needs to maximize the return on capital improvement costs.” The council has set lofty goals in order to remain a valuable resource for owners, engineers, contractors, and suppliers. We intend to publish multiple articles throughout the year and hold workshops in an effort to educate and provide an opportunity to discuss challenges that the municipal market faces day in and day out. Networking through AWWA events will provide our current council members an opportunity to interact and to continue to be a partner for our industry. Our first workshop for the year, in partnership with the South Florida DesignBuild Institute of America (DBIA) Chapter, will be held at the Florida Water Resource Conference at the Palm Beach County Convention Center in West Palm Beach in April. The workshop is titled, "Prequalification to P3: Lessons Learned in Selecting and Using Alternate Delivery Methods," and will offer the audience an opportunity to hear from owners throughout the state. Five keynote speakers will present their alternate delivery selections, the reasons behind the selections, and lessons learned throughout the process. We invite all who are attending the conference to stop by and help us make this first workshop a success. The FSAWWA Contractors Council is committed to collaborating and providing educating opportunities for owners, engineers, suppliers, and other councils in regard to construction. If you have any ideas or topics you would like the council to expand on and possibly feature in a column or conference presentation, please send us your ideas through our website at We hope that, with the help of our industry partners and FSAWWA, we can make 2017 a success for all. Mike Alexakis is senior project manager with Wharton-Smith Inc. in Lake Monroe. S


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

PROCESS PAGE Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! This monthʼs column highlights the JEA Southwest Water Reclamation Facility. This facility received honorable mention for the Earle B. Phelps Award in the category of secondary treatment in 2015. We hope that you will enjoy reading about another outstanding treatment facility in Florida, and perhaps will learn something that can be implemented at your plant.

JEA Southwest Water Reclamation Facility Focuses on Automation, Optimization, and Safety effluent pump station to ensure good forward effluent flow to its surface water discharge. Several biological nutrient removal (BNR) upgrades were completed by JEA to improve nutrient removal and a fourth clarifier was constructed to increase the plant design capacity to 14 mgd.

Tim Mechum, Roz Matthews, and Caitlin Klug

The Plant Today

Many Upgrades Over the Years

At this time, the WRF is a secondary treatment plant utilizing BNR technology for liquid treatment and pumps its solids to the Buckman Residuals Management Facility for treatment. The facility is located in Duval County approximately two mi due west of the Jacksonville Naval Air Station and the St. Johns River. The treatment of wastewater by this JEA facility provides services essential to public health, environmental sustainability, and quality of life for the west side of Jacksonville. The facility includes the following major unit processes: S Headworks with 6-mm screening and grit removal S Odor control S Activated sludge treatment in an anoxic/aerobic BNR configuration S Secondary clarifiers: two center-fed and two rim-fed

The JEA Southwest Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) is one of 11 wastewater treatment plants operated by JEA. The average daily flow of 11.5 mil gal per day (mgd) to the plant is one of the highest among JEA’s treatment facilities. Construction of the original 5-mgd southwest wastewater treatment plant was completed in 1975. The process at that time consisted of a pretreatment facility, one activated sludge tank, one secondary clarifier, chlorination facilities, one aerobic digester tank, one sludge thickener tank, and one septic tank disposal facility. In 1987, the plant was expanded to 10 mgd. In the 2000s, JEA installed a new headworks facility to improve removal of grit and screenings, a more effective odor control system, an ultraviolet disinfection system that replaced the chlorine and sulfur dioxide systems, and an

Rim-Fed Secondary Clarifier


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Effluent disinfection using ultraviolet Post-aeration Effluent pump station Return activated sludge and waste activated sludge pump station S Sludge holding tank The facility is currently highly automated, which allows JEA to manually or automatically control the entire plant via each unit process. Realtime monitoring also assists with maintaining efficient operation of all treatment processes, resulting in many benefits, including energy savings and consistently high-quality effluent. For example, the dissolved oxygen (DO)-based control in the aeration basins utilizes the most open valve (MOV) control strategy, which promotes low-system pressure by having one of the control valves become the MOV and allows the other control valves to seek their position to meet the airflow requirements. The MOV logic ensures that excess backpressure on the blowers is minimized and has resulted in more efficient blower management. Influent and efluent concentration averages from the previous 12 months are summarized in Table 1. The data demonstrate the remarkable performance of the facility, especially considering the discharge goal for total nitrogen (TN)

Biological Nutrient Removal Basin

Table 1. Facility Influent and Effluent Water Quality JEA Southwest Water Reclamation Facility

post-BNR improvements was 6 mg/L. Table 1 also provides permitted discharge limits. Carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS) limits are based on the site-specific alternative criteria for DO established for the St. Johns River. Another reason for the excellent effluent water quality is the recent decision by JEA to educate all chief operators in process modeling software. By training the operators on how to model their own plants, the operators can strive for optimization and “pilot” new strategies without “tampering” with their existing treatment process. As a result, JEA has been able to continue optimization of both its nutrient removal and aeration systems.

Last, but definitely not least, safety is a high priority for the JEA operations staff members who take pride in their commitment to JEA’s “zero incidents” policy. The WRF staff is diligent about attendance at the monthly safety meetings, weekly tailgate meetings, and the “Take Two” program, which encourages all employees to take at least two minutes before starting a task. Utilizing those two minutes to think through a job before it starts can ensure that the work is completed as safely as possible. Employees are also encouraged to create “Strategic Task, Analyzes,” which ensure job hazards are known before each task is completed. Additionally, all WRF employees are trained in general first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscita-

tion. The WRF provides first aid kits in each building, an onsite automated external defibrillator, emergency response information clearly posted at multiple locations, and standard operating procedures that are in place so that all employees know what to do in an emergency. The many upgrades over the years are evidence of JEA’s continuous effort to improve water quality in the region. Tim Mechum is the reuse/treatment operations coordinator at JEA Southwest WRF. Roz Matthews is an associate engineer in Cleveland, Ohio, and Caitlin Klug is a senior principal engineer in Jacksonville, both with Hazen and Sawyer. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Public Affairs Council Affiliation: FSAWWA Current chair: Scott Richards, GAI Consultants

S Marketing/Media – FSAWWA continues to evolve its marketing program to stay current with the latest trends and social media. Be sure to follow “Florida Section AWWA” on Facebook and Instagram.

Year group was formed: 1998 Scope of work: The Florida Section AWWA Public Affairs Council (PAC) is focused on public education and outreach to further communicate and educate the public on the importance of water. This includes planning and coordination of public information, and assisting in the planning and implementation of public education and public involvement initiatives and activities. Historically, the PAC has been primarily focused on governmental affairs, customer service, and educational topics. In more recent years, the educational outreach element has experienced significant growth with the Model Water Tower Competition (MWTC) and continued focus on the Drop Savers student poster event. Currently, the PAC is comprised of the following committees: S Youth Education and Outreach o Model Water Tower Competition (MWTC) – The MWTC continues to grow, with eight of the 12 regions now hosting competitions. Improved rules and statewide coordination are the current focus as we build toward a state-level competition. o Drop Savers – In coordination with National Drinking Water Week, the 2016 Drop Savers water conservation poster competition resulted in 26 utilities participating, with over 100 posters received for the state-level competition. S Public/Utility Education and Outreach o Water Wagon – FSAWWA’s latest addition, the Water Wagon provides drinking water to events where sources are unavailable. o Drinking Water Taste Test – Drinking water taste tests are currently in process at regional events, with the state champion to be determined at the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) in April. The City of Tallahassee will attempt to defend its state title for 2015 and 2016. S Customer Service – FSAWWA is currently looking to build the Customer Service Committee.


