Page 1

Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, Display and Classified Advertising,

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference Recap 20 General Information, Contest Winners, Events 25 Awards

News and Features

Technical Articles 8 Sustainability and the Water-Energy Nexus— Stephen McGrew 46 Harnessing Energy From Biosolids—Peter M. Loomis, Dustin Craig, and Ross Varin

6 13 35 39 41 43 45 53 61 63

FSAWWA Awards Florida Water Resources Conference FSAWWA Fall Conference Call for Papers FSAWWA ACE18 Luncheon FWPCOA Spring Short School CEU Challenge FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest FWPCOA Training FSAWWA Roy W. Likins Scholarship TREEO Center Training

Columns FSAWWA Speaking Out—Bill Young Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak FWRJ Reader Profile—Tyler J. Tedcastle C Factor—Mike Darrow Committee Profile: FWPCOA Utilities Maintenance Committee—David Pachucki 56 FWEA Focus—Tim Harley 60 FWEA Chapter Corner—Tara VanEyk and Nandita Ahuja 34 36 40 42 52


FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

61 62 64 67

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

New Products Display Advertiser Index Service Directories Classifieds

ON THE COVER: The Southern Region Water Reclamation Facility in Palm Beach County installed 162-kW ground-mounted solar panels, partially funded through a green energy stimulus grant. The panels, in conjunction with a digester biogas project, now exceed the utility’s goal of 5 percent alternative energy. For more information, see page 8. (photo: Stephen McGrew)

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: FWPCOA: FSAWWA: FWEA: and Florida Water Resources Conference: Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

Education and Training

4 University of Florida TREEO Center Receives 125-Year-Old Microscope 11 Florida Chamber of Commerce Unveils Latest Water Research Educational Video 12 Summary of the City of Sarasota Climate Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Plan 38 Local Project Helps to Clean Tampa Bay— Christina Arenas 44 It’s Coming: Water Conservation Month and Water Conservation Awards for Excellence 54 WEF HQ Newsletter—Mark Patrick McGuire and Katie Foreman 58 Celebrate 2018 Drinking Water Week! 59 Correction

Training Questions

30 Incoming Chair Reception and Barbeque 32 Conference Sponsors

Volume 69

March 2018

Number 3

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


University of Florida TREEO Center Receives 125-Year-Old Microscope

Standing with the donated microscope are (left to right) Ron Trygar, TREEO Center senior training specialist; Carol Hinton, TREEO Center director; Susan Tedder; and Warren Tedder.

The donated items include Dr. Phelps’ microscope with carrying case, photo album, and compass.


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Family of the late Dr. Earle B. Phelps (1876-1953), a prominent name in public health and sanitary science, has donated his microscope to the University of Florida Training, Research, and Education for Environmental Occupations (TREEO) Center in Gainesville. Also donated with the microscope were manuals, awards, letters, and photos that date back to the early 1900s. Dr. Phelps was an 1899 graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT,) receiving a bachelor of science degree in chemistry. After graduation, he worked as a chemist and microbiologist at the MIT Sanitary Research Laboratory. His research led him to academic positions at Stanford University, Columbia University, and ultimately, University of Florida. In addition to his academic posts, Dr. Phelps held positions as a hydrographer at the U.S. Geological Survey, head of the chemistry division at the U.S. Hygienic Laboratory in Washington D.C., and an expert sanitary consultant for many large cities in the United States. The research that Dr. Phelps conducted contributed to improvements in sewage disinfection, water chlorination, sewage treatment, milk pasteurization, and shellfish control. While working at the U.S. Geological Survey, he conducted groundbreaking research with Col. William M. Black of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers on the pollution of New York harbor. This was the first time dissolved oxygen concentrations were used as a measure of water quality in the harbor. Later in his career, he developed the Streeter-Phelps equation with H.W. Streeter, a sanitary engineer with the Public Health Service. This equation ultimately made it possible for wastewater treatment plants to limit specific discharges. Because of his significant contributions to public health and sanitary science, Dr. Phelps received numerous awards and accolades throughout his career. His name graces a laboratory building at the University of Florida, Phelps Lab, which is home to the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetlands. In 1964, the Florida association of the Water Pollution Control Federation (now the Water Environment Federation) established the Earle B. Phelps Award. This prestigious award is given annually to a wastewater treatment plant for outstanding operations. Continued on page 6

Certificate of appreciation presented to Dr. Phelps from the Members Division of Chemistry, U.S. Hygienic Laboratory, Washington, D.C. New York State Sewage Works Association’s Kenneth Allen Memorial Award given to Dr. Phelps for his paper, “A Laboratory Study of the Guggenheim Bio-Chemical Process,” dated Jan. 22, 1943.

Continued from page 4 The UF TREEO Center is excited to share these donated artifacts and Dr. Phelps’ history, which will soon be on display in the Center building lobby. “I am honored that the TREEO Center has received Dr. Phelps’ personal microscope, which is a cherished piece of history,” said Ron Trygar, CET, senior training specialist at the Center. “Dr.


Phelps’ contributions to improved public health and environmental protection have become the cornerstones of our drinking water and wastewater treatment industry today. I hope that his passion and wealth of knowledge will continue to motivate and encourage future generations of treatment plant operators, engineers, and scientists. He has certainly done this for me.” The artifacts were graciously donated by

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Mr. and Mrs. Warren Tedder, Ms. Susan Phelps Howard, and Ms. Barbara Phelps Howard, all family of Dr. Phelps. The TREEO Center plays a major role in the continuing education for environmental professions. Currently in its 40th year, the Center offers online courses, in addition to its face-to face-offerings in Gainesville, as well as in satellite locations all over the world. S


Sustainability and the Water-Energy Nexus Stephen McGrew he water-energy nexus can be stated as “the production of thermoelectric and hydropower requires water, and the water utility industry requires power to treat, distribute, and collect the water/wastewater.” Water utilities consume approximately 4 percent of the electrical power generated in the United States(1). Electric utilities use 196 bil gal per day (bgd) of water for thermoelectric power generation, a large portion of which may be for pass-through cooling. By comparison, public water suppliers only use 44 bgd of water(2). Thermoelectric power generation requires water to produce energy, and more importantly, it requires water for cooling. In 2015, thermoelectric power generation accounted for 86 percent of the U.S power supply(3). There are significant challenges with both water and energy. The world has limited resources and a growing population. The population of the U.S. is estimated to increase by 27.6 percent, from 326.6 million in 2017 to 416.8 million in 2060(4). Climate change may cause sea level rise, degrading groundwater through salt water intrusion, and thereby increasing the use of energy-intensive reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment. Rapidly evolving technology, such as cars powered by lithium batteries that are charged from the electrical power grid, may increase electrical demand. This article presents the use of reclaimed water as a sustainable source of water for thermoelectric power plant cooling. The second portion of this case study describes how Palm Beach County Water Utilities Dept. (PBCWUD) has met its goal of 10 percent energy reduction and 5 percent green power based on electricity used per customer.


Part 1: The Water-Energy Nexus for Thermoelectric Power Generation Background Water utilities can treat wastewater to provide reclaimed water to thermoelectric power plants, and partnerships can be formed to best utilize both water and energy in an optimum manner. Florida is a leader in the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. The FAC 62610.668 allows the use of reclaimed water for cooling water applications. The water-energy nexus demonstrates the interdependencies of water and energy, which may change how resources are allocated. An electrical utility may have access to high-quality source water that would be better used for potable water. Resources could be exchanged, providing a higher-quality source water for potable use and reclaimed water used for evaporation in power generation. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) power plant water usage and loss study found the raw water usage for natural gas combinedcycle power plants to be 283 gal/megawatts per hour (MWh)(6). To produce and pump water or reclaimed water also requires energy and is a part of the water-energy nexus. Reclaimed water is a sustainable water source for use in production of thermoelectric power. Reclaimed water for power-plant cooling is a beneficial use and provides a base load demand for water utilities that is not weatherdependent, as compared to reclaimed water use for irrigation of green spaces. The increasing demand for electricity in the U.S. may result in

Figure 1. Water Treatment Plant No. 2 Lime Softener


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Stephen McGrew, P.E., PMP, DBIA, is manager of plant design with Palm Beach County Water Utilities Dept.

greater use of reclaimed water for cooling water applications. As fresh water resources become scarcer, the power industry can minimize risk through the use of reclaimed water. Reclaimed water presents a number of operational risks and challenges related to the propensity for elevated and variable concentrations of phosphate, ammonia, organics, chlorine, and select metals. In particular, the phosphate concentration is a key factor that can dictate process requirements and operational parameters of the cooling water system, in large part due to its tendency to form scaling species, such as calcium phosphate(7). A 2007 study for DOE, “Use of Reclaimed Water for Power Plant Cooling,” provides reclaimed guidelines for cooling tower recirculating water and summarizes regulatory requirements for various states(8). Green power, such as wind and solar, while not requiring water to generate power, is based upon natural earth cycles rather than customer demand. Water utilities can help take advantage of the excess power generation to treat and store water to help balance the diurnal electrical power generation and demand curves. Electrical-generating utilities may adjust rates to provide financial incentives for time of use by water utilities. Water and wastewater utilities must provide continuous service, and therefore have

Figure 2. Water Treatment Plant No. 8 Anion Exchange Vessels

Figure 3. Reverse Osmosis Energy Recovery Device

backup power generation, such as diesel or gas emergency generators. Electrical utilities can provide incentives for demand reduction and peak shaving for large power users; examples are the commercial industrial load control rate (CILC) and the commercial demand rate (CDR) implemented by Florida Power and Light (FPL) and utilized by PBCWUD, which save approximately $750,000 per year. These interruptible rates have helped reduce the amount of electrical power generation capacity, thereby saving capital cost for building larger power plants or from purchasing power at high rates from adjacent electric utilities.

Part 2: The Water-Energy Nexus for Palm Beach County Water Utilities Dept. In 2011, PBCWUD established a goal of 10 percent energy conservation and 5 percent alternative green energy. Energy conservation projects include: S Replacing two aging ozone treatment processes with an anion exchange. S Adding energy recovery on a RO membrane treatment facility. S Pump replacement and increased use of variable frequency drives. S Aeration improvements at the Southern Region Water Reclamation Facility (SRWRF). S Nanofiltration membrane replacement at two water treatment plants to lower feed pressures. S Air conditioning and lighting improvements. S Alternative green power generation that includes a 165-kilowatt (kW) solar panel system and two 375-kW biogas generators.

Figure 4. Southern Region Water Reclamation Facility Biogas Generator Enclosure

Anion Exchange The PBCWUD has replaced its 900-poundsper-day (lb/d) air feed ozone system at Water Treatment Plant No. 2 (WTP 2), which was used for color removal, with a fluidized bed anion exchange system. Construction of the 16.4-mil-galper-day (mgd) MIEXÂŽ high-rate treatment system was completed in 2012 by John J. Kirlin LLC. The MIEX is a patented magnetic ion exchange process developed by IXOM (formerly Orica WaterCare). The MIEX anionic exchange process is a low-energy green technology and partially removes dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carollo Engineers designed the WTP 2 MIEX system, which is the largest installation in the U.S. and the second largest in the world. The resin is mixed with the raw untreated water in a covered basin. The resin has a large particle surface area and magnetized iron that allow the resin to flocculate into larger particles as it rises, and the mixing shearing force is reduced. As the particles combine, they become heavier and fall back down into the mixer. The treated water flows upward through tube settlers to minimize resin loss. The anionic exchange system produces much higher-quality water compared to air feed ozone treatment, and it reduced both chemical usage and energy consumption. Flushing of the distribution system was substantially reduced after the MIEX treatment was initiated. A planned rechlorination facility was no longer necessary, as the distribution residuals were stabilized. The disinfection byproducts, trihalomethanes (THMs), and haloacetic acids (HAAs), were also significantly reduced. Water Treatment Plant No. 8 (WTP 8) has a 30-mgd capacity. There are two separate treatment trains: Train 1 has a capacity of 20 mgd and

used lime softening, ozonation, and filtration; Train 2 has a capacity of 10 mgd with lime softening, filtration, and anion exchange. The aging energy intensive ozone system in Train 1 was replaced in 2017 with anion exchange after filtration using a fixed bed anion exchange system, manufactured by Tonka Water, to reduce DOC. The resin for both Trains 1 and 2 are the Tulsion A-72, strong base anion, type-1 macropourouschloride form resin manufactured by Thermax. The WTP 8 Train 2 anion exchange system using the Thermax resin has been successfully used since 2008. The salt usage for WTP 8 fixed bed anion exchange is less than the WTP 2 Miex fluidized bed system, which influenced the decision to expand the fixed bed system at WTP 8. Train 1 has 14 anion exchange vessels and Train 2 has seven vessels. A chloramine disinfectant residual of 2 mg/l is typically applied prior to the fixed bed anion exchange vessels to prevent biological growth, as free chlorine can damage the resin beads. The WTP 8 will utilize free chlorine disinfection after the total organic carbon (TOC) is reduced through the anion exchange system, followed by ammonia, to combine with the chlorine prior to potable water storage and pumping. Energy Recovery Water Treatment Plant No. 11 (WTP 11) is a 10-mgd RO brackish water treatment plant. This facility is one of the largest inland brackish RO treatment facilities and is the sole water supply for the cities of Belle Glade, Pahokee, and South Bay. The WTP 11 became operational in April 2008, at a recovery ratio of 80 percent. The original design estimated that the Floridan raw Continued on page 10

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


Continued from page 9 water would degrade over 20 years to total dissolved solids (TDS) of 4,358 mg/l; unfortunately, the Floridan aquifer degraded much more rapidly to a TDS of 5,050 mg/l in only five years. Due to feed pressure pumping limitations, the recovery ratio was dropped to 70 percent, requiring additional raw water and increasing the stress on the aquifer. An energy recovery device (ERD) was added to boost pressures into the second stage, and additional vessels were added to increase the membrane array from 38 to 40 vessels in stage 1 and from 19 to 20 vessels in stage 2. The ERD utilizes the wasted energy on the firststage permeate to boost the feed pressures into stage 2, and acts similar to a turbocharger. The design-build team was Globaltech Inc. and Kimley-Horn & Associates Inc. The project was highly successful by restoring the RO recovery ratio to the original 80 percent, thereby reducing stress on the Floridan aquifer and reducing the energy consumption by 1000 kWh per mil gal (MG) of water produced(9). Biogas-to-Energy Project The SRWRF Digester Biogas Renewable Energy Project generates up to 20 percent of the facility's power requirements from the methane biogas that was previously flared and wasted. With completion of the biogas-to-energy project in 2013, all of the waste products generated at the facility are recycled, providing environmental stewardship (reclaimed water for irrigation and constructed wetlands, biosolids for fertilizer pellets, and biogas for energy production). This project was partially funded by DOE's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program assistance agreement in the amount of $1.6 million, which covered a portion of the $3,529,000 project cost.

