Florida Water Resources Journal - January 2018

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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-957-8447 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-957-8443 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-957-8448 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 4 18 34 37 37 54 61

Darrow Elected as FWPCOA President for 2018 WWEMA Elects 2018 Officers and Directors 2017-2018 FSAWWA Board of Governors First Glimpse of the 2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference No Rate Increase for Seventh Year for Florida Utility Customers Rosenstiel School Announces 2018 Sea Secrets Lectures WEF HQ Newsletter—Brianne Nakamura and Steve Spicer News Beat

Technical Articles 6 New Solution for Primary Wastewater Treatment: Cloth Media Filtration—John D. Dyson 22 Fate and Transport Potential of Phosphorus in Sandy Soils Under Long-Term Municipal Wastewater Irrigation—Grant B. Weinkam, Mark T. Brown, David Kaplan, Mark Clark, and Matthew Cohen

42 Sidestream Biological Phosphorus Removal: The New Frontier—Lucas Botero, James L. Barnard, Ed Kobylinski, and Kenny Blanton

Education and Training 13 21 31 32 43 51 52 53

Florida Water Resources Conference FWPCOA Training FWPCOA Spring Short School CEU Challenge TREEO Center Training FSWWA Sponsorship Thank You FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest FSAWWA Operator Scholarships

Columns 12 20 30 36

Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak FWEA Focus—Tim Harley FSAWWA Speaking Out—Bill Young Committee Profile: Roy W. Likins Scholarship Committee—Steve Soltau and Marjorie Craig 38 C Factor—Mike Darrow 40 Let’s Talk Safety 50 FWRJ Reader Profile—Shanin Speas-Frost

Departments 56 Service Directories 59 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

Volume 69

ON THE COVER: Construction of a wastewater plant in Manatee County nearing completion. (photo: Florida Aquastore)

January 2018

Number 1

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Darrow Elected as FWPCOA President for 2018 Mike Darrow was elected president of FWPCOA at the October meeting in 2017. His tenure starts this month. Darrow has been an active member of FWPCOA Region X since 2008, serving as vice chair, chair, and regional director. He has represented the organization in different areas of the region encouraging training, membership, and professional standards. He is dedicated to helping operators and industry professionals learn, grow, and achieve their goals for their personal betterment and overall industry enhancement. Darrow holds a bachelor’s degree in business economics from Eastern Illinois University and an associate’s degree in environmental engineering technology. Currently, he is employed in operations for the City of Plant City. Its award-winning staff operates an advanced wastewater treatment water reclamation facility and potable groundwater treatment plants. He is a licensed Class A water operator in Florida and Illinois, a Class 3 wastewater operator and Class K industrial wastewater operator in Illinois, and is soon to be a Florida Class C wastewater operator, having just passed his

test. He is also a certified backflow tester and a certified collection system operator with FWPCOA. He has been in the water/wastewater industry since 1984, working 20 years for Lake County, Ill., at a surface water plant on Lake Michigan, and for the City of Temple Terrace for 13 years, managing a groundwater lime softening plant, where he was involved in water distribution and wastewater collection system operations and maintenance. Darrow has received many awards for his service to the industry. In 2002 he was named the Illinois EPA Surface Water Operator of the Year, in 2014 he received the A.P. Black Award for Water Operations from FWPCOA, in 2016 he received the 25-year-member Silver Drop Award from AWWA, and he received the David B. Lee Award last year. In 2016, he was elected supervisor on the Polk County Soil and Water Conservation Board. His role is promoting good stewardship of water resources to the urban and agricultural communities, where he serves as the district’s secretary.

Darrow has been married to his wife, Mary, for 16 years and has a blended family of five children: Jeffrey, Kristin, Elizabeth, Megan, and Natalie. “I’ve tried to get them involved in our great industry with no luck; however, throughout my career, they have enjoyed the entertaining stories and adventures in the life of a utility worker.” He is looking forward to this new experience of working in FWPCOA. “I have met many fine folks in our industry who are involved in the association. The organization has helped me personally, in my professional knowledge, and in my career.” S

WWEMA Elects 2018 Officers and Directors The Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA) has announced the election of new officers and directors. They were selected during the group’s 109th annual meeting that was held Nov. 8-10, 2017, in Scottsdale, Ariz. The 2018 WWEMA Executive Committee members are: S Chair Thacher Worthen, president, Schreiber LLC (Trussville, Ala.) S Chair-Elect John Dyson, product channel manager – AquaPrime, Aqua-Aerobic Systems Inc. (Loves Park, Ill.) S Vice Chair Michael Dimitriou, president, WRT LLC (Arvada, Colo.) S Treasurer Vince Baldasare, sales manager, Gorman-Rupp Company (Mansfield, Ohio)


S Immediate Past Chair Mark Turpin, president, Duperon Corporation (Saginaw, Mich.) Three members were newly elected to the WWEMA 2018 Board of Directors: S Jay Conroy, president, Hydro-Dyne Engineering Inc. (Clearwater, Fla.)

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Diane Meyer, marketing manager, ValMatic Valve & Manufacturing Corp. (Elmhurst, Ill.) S George Vorsheim, marketing and communications director, Environment One Corp. (Niskayuna, N.Y.) In addition, several members were reelected to serve second terms on the board: S Andrew Fraher, director of marketing – water utilities, America’s Commercial Team, Xylem Inc. (Charlotte, N.C.) S TR Gregg, director of business development and marketing, Huber Technology Inc. (Huntersville, N.C.) S Nathen Myers, vice president – municipal sales, SUEZ (Richmond, Va.) S


New Solution for Primary Wastewater Treatment: Cloth Media Filtration John D. Dyson rimary filtration and primary effluent cloth media filtration are both emerging technologies in wastewater treatment. The goal of these technologies is to reduce the organic loading to the secondary treatment process, which saves energy and can increase capacity. This is achieved by diverting biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) from raw wastewater prior to main biological treatment and the anaerobic digestion process, reducing activated sludge loading and increasing gas production in the digestion process. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show typical plant schematics for primary fil-


tration and primary effluent filtration, respectively. In primary filtration, the cloth media filter replaces the primary clarifier; in primary effluent filtration, the cloth media filter follows the primary clarifier and before the secondary process. An additional application may consist of filtration of gravity thickener overflow (GTO) and centrate sidestreams as a pretreatment step to remove solids and debris. This has the potential to decrease operation and maintenance costs by reducing the BOD5 and total suspended solids (TSS)/VSS load. Capturing solids and diverting TSS/VSS and BOD5 from the pro-

Figure 1. Plant Layout for Primary Filtration

Figure 3. Total Suspended Solids Removal in California Energy Commission Study for Cloth Disk Filter


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

John D. Dyson is product channel manager with Aqua Aerobic Systems Inc. in Loves Park, Ill.

posed sidestream biological treatment to the anaerobic digesters has the same potential to reduce aeration demand and operational costs.

Background Aqua-Aerobic Systems became involved Continued on page 8

Figure 2. Plant Layout for Primary Effluent Filtration

Figure 4. Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal in California Energy Commission Study for Cloth Disk Filter

Continued from page 6 with primary effluent filtration in 2013 with a study funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) and Kennedy Jenks Consultants. Five technologies were selected to participate in this study. The cloth media filter performance

exceeded expectations; the unit ran the entire two years, with 99 percent uptime and no cloth wear. The TSS was reduced by 50 to 60 percent to the aeration basin. By the end of the study, the company’s cloth media filter was one of only two technologies remaining.