Recent accomplishments/current projects: The latest addition to FSAWWA is the Water Wagon. Introduced at the FSAWWA Fall Conference in 2014, the wagon is a portable trailer that provides drinking water for events where sufficient potable water is not available. The wagon consists of a series of water fountains, which can be supplied with water via a local utility hookup or an onboard storage tank. In conjunction with the local water utility, the wagon provides fresh potable tap water free of charge to thirsty citizens for events. Currently, the wagon is rented by FSAWWA on an as-needed basis from Quench Buggy. With each rental, the wagon is delivered to the event, set up, and maintained. Coordination is required with the local utility for proper water source connection. The PAC assists in coordination of events by providing information, reservations, and limited funding support via FSAWWA. Along with cost-sharing from local utilities or event hosts, FSAWWA looks to continue to support and promote the wagon in 2017. We also plan to provide a limited number of reusable water bottles as giveaways at events. Ideal events include outdoor festivals and cleanups, where a larger number of attendees generally do not have a water source on hand. The wagon has been utilized throughout the state since 2015 for events such the Baynanza Biscayne Bay Cleanup in Miami, the Great Invader Raider Rally in Gainesville, the Water Festival in Tallahassee, and the Kowtown Festival in Kissimmee. With the beautiful spring weather in Florida, it is officially the season for outdoor festivals and for the Water Wagon! We are currently scheduling several events throughout the state, so keep an eye out for the wagon at an event near you. After all, only tap water delivers! For more information about the wagon or other PAC-related items, please contact me at

Committee members: S Jose Cueto, Miami Dade Water and Sewer S Shelby Hughes, Kimley-Horn S Melissa Velez, CDM Smith S Kristin Sealey, Gainesville Regional Utilities

Future work: The goal of the PAC remains to better serve and educate the public on the importance of

In particular, for MWTC, there are numerous other volunteers who lead the regional events. Thank you all for your efforts! S

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

water. Capturing our audience, including our youngest generation of students, is a key focus to improve upon this. We continue to rethink and streamline ways to better reach out to our target audience, and improve standardization of our marketing and public affairs tools. This includes items such as building a toolbox for MWTC, file-sharing for volunteers, standardized templates, and enhanced social media. But, with these goals comes the need for volunteers who can lead tasks. The PAC is always looking for new active volunteers. If any of the topics or activities mentioned interest you, please contact me (, or attend the PAC meeting at FWRC.


Reuse Evolution: Operational and Hydraulic Improvements for Pasco County Kerstin Kenty, Richa Srivastava, Matt Sellers, and Kyle Hall eclaimed water utilities in Florida are challenged to create cost-effective solutions to balancing dry weather demand with management of excess wet weather flows. The Pasco County Master Reuse System (PCMRS) is an example of a system that must balance its demand and flows and is achieving this through the addition of new residential reuse customers, the newly constructed 500mil-gal (MG) Boyette Road Reclaimed Water Reservoir, the 5-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) Central Pasco project currently under construction, and


the Crews Lake project currently in the design and permitting stage. The vision for PCMRS, which beneficially reuses about 20 MG of water daily that’s provided by seven wastewater treatment facilities, is to grow to serve over 25,000 residential customers over a 352-sq-mi service area. The PCMRS does not have a surface water discharge to help balance wet weather flows; all of the water that comes to it is beneficially reused in accordance with the requirements for Ch. 62-610 Florida Administrative Code, Part III (unrestricted access), Part IV (rapid rate in-

Figure 1. The Pasco County Master Reuse System. Triangles represent wastewater treatment plants, circles represent existing storage tanks, and pipes are in purple.

Kerstin Kenty, Ph.D., P.E., PMP, ENV SP, is a client service manager and Richa Srivastava is an engineer with CH2M in Tampa. Matt Sellers, P.E., is a project engineer and modeler with CH2M in Atlanta. Kyle Hall, P.E., is a project manager and modeler with Pasco County Utilities in Land O’ Lakes.

filtration basin system, or RRIBS), or Part II (sprayfield) reuse systems. Currently about 14,000 residential customers are serviced by PCMRS, in addition to a golf course and other bulk users of irrigation water, and one industrial facility, as shown in Figure 1. The figure also shows the location of the new Boyette Reservoir, the Land O’ Lakes Reservoir, the major transmission and customer connection areas, current wastewater treatment facilities providing source water to PCMRS, and the location of the two future projects, Central Pasco and Crews Lake. For PCMRS, the Boyette Reservoir is an integral aspect of the growing system, both for flow equalization to meet customer demand and for meeting water quality requirements into the future, and the success of PCMRS depends upon the county’s ability to balance these things. This article examines some of the design considerations of the reservoir, as well as how the operational strategy is affected by the addition of new beneficial reuse features into the system. Modeling and demand projections required further development to position the county for more effective reclaimed water management.


Figure 2. Boyette Road Reclaimed Water Reservoir.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

In 1986 the Pasco County Board of County Commissioners made the decision to beneficially reuse 100 percent of the effluent from the wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) and to stop maintaining a surface water outfall. Construction began on the reuse system utilizing portions of the existing system originally designed for disposal purposes. The first customers were a few golf courses and about a half-dozen orange groves. At its inception, PCMRS operated as separate looped systems located in the west, central,

and east portions of the county. Each section receiving supply from the WWTF within the respective loop system; however, this structure created service reliability issues. Within a few years, the benefits of using reclaimed water for irrigation were apparent to county management, and in 1992 a master plan was developed. This plan identified potential new customers, which included residential users. It also identified the infrastructure necessary to connect the three independent systems together into one operating system, improving both service delivery and reliability. The system today is fully integrated and receives water from six wastewater treatment facilities in the county and beneficially reuses up to 20 mgd. During the housing boom of the early 2000s, the county was consistently ranked as one of the top 25 fastest-growing counties in the United States. The county sustained 20 percent year-over-year growth for many years. During this time, it was never envisioned that PCMRS would have more supply than the customers demanded, but by the late 2000s, with the housing crash, wet weather reuse was challenging for the operations staff. Projects were conceived and added to the capital plan to lessen the wet weather pressure on the system, and the Land O’ Lakes Reservoir was also added. This growing system was fundamentally changing how the reclaimed water was being used and stored within the system, and it was apparent that the county required more sophisticated tools to manage the growing system.

Figure 3. Location of the Boyette Reservoir and the rapid rate infiltration basin system.

Infrastructure Improvements Added Storage and Flexibility The PCMRS has been enhanced significantly within the last few years with the addition of the Boyette Reservoir. Located on the east side of the county (Figure 1), the reservoir (Figure 2) is central to much of the current and projected future residential user base. Prior to its completion, the entire storage capacity of PCMRS was approximately 131 MG, with 100 MG located at the Land O’ Lakes Reservoir and the remaining storage distributed throughout the system, co-located with current or former WWTF. The Boyette Reservoir covers 82 acres, is 8000 ft around the perimeter, and holds 500 MG of water, which is chlorinated before being repumped back into PCMRS. Treatment is not expected or required at the reservoir; however, chlorination is utilized to ensure no algae are growing in the system and to be protective of the existing irrigation systems. Influent capacity is sufficient to accept the entire current volume of reclaimed water generated daily (23 mgd). The control structure includes three 500-horsepower variable speed pumps with

Figure 4. The 4G Wetlands project’s constructed wetland cells under construction.

the capacity to pump 15 mgd out of the reservoir and the ability to add three additional pumps when necessary. With all of the pumps running, the reservoir can be drawn down 24 in. within a day. In an emergency, the reservoir has backup generators sufficient to run a single pump, which ensures the reservoir can be drawn down 7 in. per day. With the addition of the reservoir, county operations needed time to develop a balanced operating protocol of PCMRS as a whole, as the reservoir added a significant amount of storage to the system. The reservoir is not physically located closely to the existing wet weather disposal options (RRIBS) for the system, as noted in Figure 3. While the reservoir provides necessary added storage to help balance out the system during wet periods, the water must ultimately be withdrawn

from the reservoir back into PCMRS. The county recognized the need for additional reuse options for wet weather conditions. To resolve this, the county is in the process of designing and constructing additional wet weather beneficial reuse options, including the Central Pasco County Beneficial Water Reuse Project, also known as the 4G Wetlands, and the Crews Lake Natural Systems Restoration (CLNSR) Project. The 4G Wetlands project, shown in Figure 4, is currently under construction. Cooperatively funded by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), this multifunctional project addresses decade-long concerns regarding groundwater drawdowns in areas affected by public water supply wellfields. This project also proContinued on page 40

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


Continued from page 39 vides much-needed additional wet weather capacity to PCMRS, protects water quality, enhances onsite lakes and wetlands affected by the drawdowns, and creates new and diverse wetland habitats. The project involves constructing a groundwater recharge wetland system on private property through a public-private partnership with the 4G Ranch. This project is designed to work in unison with the newly constructed Boyette Reservoir to balance wet weather supply with dry weather demands. The 4G project includes a rated capacity of 5 mgd, requires minimal operation and mainte-

nance, and provides numerous secondary benefits, such as ecosystem enhancement. The CLNSR is currently in the permitting stage and approaching final design. Crews Lake, which is located in northwestern Pasco County, has experienced decades of hydrologic alteration from surface water diversions and consumptive uses from wellfield drawdown, exacerbated by sinkhole formations and bifurcation of the lake by man-made berms within the lake bed. These detrimental impacts have resulted in terrestrial species, such as pine trees, to flourish in portions of the dry lake bed and the upper portion of the lake. Aquatic habitats

Figure 5. Planned flow path for Crews Lake rehydration project.

within this system have been reduced to a few isolated wetland depressions. With the availability of PCMRS, rehydration of the lake provided a natural solution to solve a significant water shortage, allowing mutual benefits to be realized. The feasibility of using excess reclaimed water from PCMRS to restore Crews Lake hydrology and adjacent wetlands was initially investigated in 2011. In 2015, the concept development of the CLNSR project was cooperatively funded by SWFWMD and Pasco County, and the two proposed the use of hydrologically altered wetlands in the north basin of Crews Lake as treatment wetlands to receive up to 4 mgd of reclaimed water, ensuring that water quality standards in the south basin of Crews Lake would be met. This included planning-level evaluations, permitting under 62600 FAC, and preliminary engineering design of the CLNSR project and the expected water quality performance, hydroperiod restoration, and ecological improvements through application of reclaimed water to natural hydrologically altered wetlands. Figure 5 shows the proposed flow path for CLNSR. With the addition of these three significant infrastructure improvements, the operational strategy for managing the water within the system was changing rapidly and significantly. The county needed a useful tool to help predict system response and understand how to operate the system going forward; however, the in-house model the county had developed was not sophisticated enough to provide the information at the level of detail necessary to get the answers needed for the evolving system.