The SRWRF is a conventionally activated sludge domestic wastewater treatment facility, rated at 35 mgd, with a three-month average daily flow, and is currently operating at approximately 60 percent of the rated capacity. Sludge is collected in the existing clarifiers and transferred to three gravity belt thickeners, where the sludge is thickened to approximately 5 percent solids before being stabilized through anaerobic digestion. There are two digester groups, each with three 65-ft diameter digesters; each group has two primary digesters with fixed covers and one secondary digester with a floating cover. These gas holder covers permit a cover travel of about 6 ft, and thus provide up to 20,000 ft3 of biogas storage per secondary digester, with no other digester gas storage at the plant. The facility digesters receive an average of 86,000 gal of solids per day, with an average volatile solids concentration of 4.24 percent; this equates to an average of 30,000 lb/d of volatile solids fed into the digesters. On average, the volatile solids destruction for the SRWRF digesters was 15,800 lb/d, or 53 percent. During design it was assumed that 15 ft3 of gas is produced per pound of volatile solids. Gas samples were sent several times to determine the British thermal units (BTU) available for combustion, and to measure hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes. The digester heating requirements were subtracted from the gas production to determine the available gas flow for the renewable generators. The criteria for sizing of the generators focused on minimizing flaring and maximizing energy production, while considering seasonal flow variations. Two 375-kW internal combustion engines provided 96 percent gas utilization. To maximize the use of the 460-volt (V) three-phase renewable generators, the power pro-

duced will be paralleled to the plant electrical grid. The power will be increased to 4,160V through the use of transformers and then paralleled using the existing Russ Electric switchgear. This electric power is used onsite, reducing the purchase of electric power that is produced using fossil fuels, and can generate an average of 455 kW of continuous electrical power, providing 20 percent of the required electrical power for the facility. To maximize the savings, the biogas generators are programmed to run at 100 percent capacity during the hours that FPL charges peak rates. This waste-gas-to-energy recapture is an innovative project that demonstrates sustainable use at a wastewater treatment facility. It has potentially widespread application in similar wastewater treatment facilities, as well as other industrial facilities located throughout Florida; SRWRF is one of only a few facilities to reuse all three wastewater treatment process byproducts(10). In addition, this project provides the facility with additional electrical generation capacity in the event of an emergency or during a disaster. The utility values improvements that can increase positive public perception and embrace environmental stewardship. There are six objectives that were achieved in the biogas-to-energy project: S Objective 1 - Complete the sustainability cycle at the facility by utilizing up to 100 percent of the biogas created at the facility. S Objective 2 - Reduce energy supplied by the power grid. S Objective 3 - Provide source green power to meet the utility’s 5 percent alternative energy goal. S Objective 4 - Increase electrical system flexibility. S Objective 5 - Reduce greenhouse gas emissions. S Objective 6 - Become a model for other utilities to recover and utilize biogas for energy production.

Solar Power

Figure 5. Southern Region Water Reclamation Facility Solar Panels


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The installation of 162-kW groundmounted solar panels was completed in fall 2013. The project was partially funded through a green energy stimulus grant. The solar panels, in conjunction with the digester biogas project, now exceed the utility goal of 5 percent alternative energy. The SRWRF has large buffer areas, with both grassy lawn areas and a tree canopy. The Suniva MVX Series 250W solar panels were placed in the grassy area along the plant access roadway and are visible from the Florida Turnpike. The individual solar panels connect to combiner panels where the direct current (DC) voltage is monitored through the plant supervi-

sory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system using Modbus communication protocol. The combiner panels connect to Solectria PVI 100-kW rectifiers, where the DC voltage is converted to 480-V, three-phase alternate current (AC) power, and the two rectifiers are then connected to the effluent pump building electrical gear. The effluent pump station has a base load energy usage greater than the solar power generation capacity. The electrical connection was made on the 480-V switchgear. Total yearly green energy production is estimated at 235,000 kWh, with an electrical savings of $20,000 per year. Adding solar power to the treatment facility is an environmentally sound business practice. It’s a relatively easy-to-implement project, in comparison with biogas-to-energy. Future expansion for the solar power may continue along the plant access roadway or mounted on the building roofs. There is ample space to expand the solar power from 162 to 500 kW when there are additional funding opportunities to further increase green energy and reduce the carbon footprint.

References 1. EPA website: 2. EIA webpage: 3. The Wall Street Journal, (2016) “Energy,” Nov. 14, 2016, p R1. 4. U.S. Census Bureau website: 5. McGrew, S., and Tobon, M., (2012). “Design and Construction Challenges for a 36-Inch Diameter 18-Mile Reclaimed Water Pipeline.” ASCE Pipelines 2012. 6. U.S. Department of Energy. “Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study.” August 2005, revised May 2007. 7. Power magazine webpage: 8. Argonne National Laboratory, ANL/EVS/R07/3. “Use of Reclaimed Water for Power Plant Cooling for the US Department of Energy.” August 2007. 9. Miller, M., Lee, J., and Black, N., (2015). “Energy Recovery Case Studies for Brackish Water Membrane Treatment Systems.” Florida Water Resources Journal, March 2015. 10. McGrew, S., and Tobon, M., (2012). “Completing the Sustainability Cycle, Reclaimed Water, Pelletization, Biogas, and Solar Power.” ASCE International Sustainability Conference, 2014. S

Florida Chamber of Commerce Unveils Latest Water Research Educational Video Video addresses discharges from Kissimmee River and tributaries north of Lake Okeechobee and science-based water solutions The Florida Chamber of Commerce has released its sixth in a series of water research educational videos that further demonstrate why following science-based research is important to securing Florida’s water future. The latest video addresses discharges from the Kissimmee River and other tributaries north of Lake Okeechobee, and the science-based solutions that policy makers are considering to mitigate these problems in the future. The educational video highlights research produced for Florida Atlantic University – Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute by Dr. Brain LaPointe, a research professor at the institute. “I’ve spent my career studying water quality throughout the state of Florida, and this educational collaboration sheds light on the high water levels and algal blooms that followed the unusually heavy rainfalls in the winter and spring of 2016,” said Dr. LaPointe. According to Mark Wilson, president and chief executive officer of the Florida Chamber of Commerce, there are few issues more important than water. “With six million more people expected to call Florida

home by 2030, science-based solutions are the only way to ensure that Florida’s water future is sustainable and provides the quality of life Floridians and our visitors deserve,” Wilson said. Lake Okeechobee is the second largest lake in the continental United States. Worldclass fishing has helped spur tourism around the lake in recent decades. The lake is fed by the Kissimmee River and northern tributaries, which drain nutrient-rich fresh water from a 5,000-sq mi basin extending south from Orlando. The video includes interviews with the following environmental leaders: S Drew Bartlett, deputy secretary for Water Policy and Ecosystem Restoration, Florida Department of Environmental Protection S Ernie Barnett, executive director, Florida Land Council S Paul Gray, Ph.D., Okeechobee science coordinator, Audubon Florida S Scott Martin, professional angler and TV host S Larry Wright and Tom Mann, Jr., professional bass fishing guides S Mary Ann Martin, Roland Martin’s Marina and Fishing Resort This is the sixth in a series of water research educational videos. Previous videos include: S St. Lucie Estuary S Springs S Southwest Florida S The Florida Keys S Indian River Lagoon For the complete series and more information, go to WaterVideos. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


Summary of the City of Sarasota Climate Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Plan

A black mangrove that is threatened and already showing poor health due to rising seas. (photo: Sherri Swanson)

City staff and consultants review maps showing city infrastructure and sea level rise projections. (photo: Stevie Freeman-Montes)

As a coastal city, the City of Sarasota recognizes the implications of climate change and the potential for impacts to public infrastructure and the community. To be proactive, the city initiated an infrastructure vulnerability assessment and climate adaptation plan, which included an assessment of critical cityowned assets to identify vulnerabilities to future climate threats. A six-step process enabled a team of internal experts and consultants to prioritize system vulnerabilities and develop adaptation strategies that resulted in an actionable plan to improve the city’s resilience over time. The team first documented regional climate projections and compiled an infrastructure database to inventory transportation, water supply, wastewater, and stormwater assets, as well as public lands and critical buildings. The vulnerability assessment included qualitative and quantitative assessments of risk based on model outputs within a geographic information system framework, along with scoring methodologies to understand how four climate variables—sea level rise, storm surge, extreme precipitation, and extreme heat— might impact city infrastructure. The prioritization process produced graphs of risk through a ranking evaluation to prioritize the most vulnerable infrastructure. Vulnerability assessment was produced for 220 assets, with 80 being prioritized as most vulnerable. The city hosted community meetings to relay vulnerabilities and solicit ideas for adaptation. The result is an adaption plan that will help the city achieve greater resiliency to climate change. For the full climate vulnerability assessment and adaption plan, go to S

Sunny-day flooding on Longboot Key in Sarasota County. Saltwater emerges from storm drains due to a king tide that’s not associated with a rain event. (photos: Stevie Freeman-Montes)


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018



2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference: Stewardship and Responsibility High School Academy

Peggy Guingona The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) celebrated its 91st year of commitment and dedication to the world’s most important resource by hosting its 23rd Fall Conference, with the theme, “Stewardship and Responsibility,” from November 26-30 at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. The yearly event, which attracted 1597 attendees, included water utility executives and managers, engineers, educators, manufacturers, consultants, operators, students, and others from the water profession. A total of 175 exhibit booths were sold. There were plenty of opportunities to meet old colleagues and make new friends at the continental breakfasts, lunches, meet-and-greet receptions, golf tournament, Poker Night and Happy Hour, and annual BBQ Challenge and reception to welcome the incoming chair, Bill Young.


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Opening General Session The Opening General Session (OGS) on Monday afternoon is one of the conference’s must-attend events and has been a part of the conference since 2013. The keynote speaker this year was Bryan Seely, a world-famous cyber security expert, ethical hacker, author, and former U.S. Marine. Seely is known for intercepting calls to the United States Secret Service and FBI by hacking Google Maps in early 2014, but rather than spending time in prison, he was called a hero and moved on to bigger and better things. In August 2014, Seely and another security expert de-anonymized the highly valued mobile app, Secret. He was on the front page of, CNNMoney, CNET, Forbes and the Washington Post all in the same day. The highprofile hacking of Secret landed Seely a consulting gig with the company less than a week later, and Mark Cuban personally contacted the duo to provide mobile application security/ethical hacking services for his newest tech investment, Cyberdust. Seeley then gave a TEDx Talk called “Wiretapping the Secret Service can be Easy and Fun,” which launched his speaking career. He is now an advisor to John McAfee and his company MGT. His topics at the session included: S Cyber Security: New Threats New Tactics S How to Protect Your Company S Inside the Mind of Hackers S The Future of Cybersecurity and Technology

S The Future of Chloramines: A Review of Effective Strategies for Florida Distribution Systems S Brain Drain Solutions: Innovative Methods to Fill Openings and Keep Staff S Finance, Rates, and Perspectives on the Value of Water S The Utilities Role in Environmental Stewardship in Light of EPA’s Revised Priorities S Utility Systems Symposium: Smart Cities Integration Into the Utility Industry S Hurricane Irma: Lessons Learned Tuesday and Wednesday technical sessions focused on the conference’s theme, “Stewardship and Responsibility.” The sessions included: S Reuse as a Drinking Water Supply Solution S Membranes 1 S Water Quality Assessment in the Water Distribution System

S Communicating with Stakeholders S Alternative Water Supplies S SEDA-AMTA Session Continued on page 22

Poster Contest

Poster Contest winner Martin Coleman.


Other speakers in the opening session included visiting AWWA officer Jeanne BennettBailey, the association’s immediate past president, and Florida Agriculture Commissioner Adam Putnam, who gave a presentation by video.

BBQ Challenge and Incoming Chair’s Reception On Monday evening, the conference held the third BBQ Challenge, which was open to all attendees. It was also an opportunity to introduce and welcome the incoming chair, Bill Young.

Water Bowl

Technical Program The excellent technical program is successful every year through the dedicated efforts of Dr. Fred Bloetscher. In 2017, the workshops were again included in the conference registration. The workshops offered were: S 50 Shades of Gray Areas: Understanding the Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Water and Wastewater Sample Collection From Operator to Management

Winner: University of Central Florida.

University of Florida and University of Central Florida teams.

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


RECAP OF 2017 FSAWWA FALL CONFERENCE Continued from page 21 S S S S

Water Pipe Replacement Water Treatment Utility Management Managing Water Quality Challenges in the Treatment Plant and Raw Water Supply S Water Distribution System Piping Solutions

Ductil Iron Tap

On Wednesday, the Water Use Efficiency Division held a water conservation symposium titled, “Water Efficiency: What Your Utility Needs to Know About Communicating the Value of Water Efficiency.”

Exhibits The exhibit hall, which had 175 booth spaces, gave attendees another chance to network and learn about the latest and most innovative products and services in the water industry. Company personnel were available each day to help attendees solve their problems and meet future challenges.


First Place: JEA (Water Boys)

Fun Tap

The FSAWWA Executive Committee held its meeting on Sunday morning, followed by the board of governors meeting in the afternoon, with 33 board members and other active volunteers present. This is where the real work of the section is planned for the following year. Two specials guests from AWWA were in attendance: Jeanne Bennett-Bailey and Ashley Longmore, section relationship manager. Other meetings were also held by the organization’s councils and committees. There’s a group for almost every water topic. Meetings are also held at other section events throughout the year.

Diversity and Inclusion Workshop First Place: West Palm Beach (Sewer Dogs)

On Tuesday, Dionna Griffin-Irons, diversity and inclusion director for The Second City, the legendary comedy troupe that originated in Chicago, joined this year's conference in a compelling interactive workshop that engaged water leaders with best inclusion practices to increase innovation and improve customer satisfaction. She showcased Second City's signature improvisational tenet and how a little bit of humor and water can engage your teams. Griffin-Irons is a writer, an alumna of The Second City Detroit, and currently with the

Second Place: City of St. Cloud (Slow Pokes)

Backhoe Rodeo

Chicago comedy theatre. She has taught more than 200 workshops at colleges, corporate board rooms, organizations, and various schools, promoting access and inclusion with her infectious energy for actors, novices, and professionals. In 2013, she worked with the United States Embassy to introduce improv workshops in Norway and Latvia as a creative tool for social change.

High School Academy Students Meet, Greet, and Eat For the second year, the FSAWWA Operators/Maintenance Council invited high school academy students from the Heritage High School Academy of Environmental Water and the St. Johns Technical High School Academy of Coastal and Water Resources to attend the conference. The purpose of this year’s initiative was twofold: S Hold a meet-and-greet for young and seasoned professionals. S Help the students prepare for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection operators exam using a projector, with questions and answers from the study guides. As part of this initiative, FSAWWA provides support to two technical high schools in Florida that offer four years of coursework and training in preparation to take the C license operator exam. As part of their schedule for the day, the students attended a luncheon that included a panel of both experienced and new operators who discussed and shared their career experiences as operators and managers. Instead of a brown-bag lunch, the meal was provided for the students, teachers, and panelists by the following sponsors: S American Cast Iron Pipe Co. S Barney’s Pumps S Carus Corp. S CH2M S Fluid Control Specialties Inc. S Swan Analytical USA Inc. S waterTalent

Awards The section’s annual business luncheon and awards ceremony celebrated the current roster of statewide officers and inducted the new officers for 2018. Awards were also given for the best papers and to the outstanding volunteers in the water field. See pages 25-30 for award recipients.

Contests Third Place: West Palm Beach (Bullies)


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

First Place: Joel Freed, Manatee County

Several contests, with both team and individual competitors, were held.