Figures 3 and 4 show the TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates during the year, plus phase 1 of the CEC study. Based on the success from the CEC study, independent testing of primary filtration was conducted at the Rock River Water Reclamation

Figure 5. Rock River Water Reclamation District Primary Filtration Study Process Flow Figure 6. Total Suspended Solids and Biochemical Oxygen Demand Removal Across Primary Clarifier, PA2-13 Cloth, and PES-14 Cloth in Rock River Water Reclamation District Study

Figure 7. Total Suspended Solids Removal Across Primary Clarifier PES-14 Cloth in Rock River Water Reclamation District Study

Figure 8. Three Zones for Solids Removal in Cloth Media Filter

Figure 9. Backwashing of Cloth Media

Figure 10. Cloth Media Filtration Package Unit – 108 ft2 Disks


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

District in Rockford, Ill. This testing was conducted over six months using water pumped from before the primary clarifier, and the process schematic is shown in Figure 5. The performance of the primary clarifier was compared to the performance of the cloth media filter. OptiFiber PA2-13® cloth filtration media and OptiFiber PES-14® cloth filtration media were tested during this study with much success (Figures 6 and 7). Based on successful testing, several pilot units were developed.

The outside-in flow path in cloth media filters allows for three zones of solids removal. These three zones become even more critical in wet weather applications due to the high solids environment in primary filtration and wet weather treatment applications (Figure 8).

Cloth Media Filtration Unit Design Cloth media filtration has been used in tertiary applications for over 20 years. Its proven performance and operational advantages model a viable solution for primary filtration or wet weather treatment applications.

Table 1. Total Suspended Solids Removal Using Primary Filtration

Figure 12. Oak Hill, W.V. – Primary Filtration: Total Suspended Solids

Floatable Zone The top zone is the “floatable zone,” where floatable scum is allowed to collect on the water surface. As the water level increases, the scum is removed by flowing over the scum removal weir, where it’s then directed to the plant’s waste hanContinued on page 10

Figure 11. Primary Filtration and Wet Weather Pilot System

Table 2. Biochemical Oxygen Demand Removal Using Primary Filtration

Figure 13. Asheville, N.C. – Primary Filtration: Total Suspended Solids

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Continued from page 9 dling facilities. The floatable scum is removed typically one to three times per day by opening a floatable valve. Filtration Zone The middle zone is the “filtration zone,” where the majority of solids are removed through filtration. Here, solids deposit on the outside of the cloth media, forming a mat as filtrate flows through the media. Once a predetermined liquid level or time is met, the backwash shoe contacts the media directly and solids are removed by vacuum pressure using the backwash pump. During backwash, fibers fluidize to provide an efficient release of stored solids deep within the fiber (Figure 9). Solids Zone The bottom zone is the “solids zone,” when heavier solids collected on the bottom of the tank are removed on an intermittent

basis. The solids are removed from the hopper with collection laterals and the backwash pump.

Cloth Media Filtration Arrangement With knowledge of the three zones, ways to further improve solids removal were considered (Figure 10): S A floatable baffle and valve were added to remove floatable scum that accumulates in the floatable zone of the tank. S The solids zone was enhanced by improving the hopper bottom design and adding an improved solids collection manifold. S Other enhancements included elevating the tank height, moving the influent baffle, and raising the center tube.

Figure 14. Asheville, N.C. – Primary Filtration: Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Pilot Testing and Case Studies A pilot trailer and three stand-alone units were constructed and specifically designed for primary filtration and wet weather filtration applications; the unit is shown in Figure 11. The cloth media filter in this pilot unit features the modifications that were previously described. The unit is currently traveling around the United States and is collecting data at various plants.

Pilot Results Primary filtration studies were completed at five sites. The results from these studies are summarized in Tables 1 and 2, and the percent of TSS removal is consistently between 80 and 88 percent. Variations in BOD5 removal are due to differences in the fraction of BOD5 that is soluble among these sites.

Figure 15. Dalles, Ore. – Primary Filtration: Total Suspended Solids

Figure 17. TRA Central, Texas – Primary Filtration Figure 16. Dalles, Ore. – Primary Filtration: Biochemical Oxygen Demand Reduction


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 18. TRA Central, Texas – Primary Filtration: Total Suspended Solids Removal

Figure 19. TRA Central, Texas – Primary Filtration: Solids Loading Rate

Figure 20. TRA Central, Texas – Primary Effluent Filtration: Total Suspended Solids

Figure 21. TRA Central, Texas – Primary Effluent Filtration: Total Suspended Solids

Primary Filtration Pilot Results Some primary influent results from some of the studies are shown in Figures 12-19.

Primary Effluent Filtration Pilot Results Some primary influent results from some of the studies are shown in Figures 20 and 21.

Full-Scale Testing Following the success of the first CEC study, a second study has been approved to assess the full-scale impact of primary filtration over a three-year period in Linda County, Calif. The current plant has two trains designed for 1 mil gal per day (mgd) each. During the study, the primary clarifier in one of the two trains will be replaced with the company’s cloth media filter. These two trains will be operated independently and carefully monitored for differences in performance and microorganism populations. The

biological process has a Modified Ludzak-Ettinger (MLE) configuration for nitrogen removal, which will help to answer how primary filtration impacts nutrient removal.

Conclusions The cloth media filtration technology is viable for treating many different primary and primary effluent applications. The technology provides a high-quality effluent, easy operation, and major operating savings in reduced energy consumption in the treatment facility. The energy saving is achieved in a treatment facility due to carbon diversion principles. Due to the high removal percentages demonstrated by cloth media filtration, which are generally from TSS (75 to 85 percent removal) and BOD5 (45 to 60 percent removal), these numbers are general 20 to 30 percent greater than conventional primary sedimentation. Cloth media filtration produces significant energy and capital cost savings due to carbon diversion, as compared to conventional

primary sedimentation. The advantages of the cloth media filtration process are: 1. Reduced electrical energy required for aeration in secondary treatment due to reduced organic loading 2. More biogas energy production in the anaerobic digestion process due to the high organic energy content of the VSS removed in cloth media filtration 3. Potential expanded plant capacity by reducing the organic loading upstream of the secondary process 4. Reduction of footprint required for primary treatment to 10 to 20 percent of conventional sedimentation solutions

References • Caliskaner, Onder; Tchobanoglous, George; Young, Ryan; and Laybourne, Sarah (2014). “Demonstration of Primary Effluent Filtration for Carbon Diversion to Save Energy and Increase Plant Capacity.” Proceedings, WEFTEC 2014; New Orleans, La. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Test Yourself Questions About Water and Wastewater Sampling and Testing Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62600 Domestic Wastewater Facilities, what type of samples shall be used to test pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorine residual, and microbiological tests? a. 24-hour composite samples, with equal volumes of sample per hour. b. 24-hour, flow-proportional, composite samples. c. Flow-proportional, composite samples, based on the number of hours of operator attendance. d. Grab samples 2. Per EPA Method 150.2 - pH, Continuous Monitoring (Electrometric), for immersiontype electrodes easily removed from mounting, the electrode should be calibrated at how many points that bracket the expected pH of the water/waste? a. 1 point c. 3 points

b. 2 points d. 4 points

3. Per EPA Method 180.1 - Determination of Turbidity by Nephelometry, what type of interferences cause problems with turbidity readings? a. Light-absorbing materials, such as significant in carbon activated concentrations, can cause high readings. b. Finely divided air bubbles can cause high readings. c. The presence of coarse sediments, which settle out rapidly, will give high readings. d. The presence of floating debris can cause high readings. 4. Per (FAC) 62-600 Domestic Wastewater Facilities, grab samples shall be collected during periods of a. earliest period of maximum flow and minimal organic loading. b. lowest treatment plant flow and maximum effluent treatability.


c. maximum pollutant removal efficiencies or minimum organic loading. d. minimal pollutant removal efficiencies or maximum organic loading. 5. Per FAC 62-160 Quality Assurance, with some exceptions, all laboratories generating environmental data for submission to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection or for use in departmentdepartment-sponsored or regulated activities shall hold certification from the Health, of Department Florida Environmental Laboratory Certification Program (DOH ELCP). For testing of drinking water, which parameter would need to be tested by a certified laboratory? a. Alkalinity c. Total Coliform

b. pH d. Turbidity

6. Per EPA Method 1604 - Total Coliforms and E. coli in Drinking Water by Membrane Filtration, drinking water samples should be analyzed within how many hours of collection?