Infrastructure Application to Meet Changing Demand As the county’s infrastructure evolved to meet both the growing population and the growing reuse supply, it became apparent that its operational strategy had to evolve with its infrastructure. This evolution was achieved through the use of water balance, field monitoring, and ultimately, the migration of the existing static model to a fully dynamic hydraulic model.

Figure 6. Current Pasco County Master Reuse System water balance.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Current Conditions Water Balance A water balance describing current conditions was developed in 2013, drawing from information contained within the annual reuse report and the PCMRS discharge monitoring report (DMR) for usage data. Supply data were taken from DMR data for the WWTF. Both metered and unmetered customers within PCMRS were used to accounting for all of the water produced by the six WWTF. To account for all of the water produced, the metered customers were Continued on page 42

Continued from page 40 compared to the total water produced; the remaining water was assumed to have been reused by the unmetered customers. Losses in the Land O’ Lakes Reservoir and Lake Rita were included in the existing water balance. Because the Land O’ Lakes Reservoir is lined, only evapotranspiration (ET) losses were included; for Lake Rita, both seepage losses and ET were included. In 2013, the Boyette Reservoir was not yet online, so it was not accounted for in the water balance. Figure 6 presents monthly reuse within PCMRS from June 2007 through March 2013. For the period of the study, an average of approximately 39 percent of the total water reused

within the PCMRS was reused by metered and unmetered Part III, with unrestricted access for residential customers. Approximately 34 percent of the total water reused within PCMRS was reused via Part IV RRIBS. In Figure 6, other reuse costumers included golf course Part III reuse (10 percent), school and parks irrigation Part III reuse (8 percent), the sludge facility and the resource recovery facility Part VII industrial reuse (6 percent), crops/agriculture Part III reuse (1 percent), losses at storage facilities at the Land O’ Lakes Reservoir and Lake Rita (1 percent), and inplant reuse (1 percent). Figure 6 represents the total supply to PCMRS over this time period

Table 1. Assumptions for projected demand data. Pasco County Master Reuse System master plan update.

Figure 7. Reclaimed water demand projections.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

(green line at the top) and the breakout between the types of reuse (bars in mgd). Data Sources Data used for the water balance from June 2007 through March 2013 were retrieved from monthly DMR and annual reuse reports. The DMR for the New Port Richey WWTF was provided by the county. The Land O’ Lakes Reservoir storage was calculated from reservoir-stage data provided by the county. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection annual reuse inventory for 2012 was used as the base year for projecting reuse demands through 2025. Projected Demand – 2014 Through 2025 To project the future water balance, three growth scenarios were evaluated: high, medium, and low. Residential and public areas were the only users that are projected to experience growth. Other user types are expected to remain with the same demand that has been experienced during the past five years. The assumptions for growth rates are based on past trends. Assumptions made for flow demand projections are listed in Table 1. Figure 7 graphically presents the reclaimed water demand projections based on the assumptions previously presented. Projected Supply – 2014 Through 2025 Water supply projections were completed from 2014 through 2025. Several assumptions were made, both for supply and demand. For the high-growth scenario on the supply side, available transportation analysis zone (TAZ) data were used, which were obtained from the county metropolitan planning organization. The TAZ data are a planning-level projection typically considered during the compilation of local and regional population projections, such as those used for staterequired comprehensive planning. While this method achieves a conceptual level of agreement between planning populations and wastewater flow, such plans are typically somewhat aggressive in their growth rates. This could, in turn, lead to a higher projection than actually occurs; therefore, it is appropriate to use scaling methods to choose an appropriate “time zero” value and propagate the TAZ based projection through the analysis period. Using the TAZ data, monthly flow projections were completed, and the trend-line slope derived from the projections were used for supply. For the average growth scenario, supply data were based on the trend-line slope of the last five years for historic flow data. For a low-growth scenario, supply data were calculated by subtracting the difference of high and average growth from the average growth flow data. All calculations were done on a monthly temporal scale, and seasonality was also taken into consideration.

Figure 8 graphically presents the reclaimed water supply projections based on the assumptions previously presented. Future Water Balance For the future water balance, the RRIBS operations located in the western county area were modeled by maintaining a constant average annual daily flow (AADF) throughout each projection year. This operational approach was selected to simplify day-to-day activities by leveraging the storage capacity of the reservoirs, as suggested by the county. Reservoir storage operating parameters were taken into account when determining what annual flow to convey to the RRIBS. In order to keep two weeks of PCMRS capacity stored at any given time, a minimum reservoir storage of 200 MG was used. In anticipation of a heavy rain event over a short period of time, such as a hurricane or tropical storm, a reservoir storage availability of 100 MG at any given time was used. The PCMRS is supply-rich, meaning that there is sufficient supply for all of its projected customers. Because of this ample supply, wet years are the most concerning for the county. With the Boyette Reservoir now operational, storage of excess water for brief periods is not a problem. Figure 9 represents an average growth scenario water balance for PCMRS. As shown in Figure 9, successful management of PCMRS will require understanding of how to leverage storage options during wet weather conditions, while maximizing beneficial reuse throughout all seasons.

Figure 8. Reclaimed water supply projections based on transportation analysis zone data.

Modeling To provide the necessary answers to questions being asked by operations personnel on how to run the evolving system, the county needed an accurate, calibrated, and dynamic model. The goal was for the county to update the existing static model of PCMRS to a dynamic model. At the time, the county modeled PCMRS with a steady-state static diurnal model using Innovyze InfoWater. While the model was sufficient for long-term, lower-resolution planning tasks, it proved limited when the county looked to develop seasonal diurnal protocols with its new infrastructure, including the Boyette Reservoir. The calibrated model will help the county achieve the following critical success factors: S Define operation protocol points for the PCMRS supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system inclusive of the Boyette Reservoir and 4G S Improve operational strategies S Maintain reasonable pressure ranges within the system S Improve the system to maintain reasonable flows

Figure 9. Water balance projection, average growth scenario.

S Identify the ideal level of service for the system S Improve disposal management S Assure supply to new customers coming online now and in the future To accomplish this task, the first hurdle was to overcome system data gaps. The modeling task started with a data review and gap analysis. The result of the analysis was a desire to obtain more live-system data during operation, which would be necessary for the calibra-

tion of the dynamic hydraulic distribution model of PCMRS. In addition to data already being collected by the county, there was a temporary distribution system data collection effort. The proper calibration of this model is required to develop, run, and evaluate the scenarios necessary to view the system as a whole, make critical operational decisions, and perform future master planning. The PCMRS monitoring program consisted of installing pressure and flow monitoring equipContinued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


ment to collect Continued from field pagedata 43 during the monitoring period that will complement SCADA data (Figure 10). The goal of the field monitoring was to collect hydraulic performance data in PCMRS for a period of eight weeks. These data will be used for calibration of the dynamic hydraulic distribution model of PCMRS. The temporary flow and pressure monitoring equipment chosen was Hydreka HydrlNS 2™, which includes electromagnetic insertion rod flowmeters with varying insertion rod lengths, depending on the physical constraints of the flow monitoring sites. County staff installed 10 insertion meters (flow and pressure) that were previously described, with field observation and support. The insertion meters were located inside manholes installed by the county. Field monitoring was conducted for 55 days, from Sept. 25 through Nov. 19, 2015; however, Oct. 5, 2015, marked the start of complete field data collection. Figure 10 shows the field monitoring site names and locations. The 10 flow and pressure monitoring loggers transmitted data wirelessly using short message service cellular technology. The meters monitored these data remotely, on a daily basis, and the data team took corrective action if data interruptions occurred.