Water Bowl Winner: University of Central Florida The University of Central Florida retained the title of Water Bowl champion at the 2017 Young Professionals Water Bowl. The UCF has been Water Bowl champion for the past three years, and this year’s team consisted of Paul Staubus, Maria Arenas, and Martin Coleman. The university provided two teams to compete for the title in the single-elimination competition format. Two teams from the University of Florida also participated in the contest. The contest is modeled after the classic “College Bowl” television quiz show. Team members were asked questions related to the water industry, encompassing water chemistry, operations, and design of treatment systems. The event was moderated by Tyler Smith Semago, and Mike Semago served as judge. Poster Contest Winner: University of Central Florida Martin Coleman, from the University of Central Florida, was the 2017 Fresh Ideas Poster Contest winner. He presented his poster entitled, “Implementing a Potable Supply, Treatment, and Distribution System Water Quality Assessment for Butts County, Georgia.” By winning the competition, Coleman receives a trip to ACE18, AWWA’s annual conference and exposition, to be held in June in Las Vegas, to compete with contest winners from across North America, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

Operator Events

Opening General Session

Operator Events Meter Madness The Meter Madness has a new champion: Luke Byous of JEA! He assembled a water meter in 37.21 seconds, ahead of Eric Ingram from JEA and Brian Rodriguez from FKAA. Byous qualifies to go to ACE18 in Las Vegas to compete in the national contest. Meter Madness is a competition where participants receive a bucket of meter parts for a specific water meter to assemble against the clock. Continued on page 24


Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018



To make is more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket. After as-

Continued from page 23 Using skill and dexterity, as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time while they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Two taps are allowed per team. The Fun Tap is the simpler version of the two contests. Ductile Iron Tap Winners First Place: Jacksonville Electric Authority Second Place: Bonita Springs Third Place: Not awarded

incoming chair sembly,Bill theYoung, meterthe must worksection correctly and not for 2018, receives the gavel from leak. outgoing chair, Dr. Grace Johns.

Tapping Contests

Fun Tap Winners First Place: West Palm Beach Utility Sewer Dogs Second Place: City of St. Cloud Slow Pokes Third Place: West Palm Beach Utility Bullies The judge and moderator for these events was Mike George.

Section Staff and Officers

Young Professionals


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Backhoe Rodeo Backhoe operators show their expertise by executing challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time. First Place: Joel Freed, Manatee County Second Place: Eric Ewerz, City of Palm Bay Third Place: Drew Robinson, Village of Wellington The judge was George Clark and moderator was Mike George for this competition. All four operator contests have been held for a very long time and are open to public and commercial field operators working in the state of Florida. Contact Mike George at (352) 2009631 for more information. Peggy Guingona is executive director of Florida Section AWWA. S


Board Meeting

Annual Section Awards Recipients of this year’s awards are noted and/or pictured on the following pages. The Florida Section AWWA honored outstanding individuals and organizations in the state’s water industry on two different dates. At the opening general session, held on November 27, the award recipients were as follows: REGIONS VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR AWARD This award honors individuals who contributed their time and talent to the success of their region.

Samantha Myers O’Farrell Region II

Christopher Stewart Region V

COUNCIL CHAIR AWARDS OF EXCELLENCE This award honors distinguished service by a council or committee chair who has made the most significant contribution to the council.

Rhea Dorris Region III Manufacturers/Associates Council Darren Campbell

Member Engagement and Development Council Jordan Walker Accepted by Tyler Tedcastle.

Public Affairs Council Shelby Hughes

Technical and Education Council Bina Nayak

Austin P’Pool Region VII

–––––––––––––––––––– NOT PICTURED –––––––––––––––––––– Contractors Council Michael Alexakis Ann Lee Region X

Michael T. Stanley Region XI

Operators/ Maintenance Council Patrick H. Allman

Utility Council Kevin Carter

NOT PICTURED Ronald E. Parker Region IV

Elizabeth W. Keddy Region VIII

Oscar Rubio Region VI

Sarah Deavenport Region IX and Region XII Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018



Annual Awards Luncheon On November 29, FSAWWA honored outstanding individuals and organizations in the state’s water industry at the annual awards luncheon.


The George Warren Fuller Award is presented annually by the American Water Works Association to the section’s respective selected members for their distinguished service to the water supply field in commemoration of the sound engineering skill, brilliant diplomatic talent, and constructive leadership that characterized the life of George Warren Fuller. Carl Richard Larabee Jr. is the recipient of this year’s distinguished award. This Fuller awardee truly represents what the award is and has had a career worthy of accomplishments that reflect the life of Fuller.


Carl has served AWWA and the Florida Section unselfishly for many years, holding many positions, including section chair, section chair-elect, section vice chair, section treasurer, Administrative Council chair, and Mentoring Committee chair. He can always be found in a crowd because he represents the Florida Section well by wearing a 40-year-old baseball cap with the FSAWWA logo proudly on display. He will receive the AWWA Fuller Award plaque in Las Vegas at the 2018 AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition.

ALLEN B. ROBERTS JR. AWARD This award is named in honor of Allen B. Roberts Jr., who worked diligently as the Florida Section's executive director to improve the status of the section by providing valuable leadership.

This award was given to Marjorie Craig by the FSAWWA Executive Committee for dedicating her time and talents to a program or initiative that far and away exceeds her duties and obligations in her service to the FSAWWA Board of Governors.

Pamela London-Exner, received this year’s award for her outstanding service as a member. She has contributed most to the section by providing valuable support to its programs through outstanding leadership, creativity, and service in the water-related field, particularly to the resolution of problems and the implementation of activities within FSAWWA and the association.

ROBERT L. CLAUDY AWARD This award is named in honor of Robert L. Claudy, who was a past chair of FSAWWA, and is a big supporter and still active in the Roy Likins Scholarship program. Rick Ratcliffe, a past Florida Section chair, was the recipient of this Manufacturers/Associates Council (MAC) award for his efforts in promoting water quality in the industry, the community, the section, and the association.


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal



This award honors the Manufacturers/ Associates Council (MAC) member who has contributed the most to the success of the fall conference, and this year it went to Branon Thames.

Carlos Gonzalez was honored by the Manufacturers/ Associates Council (MAC) with this award as its individual member of the year. [NO PHOTO]

YOUNG PROFESSIONAL OF THE YEAR Kunal Nayee was named the young professional of the year.

FSAWWA SERVICE AWARDS The following were honored for their service to the Florida Section:

Lance Littrell Region III Chair 2015-2017

Steven King Region IV Chair 2015-17

Ronald Cavalieri Region V Chair 2012-2017

Terri Holcomb Region X Chair 2015-2017

Bobby Gibbs Region XII Chair 2015-2017

Dave Slonena Trustee 2013-2017

Gerrit Bulman Region VI Chair 2015-2017 Accepted by Mike Bailey.

Marjorie Craig Likins Scholarship Chair 2013-2017

–––––––––––––––––––––––– NOT PICTURED –––––––––––––––––––––––– Ed Bettinger Region I Chair 2012-2017

Marisela Aranguiz Region VII Chair 2015-2017

Jordan Walker Young Professionals Committee Chair 2015-2017 Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018




AWWA honors significant membership tenure with the following awards. The recognition received builds with a member’s years with the association.

The FSAWWA gives this award to various facilities or structures serving as components of water systems that have historical significance and, as such, may be candidates as an American Water Works Association Water Landmark or a Florida Section Water Landmark. The facility or structure should have been in service and operational for 50 or more years to qualify for this important recognition. Wells, pumps, and piping may qualify if deemed to be of important significance.

GOLD WATER DROP AWARDS Recipients were honored for 50 years of AWWA membership. • Robert C. Marini • John A. McManus • Robert D. Obering • David L. Tippin • Kenneth F. Williams

Fred W. Trippensee III

Bay County Water Treatment Plant Constructed in 1966 Accepted by (left to right): Bobby Gibbs, Sean Lathrop, Don Hamm, and Mike Anderson.

AWWA LIFE MEMBER STATUS AWARDS Recipients were honored for 30 cumulative years of membership and being at least 65 years of age.

ROY W. LIKINS SCHOLARSHIP The scholarships are awarded each year by the section to outstanding graduate or undergraduate college students enrolled in an accredited Florida institution who are pursuing a degree related to the drinking water industry. The scholarship is named for the late Roy Likins, former president of Palm Coast Utility Corp. and a lifelong member of the American Water Works Association, who served as section chair and secretary-treasurer, as well as Region IX chair with the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association.

From left to right: Robert Conner, Robert Powell, Khalil Atasi, Rick Ratcliffe, and Bob Dudas. • Jorge T. Aguinaldo • Khalil Z. Atasi • Robert Conner • Robert J. Dudas • Charles E. Flynn Jr. • Mark A. Gabriel

• José Gonzalez • Coy M. Mathis Jr. • Richard G. Moore • Robert M. Powell • Richard S. Ratcliffe • Roy Thames Jr.

SILVER WATER DROP AWARDS Recipients were honored for 25 cumulative years of AWWA membership. • James V. Ailes • Norman C. Anderson • Efrain A. Armijos • Stephen S. Baggs • Roger A. Blaylock • Bruce Bullert • Tory L. Champlin • John E. Collins Jr. • John W. Deamud • Brenda L. Dewees • Kenneth L. Enlow • Jay J. Fink • Jon D. Fox • Chris R. Helfrich • Stephen M. Hoffman • William T. Howell • Donald R. Hubbs


• Glenn R. Humphrey • A. Rony Joel • Shannon R. LaRocque • C. Scott Lee • Eric G. Leveque • Paul A. Lowe • Mark C. Lucas • William S. Manahan • Eric P. Peters • Kirk R. Shields • James E. Shoemaker • Mark R. Simpson • Jacqueline W. Torbert • John D. Troutt • John Richard Voorhees • Dewey C. Wilson Jr.

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Top row, left to right: Todd Swingle, Madeley Paola Arriola Guerrero, Paul Staubus, Andreia Paulino, and Marjorie Craig. Bottom row, left to right: Maria Arenas, Erica Amah Dasi, and Helene Kassouf. $5,000 - Maria Isabel Arenas, University of Central Florida $5,000 - Maria Camilla Chavez, University of Florida $5,000 - Matthew Clark, University of Central Florida $5,000 - Erica Amah Dasi, University of South Florida $5,000 - Helene Kassouf, University of South Florida $5,000 - Andreia Paulino, Florida Gulf Coast University $2,500 - Sandra Un Jan, Florida Gulf Coast University $2,500 - Paul Staubus, University of Central Florida $5,000 - Madeley Paola Arriola Guerrero, University of Florida

Division 2 - Bay County Utility Services Accepted by (left to right): Bobby Gibbs, Sean Lathrop, and Mike Anderson.

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AWARDS An award is given to a utility with outstanding performance during the preceding year that deserves special recognition by the section. The criteria for these awards shall be based on, but not limited to, the following: • Must be a member of AWWA (organization or individual) • Actively supports the activities of the Florida Section • Has completed the questionnaire • Demonstrates high standards and integrity The following utilities (pictured left and below) earned the firstplace award in their respective divisions: Division 3 – No award Division 7 – No award

Division 4 - Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. - Distribution and Collection Accepted by Mike Prescott and Lance Reighter.

Division 6 - Broward County Water and Wastewater Services Accepted by (left to right): Mike Kelly, Clive Haynes, Mark Darmanin, and Carlos Morejon.

Division 5 City of Palm Coast Accepted by Randy Zalesky.

–––––––– NOT PICTURED –––––––– Division 1 Ozello Water Association

Division 8 - Hillsborough County Public Utilities Dept. Accepted by (left to right): Kenneth Carlisle, John Appenzeller, Suresh Maharaj, and Roy Bean.

WATER CONSERVATION AWARDS FOR EXCELLENCE Public Education Show of Excellence – Medium Utility Charlotte County Utilities “Research and Demonstration Garden” Public Education Show of Excellence – Large Utility City of Melbourne “Eco Schools” Accepted by Jennifer Wilster.

Public Education Best in Class – Mega Utility Orange County Utilities Water Division “Florida Friendly Demonstration Garden” Accepted by (left to right): Jessica Green, Bridgett Tolley, Norman Blowers, and Terri Thill.

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018



“Can Machine Learning and Geostatistics Overcome a Lack of Data in Assessing Recovery of Water Levels and Ecological Conditions at Unmonitored Wetlands and Lakes?” Dan Schmutz Greenman-Pedersen Inc. Challenges of Implementing Reverse Osmosis Treatment of an Alternative Brackish Water Supply in Central Florida.” Andrea Cumming Netcher, Ph.D. Tetra Tech Inc. “Integrated Water Systems Model” Jenny Bywater, P.E. CDM Smith

Water For People Fundraiser Recognition Water For People Exhibitor Fundraiser Recognition of Gold Sponsors

Left to right: Juan Aceituno, CH2M; Scott Johnson, Data Flow Systems; Ana Maria Gonzalez, Hazen and Sawyer; and Lance Littrell, Kimley-Horn. • Blue Planet Environmental Systems Inc. • Carollo Engineers Inc. • Carter VerPlanck • CH2M • Data Flow Systems Inc.

• Florida Aquastore and Utility Construction • Hazen and Sawyer • Hydra Services Inc. • Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc. • Reiss Engineering Inc.

WATER FOR PEOPLE KENNETH J. MILLER FOUNDERS' AWARD The Founders' Award was established in 2001 as a special recognition for volunteers who show outstanding service to this international humanitarian effort. The awards ceremony will be held in June at ACE18 in Las Vegas. Robert Regalado


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Incoming Chair’s Reception and BBQ Challenge One of the highlights of the evening was the fourth annual Barbeque Challenge and the incoming chair’s reception held on the event lawn at the convention center. The weather and setting made for a great evening of music, networking, and excellent food for more than 300 attendees. It was also a chance to toast Bill Young, incoming chair (who will lead the section in 2018), see a slide show of his life that was put together by his family and colleagues, and hear his speech about what he hopes to accomplish in the coming year. Complimentary beverages were sponsored by the FSAWWA Contractor’s Council and the following companies: S Florida Design Contractors S Garney Companies S PCL Construction S Petticoat-Schmitt S Walsh Group S Wharton-Smith Construction They all helped to make the 2017 event a success! There is nothing like an ice-cold drink to go with good barbeque! This year’s contest featured a record 11 teams competing for the honor of “Grand Champion.” Grill masters from the following companies competed for top honors in chicken, pork, ribs, beef brisket, people’s choice, and overall champion: S Aegion Corp. S Charlotte County Utilities/Jones Edmunds Inc. S Fortiline Waterworks S Hillsborough County Utilities S GHD S Garney Companies S George F. Young S McKim & Creed S Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority S Stanley Hydraulic Tools S Wharton Smith Construction As the conference attendees socialized and feasted on the barbeque, judging took place to determine the best in each category and the grand champion. Richard Anderson, the barbeque event chair, announced the results at the end of the evening. Top honors went to two new teams this year: the team of Charlotte County/Jones Edmunds Inc. took the first-place prize for best chicken, and Team Garney Companies earned the crowd’s vote, winning the people’s choice award for its delicious smoked prime rib. But it was first-year competitor Fortiline Waterworks that swept the competition by winning the three remaining categories of ribs, brisket, and pulled pork, earning the honor of 2017 grand champion. Congratulations to Fortiline and all the teams competing this year! Overall, this year’s event was a tremendous success that featured great food and fun in a fantastic locale. Watch for news of the fifth annual Barbeque Challenge at this year’s Fall Conference at Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. You don’t want to miss it!

Scenes from the barbeque.

Bill Young introduced as the incoming chair. Above: Monica Autrey, Destin Water Users, and Robert Tatum, Underground Solutions Inc.

At left: Garney folks with their Yeti cooler raffle prize.

Charlotte County/Jones Edmunds Inc. were the chicken-category champions.