facility is required to meet a. advanced wastewater nutrient removal requirements. b. influent flow levels above 100,000 gal per day. c. results of less than 20 mg/L of TSS on a weekly basis. d. the 5 mg/L TSS limitation associated with high-level disinfection for a reuse system. 10. Per FAC 62-550 Drinking Water Standards, Monitoring, and Reporting, public water systems shall collect total coliform samples at sites that are representative of water throughout the distribution system and a. at locations convenient to the distribution operators. b. at different locations every month to check for variability. c. in accordance with a written sampling plan. d. only at pressure tank and plant taps to ensure consistency. Answers on page 62

a. One hour c. 24 hours

b. Six hours d. 30 hours

7. Per EPA Method 405.1 - Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Section 2.0 Summary of Method, a sample being analyzed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) must be incubated at 20°C for how long? a. Five days c. 24 hours

b. 10 days d. 48 hours

References used for this quiz: • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Analytical Methods for Drinking Water – www.epa.gov/dwanalyticalmethods • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Clean – Methods Analytical Act Water www.epa.gov/cwa-methods • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-550 Drinking Water Standards, Monitoring, and Reporting • FAC 62-600 Domestic Wastewater Facilities

8. Per FAC 62-600 Domestic Wastewater Facilities, influent samples shall be collected so they do not contain a. digester supernatant or other plant process recycled waters. b. excessive carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand. c. inflow and infiltration from recent storms. d. pollutants that may have come from an industrial facility. 9. Per FAC 62-600 Domestic Wastewater Facilities, grab samples shall be used to test for total suspended solids (TSS) where a

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

SEND US YOUR QUESTIONS Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to donna@h2owriting.com.

2017-2018 FSAWWA BOARD OF GOVERNORS Florida Section AWWA by Region

Executive Committee William G. Young Chair St. Johns County Utilities 1205 State Road 16 St. Augustine, Florida 32084 P: (904) 209-2703 F: (904) 209-2702 E: byoung@sjcfl.us Michael Bailey, P.E. Chair-Elect Cooper City Utilities 11791 SW 49th Street Cooper City, Florida 33330 P: (954) 434-5519 F: (954) 680-3159 E: mbailey@coopercityfl.org

Fred Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E. Secretary Florida Atlantic University P.O. Box 221890 Hollywood, Florida 33022 P: (239) 250-2423 F: (954) 581-5076 E: h2o_man@bellsouth.net

Andrew Greenbaum Operators and Maintenance Council Chair Tampa Bay Water 2575 Enterprise Road Clearwater, Florida 33763-1102 P: (813) 929-4551 F: (813) 929-4566 E: agreenbaum@tampabaywater.org

Ana Maria Gonzalez, P.E. AWWA Director Hazen and Sawyer 999 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 1150 Coral Gables, Florida 33134 P: (786) 655-5484 E: agonzalez@hazenandsawyer.com

Scott Richards, P.E. Public Affairs Council Chair Carollo Engineers Inc. 200 E. Robinson Street, Suite 1400 Orlando, Florida 32801 P: (407) 377-4312 E: srichards@carollo.com

Mark Lehigh General Policy Director Hillsborough County Water Resources Services 332 N. Falkenburg Road Tampa, Florida 33619 P: (813) 272-5977 ext. 43270 F: (813) 635-8152 E: lehighm@hillsboroughcounty.org

Pamela London-Exner Technical and Education Council Chair Veolia Water 2301 Regional Water Lane Tampa, Florida 33619 P: (813) 781-0173 F: (813) 627-9072 E: pamela.london@veoliawaterna.com

Council Chairs

Lisa Wilson-Davis Utility Council Chair City of Boca Raton, Utility Services Dept. 1401 Glades Road Boca Raton, Florida 33431 P: (561) 338-7310 E: lwilsondavis@myboca.us

Kim Kowalski Vice Chair Wager Company of Florida Inc. 720 Industry Road Longwood, Florida 32750 P: (407) 834-4667 F: (407) 831-0091 E: kkowalski@wagerco.com

Mark Kelly Contractors Council Chair Garney Construction 370 E Crown Point Road Winter Garden, Florida 34787 P: (321) 221-2833 F: (407) 287-8777 E: mkelly@garney.com

Grace M. Johns, Ph.D. Past Chair Hazen and Sawyer 4000 Hollywood Blvd., Suite 750N Hollywood, Florida 33021 P: (954) 987-0066 F: (954) 987-2949 E: gjohns@hazenandsawyer.com

Kevin Stine Manufacturers and Associates Council Chair Sigma Corporation 2370 Timbercrest Circle S Clearwater, Florida 33763-1622 P: (727) 744-2797 F: (822) 291-8089 E: ks3@sigmaco.com

Emilie Moore, P.E. Treasurer Tetra Tech 5201Kennedy Blvd., Suite 620 Tampa, Florida 33609 P: (813) 579-5107 F: (813) 682-2298 E: emilie.moore@tetratech.com

Tyler Tedcastle, P.E. Membership and Development Council Chair Carter & VerPlanck Inc. 4910 W Cypress Street Tampa, Florida 33607 P: (850) 264-9391 F: (813) 282-8216 E: tylertedcastle@carterverplanck.com


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Region Chairs Vacant Region I Chair (North Central Florida) Larry K. Miller, Jr. Region II Chair (Northeast Florida) St. Johns County Utility Dept. 1205 St. Road 16 St. Augustine, Florida 32084 P: (904) 209-2624 F: (904) 209-2625 E: lmiller@sjcfl.us

Kunal Nayee, P.E. Region III Chair (Central Florida) Atkins 482 South Keller Road Orlando, Florida 32810 P: (407) 806 4273 E: Kunal.Nayee@atkinsglobal.com Dan Glaser. P.E. Region IV Chair (West Central Florida) Pinellas County 2165 Long Bow Lane Clearwater, Florida 33764 P: (727) 464-5209 E: dglaser@pinellascounty.org Mary Meima Region V Chair (Southwest Florida) Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. 11900 E Terry Street Bonita Springs, Florida 34135 P: (239) 872-3502 E: mmeima@bau.us Tyler Davis, P.E. Region VI Chair (Southeast Florida) Globaltech Inc. 6001 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 610 Boca Raton, Florida 33487 P: (561) 997-6433 E: tdavis@globaltechdb.com Cristina Ortega-Castineiras, P.E. Region VII Chair (South Florida) CH2M 3150 SW 38th Avenue, Suite 700 Miami, Florida 33146 P: (305) 962-7149 F: (954) 772-2621 E: cristina.ortega@ch2m.com Brad Macek Region VIII Interim Chair (East Central Florida) City of Port St. Lucie 900 SE Ogden Lane Port St. Lucie, Florida 34983 P: (772) 873-6400 F: (772) 873-6405 E: bmacek@cityofpsl.com Monica Autrey, P.E. Region IX Chair (West Florida Panhandle) Destin Water Users Inc. P.O. Box 308 Destin, Florida 32540 P: (850) 837-6146 F: (850) 837-0465 E: mautrey@dwuinc.com

Ann Lee Region X Chair (West Central Florida) Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 316-1776) E: alee@regionalwater.org

Andrew May, P.E. Trustee JEA 21 W Church Street Jacksonville, Florida 32202 P: (904) 665-4510 F: (904) 665-8099 E: mayar@jea.com

Kristen Sealey, P.E. Region XI Chair (North Florida) Gainesville Regional Utilities PO Box 147051 Gainesville, Florida 32614 P: (352) 393-1621 F: (352) 334-3151 E: sealeykm@gru.com