Modeling Results After the field data collection campaign, the model was calibrated for wet and dry periods. Three scenarios were run: wet, dry, and average. The results of the modeling indicated that the county should shift its operational strategy from an overall strategy to managing the system in individual pressure zones, loosely tied to the reclaimed water sources in the system. Figure 11 outlines the proposed pressure zones. This is a significant shift in thinking regarding the system operation; a shift that would not have been possible without the addition of the Boyette Reservoir, 4G, and Crews Lake projects. Previously, all of the wet weather reuse had to be moved to the northwestern corner of the county to reach the RRIBS. Adding the reservoir, co-located to the majority of the current and future customers, and adding 4G, which is hydraulically on the reservoir supply line, allows the county to consider a completely different system paradigm. This shift in operations will ultimately simplify the operation of the system, while also improving reliability of supply to all customers. In addition, because the system is recommended to be run pressurized all of the time, it is recommended that the county add valving

Figure 12. Proposed improvements.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and other infrastructure to maintain the pressure zones to better manage movement of the water within the system as well. In concert, the changed operational strategy, the infrastructure additions, and the proposed system improvements will work together to simplify the operation of the system overall.

Conclusion The vision of PCMRS is to continue operations without a surface water discharge and to grow the residential customer base. To achieve this, the

county will need the Boyette Reservoir and other options, like 4G and CLNR, to manage wet weather flows; however, as the county continues to grow, the reservoir will eventually switch from a wet weather flow management tool to a residential user supply source that will allow PCMRS to grow well into the future. To understand how to do this in the most efficient manner, the county has evolved the static PCMRS model into a dynamic model that will help it understand how to best manage it to ensure that customers get the reclaimed water they need. Over time, PCMRS has evolved, both to respond to changing customer demands and to re-

spond to changing supply, with no surface water discharge available for wet weather flows. The county has adapted operations accordingly, incorporating pressure zones and continued growth, which will likely influence operational needs. With a new dynamic hydraulic model available to support system design and operation, decision making should be greatly simplified. What this evolutionary stage has brought to PCMRS is increased operational control and flexibility, and it has positioned the county for more effective reclaimed water management into the future. S

Facts About US Water Policy and Infrastructure From the water crisis in Flint, Mich., to the near-disaster with the Oroville Dam in California, a string of water-related events have made headlines, and called into question the focus of the United States on keeping critical water systems safe and functioning. Brookings Institution experts have explored many dimensions of water infrastructure, and 10 facts have been derived from its research. 1. Water plays a critical role in the economy. As Metropolitan Policy Program experts Lynn E. Broaddus and Joseph Kane put it, “water means business.” Thirty of the country’s largest water utilities support up to $52 billion in economic output and 289,000 jobs annually, and millions of households, businesses, and industries depend on water systems every day. Investing in water infrastructure ensures that these industries stay afloat, and more investment often means more jobs. 2. The federal government only accounts for a small share of total public spending on water infrastructure. Despite the economic importance of water and calls for increased infrastructure investment from the Trump administration, the federal government actually plays a small role relative to states and localities, which are responsible for almost 96 percent of public spending on drinking water and wastewater facilities each year. This means that water utilities are shouldering a greater financial burden and must target their resources more efficiently and equitably. 3. Geographic and political boundaries can pose challenges to water investment. It can be difficult, however, to coordinate regional action. There are nearly 52,000 community water systems in the U.S., and these frequently cross geographic and political boundaries and touch multiple watersheds and users. This can

lead to both operational inefficiencies and difficulties accelerating future investment. 4. The cost of water is on the rise in many cities. To cover the cost of needed upgrades and other repairs, utilities are charging users more for services. Water rates are increasing in many cities across the U.S., with some estimates showing that the average monthly residential bill has gone up by 48 percent since 2010. Relative to other expenses, households have seen the price of water and sewer services soar over the past two decades. 5. There’s a mismatch between water investment demand and institutional capacity. Facing a backlog of repairs, many utilities are struggling to modernize existing facilities. While more than 88 percent of Americans believe some type of action is needed to solve the country’s water infrastructure challenges, only 17 percent of utilities feel that they can just cover the cost of existing service through rates and fees—let alone pursue needed upgrades. 6. Only a handful of drinking water utilities in the largest cities rank highly in water investment. Many drinking water utilities are confronting a wide range of financial and economic hurdles to pursue increased water infrastructure investment. In an analysis of how cities vary across six major gauges of water investment performance—including operational and debt concerns, as well as other income and population pressures—is was identified that only 11 of 97 cities ranked highly across all these categories, including places like Denver and San Antonio. In contrast, large drinking water utilities in cities like Detroit and Cleveland struggled in many of these same categories. However, most drinking water utilities—in 55 of the 97 cities analyzed—faced a mixed picture, scoring well in three or four of these six categories. 7. The private sector owns most of the na-

tion’s dams. Water infrastructure, of course, is not simply limited to drinking water and wastewater facilities, but also includes an extensive number of other assets, like dams. The federal government only owns about 3.7 percent of the nation’s nearly 90,000 dams; meanwhile, state and local governments own 7.3 percent and 20 percent of all dams, respectively. The private sector, however, is the biggest owner by far (at 64.2 percent), illustrating how dam oversight and investment can vary across the country. 8. Sixty-nine percent of the nation’s dams were built before 1970. Most the nation’s dams are the product of a building boom in the earlyto mid-twentieth century, and now nearing their useful (and safe) life. About 62,700 of the country’s 90,000 dams, or 69.3 percent, were built before 1970, and 17.1 percent pose a potentially “high hazard” to the economy, environment, and human life if they were to fail. 9. Climate change and water cycles are closely linked. While water infrastructure investment continues to dominate many policy discussions, it’s crucial to not overlook other closely related climate concerns. According to Pat Mulroy, a senior fellow in the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings Mountain West, climate and water cycles are closely tied, having a major impact across the U.S. From changes in snowpack, precipitation, and flooding, to seasonality of runoff and other water-related events, U.S. water systems—and the communities that depend on them—are feeling the strain of climate change. 10. Despite concerns over water safety and infrastructure, Americans have greater access to clean water. Despite mounting concerns over water safety and the infrastructure supporting critical water systems, Pat Mulroy explains that, “We in this country have no idea how fortunate we are. We are a small minority around the world that actually has reliable water.” S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017



Judge Rules FDEP Exceeded Authority Imposing Emergency Notice Rule Gerald Buhr n November 2016, this magazine published my column about the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) imposing a new emergency rule, 62ER 16-01, requiring that owners and operators comply with the following: S Notify FDEP, the local government, and the general public, of a pollution incident within 24 hours. S Notify FDEP, the local government, and the general public, of any potential risks to public health, safety, or welfare and to surrounding areas within 48 hours of the pollution incident. S Notify affected property owners, FDEP, and the local government within 24 hours of becoming aware that pollution has affected areas offsite.


It was surmised that the emergency rule was imposed in response to some allegations that last year, Mosaic, a crop nutrient company near Mulberry, created concern over some 200 mil gal of contaminated water flowing through a sinkhole, with potential contamination of local water wells, and potentially worse, a direct discharge to the Floridan aquifer, and did not notify Mulberry authorities and residents about the sinkhole and an alleged St. Petersburg sewage discharge into Tampa Bay. The emergency rule was to expire after 90 days on Dec. 25, 2016; however, nearly simultaneously with the imposition of the emergency rule, FDEP had started regular rulemaking for a rule that would be a mirror of the emergency rule, namely 62-4.161 FAC. It has now been reported that an administrative law judge has ruled that FDEP lacked the authority to pass the emergency rule because


it lacked the necessary statutory premise for such a rule. The administrative case was reportedly filed by the Florida Retail Federation, Florida Trucking Association, and Florida Farm Bureau. I tried to get the FDEP’s position regarding the validity of the emergency rule or the new general rule modelled after the emergency rule, but three calls to FDEP did not ap-

parently generate the courtesy of a return call, let alone inform me of FDEP’s position about its rule for this column. I found a notice of a public meeting regarding the proposed rule (62-4.161, Public Notice of Pollution), which was apparently held on Nov. 7, 2016, and the FDEP website states the status of the rule, as of Jan. 9, 2017, as follows:

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

NOTICE OF DISPOSITION Associated Industries of Florida Inc., Florida Farm Bureau Federation, Florida Retail Federation Inc., Florida Trucking Association Inc., and Na-

tional Federation of Independent Business Inc. vs. Department of Environmental Protection; Case No.: 166889RP; Rule No.: 62-4.161. Invalid. Therefore, with the emergency rule expiring on December 25 last year and the new general rule being deemed invalid, it certainly appears that, subject to appeal, the rule is dead. My call for information to the Florida Farm Bureau was very swiftly returned and very helpful, and the person I talked to verified that FDEP has not appealed the judge’s ruling and that the deadline for appeal has now passed. The Bureau presumes that FDEP will seek legislation to obtain the necessary authority to implement the rule, and they have no problem with FDEP working in that (legislative) process. Utilities should remember, however, that this invalidation of the new FDEP pollution emergency notification rule does not remove their long-standing duties of notification as permittees, nor their duty to notify of certain releases of hazardous or toxic substances under state and federal law (Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA); Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986; 42 U.S.C. s. 11001, et seq. (SARA); and the Florida Hazardous Materials Emergency Response and Community Right-toKnow Act of 1988, Chapter 252, Part II, Florida Statutes). Article reference:

Gerald Buhr is a utilities attorney who has a Class A license in both water and wastewater treatment. A Florida Bar-certified specialist in city, county, and local government law, he is the city attorney for Mulberry, Zolfo Springs, Bowling Green, and Avon Park; represents other public, private, and nonprofit utilities; and teaches hospitality law and human resources at the Art Institute of Tampa. S

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Bonita Springs Utilities Announces Board Selection Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. (BSU) members have elected Paul J. Attwood, Ben Nelson, Brian Farrar, Vincent Marchesani, and Frank W. Liles Jr. to its board of directors. Election monitor Jim Kerr announced the results during the utility’s annual meeting. The BSU members elect three fellow members each year for a three-year term on the utility’s nine-member board. Due to two director vacancies in 2016, there was an additional two-year term and a one-year term to fill this year. Ten candidates ran for the five open board seats. The utility mailed 24,252 ballots, and volunteers from the League of Women Voters of Lee County counted 3,979 valid returned ballots. Elected to three-year terms, Attwood received 2,555 votes, Nelson received 2,274 votes, and Farrar received 2,134 votes. Elected to the two-year term, Marchesani received 1,933 votes. Liles received 1,872 votes and was elected to the one-year term. Attwood has served on the board since 2001, including past terms as vice president and secretary. He recently retired from the oil and gas regulatory section of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) as a professional geologist.

Paul J. Attwood


A Bonita Springs resident since 1960, Nelson previously served on the board from 1990 to 2001 and rejoined in 2016. He has served previous terms as president and vice president. He served for 16 years on the Bonita Springs City Council, including two terms as mayor, and has owned and operated Nelson Marine Construction for 35 years. Nelson is a longtime supporter and executive committee member of the CREW Land & Water Trust and has served as chair for three years. Farrar joined the board in 2016 and is president and managing member of BCF Management Group LLC. He is currently secretary/treasurer of the Lee County Mosquito Control District board of commissioners and vice chair of the CREW Land & Water Trust board of directors. Marchesani, a Bonita Springs resident since 2006, is a retired vice president of a global chemical company. He has a Ph.D. in environmental, health, and safety management, a master’s degree in environmental science, and bachelor’s degree in biological sciences and biochemistry. He is an active member of the City of Bonita Springs technical advisory board. A Bonita Springs resident, Liles has served on the BSU board since 1986, in-

Ben Nelson

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Brian Farrar

cluding terms as vice president, secretary, and treasurer. He is a Rotarian and Bonita Springs Zoning Board member, and served for more than 20 years as a Bonita Springs Fire Control and Rescue District commissioner. Other board members are Robert Bachman, Mike Malloy, Robert Sharkey, and James Strecansky. The board of directors holds a public meeting at 5 p.m. on the first and third Tuesdays of each month. In addition, each board member serves on various subcommittees and work groups. During the annual meeting, Malloy was recognized for five years of service on the board. Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. is a notfor-profit water and wastewater utility founded by local citizens in 1970. The member-owned utility provides service in the City of Bonita Springs, the Village of Estero, and unincorporated South Lee County. The utility is recognized as an industry leader with awards from FDEP, American Water Works Association, Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, and Florida Water Environment Association. For more information, visit the BSU website at S

Vincent Marchesani

Frank W. Liles Jr.

Report Finds Closing Investment Gap in Water Infrastructure Would Create 1.3 Million Jobs, $220 Billion in US Economic Activity A new report finds that closing the nation’s gap in investment in water infrastructure would create 1.3 million jobs and generate $220 billion in economic activity in the United States. The analysis also found a severe economic cost to inaction. At a national level, a one-day disruption in water service could lead to a loss of $43.5 billion in sales and $22.5 billion in the gross domestic product. At the local level, industries most reliant on water would see sales drop by up to 75 percent due to a one-day disruption. The report, “The Economic Benefits of Investing in Water Infrastructure,” was commissioned by the Value of Water Campaign to better understand how investments in the nation’s water infrastructure affect economic growth and employment. The Water Environment Federation (WEF) is a founding member of this national awareness effort that seeks to advance positive solutions to America’s pressing water challenges. To maintain reliable clean water services alone, the American Society of Civil Engineers estimates that the U.S. needs to invest an additional $82 billion in water infrastructure per year over the next decade at all levels of government. Those capital needs are dispersed across the country, including the Midwest (23 percent), Northeast (20 percent), South (34 percent), and West (23 percent).


Despite this increased need, the report finds that the federal government’s contribution to water infrastructure continues to decrease. Federal investment averages just nine percent in recent years, which is down from more than 60 percent 40 years ago. “Although we were pleased to see a proposed 2018 fiscal year budget request that includes a slight increase to water infrastructure funding programs, it still falls short of the billions that are needed to modernize our systems and to maintain the quality and service that our communities are accustomed to receiving,” said Eileen O’Neill, WEF executive director. “Inadequate investment in our water infrastructure, as well as reductions in funding for watershed protections

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and water-related research, poses a real threat to our water resources and our quality of life.” The report release coincides with World Water Day and Water Week—global and national efforts designed to bring attention to the value and importance of clean water, which is essential to the protection of public health, the environment, and a growing economy. The analysis falls against a national backdrop of increasingly complex water challenges that are exacerbated by overstressed and antiquated drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater management systems, as well as regulatory requirements that, at times, outpace the technological capabilities of the nation’s water and wastewater facilities. “The report’s findings make it clear that investments in water infrastructure generate high-quality jobs, increase the competitiveness of American businesses, and lead to a significant injection of economic activity throughout the nation,” said Radhika Fox, executive director of the Value of Water Campaign. “That is the message we want public officials on Capitol Hill and across the country to hear: investing in water equals jobs and investing in water infrastructure builds a prosperous America.” The Value of Water Campaign provides education on how water is essential, invaluable, and in need of investment. Spearheaded by top leaders in the water industry, the campaign is building public and political will for investment in America's water infrastructure. To read the full report and learn more about the value of water, visit S

News Beat Kristopher Samples, P.E., has joined McKim & Creed Inc. in its Tampa Bay office as a senior project manager. With over seven years of experience in civil and environmental engineering, Samples specializes in pump design, pipe design, hydraulic modeling, and project management. He is a member of the Florida Design-Build Institute of America, Florida Water Environment Association, and Florida Section American Water Works Association. He is also certified with the National Association of Sewer Service Companies in the pipeline, manhole, and lateral assessment programs. “McKim & Creed continues to expand its services in the water and wastewater and designbuild markets throughout Florida,” said Street Lee, P.E., the company’s senior vice president. “We are happy to welcome Kris to our talented Tampa Bay team.”


Hydro-Dyne Engineering, a manufacturer of custom-engineered screening and grit removal equipment headquartered in Clearwater, was named to the University of Florida (UF) 2017 “Gator100” for the second year in a row during a ceremony at the university’s J. Wayne Reitz Union Grand Ballroom. Named after the University of Florida’s mascot, the Gator100 recognizes the 100 fastestgrowing businesses owned or led by UF alumni. Ernst & Young calculated each company’s compounded annual growth rate over the past three years to generate the ranking. “Our commitment to designing and manufacturing the world’s finest lines of equipment for the protection of critical water and wastewater processes has enabled us to make continued investments in physical plants, manufacturing processes, and most importantly, an exceptional team, to meet the growing demands of our industry,” said Jay Conroy, Hydro-Dyne’s president. “We’re fortunate and honored to be recognized by the University of Florida, alongside a number of other companies, that are transforming markets and creating the future.”