Fortiline Waterworks, the ribs, brisket, and pulled pork champion, earned the honor of 2017 grand champion.

Garney was the people’s choice winner for prime rib.

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018




Premier Sponsors

The section thanks all the sponsors for their generous support of the conference.

NOT PICTURED: • Ferguson Waterworks • Jones Edmunds • Wharton-Smith Inc.

AECOM Ron Cavalieri

HDR Terri Holcomb

Gold Sponsors Carter VerPlanck CDM Smith Crom, LLC Florida Aquastore And Utility Construction Inc. Guardian Equipment Inc. Hydra Service Inc. MARS Company

Kimley-Horn Lance Littrell

Sigma Corporation Kevin Stine

Wager Company of Florida Kim Kowalski

Wright-Pierce Kathleen Gierok

Silver Sponsors Allied Universal Corp. McWane Ductile PCL Construction Smith-Blair, A Xylem Brand Thompson Pipe Group - Flowtite

Platinum Sponsors

Water For People Sponsors

CH2M Cristina OrtegaCastineiras

Tetra Tech Jennifer Roque


Data Flow Systems Tom Hogeland

Thames and Associates Branon Thames

Hazen and Sawyer Pete Robinson

Gannett Fleming Inc. John Dougherty

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Reiss Engineering Mark Burgess

NOT PICTURED: • Blue Planet Environmental Systems Inc. • Core & Main • Garney Construction • PC Construction • QLH, A Mead & Hunt Co.

Pictured (left to right): • Juan Aceituno, CH2M • Scott Johnson, Data Flow Systems Inc. • Ana Maria Gonzalez, Hazen and Sawyer • Lance Littrell, Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc.


Water Utilities and FSAWWA Bill Young Chair, FSAWWA

s many of you may know, I have worked with the St. Johns County Utility Dept. for over 30 years. For 20 of those years, I have been the director. It’s from that perspective that I look at the role of the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) in our state. The key to any successful water utility is the skills and qualifications of its employees. Our utility takes advantage of the FSAWWA training and technical sessions that are offered in order to remain competitive and to assure our customers that the men and women who treat their drinking water are the best employees we can have. Over the years, FSAWWA has aggressively expanded its continuing education options, and more and more water professionals are enhancing their futures by taking advantage of these many options.



The methods of education can come in many forms, from online courses to regional, state, and national seminars and conferences. These conferences also provide a wonderful opportunity to meet vendors and discuss the latest equipment advances. Moreover, a utility employee obtains excellent networking opportunities and is often times able to discuss current issues with other utility personnel in order to analyze the best options available. Obviously, this ability to research equipment and services offers huge advantages for utilities. Another avenue of participation is our very active Utility Council. This council tracks and participates in critically important regulatory and political issues that can impact all utilities. The council is always open to new participants, and under current leadership is poised to do great things. The many advantages that come with working with this group, and better understanding our many challenges, are too numerous to count. Many of the nation’s best engineering consulting firms participate in FSAWWA activities. This provides additional opportunities to learn more about what they do and the services they offer. This ongoing relationship between our

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

section and these firms is critical to our success, at both the regional and state levels. Again, much like with our equipment vendors, our coworkers get an excellent opportunity to receive a deeper knowledge of these firms, and the expertise they can provide. In my opinion, as a utility director, one of the primary benefits of participating in FSAWWA is to encourage and foster leadership paths for our staff. Every utility would benefit greatly from its employees participating in the section. I know my utility is all the better for joining FSAWWA, and I strongly urge your utility to get involved! S

Test Yourself

Questions About Domestic Wastewater Industrial Pretreatment Programs Donna Kaluzniak

4. Per FAC 62-625, Pretreatment Requirements for Existing and Other Sources of Pollution, specific prohibitions forbid the discharge of what pollutants into a WWF? a. Any wastewater containing hydrogen sulfide b. Pollutants with a pH below 5 c. Wastes with temperatures below 40°C (104°F) d. Wastewater that could create odor problems

1. What is industrial pretreatment? a. Chemical treatment of reuse water prior to discharge to a holding pond b. Primary clarification at a domestic wastewater facility (WWF) c. Removal of debris and grit at the headworks of a publicly owned treatment plant (POTW) d. Removal, reduction, or alteration of pollutants in industrial wastewater prior to discharge into a WWF

5. Per the Code of Federal Regulations – 40 CFR 403 (National Pretreatment Program), standards specifying the quantity, concentration, or pollutant properties of pollutants that may be discharged to a WWF are called

2. The goals of an industrial pretreatment program include preventing the introduction of pollutants that will a. come from other domestic WWFs. b. increase the cost of treating the influent wastewater. c. interfere with WWF operation or pass through the WWF into waters of the state. d. meet the requirements of FAC 62-625.

3. Public utilities must develop and implement a pretreatment program if the WWF receives pollutants from industrial users that pass through or interfere with the operation of the WWF, the WWF discharges to waters of the state, and the WWF has a design flow a. b. c. d.

greater than 5 mil gal per day (mgd). less than 1 mgd. less than 3 mgd. less than 4 mgd.

a. b. c. d.

categorical pretreatment standards. exceptional pretreatment standards. general pretreatment standards. verified pretreatment standards.

6. Per FAC 62-625, Pretreatment Requirements for Existing and Other Sources of Pollution, for public utilities with approved pretreatment programs, the control authority is the a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). b. Florida Department of Health (FDOH). c. county public health department. d. public utility that administers the pretreatment program.

7. Per FAC 62-625, an industrial user is in significant noncompliance for chronic violations of wastewater discharge limits if what percent of measurements exceed a numeric standard during a six-month period? a. 25 percent c. 66 percent

b. 50 percent d. 88 percent

8. Control authorities must provide the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) with a report that briefly describes the control authority’s program activities, including an updated list of industrial users, a summary of compliance and enforcement activities, and other information. How often must this report be provided? a. Annually c. Quarterly

b. Monthly d. Weekly

9. Per FAC 62-625, control authorities and industrial users must keep records of monitoring activities and results and make such records available for inspection by FDEP for how long? a. One year c. Five years

b. Three years d. Seven years

10. Per EPA’s Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program, a WWF’s pretreatment program must contain six minimum elements. These include procedures, funding, local limits, enforcement response plan (ERP), list of significant industrial users, and a. b. c. d.

approval from EPA. laboratory sampling program. legal authority. training program. Answers on page 70

References used for this quiz: • FAC 62-625 Pretreatment Requirements for Existing and Other Sources of Pollution, EPA National Pretreatment Program ( • EPA’s Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program (on the EPA website:

Send Us Your Questions - Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Local Project Helps to Clean Tampa Bay Christina Arenas Keep Tampa Bay Beautiful and its partners developed a focused set of actions and projects that will significantly reduce or eliminate the volume of litter and debris entering the Hillsborough River watershed. The ever-increasing volume of trash, litter, and debris entering inland watersheds, coastal waters, and oceans creates a water quality and habitat challenge that warrants attention. Litter and trash that enter these environments can cause aesthetic blight, flooding, economic impacts, water quality issues, and possible human health risks. Only focusing on cleanup strategies to remove litter and debris from roadways can be viewed as the equivalent of putting a bandage on a scab; it does not address the issue of how to prevent the problem from happening. The most logical approach to managing runoff pollution is to educate the community by collaborative methods and activities. Thousands of people visit and relocate to Hillsborough County every year to enjoy the many recreational amenities that Tampa Bay can offer, especially water activities. The City of Tampa is home to about 350,000 residents, and over 1.3 million people reside in Hillsborough County, where many live in close proximity to the river. Residents within the city limits consume an average of 72 million gallons of water per day, which is sourced from the Hillsborough River. Many residents are unaware of the cycle that litter makes: from land-based litter to aquatic trash, and from water pollution


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to household faucet. Educating residents about how pollution enters the waterways plays a huge role in the local economy and can affect tourism, employment, and real estate. The Hillsborough Trash-Free Waters Initiative encourages residents throughout the many and diverse communities of Hillsborough County to be vigilant in protecting the waterways toward a more beautiful Tampa Bay. This project is a call to action to create more sustainable communities, counteract negative behaviors, and coordinate pollution prevention activities that pose water quality issues and habitat concerns in the county.

Incorporating “Waste in Place” education and emerging litter prevention technologies, Keep Tampa Bay Beautiful coordinates guided, educational eco tours along the Hillsborough River to significantly reduce or eliminate the volume of litter and debris entering the waterways. Volunteer-based service projects, paired with educational benchmarks, inspire volunteers to make a greater impact within their communities. Christina Arenas, M.A., is environmental program manager for Keep Tampa Bay Beautiful. (photos and graphics: Keep Tampa Bay Beautiful) S

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


FWRJ READER PROFILE the best and most cost-efficient solution to meet their needs. Every day brings new and different challenges, which allow me to assist my clients.

Tyler J. Tedcastle, P.E. Carter VerPlanck Inc., Pompano Beach

Work title and years of service. I have been involved in water/wastewater since I helped found the FSAWWA chapter at the University of Florida in 2006. After graduation, I spent six and a half years working for a national engineering/consulting firm assisting clients with their water and wastewater needs in northeast Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi. From consulting, I have transitioned into working for Carter VerPlanck, a manufacturer’s representative, with territories including northeast, central, and south Florida. What does your job entail? I am currently the southeast regional sales manager for Carter VerPlanck, specializing in water and wastewater treatment equipment. The position entails working with owners, engineers/consultants, operators, and contractors to help them find

Tyler and his wife, Ashley.


What education and training have you had? I received my degree in chemical engineering from the University of Florida in 2008. While working as a consulting engineer, I received my masters in environmental engineering from UF in 2012 through its Electronic Delivery of Gator Engineering (EDGE) program. Along with these, I also received my professional engineer license in environmental engineering in 2013. What do you like best about your job? My favorite part of the job is helping my clients find the perfect solution to each unique problem. There are many products out on the market that can solve an individual problem, but finding the correct solution that answers the specific needs for a utility is very satisfying. What professional organizations do you belong to? I’m a member of WEF/FWEA and AWWA/FSAWWA. As part of AWWA, I have served the following positions: S FSAWWA Member Engagement and Development Council chair (2017– present) S FSAWWA Administrative Council chair (2014–2017) S FSAWWA trustee (2011–2014) S FSAWWA Young Professionals (YP) Committee chair (2011–2013) S AWWA YP Committee (2013–present)

S AWWA Manufacturers/Associates Council Committee (2017–present) S Various positions in FSAWWA regions How have the organizations helped your career? The FSAWWA has been integral in advancing my career. By participating in the UF chapter, I was able to start networking at a young age and meet industry leaders before officially starting my career. In both stages in my career, AWWA has allowed me to have an interest in the industry, knowing that both the client and myself have a passion for enhancing the quality of water within the state of Florida. What do you like best about the industry? Knowing that every aspect of my job enhances both the quality of drinking water and protecting the environment. Water is such a precious and scarce resource, it’s just an honor to be part of an industry where the sole mission is to provide safe and clean drinking water and treat and reuse wastewater. Being part of AWWA has been a very rewarding experience. What do you do when you’re not working? Volunteering to raise money for Water For People and the Roy W. Likins Scholarships is one of the real joys I get from being part of FSAWWA. Along with that, I enjoy pretending I know how to golf, all types of fishing, and spending time on the water. Lastly, I enjoy spending time with friends and family, especially my wife, Ashley, and our rescue S puppy, Callie. Go Gators! Go Jaguars!

At the 2017 FSAWWA Region II Skeet Shooting Competition.

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

With niece, Mikaela, at a USA soccer game.

Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association

FWPCOA STATE SHORT SCHOOL March 12 - 16, 2018 Indian River State College - Main Campus – FORT PIERCE –

COURSES Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester ..........................$375/$405

Stormwater Management C, B & A ..............................$325/$325

Backflow Prevention Assembly Repairer ......................$275/$305

Utility Customer Relations I, II & III................................$260/$290

Backflow Tester Recertification ......................................$85/$115

Utilities Maintenance III &  II ..........................................$225/$255

Basic Electrical and Instrumentation ............................$225/$255

Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A .....$325/$325

Facility Management Module I......................................$275/$305

Water Distribution System Operator Level 3, 2 & 1......$325/$325

Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B & A ........................$225/$255 (Abbreviated Course) ................................................$125/$155

Wastewater Process Control ........................................$225/$255 Wastewater Troubleshooting ........................................$225/$255

For further information on the school, including course registration forms and hotels, visit:

SCHEDULE CHECK-IN: March 11, 2018 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. CLASSES: Monday – Thursday........8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friday........8:00 a.m. to noon

FREE BBQ P Monday, March 12, 4:30 p.m. P

For more information call the

FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018



Ethics: The Foundation of Our Profession Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA

oday’s lack of ethics and values is being seen around the globe. I see craziness in the world and think, “What’s happening here? Where did this go wrong? Why did these things go that way?” This got me thinking about our industry and how we must be reminded to return to the fundamentals, so we don’t lose our way along the path of career growth and self-development. Just like a foundation is the support to a building and its long-term structural life, ethics are the foundation for all operators, coordinators, managers, engineers, technicians, and others in our profession. We should all be honest and impartial and we should serve with dedication to our employers, clients, and the public as we preform our work. Many people I have encountered in our industry are leading the way in serving the public for the greater good. Being a public servant is one of the main reasons I enjoy our industry and our profession. Every day, countless people use our products and our services, and we remove contaminants from their waste stream. Then, many utilities reclaim the waste to be reused again as irrigation water or source water for potable availability. Like very, very few children, I always enjoyed learning about the hydrologic cycle as a youth. The duties and tasks we perform in this service for our customers are also critical to our organization, environment, and community. We should always perform our duties in a professional manner and take pride in what we do, whether we are cleaning a catch basin, running a laboratory analysis, inspecting a sewer manhole, or taking grab samples from an aeration basin. We are doing our part to accurately get information or keep a process running and in compliance. We are the unsung heroes, the “silent sentinels” (as coined by one of our FWPCOA past presidents, Jeff Poteet) who keep the water moving in and out of customers’ homes and businesses and treating it for future use. Each of us plays a vital role in everyone else’s daily lives. I just read about a water operator who was falsifying laboratory data in the Ozarks for the last few years, not reporting turbidity levels correctly. Apparently, the nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs) were really over the regulatory limits. This action does potentially more harm



than any good. The operator, the company, and the industry all look bad because of the negligent action that took place. Why not be truthful and use the data as a justification to get new water treatment equipment to remove particles and serve your customers better-quality H2O? The task and duties of operators are very important every day. The diligence of everyone working on every shift—together as a team— will keep your facility running smoothly and in compliance, as well as providing great customer service. My hat is off to those who do this work daily and I’m deeply grateful to those who take pride in their occupation. Many times this goes on, unnoticed and behind the scenes, but this work is vital to our success. Thank you for keeping our profession real and respected! I also want to thank and recognize the countless system operators who worked for days on end during and after the statewide impact from Hurricane Irma. Utility professionals in our state worked to limit sanitary sewer overflows by keeping lift stations and collections operational, treating millions of gallons of influent sewage at peak rates. They pumped millions of gallons of stormwater by keeping storm systems clear and flowing, and repaired mechanical and electrical instrumentation in their facilities, keeping them fully operational. Distribution crews repaired numerous water main breaks and helped their other utility departments do what they could. The public welfare is paramount in our profession. You showed great dedication to your industry and your community by keeping it all flowing. What a great example for us all! Another thing we must do is to treat all people with respect, whether it’s managers, coworkers, or customers. Listening to others really does matter and can make a difference. I for one try to listen to my coworkers for ideas and try to find the best way to implement them for improve-

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

ments when practical. One person cannot think, plan, and execute for the entire organization; we must all get input from staff, and direction from the public and regulators, to set the true course that moves the group forward. Values that go hand in hand with ethics leads to the success of our organization and industry as a whole. The important values I strive to follow daily are: S Teamwork S Integrity S Respect S Leadership S Transparency S Excellence These valves will serve each and every one of us in our betterment and help mold us in our careers. A water/wastewater operator, customer service representative, system operator, or technician should all strive to stay physically, mentally, and technically competent by bettering themselves in their craft or trade. Never stop learning! This is where FWPCOA can help strengthen your foundation (or maybe add a deck to your backyard!). Taking a training class at a short school, or online, is a way to build a better foundation in your discipline. The FWPCOA short school is again being held in Fort Pierce this March. The dates are March 12-16, with classes in system operations, collection, distribution and reclaimed water, stormwater operations, backflow prevention, utility customer relations, utility maintenance, wastewater operations, and facility management. I encourage you to attend at least one of these training events. Contact Shirley Reaves at (321) 383-9690 or for more information. If you cannot make this event, there is great training at our Online Institute: Many courses are online and available now. Ethics is very important to us all and FWPCOA has an ethics committee to encourage the right choice of action and the importance of a good solid base. It has created a code of ethics for members to use, which can be found on our website at The committee chair, Scott Ruland, can be contacted at Following some or all of these outlined ethics and values will make your personal foundational structure strong, so you can continue to build your career. In time, with these things, you’ll be a muchneeded resource for your organization as you continue to grow in the role you have on your team. Stay focused on your foundation and help build a better tomorrow! S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Energy Efficiency and Environmental Stewardship. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

Peter Loomis, Dustin Craig, and Ross Varin (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. Thermal hydrolysis a. makes organic solids more readily biodegradable. b. requires increased digester volume. c. cannot achieve class A biosolids. d. is more prevalent in North America than in Europe. 2. Digestion at Lulu Island will ultimately become energy production positive because a. the system will achieve greater than 60 percent volatile solids reduction. b. increased flow will increase the amount of gas produced per digester volume. c. the efficiency of gas turbines is expected to increase. d. supplemental solar panels will reduce dependency on fossil fuels.