Greg Taylor, P.E. Trustee Reiss Engineering 1016 Spring Villas Pt., Suite 2000 Winter Springs, Florida 32708-5258 P: (407) 679-5358 F: (407) 679-5003 E: gdtaylor@reisseng.com

Sean Lathrop Region XII Chair (Central Florida Panhandle) Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 P: (850) 630-1954 E: slathrop@baycountyfl.gov

Trustees Juan Aceituno. P.E. Trustee CH2M 3150 SW 38 Avenue, Suite 700 Miami, Florida 33146-1530 P: (305) 441-1864 F: (305) 443-8856 E: juan.aceituno@ch2m.com Bobby Gibbs Trustee Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 P: (850) 248-5010 F: (850) 248-5006 E: bgibbs@baycountyfl.gov Terri Holcomb, P.E. Trustee HDR Engineering Inc. 2601 Cattlemen Road, Suite 400 Sarasota, Florida 34232 P: (941) 343-0709 F: (941) 342-6879 E: terri.holcomb@hdrinc.com

Section Staff Peggy Guingona Executive Director Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8449 F: (407) 957-8415 E: peggy@fsawwa.org Casey Cumiskey Membership Specialist/Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8447 F: (407) 957-8415 E: casey@fsawwa.org Donna Metherall Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8443 F: (407) 957-8415 E: donna@fsawwa.org Jenny Arguello Administrative Assistant Florida Section AWWA 1300 9th Street, Building B-124 St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-8448 F: (407) 957-8415 E: jenny@fsawwa.org

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018



Time Flies pier man than I otherwise should have been if I had not attempted it.”

Tim Harley, P.E. President, FWEA

“Either write something worth reading or do something worth writing about.” – Ben Franklin s we flip the calendar and begin a new year, we go from wise men to old wives’ tales. The first one that comes to mind is “new year, new beginning.” With a new year, we can push the reset button and evaluate the things that each of us has accomplished and hopefully identify areas for improvements in our jobs, in our relationships, and most importantly, in areas of personal improvement within our lives. While I believe that we don’t get a second chance to make a first impression, I also believe that new beginnings make for new endings. We are all created equal, but through hard work and dedication, we are not destined to end up equal. If you look at each day as a new beginning, you will feel happier, more energetic, and more motivated. You can make daily resolutions, not just New Year’s resolutions. Any day is suitable for making them; there are no limitations on making new decisions and forming new goals, and there are no limitations on when to begin doing new things. While Franklin never achieved perfection, he still believed that the efforts he made had changed his life for the better. He said the following in his autobiography: “Tho’ I never arrived at the perfection I had been so ambitious of obtaining, but fell far short of it, yet I was, by the endeavour, a better and a hap-



“There is nothing noble in being superior to your fellow man; true nobility is being superior to your former self.” – Ernest Hemingway It’s easy to see how Franklin could be regarded as one of the fathers of self-improvement. His ideas, methods, and techniques are used everywhere today. His outline for self-improvement was a simple one and is based upon three overarching principles: 1. Single Focus – Big achievements come one small advantage at a time, one step at a time, and one day at a time. Focus on doing one thing really well. Write down your commitments, as you tend to abide more with what you have written as opposed to verbal commitments. 2. Track Progress – Give yourself a small treat for completing each step; the bigger the step, the bigger the reward. List the benefits you’ll gain by reaching your goal. 3. Repetition – Make the idea of achieving perfection a lifelong goal.

“Without continual growth and progress, such words as improvement, achievement, and success have no meaning.” – Author Unknown

S We have initiated a working group/task force to begin addressing certification/licensure for individuals who are mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control technicians who work on public and private utility systems in Florida. This group will certainly grow with time. If you are interested in being a part of the group, please contact Kart Vaith at kvaith@tcgeng.com or me at tharley@sjcfl.us. S A Contractors Committee, with the assistance of John Giachino, former FWEA president, is beginning to take shape in order to take advantage of the experiences that the members bring to the table. If you are interested, please contact John at jgiachino@pcconstruction.com or me at tharley@sjcfl.us. S Membership across the state has increased by 11 percent since October 2015. Keep up the good work and please continue to share FWEA with others.

In an effort to track our progress as an association, I would like to provide you with some updates as to some of our initiatives for this year: S The Manufactures and Representatives Committee (MARC) has had multiple teleconferences, a face-to-face meeting, and is developing a path for this new committee. If you would like to be a part of the committee, please reach out to its chair, Chris Stewart with Xylem, at Chris.Stewart@Xyleminc.com.

In conclusion, it’s true that old ways won’t open new doors. If you do not belong to a professional organization such as FWEA, then get involved. The FWEA organization is its people, and it’s never a bad time to do the right thing. Just because “that’s the way that it has always been done” does not mean that there isn’t room for improvement or the opportunity to go in a completely different direction. Please choose to do something worth writing about, but do not wait because time flies. S

T.D. Jakes said, “If you always do what you’ve always done, you’ll always be where you’ve always been.” And from Michael Jackson’s “Man in the Mirror”: “If you wanna make the world a better place, take a look at yourself, and then make a change.”

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! January 8-11 ......Backflow Tester ..........................................Deltona ..............$375/405 8-11 ......Backflow Tester*........................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405 15-19 ......Water Distribution Level 3 ......................Deltona ..............$225/255 15-19 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..............Deltona ..............$225/255 26 ......Backflow Tester Recert*** ......................Deltona ..............$85/115 29-Feb. 12 ......Wastewater Collection C, B** ................Miami/Dade ......$225/255

February 5-9 ......Wastewater Collection C ..........................Deltona ..............$225/255 12-14 ......Backflow Repair ........................................Deltona ..............$275/305 16 ......Backflow Tester Recert*** ......................Deltona ..............$85/115 19-23 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector ....Deltona ..............$350/380

March 12-16 ......Spring State Short School ........................Ft Pierce 26-29 ......Backflow Tester*........................................St. Petersburg ....$375/405

April 2-5 ......Backflow Tester ..........................................Deltona ..............$375/405 9-11 ......Backflow Repair* ......................................St Petersburg ......$275/305 27 ......Backflow Tester Recert*** ......................Deltona ..............$85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

*** any retest given also Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018



Fate and Transport Potential of Phosphorus in Sandy Soils Under Long-Term Municipal Wastewater Irrigation Grant B. Weinkam, Mark T. Brown, David Kaplan, Mark Clark, and Matthew Cohen reated wastewater can be applied to landscapes to reduce direct surface water discharges of effluents that contain elevated nutrient concentrations and provide a reliable source of irrigation water (Feigin, Ravina, & Shalhevet, 1991; NRC, 2012; USEPA, 2012). This practice should become increasingly common as reuse of wastewater is expected to increase throughout the United States and globally (Bixio et al., 2008; Miller, 2006). Under long-term application, however, physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the receiving environment can be altered, influencing phosphorus (P) retention and transport (Jaiswal & Elliott, 2011). While it is critical to understand the long-term implications of slow-rate application to receiving soil and water systems, many studies are conducted only on small spatial and temporal scales; for instance, from one to five years. (Falkiner & Smith, 1997; Rosabal et al., 2007). Phosphorus applied to landscapes can be chemically adsorbed onto soil particles, taken up by plants, or leached from the soil profile (Barton et


al., 2005). While the leached fraction of P in terrains with high slopes and silty clay-rich soils can usually be considered a negligible amount for watershed loading calculations (Aronsson et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2012), in areas with coarse-textured soils of low P-sorbing capacity and shallow groundwater, downward movement of P from organic wastes and other fertilizer sources is potentially significant (Eghball, Binford, & Baltensperger, 1996; Lu & O'Connor, 2001; O'Connor et al., 2005). Under short-term, low-loading scenarios, the majority of applied effluent P can be expected to surface-sorb onto soil particles in the top 15 cm, or centimeters (Lin & Banin, 2005). Under continuous, long-term application, however, soil layers can become saturated and leach undesirable concentrations of P (Andres & Sims, 2013; He et al., 1999) to groundwater and surface water systems (Kim et al., 2007; McCobb et al., 2003). In early estimates (USEPA, 1981) and field studies (Elliott & Jaiswal, 2011; Lin & Banin, 2005; Moura et al., 2011), receiving surface soils have been shown to become P-

Figure 1. Sprayfield reference numbers and sampling location information (Google Earth, 2016).