Escambia County has been awarded a $2.3 million grant from the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. The program funds projects that reduce the loss of life and property due to natural disasters. Escambia will use its grant to help fund the Delano Street Area Drainage Project,


which will implement long-term hazard mitigation measures to reduce flooding around Delano Street in the Englewood area. That area, north of the city limits, was a crucial point of failure that contributed to widespread flooding in many parts of the city in April 2014. The mitigation project would modify existing stormwater facilities and acquire new pond sites to better manage stormwater and increase pond and infrastructure efficiencies and capacities. The grant requires the completed project to provide protection against a 50-year storm event and significantly reduce the number of structures and critical infrastructure experiencing repetitive flooding. Many of these structures will be entirely protected from future flood events, eliminating flood damage. Drainage improvements for this project will address flooding of multiple properties in the area and will improve access to a new jail site by reducing public flooding of surrounding roadways.


The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) provided $4 million to the Istokpoga Marsh Watershed Improvement District for the design and construction of the first above ground containment system that will provide water storage, nutrient removal, and agricultural irrigation. The project was funded through the state's total maximum daily load (TMDL) water quality improvement grant program. "We are proud to work with local communities to provide funding assistance for projects like this, which will not only capture and store stormwater, but also reduce nutrients that flow into Lake Okeechobee, one of our state's most valuable water resources," said Drew Bartlett, FDEP deputy secretary for ecosystems restoration. Recently, the district held a groundbreaking ceremony for the above ground structure, which will provide water storage for nearly 300 MG of stormwater per year, and remove an estimated 1.5 tons of phosphorous per year from water flowing downstream to the Harney Pond Canal and Lake Okeechobee. Water stored in this structure will be available for irrigation use to local producers during the dry season. Other funding partners include the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the South Florida Water Management District. "We’re grateful to FDEP for these grants to help us capture, treat, and use excess stormwater," said Clell J. Ford, Highlands County Parks and Natural Resources Lakes manager. "This project is a win-win for everyone: local farmers, communities, and the environment." This project covers 19,420 acres in Highlands County. The phase-one project involves con-

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

struction of 308 acres of impoundments, consisting of approximately 2.7 mi of levees, to collect runoff irrigation water and release it back into the district’s system of canals. Reusing the water will satisfy irrigation demands, while reducing the amount of phosphorus entering Lake Okeechobee. Upon completion, the project is expected to reduce the annual agricultural irrigation discharge from the watershed by 60 percent and cut phosphorus loading into the lake by 70 percent. Since 2002, the department has awarded more than $114 million in TMDL grants, including $1.4 million to date in fiscal year 2016-17. The FDEP also recently awarded the City of Springfield $5.6 million to rehabilitate the city's wastewater collection system. The project was funded through the state's Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) loan program. "We’ re proud to work with local communities like Springfield to provide funding assistance for infrastructure replacement projects," said Drew Bartlett, DEP deputy secretary for ecosystems restoration. "Projects like this help protect public health and our environment." Recently, Springfield held a groundbreaking ceremony for the project, which consists of rehabilitating and constructing a new gravity sewer, and reducing the amount of stormwater entering the city's collection system by replacing deteriorating infrastructure. A significant portion of the $5.6 million loan ($4.1 million) has principal forgiveness and does not need to be repaid by the community. And, FDEP joined the Town of Greenville and local officials in celebrating the groundbreaking of a new wastewater treatment facility. The project was also funded through the state's CWSRF loan program. Greenville was awarded more than $1.5 million for the construction of a new 75,000gpd treatment plant and new operations building. A significant portion of this loan ($1.4 million) has principal forgiveness and does not need to be paid back by the community. "We are grateful to FDEP for this funding to help us replace an aging existing wastewater treatment plant," said Jim McCroskey, Greenville town manager. "This gives us the opportunity to further improve our growing community and the environment around it." The CWSRF program has awarded approximately $1.1 billion in funding for nearly 120 wastewater and stormwater improvement projects during the past five years, and a total of $4 billion in loan funds since its inception in 1989. The program is funded by federal grants, state matching funds, loan repayments, and interest earnings. For more information, visit the FDEP water funding webpage at /projectfunding. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017



Why FWRC is One of My Favorite Events of the Year Lisa Prieto President, FWEA

have been going to the Florida Water Resources Conference (FWRC) for probably about 15 years now in different capacities. At one time, I was a consultant and had to get a paper accepted to be able to attend. At another point in my career, I was a sales representative (or a “peddler,” as Tom Baber says) and we went to the conference to work in the company booth to highlight our products. Over the last five or so years of my career, as I began to become more active in FWEA,


it was a given that I attend FWRC, and my preparation for the conference really ramped up. For many folks, maybe they just attend to get their CEUs and PDHs; for me it’s more of an annual family reunion (with some work involved). There are parts I often dreaded and parts I loved, but seeing FWEA and FWRC from different positions and angles over the years have led me to appreciate not only the preparation efforts that go into putting together the event, but the significance of our industry getting together each year.

Operations Challenge is a whole other level of cool (at least for a nerdy engineer like me). Greg Chomic created the position of Operations Council representative on the board, and since then, Brad Hayes has put his heart and soul into growing Ops Challenge throughout Florida. Teams from across the state compete in five competitions: maintenance, collection systems, safety, process control and laboratory. The top two teams go on to compete at the Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC). This year’s competition will be held in the exhibit hall, so there’s no excuse not to stop by!

Operations Challenge Student Design Competition I always have worked with operators and enjoyed being in the field, but watching the

Operations Challenge team in action.

The Student Design Competition has been a FWRC icon for decades. The Water Environment Federation liked the idea so much that it became a national competition at WEFTEC as well. Teams of engineering students from various Florida universities present a recently completed project in front of a panel of industry judges. The students are an impressive group and it’s a great way to see the talent coming out of our Florida engineering programs. The FWEA Student and Young Professionals Committee is always looking for judges, mentors, and sponsorships!

Annual Meeting and Awards

University of South Florida wastewater competition winners.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

For some folks, the annual meeting and awards luncheon seems like the boring part of FWRC, and I will admit that when I would sit in the crowd in the sea of round tables I never appreciated the importance of the occasion or the effort that went into putting on that very long and ceremonious event. The awards alone are a feat in themselves, with months of conference calls, accepting applications (and reviewing applications), plant visits, awards, and the like. Finally, you have to figure out the logistics of getting the awards to FWRC, handing them all out, and making sure that everyone gets properly acknowledged without making it an all-day affair. Then there is the business meeting. This is always the shortest part of the luncheon; we review the annual report, vote, and (ta da!) we have a new board of directors! However, that brief meeting is the culmination of so much work. It’s board meetings, conference calls, pouring over business plans to make a budget work, committees putting on seminars, chapters

putting on their events—all neatly tied into a package with a bow on it. And for the current president, it’s the changing of the guard, the ending of writing these monthly columns, stepping aside, and supporting a new president.

Getting Involved So, you may say, “Lisa, that’s great if you’re on the FWEA board; FWRC means a whole lot more to you–but what about me?” Well, there are lots of ways to get involved at the conference. Here are a few suggestions: S Get on a technical committee and offer to lead a workshop S Submit an abstract for a technical session S Volunteer to judge the Student Design Competition S Sponsor Operations Challenge and make sure to cheer on our teams And please, when you see me at FWRC, come talk to me! I love to hear your feedback and I love to talk about how FWEA can serve you. See you in West Palm Beach! S

The FWEA board of directors conducts is business meeting and distributes awards at the luncheon.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017


New Products Spectro Scientific has introduced Version 5 of FluidScan® portable infrared oil analyzer technology and its oil chemistry analysis enables users to determine when oil is no longer fit for use due to liquid contamination or other degradation. Lubrication abnormalities are a major cause of equipment downtime and failure. This new product includes a variety of features that improve performance and enhance user experience. The new version of the patented technology lowers limits of detection on total water measurement for turbine oils from 1000 to 300 ppm, boosting analysis sensitivity and accuracy. The new oil library doubles in size from 300 oils to more than 700; the enlarged library facilitates analysis and matching of more than 97 percent of the oils customers used over the last 12 months. Measurement stability is reinforced by a new infrared background measurement function. For ease of use, key functions have been modified, such as data viewing and matching, to increase analysis speed by four times compared to previous versions. A new data synchronization function enables users to manage data simply and reliably, and enhancements in software and firmware updates assure a streamlined upgrade process.