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website,

Harnessing Energy from Biosolids


____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Sustainability and the Water-Energy Nexus Stephen McGrew (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DS/DW/WW)

1. Which of the following is not listed as an environmental benefit of the Southern Region Water Reclamation Facility (SRWRF) Biogas Renewable Energy Project? a. Biogas odor reduction b. Biogas for energy reduction c. Biosolids for fertilizer pellets d. Reclaimed water for constructed wetlands 2. The ___________ usage for the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) No. 8 fixed bed anion exchange is less than required for the WTP 2 fluidized bed system. a. chlorine b. lime c. power d. salt

3. Which of the following is not listed as a reason why the Des Moines Wastewater Reclamation Authority ultimately selected pressure swing adsorption for biomethane production? a. Least costly option b. Fits well within existing system design criteria c. Ease of operation and maintenance d. Does not require upstream or downstream biogas treatment

3. A rapid increase in Floridan aquifer total dissolved solids (TDS) at Palm Beach County WTP 11 resulted in a. a reduction in the number of stage-one reverse osmosis vessels. b. an increase in recovery rate at the same feed pressure. c. increased pumping stress on the Floridan aquifer. d. decommissioning of the plant’s energy recovery systems.

4. Of the Lulu Island alternatives evaluated, which of the following offered a decrease in the volume of wet tons of sludge hauled? a. Anaergia Omnivore b. Digester three c. CNP Pondus d. Thermal hydrolysis

4. At Palm Beach County WTP 8, ____________ is typically applied prior to the fixed bed ion exchange vessels to prevent biological growth. a. free chlorine b. chloramine c. ozone d. ultraviolet light

5. At the Blue Plains facility, the digesters required approximately ____________ to achieve class A biosolids pathogenic bacteria criteria. a. Eight months b. 10 months c. Six weeks d. 140 days

5. Volatile solids destruction for the SRWRF was a. 4.24 percent. b. 15 cu ft per day. c. 86,000 gal per day. d. 15,800 lb/d.

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


It’s Coming: Water Conservation Month and Water Conservation Awards for Excellence Water Conservation Month

Water Conservation Awards for Excellence

This year marks the 20-year anniversary since April was first established as Water Conservation Month in Florida. During that time, great strides have been made toward understanding the impacts of water efficiency and water conservation programs. To recognize these efforts, the Florida Section AWWA (FSAWWA) and Florida's water management districts are once again asking local governments, water utilities, and other organizations to adopt a resolution or proclamation declaring “April as Water Conservation Month,” and then report this back to FSAWWA. It’s important that your organization add a Water Conservation Month proclamation to the statewide list. Each year, FSAWWA works with the state governor and cabinet to proclaim "April as Water Conservation Month.” By adopting Water Conservation Month and adding your proclamation to the statewide list, you are letting Florida's elected officials know just how important water efficiency and water conservation practices are to local governments, water utilities, and other organizations in Florida. We want to have utilities and other groups throughout the state adopt this proclamation to get your efforts in water conservation recognized! To add your proclamation to the statewide list of entities proclaiming Water Conservation Month this year, please email your proclamation and its adoption date to Jenny Arguello at The due date for the proclamations will be announced in the near future.

This annual awards program of the FSAWWA Water Use Efficiency Division (WUED) recognizes innovative and outstanding achievements in water efficiency throughout Florida. Entry forms will be posted at in July 2018. Some of the 2017 winners are shown here. S

Proclamation (Name of County/City entity) (Location) WHEREAS, water is a basic and essential need of every living creature; and WHEREAS, The State of Florida, Water Management Districts and (your group name) are working together to increase awareness about the importance of water conservation; and WHEREAS, (your group name) and the State of Florida have designated April, typically a dry month when water demands are most acute, Florida’s Water Conservation Month, to educate citizens about how they can help save Florida’s precious water resources; and WHEREAS, (your group name) has always encouraged and supported water conservation, through various educational programs and special events; and WHEREAS, every business, industry, school, and citizen can make a difference when it comes to conserving water; and WHEREAS, every business, industry, school, and citizen can help by saving water and thus promote a healthy economy and community; and NOW, THEREFORE, be it resolved that by virtue of the authority vested in me as (Chair, Mayor, etc.) of (your group name) (commissioners or council members, etc.) do hereby proclaim the month of April as Water Conservation Month (Your group name) is calling upon each Florida citizen and business to help protect our precious resource by practicing water-saving measures and becoming more aware of the need to save water.


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Harnessing Energy From Biosolids Peter M. Loomis, Dustin Craig, and Ross Varin arnessing the energy available from biosolids has become increasingly important as fossil fuel reserves dwindle, the environmental impacts of obtaining fuels become more apparent, and economic drivers for renewable energy become more abundant. Biogas is generated from the anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids. Improving the anaerobic digestion process with proper mixing, adequate heating, and more uniform feeding can all increase the amount of biogas generated. Harnessing energy from biosolids at wastewater treatment plants reduces greenhouse gases and has the potential to produce enough electricity for more than 4 million people. Three case studies are presented: one case study of a system in operation, one under evaluation, and one in construction. The first case study presents the commissioning and two years of operations of the first thermal hydrolysis process (THP) in North America, and provides unique insight to utilities that are considering using this technology to produce Class A biosolids, recover energy, and reuse the biosolids as high-quality material for topsoil. While the first case study is for a new, large-scale facility, the second case study provides insight for smaller facilities that are considering expansion or enhancement of digester facilities at a medium-sized 25-dry-ton-perday (dtpd) facility, which can provide a basis and understanding of how digester pretreatment improvements can increase biogas yield, thereby increasing energy recovery. The third case study presents an economic and technical analysis of options for digester gas use and the initial construction of the selected facility, which receives high-strength organics, in addition to its own biosolids. The quantity and quality of the offsite organics results in more biogas than can be used by the existing power generation equipment, and it serves to describe the economics and technical feasibility of installing either additional power generation or installing gas cleaning equipment to produce line quality natural gas.


Case Study 1: DC Water Thermal Hydrolysis The 370-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) average daily flow Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater


Treatment Plant (BPWWTP) is operated by the District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water), and serves the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area. The facility has implemented a new biosolids processing facility, which has been operational since late 2014. The facilities were executed as three different but interrelated projects: main process train (MPT), combined heat and power (CHP), and final dewatering facilities (FDF).The upgrades have reduced the volume of biosolids and provide a Class A product. The main process train includes sludge screening, predewatering, thermal hydrolysis, and mesophilic anaerobic digestion in four 3.8mil-gal (MG) digesters. The main process train is followed by belt filter press dewatering and beneficial use of the Class A biosolids product. The digester gas is used to fire three 4.6megawatt (MW) gas turbines in the new CHP facility that generates up to 10 MW net of power to the plant and steam for the thermal hydrolysis process. The new MPT and ancillary facilities are capable of processing up to 450 dtpd. Thermal Hydrolysis Overview Thermal hydrolysis is a proven anaerobic digestion pretreatment process that is well established in Europe and is quickly gaining popularity across the United States. In addition to the installation at DC Water (450 dtpd), thermal hydrolysis is in design or construction at other large water reclamation facilities (WRFs) in San Francisco (200 dtpd), Dallas (245 dtpd), and Virginia Beach, Va. At Hampton Roads (Va.) Sanitation District (92 dtpd), Franklin, Tenn. (25 dtpd), and Pontiac, Mich. (26 dtpd) are examples of smaller WRFs that are utilizing thermal hydrolysis to meet their long-term biosolids goals. Thermal hydrolysis is a process by which sludge is heated under pressure, with the purpose of improving the availability of organic solids to make them more readily biodegradable. Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of the sludge prior to digestion allows for a significant reduction in the size of the digesters by feeding at a concentration of 10 percent solids versus the 5 percent feed to a conventional digester, while ensuring adequate retention time to reduce sludge volumes and provide methane to feed a CHP. The THP process has been

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Peter M. Loomis, P.E., is vice president with CDM Smith in Fairfax, Va.; Dustin Craig, P.E., is an environmental engineer with CDM Smith in Kansas City, Mo.; and Ross Varin, P.E., is an environmental engineer with CDM Smith in Morogoro, Tanzania.

proven to result in Class A biosolids after digestion, and provides high volatile solids reduction (VSR) and high methane content in the resulting gas. Start-Up The seeding process was initiated in late September 2014. Approximately 3 MG of pasteurized and digested biosolids were transported from the AlexRenew facility to BPWWTP and was added to the heated water in two of the digesters. This seed volume provided approximately 40 percent of the volume of these two digesters. Once a digester was full, thermally hydrolyzed sludge was introduced. This sludge was slowly added to the digester, based on volatile solids in the digester, starting at a rate of approximately 20,000 lbs volatile solids per day (7 percent of the volatile solids in the digester) to each of the first two digesters, and increasing approximately 3 to 5 percent per day. The feed rate was adjusted based on the digester performance. The pH, solids inventory, relative gas production compared to feed, and other parameters were monitored on a regular basis in order to determine if the feed should be increased, lowered, or suspended. In addition to the typical parameters monitored in digesters, a bacterial colony sample collection was performed. While this information was not readily available for operational decisions, the bacterial colony analysis did provide detailed information on the colony shifts and acclimatization time, and helped troubleshoot performance issues with the digesters. Acclimatization of the digesters was not instantaneous. Performance of the digesters during the first eight to 10 months of operations was reliable, but not optimal, as the methanogenic bacteria most comfortable with the thermally hydrolyzed sludge were becoming dominant. Throughout the acclimatization

period, the performance of the thermal hydrolysis and digestion exceeded expectations. Methane concentration in the digester gas ranged between 60 and 65 percent methane, gas production was approximately 0.28 cu meter (m3) per kilogram (kg) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fed (4.5 ft3 per lb of COD fed), and COD reduction was approximately 48 percent. The digesters required approximately 140 days to “washout” or consume the pathogenic bacteria to result in Class A biosolids; however, since mid-February 2015, all sludge has met Class A requirements for pathogen reduction. Long-Term Operations The goal of any digester is to reduce the mass of solids for downstream processing, which is monitored by analyzing the VSR in the digesters. The VSR is dependent upon several operational factors in the digesters. The most significant operational parameters are the ratio of primary solids to waste activated solids (WAS) and the solids retention time (SRT) in the digester; digesters fed with more primary solids will typically have higher VSR, as this material is more easily biodegradable. Digesters with longer SRT will provide increased VSR, since the more time available for digestion, the more volatile solids will be reduced. The digesters at DC Water are generally fed with 50 percent primary solids and 50 percent WAS. At normal operation throughput, a SRT of approximately 20 days was observed. Typical mesophilic digesters operating under these parameters will have a volatile solids removal generally between 38 and 50 percent. Figure 1 presents the volatile solids in the raw solids, the digested solids, and the resulting VSR over the six-month analysis period. The data indicate an average of just over 81 percent volatile solids in the feed, an average of just under 57 percent in the digested solids, and a resulting volatile solids removal of just over 68.5 percent. In addition to VSR, it is vital to understand the resulting biosolids and the end product that will be used. The ability to dewater biosolids effectively can have a direct effect on end use, hauling costs, and viability of further processing; the more water that can be effectively removed, the more options available for final biosolids disposition. In the case of DC Water, the biosolids have multiple outlets, including land application, soils blending, and curing, followed by use as a topsoil. The biosolids from the THP digestion process have been found to be very consistent, but “stickier” than typical biosolids, which has resulted in the lining of trucks with straw to reduce the time to unload.

Dewatering can be done by many different technologies, including, but not limited to, centrifuges, belt filter presses, screw presses, Fournier presses, and plate and frame presses; DC Water elected to utilize belt filter presses to eliminate the shear forces from centrifuges and reduce the risk of pathogen regrowth. Mesophilically digested biosolids can typically be dewatered between 18 and 25 percent total

solids on belt filter presses. Figure 2 presents the results from operations at DC Water, which have demonstrated 30 to 32 percent total solids throughout the operating period. Polymer usage has been steady between 20 and 22 lb per dry ton throughout the operating period. In summary, the experience at DC Water indicates that THP, followed by mesophilic diContinued on page 48

Figure 1. Volatile Solids Reduction

Figure 2. Dewatered Biosolids Concentration Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


Continued from page 47 gestion, will provide a Class A biosolids that can be readily dewatered. Digester performance is improved at similar SRT; digesters can be highly loaded and are resilient to feed changes. The digestion process provides significantly increased VSR and resultant gas yield. The biosolids release water better than typical biosolids, resulting in significantly increased solids concentrations in dewatered biosolids.

Case Study 2: Metro Vancouver Digester Improvements Evaluation The Lulu Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (LIWWTP) currently has two 5,300-m3 anaerobic digesters that treat biosolids collected from primary sedimentation tanks and secondary clarifiers. As influent flows to the plant increase, Metro Vancouver (MV) would like to assess methods of deferring the construction of a third digester through the installation of a THP or digestion pretreatment technology that would increase the capacity of the existing digesters.