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Grant B. Weinkam is a former water institute graduate fellow; Mark T. Brown, Ph.D., is a professor, and David Kaplan, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the department of environmental engineering sciences, engineering school of sustainable infrastructure and environment; Mark Clark, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the soil and water sciences department; and Matthew Cohen, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the school of forest resources and conservation at the University of Florida in Gainesville.

saturated in as little as 10 to 15 years. This saturation can limit the useful life of a site, with coarsetextured soils and shallow underdrains discharging to sensitive water bodies, to 20 to 60 years (USEPA, 1977; USEPA, 2006). The soil’s ability to sequester P is dependent on physical and chemical soil characteristics, effluent constituent makeup, hydraulic loading rates, and management practices (Agyin-Birikorang, O'Connor, & Brinton, 2008; Lin & Banin, 2005; Walter et al., 1996). The most influential factors affecting fate and transport of dissolved P in sandy soils are the concentrations of charged molecules that can generate surface coatings of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) oxides and hydroxides, precipitate with calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), or interact with clays and organic matter (Parfitt, Atkinson, & Smart, 1975; Rajan, 1975; Ryden & Pratt, 1980). Under acidic conditions, phosphates will preferentially bind with Al and Fe (Eckert & Watson, 1996; Kleinman & Sharpley, 2002), with an increased precipitation of Ca and Mg phosphate minerals with increasing soil alkalinity (Hu et al., 2005; Lin & Banin, 2005). As pH can be elevated under effluent loading (Hu et al., 2006), this shift can be expected to influence, and potentially weaken, the strength and formation of P complexes in receiving soils. As these chemicals can strongly control P sorption and transportability, there is a need to better define how long-term effluent irrigation can influence these key constituents. Additionally, as the incorporation of Al-rich amendments have been shown highly effective at

reducing P leachability in other heavily loaded sites (Agyin-Birikorang, 2007), there is also value in determining the efficacy of such approaches for P control in effluent-irrigated soils having undergone chemical shifts. As soils receiving effluent can chemically react differently than systems loaded with more traditional inorganic and organic P sources (AgyinBirikorang et al., 2008; Holloway et al., 2001; Lombi et al., 2004), there is a need for further investigation into how P retention and transport potential are affected over extended timeframes. To help address research needs (Jacangelo et al., 2012; National Research Council, 2012) and reduce uncertainties about systems under effluent irrigation (O'Connor, Elliott, & Bastian, 2008; Scott, Faruqui, & Raschid-Sally, 2004; Xu et al., 2010), this study aims to provide a more complete understanding of how wastewater application over long time periods (over 30 years) influence soil constituents and P retention in surface and subsurface horizons, up to 3 meters (m). The impact of chemical changes on leaching rates could then be deter-

mined through column experiments with reconstructed soil cores up to 2 m in depth. In total, significance of the long-term effluent irrigation was determined for influential soil constituents (pH, Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, water extractable P [WEP], Mehlich-3 P [M3P]), P leaching, P sequestration and uptake, and the ability of an aluminum soil amendment to improve P retention.

Materials and Methods Site Description The study was conducted at five wastewater sprayfields located across northern and central Florida having minimal topographic relief (Figure 1). Sprayfields, ranging in size from 45 to 810 hectares (ha), received secondarily treated municipal wastewater effluent through pivot irrigation for 28 to 38 years. Soils were made up primarily of fine and coarse sands, with predominant soil types identified in Table 1. Prior to effluent application, fields were used as low-intensity pasture operations, and applications of P and other soil amendments

were assumed to have been minimal. All sprayfields were under cultivation, predominantly growing and harvesting bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum). Effluent hydraulic loading rates ranged from 2.5 to 5 cm per week. Historic P concentration in effluents were unknown, but were assumed to exhibit water quality trends similar to other systems in the U.S., dropping substantially from system inception (as high as 10-15 mg/L-1) to present day (1-2 mg/L-1) (Jacangelo, 2012; Overman, 1982). Soil Collection and Analysis At each sprayfield, soils were collected at six sampling locations: three within the sprayfield and three from nearby (0.1-1.0 kilometers [km]) “control” sites considered to be representative of soil unaffected by effluent application or other major soil alterations. Locations for soil cores were randomly selected within, and just outside of, the sprayfield areas. At each location, two soil cores were collected to a maximum depth of 3 meters: one core for soil analysis and the other Continued on page 24

Table 1. Sprayfield reference numbers, spatiotemporal characteristics, soil type, and sampling information.

Table 2. Analytical soil chemistry methods.

Figure 2. Diagram of single reconstructed soil column (left). Experimental leaching column setup for three effluent irrigated soil cores. For each field, columns were dripped with 350 m/L of deionization water or wastewater effluent over one hour, every one to two days, for a total of three weeks (right).

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Continued from page 23 for soil column leaching experiments. Soils were extracted with a 7.62-cm-diameter hand auger and sectioned into eight depth increments: 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-120, 120-150, 150-230, and 230-300 cm. All sites contained predominantly sandy soils with low organic matter content and minimal stratification or other apparent structure. When clay horizons were encountered, which occurred in Fields 2 and 5, sample depth was limited to 165 cm and 115 cm, respectively. In Field 2, one effluent-receiving site was misidentified, so two effluent-receiving soils and four control soils were collected. From each depth increment, 500 to 1000 grams (g) of soil were homogenized, sieved (2 millimeters [mm]), oven-dried at 85°C for two to four hours, stored indoors at room temperature, and analyzed within 30 days, according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods (Table 2). Chemical concentrations were determined by the University of Florida Analytical Research Laboratory for pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, WEP, dissolved reactive P (DRP), M3P, and organic matter. The WEP was extracted at a ratio of 20 g of soil to 40 m/L of water.

Leaching Experiment Methodology Soil cores were reconstructed to emulate field conditions in a series of leaching experiments to determine effluent effects on phosphate leachability. Columns were constructed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinders at 200 x 7.62 cm (length times internal diameter), and fitted with fiberglass screen bottoms for comparative experimentation (Figure 2). Each soil depth fraction was added to the cylinder, with light repacking in the order that it was extracted. Differences in DRP leaching between effluent-irrigated and nonirrigated soils were determined through three experiments: S Experiment (A) involved the addition of only deionization (DI) water to determine DRP loss under pure water application. S Experiment (B) involved the application of municipal treated wastewater to determine leaching and uptake of DRP applied with effluent irrigation waters. Effluent was collected and sampled weekly from the University of Florida campus wastewater treatment facility, where DRP concentrations were1.2 ± 0.6 mg L-1 on average. S In Experiment (C), surface soils (15 cm) were amended with an aluminum-rich substrate

Table 3. Average and range of parameter concentrations for all depths sampled in all effluent irrigated soils and nonirrigated control soils.