FluidScan analysis provides direct, immediate measurement of water, total acid number, oxidation, glycol, total base number, and other parameters via a patented direct infrared spectroscopy technology, which operates without wet chemistry and requires no solvents; only one drop of oil is needed for analysis. The onsite analysis capability of the technology eliminates the wait associated with outsourcing laboratory analyses. The results highly correlate to laboratory tests conducted with ASTM D664 and D4739 titration methods, and water tests with the ASTM D6304 Karl Fischer Titration method. FluidScan V5 is an element of Spectro’s comprehensive MiniLab™ suite of fluid-analysis systems. Its ability to provide direct quantitative measurement of a fluid’s condition plays an important role in machine condition monitoring for proactive and predictive maintenance programs. Such programs provide critical protection of key capital assets. Spectro has also released software and firmware updates for the rest of the MiniLab system, including SpectrOil 120C, LaserNet Fines Q230, and the SpectroVisc Q3050 portable viscometer. The SpectrOil Series Version 8, also from Spectro Scientific, offers both stability improve-

April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

ments and an enhanced user experience. New signal processing methods improve short- and long-term stability. A fully integrated standardization procedure facilitates calibration and standardization, resulting in easier and faster operation. An improved background measurement method offers lower limits of detection in field applications and includes temperature and background measurement corrections that eliminate restandardization. Signal processing is also improved for field applications involving trace elements. This version refines the user experience with better tools for remote support, including automatic identification of files that should be sent to Spectro for support. Also, integrated standardization combines profile, disc offset, and standardization procedures into a simple, onebutton operation. The significant performance improvement in Version 8 enabled a new spectrometer for fuel analysis, the SpectrOil M/F-LD. This analyzer supports No. 2 diesel and extends the limits of detection even further for alkaline metals, such as lithium, sodium, potassium, and vanadium to below 100 ppb. This is a critical need for turbine Continued on page 60

Continued from page 58 original equipment manufacturers that must meet fuel quality specifications. The SpectrOil 100 Series and SpectrOil M Series analyzers utilize the time-tested and reliable rotating disc electrode technique for precisely determining elemental composition in critical operating fluids, which for decades has been used as both a quality control tool and a machine health monitor. SpectrOil software includes an interface to the MiniLab 153 comprehensive oil analyzer for industrial machinery. (


The redesigned and enhanced FPS PowerSewer® System from Franklin Electric Co. Inc. is a more-flexible, service-friendly, and efficient system for residential applications. This lowpressure sewer system pumps residential and commercial wastewater to a collection or treatment area, making it a proven alternative to gravity sewer systems and septic tanks. The basin’s internal C-Channel assembly releases from the top of the unit, simplifying accessibility to and maintenance of its components. The updated design of the new tank also provides for easy access and replacement of all other internal components. The float tree is springloaded and easily removable, with a progressive lift handle to simplify pump removal. In addition, the redesigned system features an isolated pump support that can accommodate heavier pumps for expanded applications. This provides added installation flexibility through the compatibility with the entire line of Franklin Electric FPS 2hp grinder pumps, including the new FPS IGPDS Dual Seal Grinder Pump Series, and any single-phase, three-phase, manual, or automatic version of the company’s high-head grinder pumps. Inclusion of the FPS high-head grinder allows the updated FPS PowerSewer System to produce a maximum shut-off head of 200 ft, with a maximum flow of 35 gpm. The new FPS IGPDS Dual Seal Grinder Pump Series delivers increased pump security and performance ideal for commercial and highend residential applications. The product utilizes two mechanical seals, coupled with sensor probe and seal leak detection circuitry in the panel, to provide added pump protection that can extend the overall pump life. If water enters the oil chamber, a light in the control panel will illuminate and indicate that the first seal requires replacement; the second seal continues to protect the pump so that it can maintain full functionality until the first seal can be changed. Upon the replacement of the first seal, the pump can be put back in service at peak-performance levels. It efficiently pumps sewage slurries up to 130 ft


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and features a patented cutting system that grinds at 414,000 cuts per minute. The FPS IGPH Series of high-head grinder pumps are engineered for the tough demands of higher-head conditions found in many low-pressure sewage transfer applications. Available in an automatic or manual version, the pumps utilize a proven and patented cutter system with tight clearances for superior grinding at 414,000 cuts per minute. These new units incorporate two nonclogging impeller stages for efficient pumping of sewage slurries with a shut-off head of 200 ft. With only 16 full-load amps at minimum head requirements of 100 ft, these units can replace other grinders that fail to meet current applications. (


Extech Instruments has launched the PH90 Waterproof Digital pH Meter. This new stick-style meter is designed to ensure fast and easy spot testing for pH for a range of water quality testing jobs, from commercial and industrial wastewater treatment, to aquafarming, to municipal drinking water authorities. Technicians can ditch cumbersome litmus paper-based testing and consumables. The PH90 is ready for field use at onsite wastewater treatment facilities. Whether in an industrial plant or a large senior housing facility, it’s essential to ensure compliance with pH standards for effluent discharge so that ecosystems and public wastewater systems alike are not impacted adversely. The compact meter measures and displays both pH and temperature simultaneously. Since temperature can have a direct effect on pH, the PH90’s automatic temperature compensation helps mitigate inaccurate readings as temperatures change. Unlike pH instruments with fragile glass-bulb electrodes, the durable flat-surface pH electrode is rugged for use every day, with measurements at multiple locations. Rated IP57, the meter can be dropped in liquids at a job site without worry; it’s waterproof and it floats for easy recovery. Depending on testing needs, users can opt for two- or three-point calibration that automatically recognizes buffer solutions (available separately). Useful data functions include data hold to freeze the display, as well as minimum and maximum readings. To conserve battery life, the PH90 automatically powers down after 10 minutes of inactivity. The PH90 is backed by a one-year warranty. The meter comes complete with flat-surface pH electrode, protective sensor cap, and two 3V CR2032 button batteries. Replacement electrode modules and buffer calibration solutions are available separately. ( S


Tank Engineering And Management

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Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983





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Motor & Utility Services, LLC CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors

CLASSIFIEDS Pos i ti on s Ava i l a b l e

Reiss Engineering, Inc. Looking for an opportunity to make a difference? Looking for a dynamic team environment where you can manage and lead projects to success? Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to contribute and make a difference for our people, our clients, and our community! Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. To see open positions and submit a resume to join our team, visit

Orange County, Florida is an employer of choice and is perennially recognized on the Orlando Sentinel’s list of the Top 100 Companies for Working Families. Orange County shines as a place to both live and work, with an abundance of world class golf courses, lakes, miles of trails and year-round sunshine - all with the sparkling backdrop of nightly fireworks from world-famous tourist attractions. Make Orange County Your Home for Life. Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. As one of the largest departments in Orange County Government, we provide water and wastewater services to over 500,000 citizens and 66 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are currently looking for knowledgeable and motivated individuals to join our team, who take great pride in public service, aspire to create a lasting value within their community, and appreciate being immersed in meaningful work. We are currently recruiting actively for the following positions:

Industrial Electrician I $36,733 – $43,035/ year Apply online at: Positions are open until filled.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary Range: $39,893.88 - $67,004.60/AN, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Utility Operations Manager, Town & Country Utility, Punta Gorda, FL The ideal candidate will be proficient in the following: ~ Hands on operation, maintenance and management of a medium-sized water utility inclusive of water/wastewater plants, collection/distribution systems; maintenance of electrical departments and instrumentation and laboratory departments ~ Lead, train, guide, develop, coach and mentor staff ~ Review plans and design drawings ~ Manage and maintain all utility assets to maximize serviceable life and efficiency ~ Recommend capital budget and develop and maintain ownership of an operating budget ~ Operation of Sequential Batch Reactor Wastewater Treatment Plants, Operation of a Nano Filtration Water Treatment Plant ~ Flexible schedule including holidays and weekends Minimum qualifications include: ~ Florida Class B water treatment plant operator’s license ~ Florida Class B wastewater treatment plant operator’s license ~ Three years of utility management experience Compensation: ~ PTO, Health, dental, life insurance ~ 401(k) with company match ~ Salary up to $85,000 per year DOQ Please email your resume with salary requirements to:

Wastewater Operator B or C Good Samaritan, Kissimmee FL looking for full-time Wastewater Operator. Background check. EEO, ADA, Drug-Free Emp. Send resume to

Electronic Technician The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $40,890.98 - $68,680.30/yr, plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Water Plant Manager The Water Plant Manager plans, supervises, coordinates, and controls the City's 47 MGD water treatment plant and water distribution systems operations. The incumbent is responsible for the maintenance, construction, and repair efforts dedicated to infrastructure and water treatment and operations; for developing and maintaining regulatory compliance programs for the Plant to ensure compliance with all local, state and federal laws, rules and regulations; to properly respond to citizen's questions and inquiries on all water quality issues; to study plant operations and costs and make recommendations and implement procedures on how to optimize water plant operations, maintenance, repair, replacement, and capital expenditures. The position requires five (5) years of experience in public utilities, public works, or water treatment systems and a Bachelor's degree from an accredited college or university preferably with a Major in Chemistry, Biology, Business or Public Administration, or closely related field, or any equivalent combination of training and experience. Two (2) years in a supervisory/managerial capacity, required. A State of Florida Class A Water Plant Operator license issued by the Department of Environmental Protection is highly desirable. A valid Florida driver's license is required. Salary: $70,281 - $112,005 (DOQ) Apply online by visiting our site at

Operations & Maintenance Superintendent Nassau County has an opening for an Operations & Maintenance Superintendent in the Nassau Amelia Utilities Department at $20.1280 hourly plus benefits. Applications will be accepted until filled. Additional information and application can be obtained in the Human Resources Department located at 96135 Nassau Place, Suite 5, Yulee, Florida 32097, Telephone (904) 5306075 or Fax (904) 321-5797, or at Equal Opportunity Employer. Drug Free Workplace. This position is eligible for Veterans’ Preference in accordance with applicable laws.