A study was performed that outlines the technologies available (and their merits) when compared to the project’s goals. This long list of alternatives was screened at a high level, with the objective of selecting a short list of options evaluated at a greater level of detail. The digesters are fed a mixture of gravitythickened primary sludge and thickened waste secondary sludge. The volumetric primary-tosecondary sludge ratio is 60:40; the resulting mixture is approximately 4 percent total solids. Average flow is roughly 400 m3/day and average digester throughput is about 16,000 kg/day. The LIWWTP does not have effluent discharge limits for nutrients such as nitrogen or phosphorus, and no nutrient removal takes place at the plant. Due to the long retention time and higher primary fraction of the solids, the digesters achieve an average VSR of about 60 percent. Post-digestion solids are dewatered to 25 percent total solids and transported to the interior of British Columbia for land application. Gas generated from the digesters is compressed and used for mixing. The gas is then used for boilers that provide hot water for

Table 1. Evaluation Criteria for Biosolids Treatment Technologies


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

plant heating, and the remainder is flared. The split between the boilers and flares is typically about 50/50, but can vary with as much as 99 percent usage by the boilers in the winter, to 96 percent sent to the flares in the summer. There is an ongoing project at LIWWTP to condition the excess biogas that is currently flared and sell it to the local gas utility. Evaluation Objectives The primary objective of this study was to increase capacity of the existing digester facilities at LIWWTP, with a preference to defer the expenditure of constructing a third digester. The key drivers were: S Increased digestion capacity from the existing digester system. S No decrease in biogas production. S A single biosolids product is produced (i.e., no mixture of cake types). Additionally, MV would find producing Class A biosolids beneficial. Evaluation Biosolids technologies were evaluated based on the criteria presented in Table 1, which are split into primary drivers as acknowledged by MV, and additional attributes determined as desirable. The primary drivers are criteria that are required to be met for further consideration of a given technology, whereas the additional attributes will assist in comparing the feasible alternatives to each other. The evaluation at this stage was completed in terms of present sludge flow; future increases in flow will be taken into account in later phases of this study. Eight alternatives were identified that could potentially meet the objectives of MV and were evaluated against all the criteria. Each alternative was evaluated based on the criteria presented in Table 1, and are summarized in Table 2. Alternatives that did not meet all of the primary drivers were not considered for further comparison, and are shaded out in the summary table. These alternatives were excluded, based mainly on a lack of significant capacity increase, as all alternatives could be operated to produce one solids product and none of them adversely affect gas production. The remaining alternatives were compared based on all of the evaluation criteria. Because the plant’s existing digesters provide a 25-day retention time and achieve 60 percent VSR, none of the alternatives will significantly increase VSR beyond this point. This means that gas production will only marginally increase; however, once the flow rate of sludge increases beyond what the existing digesters can treat at 60 percent VSR, these options will

Table 2. High-Level Summary of Alternatives Evaluation

become net-energy-production-positive because they increase the amount of gas produced per digester volume. The three alternatives remaining were THP followed by digestion, recuperative thickening, and construction of a third digester, which is the base case. These alternatives were compared based on several evaluation criteria, including the ability to generate Class A biosolids, capital cost, number of operating facilities, footprint, electrical energy draw, wet tons hauled, chemical demand, operational complexity, and sidestream impact. Figure 3 presents the scoring of the different options. Costs were analyzed for Digester Three and the two alternatives over a 20-year period. A summary is presented in Table 3. Digester Three is the most expensive option, followed by THP (29 percent less expensive), and recuperative thickening utilizing Anaergia’s Omnivore (83 percent less expensive). These net present values are mostly driven by large differences in capital cost. While the Omnivore solution exhibited the lowest capital cost, MV eliminated the OmniContinued on page 50

Figure 3. Metro Vancouver Evaluation Criteria Scoring

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


Table 3. Summary of Costs: Metro Vancouver Options

Continued from page 49 vore from further consideration due to the limited number of facilities in operation and the inability to improve the solids to Class A without additional requirements. Based on project criteria defined by MV, the recommendation is implementation of a thermal hydrolysis system at LIWWTP in order to increase solids digestion capacity. This recommendation is based on detailed analyses as described and further investigation into specific issues affecting Metro Vancouver facilities.

Case Study 3: Des Moines Water Reclamation Facility (Digester Gas to Renewable Natural Gas)

Figure 4. Des Moines Water Reclamation Facility Average Digester Gas Utilization per Month

Table 4. MidAmerican Energy Co. Pipeline Injection Standards


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The Des Moines Wastewater Reclamation Authority (WRA) operates a wastewater reclamation facility (WRF) to provide wastewater treatment services to the City of Des Moines and surrounding communities. A critical aspect of the service is the ability to continuously treat and manage the primary and secondary sludges generated by the wastewater treatment processes. Additionally, the WRA provides a vital service to local industries and neighboring communities by accepting and processing industrial waste sludges and other organic wastes (hauled wastes). The primary and secondary sludges are blended with the hauled wastes, and the combined feed is processed in an anaerobic digestion system. Anaerobic digestion produces significant amounts of biogas, which is currently used as a fuel in WRA boilers and engines, in addition to being sold to a nearby industry (Cargill) for use in a process boiler. Even with the uses of the biogas, the loading to the digesters with outside organics has resulted in such an increase in biogas production that the WRA was forced to flare a large percentage of this valuable resource. In addition, improvements to the digester complex completed in 2014 have allowed volatile solids loading to increase and biogas production to double. Due to the digester improvements, WRA has seen an increase in the amount of digester gas that must be flared because it cannot be used in the engines, boilers, or by the nearby industrial user. Figure 4 shows the average monthly biogas utilization at WRF between January 2013 and October 2015. Digester gas is used yearround in the engines for power generation; boilers are generally fired in colder months when additional heating is required. Cargill’s demand of biogas tends to be steady throughout the year, but excess production of gas must be flared in the waste gas burner. The WRA has seen an increased amount of gas flared since

early 2014, which can likely be attributed to the digester improvements project and its effect on biogas production. Pipeline Quality Standards The recent upgrades to the anaerobic digestion facilities; increased import of fats, oils, and grease (FOG); and other organic wastes processed in the codigestion process have more than doubled WRA’s biogas production, and this upward trend is expected to continue. The large volume of gas available provides an opportunity for WRA to generate revenue from this gas. The WRA is moving ahead with plans to process up to 3,800 m3/hr of anaerobically digested biogas into pipeline quality renewable natural gas (RNG). This approach offers the opportunity to generate revenue from the sale of RNG to the local utility, as well as revenue from the sale of renewable identification numbers (RINs) via compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) renewable fuel standards for a D5 advanced biofuel credit. The WRA plans to inject RNG into a nearby pipeline owned and operated by MidAmerican Energy Co. (MEC), a local utility. The nearby pipe is a 6-in. natural gas main line located approximately half a mile from the WRF and has a maximum allowable operating pressure of 125 pounds per sq in. gage (psig). Table 4 summarizes the standards for pipeline injection established by MEC. The WRA is required to provide the following equipment for biogas injection: S Install remote pressure control to allow biogas injection into MEC’s system. S Install pressure control and overpressure protection onsite. S Install gas quality measurement equipment onsite and provide gas quality information to MidAmerican Gas Control. S Install gas chromatograph, oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, and moisture analyzers. S Provide MEC with a primary wireless and backup communication line to the gas quality equipment. The equipment must be compatible with MEC’s gas control system and must be equipped with alarms that it can monitor. S Install odorization equipment. Once the gas chromatograph or other analyzer identifies a component that does not meet MEC’s specifications, its protocol will automatically shut the valve and thereby prohibit gas from entering the pipeline. Thus, the gas pressure must be decreased and the gas must be returned to one of three places:

S Recycle off-spec product gas back to the inlet of the feed compressor and back through the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system. S Return off-spec product gas to the existing waste gas burners. The product gas pressure will be regulated down for combustion in the burners. S Return off-spec product gas to the gas sphere to blend with the tail gas from the PSA. The product gas pressure will be reduced to ultimately be combusted in the thermal oxidizer. If the product gas is too low in terms of British thermal unit (BTU) content or has too high of a concentration of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, it can be recycled back through the PSA system to increase the methane concentration and decrease the concentrations of the impurities. If the product gas exceeds the oxygen specification, recycling through the PSA system will not reduce the oxygen gas quality; thus, this gas would either need to go to the waste gas burner or to the gas sphere to be combusted or oxidized. Gas Cleaning In order to appropriately clean the gas, three biomethane systems were evaluated, including liquid scrubbing systems, membrane scrubbing systems, and PSA. The three technologies were compared in terms of site layout; capital, operating, and life cycle costs; current installations; ease of operation; ease of maintenance; and system reliability. Advantages and disadvantages of each system were developed and compared. Pretreatment and post-treatment requirements were a critical decision factor. As part of the evaluation, a bioenergy economic model was developed to evaluate and compare available technologies. The model calculates life cycle costs based on digester gas production, RIN values, and utility costs, while accounting for maintenance costs, capital investments, and opportunity costs (additional costs, assuming that the digester gas is no longer used in boilers and engines). Each economic factor has separate escalation factors allowing various sensitivity analyses to be considered. Ultimately, WRA selected PSA as the technology for biomethane production because it does not require upstream or downstream biogas treatment, it’s a proven and reliable technology with numerous installations in the U.S., it’s a relatively easy system to operate and maintain, and it fits well within the design criteria outlined by the utility company and the biogas production at the facility.

Renewable Natural Gas Quality Monitoring The WRA will own and operate gas quality monitoring equipment upstream of the injection point that includes a gas chromatograph, hydrogen sulfide analyzer, oxgen analyzer, and moisture analyzer. The pressure and temperature of the RNG will also be monitored; hourly averages of gas quality will be provided to the utility company to ensure compliance with the pipeline specifications. If the gas does not meet the required specifications, it cannot be injected into the pipeline and must be recycled, stored, or flared. Additional laboratory sampling must be performed on a quartely basis. The laboratory analysis includes siloxanes, total silicon, total sulfur, halogens, carcinogens, and volatile organic compounds. Digester Gas to Renewable Natural Gas Economics Due to recent digester improvements at WRA, additional biogas is being produced, but is unable to be utilized. The WRA is proceeding with plans to process the anaerobically digested biogas into pipeline quality RNG. The project is highly economically feasible, especially with revenue from RIN sales through EPA’s renewable fuel standards. The RNG will be injected into a nearby natural gas pipeline, owned and operated by MEC.

Conclusions Rising energy and operating costs are ever-present challenges at wastewater treatment plants. At the same time, there are benefits to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and using renewable energy at these facilities. Increased energy rates for natural gas and electricity have resulted in energy representing 25 percent or more of a facilty’s operating budget, second only to labor. By harnessing the energy at wastewater treatment plants, plant managers can reduce energy costs, while simultaneously making progress toward improving the environment. Harnessing the energy available in biosolids at wastewater treatment plants can reduce overall plant life cycle costs, while beneficially using valuable energy resources. Increased public awareness of, and desire for, green sustainable solutions encourages the environmental benefits of the beneficial use of biogas. While this beneficial use has been practiced for may years, recently, forward-thinking utilities have sought to implement beneficialuse projects, such as those described, and it is expected that this trend will continue, and even grow stronger, in the decades to come. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Utilities Maintenance Committee Affiliation: FWPCOA Current chair: David Pachucki, Pinellas County Utilities (retired) Year group was formed: 2011 Scope of work: Instruct operators and maintenance personnel for FWPCOA utilities maintenance voluntary certification, as well as operate and maintain the equipment used in an efficient way to obtain the best return on investment and low equipment downtime. Recent accomplishments: We currently instruct utilities maintenance levels III and II. From these classes, and upon request, we have developed and held classes in arc flash, confined space, trenching and excavation, lubrication, crane and hoist safety, valve types, and types of maintenance. All of these classes are approved by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for continued education units (CEUs) for water and wastewater treatment plant operators, as well as water distribution operators.

clude pump and motor efficiency and predictive and proactive maintenance. We also plan on having these changes and level I ready for the next CEU cycle of FDEP that will begin on May 1, 2019. Future work: It has been brought up to the Education Committee that an FWPCOA apprenticeship program in utility industrial maintenance be developed. Logistically, this would be difficult to have at one facility, but I believe that it could be achieved. With the knowledge of the persons involved on the utility maintenance and education committees, we are capable of writing the

Current projects: We are moving the alignment course to level III, as well as upgrading the level II to in-

Shaft alignment rig designed and fabricated by committee member Bob Case.


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

curriculum and holding a class on any subject that you, as a utility (customer), might need. Naturally, we would get approval from FDEP for CEUs. We also wish to obtain good quality instructors for all of the programs and subject matter that we teach. Group members: S Tim McVeigh - FWPCOA Online Institute S Walt Smyser - FWPCOA webmaster S Tom King - FWPCOA past president S Pete Tyson - FWPCOA safety chair S Bob Case - City of St. Petersburg S David Pachucki - FWPCOA on-the-road instructor S

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! March 12-16 ......Spring State Short School ........................Ft Pierce 26-29 ......Backflow Tester* ........................................St. Petersburg..$375/405

April 2-5 ......Backflow Tester ..........................................Deltona ..........$375/405 9-11 ......Backflow Repair* ......................................St Petersburg ..$275/305 27 ....Backflow Tester Recert*** ......................Deltona ..........$85/115

May 7-9 ......Backflow Repair ........................................Deltona ..........$275/305 14-17 ......Backflow Tester * ......................................St. Petersburg..$375/405 14-18 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....Deltona ..........$350/380 21-25 ......Water Distribution Level 2........................Deltona ..........$225/255 21-25 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution B ..............Deltona ..........$225/255

June 11-14 ......Backflow Tester ..........................................Deltona ..........$375/405 29 ......Backflow Tester Recert*** ......................Deltona ..........$85/115

Course registration forms are available at For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


U.S. States, EPA Coordinating on Best Approaches to Nutrients Permitting ACWA, WEF join with EPA to host seven workshops

Mark Patrick McGuire and Katie Foreman n early December 2017, representatives from 24 state clean water programs involved in managing nutrient pollution, as well as headquarters and regional staff from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), met for three days to learn, discuss, and confer on a broad range of nutrients permitting issues. Presentation topics included nutrient removal technologies, nutrients reduction strategies, variances, water quality trading, watershed-based and adaptive management approaches, integrated planning, and more. Participants also had the opportunity to work in small groups on three specific issues: S Nutrient removal technology implementation at water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) S Overcoming impediments to permitting for nutrients S Integrating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) with permits


The workshop, held in Boise, Idaho, was the first in a series of seven meetings to be held between 2017 and 2021 by the Association of Clean Water Administrators (ACWA; Washington, D.C.), with support from the Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.),


as part of a cooperative agreement with EPA. The workshops are intended to assist with achieving several objectives and environmental outcomes by bringing together state, tribal, territorial, federal, and other stakeholders. The goals are to identify challenges and barriers to nutrient permitting program implementation, highlight opportunities for program improvement and enhancement, showcase innovations and achievements, and identify and attempt to solve the most intractable issues.