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and then applied with effluent to determine amendment influence on DRP transport. Over the course of all experiments in total, 8 L (178 cm) were applied to each column. Liquids were dripped into columns as 350-m/L (7.62 cm) applications taking place over one-hour time periods. This application occurred every one to two days, for a total of three weeks. To generate leachate in experiment (A), 700-1050 m/L was applied to columns over 24 hours and two samples were collected from the generated leachate. Following two days of nonliquid applications, to allow for all applied waters to completely percolate through the soils, a subsequent 700 m/L was added, and an additional two samples were collected. From the percolated waters, 20 m/L subsamples were filtered through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 0.45 µm pore diameter membrane filter, stored below 4°C, and analyzed within 28 days. Following the initial DI water flushes, for experiment (B), soil columns were loaded with 350 m/L (7.62 cm) of effluent per day for seven consecutive days. To collect random and representative samples, single-leachate samples were collected on two, nonconsecutive days following effluent application. After allowing two days for effluents to percolate through the system, the columns received a subsequent application of 700 m/L of DI water, and one sample was collected. The subsequent DI application was conducted to determine DRP concentrations following the application of effluents, and for comparative analysis of DI, only flushes for experimental conditions A, B, and C were done. For experiment (C), an aluminum-rich drinking water treatment plant residual, found effective at reducing DRP loss in soils receiving manure, biosolid, and/or granular phosphate fertilizers (Agyin-Birikorang et al., 2007; O'Connor et al., 2002; Silveira, Miyittah, & O'Connor, 2006), was incorporated into the top 15 cm of column soils. This soil portion was augered out and homogenized with a relatively high rate (56 Mg ha-1) of 2-mm sieved residual. Elemental concentrations in the residual were assumed equivalent to previously analyzed samples containing Al (1189 g kg-1), Fe (2-4 g kg-1), and TP (2.8 g kg-1) (Agyin-Birikorang et al., 2009; Miyittah-Kporgbe, 2004). Following a light repacking of the soils, columns were loaded exactly the same as experiment (B), resulting in the collection of two effluent samples and one DI water sample. In total, for each field, effluent-irrigated soil and control soil columns yielded twelve DI water flush samples for experiment (A), six effluent flush and three DI flush samples for experiment (B), and six effluent flush and three DI flush samples for amended soils in experiment (C).

Calculations and Statistical Approach Data generated from soil sampling and leachate experiments were analyzed to determine differences in soil constituents that can influence P transportability (pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al) and DRP leaching from effluent irrigated and nonirrigated soils. Soil concentrations for WEP, M3P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, and pH were compared to identify significant differences among different effluent-irrigated and control soils, as well as between different fields and depths. Differences between effluent-irrigated and control soils were calculated by subtracting averaged effluent values from averaged control values at each field and depth increment. Positive and negative values indicate higher or lower analyte masses, respectively, in effluent-irrigated soils. Significance was determined using a two-tailed Ttest at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability level. Leached DRP concentrations were calculated for each field and irrigation condition by averaging all samples. The effects of the different soil conditions and treatments on DRP uptake and leaching under effluent application were compared by calculating the percent DRP removed, relative to the initial effluent concentration added. Significance was determined using a one-tailed T-test at the 0.01 probability level.

Table 4. Cumulative differences between mean effluent irrigated soils and control soils analyte concentrations with depth.

Results Effluent Irrigated Soil and Control Soil Concentrations Fields have inherent natural and management-induced variations in soil chemical properties, but the effects of effluent loading were clearly identifiable for some constituents (Table 3). Average pH for all effluent-receiving fields was higher (7.3 ± 0.4) than corresponding control sites (6.2 ± 0.4). In Field 5, pH was the only parameter showing a significant difference. In Fields 1 through 4, average WEP concentrations were significantly higher in irrigated fields (3.0 ± 2.0 mg kg-1) than control sites (0.9 ± 0.9 mg kg-1). Other parameters with significant differences in multiple fields included higher M3P (Fields 1, 2), higher Ca (Fields 1, 2), and lower Al (Fields 1, 4, 5). In Field 4, naturally present concentrations of M3P in the soils were 10 times higher than other fields, especially in deeper horizons and controls. No significant differences were observed for Mg, Fe, and organic matter content. For all surface soils (0-0.3 m), organic matter content ranged from 2 to 5 percent, and no clear differences were identified between effluent irrigated and control sites. Soil Differences With Depth To highlight surface and subsurface specific differences, mean soil parameter concentrations were separated by depth increment (Table 4). Positive and negative values indicate higher or lower

analyte mass when irrigated soils were subtracted from control soils. Results show that in all surface soils, to a depth of 0.6 m, higher M3P concentrations were identified in effluent receiving fields. In Fields 1, 2, 3, and 5, 60 percent of increases were in the upper 0-0.6 m. Except in Field 4, higher M3P was observed to maximum depths under effluentreceiving conditions. In Field 4, naturally occurring phosphatic-rich soil deposits in the deeper, control soil horizons, resulted in the M3P values observed. The trend is similar to other P loaded systems, where an average 26 percent of the increased mass was present in the upper 0.15 m, followed by substantial accumulation in soils directly below the surface (0–0.6 m), where 63 percent of the total elevated M3P was stored. Similarly, higher WEP was identified to maximum sampled depth in all fields, except Field 5. Contrary to the substantial increases in M3P in surface soils, however, on average, only 8 percent of the total elevated WEP was located in the upper 0-0.15 m, with only 29 percent found in the top 0.6 m of soil. Results indicate that upon accumulation of significant P as M3P in surface horizons, more rapid transport can occur to

lower horizons through P in the form of loosely bound WEP. In all effluent-receiving systems, excluding Field 4, samples were identified as having higher Ca concentrations to a minimum of 0.6 m depth. In Fields 1, 2, and 3, where Ca was found higher at all sampled depths, 43 percent of increases were located in the upper horizons (0-0.6 m). Lower extractable Al was found to maximum depths of all soils under effluent irrigation. Minimal differences were identified for Fe and Mg. Column Leaching Due to issues encountered with high concentrations of suspended colloidal solids and the failure of one column for Field 2, the number of replicates was reduced for some experiments. For experimental condition (A), a minimum of eight samples were collected, and for each part (B) and (C), a minimum of four effluent samples and two DI samples were collected. Of the DI water samples collected, DRP concentrations from experiments (A), (B), and (C) showed significantly higher values from efContinued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Continued from page 25 fluent irrigated soils when compared to control soils (Figure 3). In Fields 1 through 4, leached DRP concentrations were significantly higher (alpha = 0.01) than paired controls, with Field 5 being the only site showing no significant differences. These discrepancies clearly show the influence that the long-term effluent loading has had on P transport behavior in the receiving soils. Averaging all values, mg DRP L-1 for Fields 1 to 5 were 1.0 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.5, 2.5 ± 0.7, and 0.1 ± 0.1, respectively (average, 1.3 ± 0.4 mg DRP L-1). Averaged DRP for control soils (identified by the horizontal lines across each series of experiments) were considerably lower (0.01, 0.01, 0.37, 0.14, and 0.19; average, 0.14 ± 0.09 mg DRP L-1) and had small variability (standard deviation [SD] = 0.15 mg L-1, variance = 0.02). Under the assumptions that the tests are representative of soil conditions, current irrigation practices, and a percolation rate of 0.64 m year-1, effluent irrigated soils are estimated to leach an average ± SD of 8.0 ± 6.4 kg P ha-1 per year compared to control soils leaching only 0.9 ± 0.9 kg P ha-1 per year. Higher values were identified in some initial experiment (A) flushes. Values were possibly associated with the exposure of soil surfaces and flushing of loosely bound P generated from soil disturbance and transfer. Additionally, as Styles & Coxon (2006) showed that dry soils can extract two to three times more DRP than wet soils, the higher level of water saturation in (B) and (C) can also partially explain the higher releases identified in (A). The DRP leached from nonamended (B) and aluminum-amended soils (C) were found to not be significantly different (alpha = 0.01). The percentage change in effluent DRP concentration after percolating through the soil

columns emphasizes that a significant change (alpha = 0.01) has occurred in the P sequestration capabilities of Fields 1 through 4 when compared to controls (Figure 4). Field 5 was the only field where no significant difference in uptake efficiency was identified. Effluent was applied to columns with an average DRP of 1.2 ± 0.6 mg L-1 (range 0.12.1 mg L-1), and exited Field 1 through 4 columns at 0.6-2.3 mg L-1, for an average increase of 16 percent ± 75 percent. All control soils decreased DRP by an average of 88 percent ± 8 percent, equivalent to a percolated DRP of 0.13 mg L-1. Through these results the leaching experiment methodology was shown to be valid and representative, as indicated by the control soil DRP uptake values producing results similar to previous researchers, where unimpacted soil P sequestration was in the range of 90 to 95 percent under in situ conditions.