Environmental Services Director – City of Clermont The City of Clermont has a population of 32,000 and is the largest city in Lake County. This picturesque city, which sits among rolling hills and 14 lakes, is known as the "Choice of Champions" due to its international reputation as a training ground for Olympic medalists and other elite athletes. Clermont is seeking a highly motivated progressive leader for its Environmental Services Department. The Environmental Services Department provides sanitation, water service, wastewater collection and treatment services in addition to reclaimed water production and distribution services to our utility customers. Salary: Dependent upon qualifications and experience. Closing date: April 28, 2017.

THE CITY OF SARASOTA, FLORIDA IS SEEKING A DIRECTOR OF UTILITIES $95,500 up to $159,486 The City of Sarasota, a vibrant and growing community located on the west coast of Florida is seeking a highly motivated and innovative Director of Utilities. The successful candidate will be well rounded and versatile, capable of being both a visionary big-picture thinker while remaining detail oriented. This position has overall management responsibility for all aspects of the City's water utilities programs and activities and is responsible for budget development, oversight of design, and strategic planning of capital improvements, construction, water quality and water and wastewater operations functions. The Director's role requires an individual with a balance of Engineering and Operations knowledge and education in water & wastewater utility systems, operations experience, and written and oral communication skills in order to effectively communicate critical water issues with various councils and media, City Commissioners, City Executives and Department Heads, and the citizens and visitors of the City of Sarasota. Applicants who fit this description with the following qualifications should apply: Master Degree in Business or Public Administration or Civil or Environmental Engineering supplemented by a minimum of 10 years of practical experience in the field of Water Supply and Sewer Facilities, including 5 years in a supervisory capacity. Valid Driver's License required. Florida Professional Engineer (PE) preferred. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at: Position closes May 4, 2017.

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017



City of St. Petersburg

The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Water Plant Operator – Class A, B, & C - Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee - Solid Waste Worker II & III - Public Service Worker I - Streets - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Asst. City Manager – Public Services The position is a highly responsible administrative and managerial position that directs the operations and management of streets and drainage, solid waste/recycling, water, water treatment, wastewater, wastewater treatment, storm water, environmental services, and cemeteries for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s Degree in Public Administration, Business Administration, Business Management or related field – Master’s Degree preferred • Six (6) years of progressively responsible experience in a public sector environment, preferably at the municipal or county level, of which four (4) have been in a leadership capacity or the equivalent combination of education and experience. • Valid Florida driver’s license • Considerable knowledge of municipal public works planning, design, and administration. • Knowledge of civil engineering desired. • Ability to plan, direct, supervises, coordinate, organize, and inspect public services and engineering plans, programs, and activities. • Ability to prepare written technical reports, estimates, and construction and cost records. • Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with subordinates superiors, city and governmental officials and the general public. • Ability to prepare, develop, and present public services plans and programs to the public, City Commission, civic organizations, and other public and private groups. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

Water Reclamation Operations Specialist (IRC37586) $52,250 - $80,226 DOQ - Open Until Filled Technical and instructional support work involving process control activities for water reclamation treatment facilities; Requirements: prior experience in reclamation facility operations and wastewater analysis and treatment; high school diploma/GED equivalency; State of FL DL; State of Florida Class "A" Wastewater Operator Certificate. See detailed requirements at EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-DisabledDFWP-Vets' Pref

KW Resort Utilities Lead Wastewater Plant Operator Wanted KW Resort Utilities in Key West is looking for a lead wastewater plant operator. Class "B" or higher with AWT experience is required. Live and work in paradise in the beautiful Florida Keys. Salary range $75,000 $90,000. Compensation package includes health, dental, retirement benefits, paid vacation, paid holidays, company truck and membership to Key West Golf Club. For a full job description or to submit a resume, inquire at

P o s itio ns Wante d REUEL TIXLEY – Passes the Florida Water and Wastewater test and holds certificates in both. Needs plant hours to obtain license. Prefers the central Florida/Orlando area. Contact at Orlando Work Release, 2007 Mercy Dr, Orlando, Fl. 32808. 407-218-9207 CLAUDIA PARRISH – Holds a Florida C Wastewater license with 1.5 years of experience. She is currently employed and is seeking additional volunteer hours to gain experience for a C Water license. Prefers the central Florida area. Contact at 3501 Hollow Oak Run, Oviedo, Fl. 32766. 407221-3890

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.


April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Display Advertiser Index

Editorial Calendar January ........Wastewater Treatment February ......Water Supply; Alternative Sources March............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..............Conservation and Reuse; ......................Florida Water Resources Conference May................Operations and Utilities Management June..............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..........Disinfection; Water Quality September ....Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ........New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ....Water Treatment December ....Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 28 1. B) 25 fecal coliform values per 100 ml sample 2. A) Reclaimed water 3. D) Pantone purple 522C 4. D) The facility operating protocol 5. B) Removing total suspended solids before the chlorine contact tanks. 6. D) After filtration, but before final disinfection. 7. C) 75 percent 8. B) 25 9. C) 55 percent at 254 nm 10. A) Microfiltration and ultrafiltration

American Ductile..........................................................58 Aqua-Aerobics..............................................................23 Automeg ......................................................................57 Blue Planet ..................................................................68 CEU Challenge ..............................................................19 Conshield......................................................................61 CROM ..............................................................................9 Data Flow......................................................................49 FJ Nugent ....................................................................59 Florida Aquastore ........................................................31 FSAWWA Conference ..................................................33 FSAWWA ACE 17 Luncheon ........................................22 FSAWWA Call for Papers ............................................51 FSAWWA Likins Schilarship ........................................35 FWPCOA Online Training ..............................................47 FWPCOA Training..........................................................25 Gerber Pumps ..............................................................18 HOMA ............................................................................41 ISA ................................................................................37 Lakeside ......................................................................17 Matthews Consulting ..................................................29 Hudson Pump ................................................................5 Stacon ............................................................................2 Stantec ........................................................................60 Suez ..............................................................................48 Tonka Water..................................................................32 Treeo ............................................................................53 Unifilt ............................................................................55 USA Blue Book..............................................................15 WEF ..............................................................................11 Xylem............................................................................69

FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES CONFERENCE Adaptor ..........................................................................7 Custom Controls ............................................................4 Hiperweb ......................................................................27 International Flow ........................................................15 Miller Pipeline ..............................................................11 Star Controls ................................................................24 Tekleen Automatic Filters ............................................26 Trihedral........................................................................20 US Water ......................................................................23

Florida Water Resources Journal • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Stabilize and Seal Your Infrastructure

Check us out at Booth 117

Adaptor Inc. has been manufacturing high-quality, American-made products for the water and sewer industry since 1976. The company was started by father and son, Stan and Michael Gagas. They were a water and sewer contractor at the time and were having to deal with the frequent problems of not being able to key a valve because of a shifted or settled valve box or the inflow and infiltration into the sanitary or storm manholes. This led to the development of the Adaptor Inc. product line. On the water side of things, Adaptor Inc. has a full line of Valve Box Stabilizers. These stabilizers can be used with cast iron and plastic boxes, along with a variety of PVC pipes. The VBA products center, protect and stabilize the valve box over the top of the valve. Sanitary products are the Internal/External manhole seal and the E3 manhole seal. These products seal externally on the adjustment rings from the casting to the cone section of the manhole. There are no special tools needed for installation. Storm sewer products seal externally also and keep your road base from washing into the basin. For more information on the full line of Adaptor Inc. products go to the website:, or call the office at 414-764-6733.

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference


Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017



April 2017 • Florida Water Resources Conference

Florida Water Resources Conference • April 2017


Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2017  

Conservation and Reuse

Florida Water Resources Journal - April 2017  

Conservation and Reuse