States Employ Various Approaches to Nutrient Permitting A major takeaway from the Boise workshop was that states manage nutrient pollution through permitting in myriad ways. For example, Montana, Iowa, and North Carolina approach nutrients permitting via numeric nutrient criteria, performance-based actions, and water quality trading, respectively. Montana Montana adopted numeric nutrient criteria in 2014 to combat nutrient pollution. The development process for the criteria included three components: S Identifying geographic zones for specific criteria S Understanding the cause-and-effect relationships between nutrients and beneficial uses S Characterizing water quality for reference sites Because nutrient concentrations vary naturally, Montana tested different geospatial frames and reference sites for nutrient concentration variation. To develop permit limits

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

based on the criteria, Montana used EPA’s 1991 Technical Support Document for Water Quality-Based Toxics Control. Ongoing work in Montana will lead to other large-river nutrient standards and additional site-specific wadable stream standards. Iowa Iowa employs a nutrient reduction strategy to combat nutrient pollution, and numeric nutrient criteria development presents significant challenges. In lieu of adopting numeric nutrient criteria, the state hopes to achieve nutrient load reductions through performancebased actions. Working closely with the regulated community to adopt performancebased discharge limits, Iowa establishes limits based on the effect of the pollutant in the water and the feasibility and reasonableness of treating the pollutant. The state focuses on major and minor municipal WRRFs and industries that treat more than 1 mil gal per day (mgd). Under this approach, there has been considerable progress in nutrient pollution reductions at all point sources. North Carolina North Carolina uses water quality trading to combat nutrient pollution. It implements nutrient trading programs in specific watersheds where impairments have been identified. In these watersheds, point sources have a collective nutrient allocation (“bubble”) permit. Pursuant to this joint compliance approach, allocation is sold or leased among these facilities through an independently operated compliance association. So long as the collective cap is met, individual nutrient limits are not enforced.

States and EPA Offer Solutions to Complex Issues At the Boise workshop, participants focused on the three issues mentioned previously (technology implementation, permitting impediments, and TMDL integration). Technology Implementation Participants named some of the significant barriers to technology integration as affordability, resource constraints, operator expertise, and political will. They also identified some solutions, including targeted technical training and greater public education on the need for such technologies at WRRFs. Permitting Impediments Regarding impediments to permitting, participants identified affordability, lack of data, and resource constraints as challenges. One solution identified to mitigate these problems included changing the five-year National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit cycle to 10 years. Other solutions included increasing flexibilities for states, implementing stronger regulations for nonpoint sources, inte-

grated planning to identify issues and priorities for regulators and the regulated community, increased support and technical training, and public education. Total Maximum Daily Loads Integration In the final session on integrating nutrients TMDLs with permits, participant attendees acknowledged that communication gaps are a major barrier to adequate integration. They identified the existence of communication gaps between regulators and stakeholders, and with permitting and TMDL staff. Many participants described better communication among the various interested parties as an important goal for resolving this challenge.

Future Meetings Both ACWA and WEF plan to tackle these three issues and more in greater detail at the next six nutrients permitting workshops. These workshops provide states and EPA, as coregulators, the opportunity to identify and seek solutions for the diverse problems associated with nutrient pollution. In 2018, workshops are planned for summer and autumn; visit for more details on these events. The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources.

Mark Patrick McGuire is an environmental program manager and Katie Foreman is an environmental program associate at the Association of Clean Water Administrators in Washington, D.C. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018



Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA

ou have probably seen the diagram about getting outside your comfort zone. It has one small circle called “Your comfort zone” and then a larger circle that’s well outside of it called “Where the magic happens.” While it may be a bit simplistic in design and in thought, it does convey that stepping outside your comfort zone is critical to achieving your goals and to becoming the version of yourself that you always dreamed you’d be. To expand your comfort zone, you must be committed to growth and willing to forgo fear and take that first step. But when is it a healthy fear, or something that is keeping you from obtaining your dream? Jumping from a perfectly good airplane may in some people’s opinion be an example of a healthy fear, but a fear of heights might be an example of an unhealthy fear if it’s preventing you from reaching your goal. One of the most common fears is the fear of public speaking. It can be so powerful that it can cause great anxiety for people and is a clear example of the walls of the comfort zone pushing back against any effort to expand your horizons. What is preventing you from progressing beyond your self-imposed limitations? What is keeping you from expanding your comfort zone? While there are volumes of self-help books, we all know that “if you do what you always did that you will get what you always got.” Therefore, it is not difficult to reach the conclusion that life begins at the end of your comfort zone.



How, in a broad sense, can you expand your comfort zone? Does it take a huge leap of faith to step outside of the walls that are holding you back, or can you just begin to push the walls out? First, you need to learn to bounce rather than break, and second, you need to recognize that you can stretch the boundary of limitations by becoming comfortable with being uncomfortable in order to become a better person. You have to live at the edge your capabilities. _______________________________

“Comfort is the enemy of progress.” P.T. Barnum _______________________________ Once you are committed to growth, you need to end the procrastination, hit the gym, study harder; do all of the things that may be required for you to succeed. You have to practice, because practice is controlled failure. You have to believe that the best is yet to come, and you can’t wait for the day to come to say, “If only I knew then what I know now.” Imagine if the most unlikely Super Bowl MVP in NFL history, Philadelphia Eagles backup quarterback Nick Foles, had not signed

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

a two-year deal in the off-season. Imagine if he had not been dissuaded while on that fishing trip with his brother-in-law from walking away from the sport that he loved for so long. Imagine if starting quarterback Carson Wentz, who was having an MVP season of his own before tearing his anterior cruciate and lateral collateral ligaments in week 14, had not done so to allow Foles to step into the starting role. Imagine if he had not prepared himself for the magical ending to a magical season. When asked about his role, Foles said, “I think the big thing is: Don’t be afraid to fail. Failure is a part of life. It’s a part of building character and growing. Without failure, who would you be?” Remember—the struggles in your life are an opportunity for your character to grow. The ability to get through those bad days comes from faith, family, and a belief that the magic happens outside of your comfort zone. If you are not active in FWEA, then it’s time for you to step outside of your comfort zone to become an active part of something bigger than yourself. It’s time for you to stop procrastinating and to start reaping the rewards. It’s time for you to volunteer. It’s time for you to expand your comfort zone. S

Celebrate 2018 Drinking Water Week! For nearly 40 years, the American Water Works Association has celebrated Drinking Water Week with its members. This year, it will be held May 6-12. In 1988, AWWA brought the event to the attention of the United States government and formed a coalition with the League of Women Voters, Association of State Drinking Water Administrators, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. That year, Rep. Robert Roe of New Jersey and Sen. Dennis DeConcini of Arizona sponsored a resolution to name the first week of May as Drinking Water Week, and an information kit was distributed to the media and to more than 10,000 utilities. Willard Scott, the NBC “Today” show weatherman at the time, was featured in public service announcements that aired between May 2 and 8. The week-long observance was declared in a joint congressional resolution and signed by then-President Ronald Reagan. The following year AWWA approached several other organizations to participate. Through that effort, the National Drinking Water Alliance was formed, consisting of 15 nonprofit educational, professional, and public interest organizations. The alliance dedicated itself to public awareness and involvement in public and private drinking water issues and continued its work to organize a major annual educational campaign built around Drinking Water Week. The power of the multiorganization alliance enabled Drinking Water Week to grow into widespread and committed participation throughout the U.S. and Canada. In 1991, the alliance


launched a national campaign to inform the public about America's drinking water. The group distributed a kit containing ideas for celebrating the event, conservation facts and tip sheets, news releases, and posters. The theme was "There's a lot more to drinking water than meets the eye." That same year, actor Robert Redford recorded a public service announcement on behalf of Drinking Water Week. Celebrating Drinking Water Week is an easy way to educate the public, connect with the community, and promote employee morale. Too often, water utilities receive publicity only when something bad happens; Drinking Water Week celebrations give utilities an opportunity for positive communication.

Public Communication Communicating to the public during Drinking Water Week is integral to any successful celebration. Here are some options and ideas: S Advertise in local newspapers S Send bill stuffers

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Work with local librarians to set up displays S Use mall kiosks to reach a broad audience S Coordinate distribution of AWWA news releases S Publicize the release of water utility consumer confidence reports S Send public service announcements to local radio and television stations S Set up a Facebook page and use other social media outlets

Community Events It’s important to be a part of the local community. Community events are fun and festive ways to make sure that customers know about their drinking water—where it comes from, how they get it, and what they can do to help ensure their drinking water quality. S Invite your community to an open house S Inaugurate an adopt-a-hydrant program S Plant a tree S Conduct plant tours S Hold a landmark dedication/anniversary celebration S Bury a time capsule S Partner with local botanic gardens or other groups S Plan a community cleanup

Youth Focus Drinking Water Week is a perfect time to ed-

ucate children and youth about their water supply in an atmosphere of fun. S Feature a children's coloring contest or essay contest S Hold a poster contest S Have utility employees make presentations at local schools S Partner with a local school district and hold an artwork contest that encourages students to draw or color pictures showing how water is essential to their daily lives. Submit the winning artwork from your contest to Amber Wilson at AWWA by June 30, 2018. The winning artwork will be featured in AWWA’s 2019 Drinking Water Week print advertisements! All artwork submitted to AWWA for consideration must also include a signed image release form (which can be obtained from AWWA in a pdf) at the time of submission. A new activity is also available through AWWA and Water Environment Federation (WEF)—Pipe Up! This is a series of puzzles to help children learn various aspects of water services and the value they bring to our everyday lives.


Internal Communications and Events Don't forget employees! Drinking Water Week can help reaffirm to employees the importance of what it is they do: provide clean, safe drinking water for the public. S Hold an annual employee picnic during Drinking Water Week S Create a utility or company newsletter feature on Drinking Water Week

Plan Ahead Drinking Water Week is celebrated during the first full week of May each year. Future dates are: S 2018 – May 6-12 S 2019 – May 5-11 S 2020 – May 3-9 For questions about Week, Pipe Up!, and the contest, contact Amber AWWA Communications

Drinking Water student artwork Wilson in the Department at S

The 2018 FWPCOA Officers and Committee Chairs List was published in the February 2018 issue of the magazine. Below is the correct list of officers for Region 3. Director Kevin Shropshire (407) 832-2748 Chair June Clark (321) 868-1240 Vice-Chair Glen Siler (712) 664-3629 Secretary Marcy King-Daniels (321) 220-4480 Treasurer Russ Carson (321) 749-5914

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


FWEA CHAPTER CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Chapter Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association chapter activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included for your chapter, send the details to Lindsay Marten at

Water Matters Day and Florida Water Festival Happening in March Tara VanEyk and Nandita Ahuja

It’s All About Water

FWEA Southeast Chapter Booth at Broward Water Matters Day

The 16th annual Broward Water Matters Day will be held this year on Saturday, March 10, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., at the Tree Tops Park in Davie. There will be a number of exhibits at the event that show how to save and protect water through landscape best management practices and indoor conservation. They will also help explain local water management, Everglades restoration, and how canals connect the Broward County’s urban and natural systems. Workshops with landscaping and gardening experts will give attendees insight into how to make their yards less water-dependent and more inviting to native wildlife. The workshops provide in-depth information and are an important opportunity for learning in small groups, where questions can be answered personally. One of the most popular sessions each year shows how to create Na-

FWEA’s Southeast Chapter will be joining hands with local organizations for the annual Broward Water Matters Day event. This is the second year the organization will be hosting a booth that will include activities for kids, offer informational displays and giveaways to promote water conservation, and raise awareness about our water and wastewater system. We hope to make this a continued tradition as an all-around fun and social event that promotes public education and outreach. Come out and joins us! For more information, and to volunteer at the FWEA booth, contact: Nandita Ahuja, planning coordinator, at or 954-987-0066; or Tara VanEyk, Southeast Chapter chair, at or 954-987-0066.

tureScape, with county experts explaining the importance of environment-friendly landscaping, including tips on plant selection and placement, proper fertilizer and pesticide use, and more. The best part is that while Water Matters Day is about education, it’s also about fun. The event is packed with children’s activities and entertainment, interactive educational displays and booths, water conservation tips, landscaping for water savings, ecofriendly ideas, and a food-truck invasion! While parents are learning about choosing the right plants for their yards, their children can have their faces painted or participate in various activities, such as planting flowers to take home. They can also enjoy local musical entertainment, or help their parents collect giveaways, which in the past have included rain gauges, automatic shut-off devices for irrigation systems, native trees and plants, and garden mulch.

Attendees enjoy last year’s Water Matters event at the FWEA Booth.


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

New Products

Florida Water Festival The 2018 Florida Water Festival will take place on Sunday, March 25, at Water Works Park in Tampa, from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. The festival is FWEA’s premier educational event. It’s a unique learning opportunity for children and adults alike. This free-to-attend event is designed to educate the public at large of the importance of protecting Florida’s precious water resources.

The festival features fun and interactive activities, enlightening displays explained by water experts, and interactive demonstrations. Water quality professionals from public utilities and private-sector companies will be available to answer questions and share their passion about protecting the state’s most valuable resource—water! Activities may include: S Walk for Water S Interactive Water Quality Sampling and Testing Demonstrations S Biosolids Nutrient Recycling S How Water Reclamation Systems Work S Impacts of Oil and Grease on Water Reclamation Systems and the Environment S Poster Contest S Live Music S Water Animal Face Painting S Water Filtration Test S Water System Demonstrations S Raffle Prizes S Many other fun and educational activities! For more



to S

The new Lakeside Equipment Corp. Raptor Multi-Rake Bar Screen offers high performance, low maintenance, and rapid removal of solids. Manufactured in the U.S. to Lakeside’s design and quality standards, this screen is ideal for wastewater treatment plants, pump stations, and combined sewer systems to effectively prevent the harmful effects of inorganic solids to downstream equipment. When wastewater flows through the screen, solids are captured on the face of the screen bars. As debris collects and blinding occurs, the upstream water level rises to a high-level set point, which then activates the drive mechanism to start a cleaning cycle. Multiple rakes, attached to dual stainless steel roller chains, provide rapid debris removal from the bar screen. Drainage occurs while material is transported up the screen and dead plate. Located near the top of the machine, a scraper assembly wipes the debris from the rake head and into a discharge chute. Material falls from the chute into a conveyor, washer compactor, or dumpster for disposal. Continued on page 62

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


Editorial Calendar January ......Wastewater Treatment February ....Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ........Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ............Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ............Operations and Utilities Management June............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ........Disinfection; Water Quality September ..Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ......New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ..Water Treatment December ..Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to or call 352-241-6006.

Continued from page 61 The heavy-duty design of the screen provides durability and long life in the most severe conditions. With multiple rakes cleaning the screen and rake teeth penetrating the bar opening, captured material is removed rapidly and efficiently in all applications with a high screenings load. The screen is engineered using all stainless steel materials to resist corrosion for optimum performance. There is minimal headroom needed above the operating floor, and it features rectangular or trapezoidal screen bars with 3/16-in. minimum bar spacing. Other features include replaceable rake teeth, maintenance-free lower chain guide or optional lower sprocket assembly, automatic reversing feature, removable stainless steel covers for odor control, optional hinged support to pivot screen out of the channel, and optional explosion-proof design or weather protection system. The screen provides superior performance in continuous cleaning and removal of inorganic solids in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, pump stations, surface water intake structures, and combined sewer overflows. (


The ProFlex Style 790 low-headloss check valve from Proco Products provides rapid dispersion of head pressures, and with its low cracking pressure, it prevents upstream flooding. The inline design allows the valve to be installed without having to do any modifications to existing structures or pre-install planning. The fold-away design of the inner sleeve allows for a near full-port flow, allowing for quick drainage. It will allow for passive flow operation, making it fit for combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, and outfalls. It’s available in many elastomers, making the valve compatible with virtually all weather and service conditions. Its neoprene elastomer is offered with an algae- and barnacle-resistant compound. Internal expanding clamps are available in 304 and 316 stainless steel or carbon steel.(


The updated Waterflux 3070 flowmeter from Krohne provides precise measurement, no moving parts, and maintenance-free service. The batterypowered electromagnetic unit is ideal for drinking water applications and is useful where power is unavailable. It has built-in flow, pressure, and temperature measurement with one sensor, allowing for readings in leak-detection systems. It provides real-time data, including water zone balance, water abstraction, pressure management, or water billing. It requires no ongoing maintenance, and no inlet or outlet straight runs or filters are needed. The rugged IP68 polycarbonate remote converter housing comes standard with waterproof connector plugs. ( S

Display Advertiser Index American Ductile Iron Pipe ..59 Barry University ....................55 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ..............................71 CEU Challenge........................43 Data Flow Systems ................37 FSAWWA ACE18 ......................39 FSAWWA Awards ....................6 FSAWWA Call for Papers ......35 FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest ................................45 FSAWWA Likins Scholarship 61


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

FWPCOA Short School ..........41 FWPCOA Training Calendar....53 FWRC ................................13-18 Hudson Pump ........................19 Hydro International..................5 Infosense, Inc ........................62 Lakeside ..................................7 Medora Co..............................57 Professional Piping Services 33 Stacon ......................................2 UF TREEO Center ....................63 Xylem ....................................72

Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018



Tank Engineering And Management

Consultants, Inc.