Discussion Soil Changes in Long-Term Effluent Irrigated Landscapes Results highlight that changes to soil chemistry and P leaching can be significant in systems with heavy effluent loading, high hydraulic conductivity, and minimal topographic relief. Given the higher surface M3P concentrations identified for effluent irrigated sites, it’s unlikely that the harvested biomass is regularly taking up all effluent P applied to soils. Additionally, as a substantial portion of the elevated WEP identified (69 percent) is occurring below typical soil sampling and plant rooting depths (>0.6 m), it is reasonable to assume that the nutrient is therefore available for subsurface leaching and loss. These results show that the chemical changes that have occurred in the system can increase P lability, regardless of the

Figure 3. Dissolved reactive phosphorus concentration (±1 standard deviation) leached from effluent irrigated soils and control soils for experiments (A), with deionization water added; (B), with wastewater effluent added; and (C), with wastewater effluent added after surface soils amendment with aluminum substrate.


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

M3P increase in the system. This is especially evident in Field 4, where high concentrations of M3P were identified to maximum depths in both effluent and control soils, with only effluent soils showing significant increases in WEP. In Field 5 the influence of effluent loading was evident in some soil parameters (pH, Al) but not for the WEP or P leached. Possible explanations could be associated with lower effluent P concentrations or application rates, or the specific physical characteristics of the site. The location of this field contained a thick clay horizon at depths as shallow as 0.7 m that likely produced more regular soil saturation and flushing of soil elements when compared to other fields. The elevated surface soil Ca concentrations finding is in general agreement with other researchers (Hu et al., 2006), who also identified similar trends in soils under effluent application. Lower Al concentrations in effluent-receiving soils is possibly associated with an increase in insoluble Al precipitates formed under increased contribution of wastewater anions or attributed to podzolization due to organic ligands added through effluent applications (Jaiswal & Elliott, 2011). Organic matter content showed little variation between effluent and control sites, and therefore was determined to have little influence on the differences identified in P accumulation and transport. Changes in soil pH likely had a significant impact on P transport, and may have been heavily influenced by sodium (Na) loading associated with the effluent irrigation. Measurement of sodium loading and accumulation could help determine ionspecific contributions to pH shifts. These findings can be important, as these elemental shifts can directly influence the appliContinued on page 28

Figure 4. Percentage change (±1 standard deviation) of dissolved reactive phosphorus concentration from applied wastewater after percolating through effluent irrigated soils and control soils.

Continued from page 26 cability and accuracy of commonly applied P saturation calculations that do not typically take into account changes in pH, Ca, or WEP, such as the P saturation ratio (PSR) and the soil P storage capacity (SPSC). Validation of these measures and associated land management determinations may warrant further conformational studies in similarly loaded landscapes. Phosphorus Leaching Changes in Long-Term Effluent Irrigated Landscapes As DRP leached from Fields 1 through 4 showed significant, yet reasonable, differences between the two field conditions, the methods used were shown to be valid and representative of hypothetical field conditions. The values identified from effluent irrigated plots were also above stated critical water quality concentrations for shallow groundwaters (Breeuwsma, Reijerink, & Schoumans, 1995) and many surface waters (FDEP, 2012; USEPA, 1986). These results highlight that the P sequestration capabilities have decreased to such a point that the soils used as environmental buffers are no longer functioning as effective water quality protection measures (USEPA, 1977; USEPA, 2006). While similar soil trends of accumulation and downward transport of P have been recognized up to 10 meters at sites disposing of effluent at high rates (Lin et al., 2006; Moura et al., 2011), such transport is typically not reported at depths greater than 0.5 m in systems under long-term effluent irrigation. While columns were loaded with liquids at a rate higher than typically-applied-for irrigation purposes, under field conditions, some mobilized DRP may have been retarded or resorbed within upper soil layers. As frequent storms in the region can provide substantial pulses that saturate soils to depths sampled, results could be considered representative of such circumstances. Installation of field lysimeters could yield additional information on how changes in water application rates or storm intensity influence P leaching in undisturbed landscapes. Given the unique chemical shifts in the receiving systems, where altered pH, Ca, and Al have influenced strength, binding preference, and ultimately, lability and transportability of P (Cho, 1991; Isensee & Walsh, 1972; Nair, Graetz, & Portier, 1995), numerous passive and active management recommendations are suggested to increase terrestrial P sequestration. Managing Phosphorus in Long-Term Effluent Irrigated Landscapes While the aluminum amendment in experiment (C) had previously been shown effective at controlling P transport in other P loaded systems, it was not identified as a worthwhile control strat-


egy under these experimental conditions. As an increase in pH can decrease the sorptive strength of Al to P, this shift may have partially driven the inadequacy of this P control method. Additionally, as highly leachable soil, WEP was elevated deep into the receiving soils (up to 3 m), and such an approach to P control may have increased success under different application scenarios. Suggestions for improved P uptake and control include incorporation of the amendment to depths greater than tested in this experiment (15 cm), integration of amendment prior to significant effluent loading has taken place, and/or its incorporation as a component of subsurface permeable barrier systems lining sensitive receiving surface waters (McCobb et al., 2003; Sibrell & Tucker, 2012). As many landscape loading models assume that nearly all effluent P is accumulated and freely available for plant uptake in receiving surface soils, these findings indicate that actual accumulation and plant available amounts can be substantially lower than the total load applied. Given these considerations, recommended vegetative management strategies include control and harvest of plant biomass (Martinez et al., 2011) and planting of deep rooted vegetation (Falkiner & Polglase, 1997; Minogue et al., 2012; Stewart et al., 1990) to provide stable vegetative sinks and increase uptake from lower soil horizons (Chakraborty et al., 2011; Ibrikci et al., 1994; Nair & Graetz, 2004). Lastly, as irrigation with effluent, even at low P concentrations, has been found sufficient to meet turf nutritional needs (Fan et al., 2014; Martinez et al., 2011; Morgan et al., 2008), increased monitoring of irrigation system performance and education on appropriate irrigation rates can help avoid undesirable vegetative growth and potential groundwater loading (Arrington & Melton, 2010; Jacangelo et al., 2012).

Conclusions This research provides a more complete understanding of P attenuation in sandy soils receiving treated wastewater, and highlights potential limitations in long-term operation. In these systems, irrigation with wastewater has resulted in significant alterations to soil chemical properties and P transportability, both in surface soils (0-0.3 m), and, in most sites, to depths up to 3 meters. Increased WEP with depth was the most important finding, as the results indicate unique system behavior where substantial accumulation of soil M3P is not necessarily required prior to significant increases in leachable P. High hydraulic and P loading rates over extended periods of time, and effluent-induced soil chemistry changes such as lower extractable Al and higher pH, help explain the occurrence of higher WEP deep in soil profiles. Increases in effluent-associated Ca were expected

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

to limit P leachability, but appeared to have little influence on deep (>2 m) DRP transport. As many of the soil analytes impacted can heavily influence P transportability, incorporation of these findings into P saturation and transport calculations can help increase the impact of legislative and remedial actions taken to maintain and improve nutrient-sensitive basins with strong groundwater and surface water connectivity.