Engineering • Inspection Aboveground Storage Tank Specialists Mulberry, Florida • Since 1983





Motor & Utility Services, LLC

Showcase Your Company in the Engineering or Equipment & Services Directory Contact Mike Delaney at


CEC Motor & Utility Services, LLC 1751 12th Street East Palmetto, FL. 34221 Phone - 941-845-1030 Fax – 941-845-1049 • Motor & Pump Services Test Loaded up to 4000HP, 4160-Volts • Premier Distributor for Worldwide Hyundai Motors up to 35,000HP • Specialists in rebuilding motors, pumps, blowers, & drives • UL 508A Panel Shop, engineer/design/build/install/commission • Lift Station Rehabilitation Services, GC License # CGC1520078 • Predictive Maintenance Services, vibration, IR, oil sampling • Authorized Sales & Service for Aurora Vertical Hollow Shaft Motors

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing.

P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: • • • • •

Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee Solid Waste Worker I, II & III Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III Public Service Worker II - Stormwater

Please visit our website at for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

Utility Compliance/Efficiency Manager $78,836 - $110,929/yr.

Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.

Collier County Government – Senior Plant Operator - Wastewater Collier County Public Utilities Department, Naples, FL Salary $39,832.00 - $52,416.00 Annually Qualifications: High school diploma or GED; supplemented by vocational/technical training in wastewater treatment plant operations; supplemented by three (3) years previous experience and/or training that includes wastewater treatment plant operations and equipment maintenance; or any equivalent combination of education, training, and experience which provides the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities for this job. Must possess and maintain a valid Class B Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator License issued by the State of Florida. May require possession and maintenance of a valid Florida driver's license with any applicable endorsements and maintain eligibility requirements and endorsement(s) to drive a County vehicle. Fingerprinting required. Collier County BCC offers a comprehensive benefits package. To apply, please visit:

Utilities Electrician $52,821 - $74,325/yr.

Utilities Storm Water Foreman $47,911 - $67,414/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $39,415 - 55,463/yr.; $41,387 - $58,235/yr. Apply Online At: Open until filled.

Water Plant Operator The North Springs Improvement District is seeking for Water Plant Operators. Applicant must be licensed by the Florida Department Environmental Protection agency with either a C, B, or A water plant license. This is a FT position with a benefit and pension package from FRS. Please email Mimi Ortega at with your application and resume. Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


Career Opportunity Operator A, B, and C for Wastewater Treatment Plant Toho Water Authority This is your opportunity to work for the largest provider of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services in Osceola County. A fast-growing organization, Toho Water Authority is expanding to approximately 95,000 customers in Kissimmee, Poinciana and unincorporated areas of Osceola County. You can be assured there will be no shortage of interesting and challenging projects on the horizon! As an Operator, you will be expected, among other specific job duties, to have the ability to do the following: • Maintain compliance and operations of Wastewater Treatment Plants; • Conduct facility inspections, perform maintenance on equipment, and ensure normal operations; • Evaluate water systems; and • Fulfill recordkeeping, documentation, and reporting requirements. Candidates are required to hold the following certifications: Class “A”, “B or C” Wastewater Operators License, and Valid Class E Florida Driver’s License. Toho Water Authority offers a highly competitive compensation package, including tuition reimbursement, on site employee clinic, generous paid leave time, and retirement 401a match. If you are a driven professional, highly organized, and looking for a career opportunity at a growing Water Authority, then visit the TWA webpage today and learn how you can join our team! Visit to review the full job description and submit an employment application for consideration.

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary commensurate with experience. Salary Range: $39,893.88$67,004.60/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Collier County Government Plant Operator - Wastewater Collier County Public Utilities Department, Naples, FL Salary $36,129.60 - $47,424.00 Annually Must possess and maintain a valid Class C Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator License issued by the State of Florida. To apply, please visit:

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or pluming abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Fluor Federal Solutions, NAS Pensacola, FL Water Plant Supervisor Individual will supervise day to day operations in the following areas: water plant operations, water distribution systems, sewage collection systems, water sampling collections and FDEP regulatory requirements. Must have both a current Florida Class "E" driver's license or equivalent and a current Florida Class "A" water plant operator's license. To apply send resume to


March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Electronic Technician The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary commensurate with experience. Salary Range: $40,890.98 $68,680.30/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Lead Water Treatment Plant Operator City of Wildwood


Fast growing city! Class “C” license or above with special training on SCADA operations. Valid Driver’s license a must. Performs a variety of semi-skilled/skilled technical and maintenance work on water treatment plant facilities and systems. Pay Range: Class L1-6 ($19.23/hr minimum)DOE Apply online or City Hall - HR, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785. (352)330-1340. EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Construction and Utility Programs Coordinator Ready for an exciting new chapter in your career? Join our team of Utility professionals at the City of Tavares in beautiful Central Florida!

Water Production Superintendent The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for a Water Production Superintendent at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or GED. Must possess a Class "A" Water Treatment Plant Operator's certificate issued by the State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and five (5) years experience in the management, operation, and maintenance of a water treatment facility. Two (2) years of experience in both surface and ground water treatment processes. Must possess a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess a valid out of state driver's license must obtain the Florida driver's license within 10 days of employment. Salary Range: $56,369-$94,676/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference/EOE/DFWP.

This position performs supervisory work overseeing contractors involved in major construction projects for utility system capital improvements. This employee works with contractors, developers and other City of Tavares employees to assure compliance with all pertinent regulations and contractual obligations; and will be involved in developing and implementing City Utility programs. This position reports to the Utility Director. The City of Tavares, America's Seaplane City, is recognized throughout Florida as an innovative, collaborative and service-oriented employer! Located in the center of the Sunshine State on the banks of beautiful Lake Dora, Tavares is home to a current population of 16,317 residents and is the capitol city of Lake County. • Salary range: $44,000 - $66,000 • Excellent health, dental, life, disability and Florida Retirement System benefits • Generous time off and holiday plans • Positive and progressive work environment, with active focus on staff development The qualified candidate will possess:

Lead Wastewater Operator The Coral Springs Improvement District is accepting applications for the position of Wastewater Lead Operator. Applicants must have a valid Class A Wastewater treatment license and a minimum of 3 years supervisory experience. Must have a valid Florida driver’s license and pass a pre-employment drug screening. The Lead Operator operates the Districts wastewater plant, assists in ensuring plant compliance with all state and federal regulatory criteria and all safety policies and procedures. This position reports directly to the WWTP Chief Operator. Provides instruction and leadership to subordinate operators and trainees as assigned. This is a highly responsible, technical, and supervisory position requiring 24 hour availability. Exercise of initiative and independent judgment is required in providing guidance and supervision for continuous operation. Excellent benefits and compensation including a 6% non-contributory defined benefit and matching 457b plan with a 100% match of up to 6%. EOE. Applications may be obtained by visiting our website at and fax resume to 954-7536328 attention Jan Zilmer, Director of Human Resources

• High school diploma or GED, with Associates or Bachelors degree from an accredited institution in engineering, business or construction preferred • Minimum of 5 years experience in the field of underground utilities construction For more detailed information about this key position and electronic access to our employment application, please visit our Employment page at APPLY TODAY! We welcome your resume or application in person, by email to, by mail to City of Tavares Human Resources, 201 East Main Street, Tavares, FL 32778, or by fax to 352-742-6351. We are an EOE, ADA, E-Verify and Drug-Free Workplace! The City of Tavares - Land and See!

Water/Wastewater Operator Must possess a valid Florida Drivers License. Valid class “C” certification in water and wastewater treatment. Please go to our website – – to apply. Florida Water Resources Journal • March 2018


City of Groveland Class “C” Water Operator

P o s itio ns Wanted

The City of Groveland is hiring a Class "C" Water Operator. Salary Range $ 29,203-43,805 DOQ. Please visit for application and job description. Send completed application to 156 S Lake Ave. Groveland, Fl 34736 attn: Human Resources. Background check and drug screen required. Open until filled EOE, V/P, DFWP

MICHAEL DILELLO – Holds a Florida C Wastewater license with 14 years experience plus ground water experience. Prefers the south Florida area, Palm Beach, Miami or Broward Counties. Contact at 1813 Taylor St, Apt 2, Hollywood, Fl. 33020 954-652-8044

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

Test Yourself Answer Key From page 36

5. A) categorical pretreatment standards. Per EPA’s Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program, Glossary of Terms: “Categorical pretreatment standards (paraphrased from 40 CFR 403.6) specifying the quantity, concentration, or pollutant properties of pollutants that may be discharged to POTWs. EPA promulgates pretreatment standards for specific industry categories in accordance with CWA section 307. These standards are codified in 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N, Parts 405–471.”

1. D) The removal, reduction, or alteration of pollutants in industrial wastewater prior to discharge into a WWF. Per FAC 62-625.200(17) Definitions: “Pretreatment means the reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to or in lieu of discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants into a WWF. The reduction or alteration may be obtained by physical, chemical, or biological processes; process changes; or by other means, except as prohibited by subsection 62-625.410(5), F.A.C.”

6. D) public utility that administers the pretreatment program. Per FAC 62-625.200(5) Definitions: “‘Control authority’ means any public utility that administers a pretreatment program that has been approved by the department in accordance with the requirements of Rule 62-625.510, F.A.C. In cases where categorical or significant noncategorical industrial users discharge to domestic WWFs that are not included in an approved pretreatment program, the department shall function as the control authority until an approved pretreatment program has been established by the public utility.”

2. C) interfere with WWF operation or pass through the WWF into waters of the state. Per EPA’s National Pretreatment Program webpage ( – Overview Section: “The objectives of the program are to: • prevent the introduction of pollutants into a POTW that will interfere with its operation, including interference with its use or disposal of municipal sludge, • prevent the introduction of pollutants into a POTW that will pass through the treatment works or otherwise be incompatible with it, and

7. C) 66 percent Per FAC 62-625.500(2)(b)8.a. Pretreatment Program Development and Submission Requirements: “Comply with the public participation requirements of Chapter 120, F.S., in enforcement of pretreatment standards. In addition, these procedures shall include provision for at least annual public notification of industrial users, which were in significant noncompliance with applicable pretreatment requirements at any time during the previous 12 months . . . For the purpose of this provision an industrial user is in significant noncompliance if its violation meets one or more of the following criteria: a. Chronic violations of wastewater discharge limits defined here as those in which 66 percent or more of all of the measurements taken during a six-month period exceed (by any magnitude) a numeric pretreatment standard or requirement, including instantaneous limits.”

3. A) greater than 5 mgd. Per FAC 62-625.500 Pretreatment Program Development and Submission Requirements: “(1) Public utilities are required to develop a pretreatment program. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (1)(b), public utilities shall establish a pretreatment program under the following conditions: 1. The public utility receives pollutants from industrial users that pass through or interfere with the operation of the WWF or are otherwise subject to pretreatment standards, 2. The public utility discharges to surface waters of the state or is required to implement a pretreatment program in accordance with Chapter 62-610, F.A.C., or 40 C.F.R. parts 146.15 and 146.16, and 3. The public utility owns or operates one or more WWFs with a total design flow greater than 5 mgd.”

8. A) Annually Per FAC 62-625.600(8) Reporting Requirements for Control Authorities and Industrial Users: “Annual control authority reports that control authorities shall provide the department with a report that briefly describes the control authority’s program activities, including activities of all participating agencies if more than one jurisdiction is involved in the pretreatment program. The report shall be submitted no later than one year after approval of the pretreatment program, and at least annually thereafter as specified in the WWF permit.”

4. B) Pollutants with a pH below 5 Per FAC 62-625.400(2)(b) Pretreatment Standards: Prohibited Discharges-Specific Prohibitions: “Pollutants that will cause corrosive structural damage to the WWF, but in no case discharges with pH lower than 5, unless the WWF is specifically designed to accommodate such discharges.”


9. B) Three years

March 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Per FAC 62-625.600(14)(b): “Any industrial user or control authority subject to the reporting requirements established in this chapter, including documentation associated with best management practices, shall be required to retain for a minimum of three years any records of monitoring

activities and results (whether or not such monitoring activities are required by this chapter) and shall make such records available for inspection and copying by the department (and control authority in the case of an industrial user). This period of retention shall be extended during the course of any unresolved litigation regarding the industrial user or control authority.”

10. C) legal authority. Per EPA’s Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program, Chapter 2, Figure 2.4 Six Minimum Pretreatment Program Elements: “1. Legal Authority -The POTW must operate pursuant to legal authority enforceable in federal, state, or local courts, which authorizes or enables the POTW to apply and enforce any pretreatment requirements developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA) and implementing regulations. At a minimum, the legal authority must enable the POTW to: i. Deny or condition discharges to the POTW; ii. Require compliance with pretreatment standards and requirements; iii. Control industrial use (IU) discharges through permits, orders, or similar means; iv. Require IU compliance schedules when necessary to meet applicable pretreatment standards and/or requirements and the submission of reports to demonstrate compliance; v. Inspect and monitor IUs; vi. Obtain remedies for IU noncompliance; and vii. Comply with confidentiality requirements. 2. Procedures -The POTW must develop and implement procedures to ensure compliance with pretreatment requirements, including: i. Identifying and locating all IUs subject to the pretreatment program; ii. Identifying the character and volume of pollutants contributed by such users; iii. Notifying users of applicable pretreatment standards and requirements; iv. Receiving and analyzing reports from IUs; v. Sampling and analyzing IU discharges; vi. Evaluating the need for IU slug control plans; vii. Investigating instances of noncompliance; and viii. Complying with public participation requirements. 3. Funding -The POTW must have sufficient resources and qualified personnel to carry out the authorities and procedures specified in its approved pretreatment program. 4. Local Limits -The POTW must develop local limits in defined circumstances or demonstrate why these limits are not necessary. 5. Enforcement Response Plan (ERP) -The POTW must develop and implement an ERP that contains detailed procedures indicating how the POTW will investigate and respond to instances of IU noncompliance. 6. List of Significant Industrial Users (SIUs) - The POTW must prepare, update, and submit to the approval authority a list of all SIUs and, where applicable, indicate which SIUs are nonsignificant categorical industrial users (NSCIUs) or middle-tier categorical industrial users (MTCIUs).

Florida Water Resources Journal - March 2018  
Florida Water Resources Journal - March 2018  

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Stewardship