Acknowledgments The authors thank the municipal wastewater facilities for historical information and access to data collection sites; the University of Florida Water Institute and Environmental Engineering Sciences Department for funding support; and George O’Connor, Willie Harris, Vimala Nair, Thomas Elliott Arnold, Charlie Nealis, Edward Sombati, and Robert F. Compton for guidance and technical support.

References • Agyin-Birikorang, S., G.A. O’Connor, and T.A. Obreza. 2009. Drinking water treatment residuals to control phosphorus in soils. University of Florida Extension Letter SL, 300. • Agyin-Birikorang S., G. O'Connor, and S. Brinton. 2008. Evaluating phosphorus loss from a Florida spodosol as affected by phosphorussource application methods. J. Environ. Qual. 37:1180-1189. • Agyin-Birikorang S., G.A. O'Connor, L.W. Jacobs, K.C. Makris and S.R. Brinton. 2007. Long-term phosphorus immobilization by a drinking water treatment residual. J. Environ. Qual. 36:316-323. • Andres A. and J.T. Sims. 2013. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: A delaware case study. J. Environ. Qual. 42:391-404. • Aronsson H., J. Liu, E. Ekre, G. Torstensson, and E. Salomon. 2014. Effects of pig and dairy slurry application on N and P leaching from crop rotations with spring cereals and forage leys. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 98:281-293.Arrington D. and K. Melton. 2010. Unintended consequences: Numeric nutrient criteria will constrain reuse opportunities. 25th annual WateReuse symposium, Washington, D.C. • Barton L., L. Schipper, G. Barkle, M. McLeod, T. Speir, M. Taylor, A. McGill, A. Van Schaik, N. Fitzgerald and S. Pandey. 2005. Land application of domestic effluent onto four soil types. J. Environ. Qual. 34:635-643. • Bixio D., C. Thoeye, T. Wintgens, A. Ravazzini, V. Miska, M. Muston, H. Chikurel, A. Aharoni, D. Joksimovic and T. Melin. 2008. Water reclamation and reuse: Implementation and manage-

ment issues. Desalination 218:13-23. • Breeuwsma A., J. Reijerink and O. Schoumans. 1995. Impact of manure on accumulation and leaching of phosphate in areas of intensive livestock farming. p. 239-249. Animal waste and the land-water interface. K. Steele ed. Lewis, Boca Raton, Fla. (USA). • Chakraborty D., V. Nair, W. Harris and R. Rhue. 2011. The potential for plants to remove phosphorus from the spodic horizon. University of Florida IFAS (SL 359). • Cho C. 1991. Phosphate transport in calcium-saturated systems: I. theory. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:1275-1281. • Eckert D. and M. Watson. 1996. Integrating the Mehlich‐3 extractant into existing soil test interpretation schemes. Communications in Soil Science & Plant Analysis 27:1237-1249. • Eghball B., G. Binford and D.D. Baltensperger. 1996. Phosphorus movement and adsorption in a soil receiving long-term manure and fertilizer application. J. Environ. Qual. 25:1339-1343. • Elliott H. and D. Jaiswal. 2011. Phosphorus management for sustainable agricultural irrigation of reclaimed water. J. Environ. Eng. 138:367-374. • Falkiner R. and C. Smith. 1997. Changes in soil chemistry in effluent-irrigated pinus radiata and eucalyptus grandis plantations. Aust. J. Soil Res. 35:131-147. • Falkiner R. and P. Polglase. 1997. Transport of phosphorus through soil in an effluent-irrigated tree plantation. Aust. J. Soil Res. 35:385-397. • Fan J., G. Hochmuth, J. Kruse and J. Sartain. 2014. Effects of reclaimed water irrigation on growth and nitrogen uptake of turfgrass. HortTechnology 24:565-574. • FDEP. 2012. Development of numeric nutrient criteria for Florida’s waters. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Fla., F.A.C. 62-302.531. • Feigin A., I. Ravina and J. Shalhevet. 1991. Irrigation with treated sewage effluent. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. • He Z., A. Alva, Y. Li, D. Calvert and D. Banks. 1999. Sorption-desorption and solution concentration of phosphorus in a fertilized sandy soil. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1804-1810. • Holloway R.E., I. Bertrand, A. Frischke, D. Brace, M.J. McLaughlin and W. Shepperd. 2001. Improving fertiliser efficiency on calcareous and alkaline soils with fluid sources of P, N and Zn. Plant Soil 236:209-219. • Hu C., T. Zhang, D. Kendrick, Y. Huang, M. Dahab and R. Surampalli. 2006. Muskegon wastewater land treatment system: Fate and transport of phosphorus in soils and life expectancy of the system. Engineering in Life Sciences 6:17-25. • Hu C., T.C. Zhang, Y.H. Huang, M.F. Dahab and R. Surampalli. 2005. Effects of long-term waste-

water application on chemical properties and phosphorus adsorption capacity in soils of a wastewater land treatment system. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39:7240-7245. Ibrikci H., N. Comerford, E. Hanlon and J. Rechcigl. 1994. Phosphorus uptake by bahiagrass from spodosols: Modeling of uptake from different horizons. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58:139-143. Isensee A. and L. Walsh. 1972. Influence of banded fertiliser on the chemical environment surrounding the band. II. effect on soil‐solution cations, cation—anion balance and solution phosphorus. J. Sci. Food Agric. 23:509-516. Jacangelo J.G., J. Oppenheimer, M. Badruzzaman, J. Pinzon, A. Contreras and P. Waller. 2012. Development of markers to identify nutrient sources impacting Florida’s surface water bodies. WRF09-08. WateReuse Research Foundation. Jaiswal, D., and H.A. Elliott. 2011. Long-term phosphorus fertility in wastewater-irrigated cropland. Journal of Environmental Quality. 40:214223. Kim S.M., S.W. Park, J.J. Lee, B.L. Benham and H.K. Kim. 2007. Modeling and assessing the impact of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on the nutrient loads from an agricultural watershed containing rice paddy fields. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 42:305-315. Kleinman P.J. and A.N. Sharpley. 2002. Estimating soil phosphorus sorption saturation from Mehlich-3 data. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 33:1825-1839. Lin C., G. Eshel, K. Roehl, I. Negev, D. Greenwald, Y. Shachar and A. Banin. 2006. Studies of P accumulation in soil/sediment profiles used for large‐scale wastewater reclamation. Soil use Manage. 22:143-150. Lin C. and A. Banin. 2005. Effect of long-term effluent recharge on phosphate sorption by soils in a wastewater reclamation plant. Water Air Soil Pollution. 164:257-273. Liu J., H. Aronsson, B. Ulen, and L. Bergström. 2012. Potential phosphorus leaching from sandy topsoils with different fertilizer histories before and after application of pig slurry. Soil Use and Management 28:457-467. Lombi E., M.J. McLaughlin, C. Johnston, R.D. Armstrong and R.E. Holloway. 2004. Mobility and lability of phosphorus from granular and fluid monoammonium phosphate differs in a calcareous soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68:682-689. Lu P. and G.A. O'Connor. 2001. Biosolids effects on phosphorus retention and release in some sandy florida soils. J. Environ. Qual. 30:10591063. Martinez C.J., M.W. Clark, G.S. Toor, G.J. Hochmuth and L.R. Parsons. 2011. Accounting for the nutrients in reclaimed water for landscape irrigation. University of Florida IFAS (AE 479). McCobb T.D., D.R. LeBLANC, D.A. Walter, K.M.

Hess, D.B. Kent and R.L. Smith. 2003. Phosphorus in a ground-water contaminant plume discharging to Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey Reston, Va. Miller G.W. 2006. Integrated concepts in water reuse: Managing global water needs. Desalination 187:65-75. Minogue P.J., M. Miwa, D.L. Rockwood and C.L. Mackowiak. 2012. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by eucalyptus and populus at a tertiary treated municipal wastewater sprayfield. Int. J. Phytoremediation 14:1010-1023. Miyittah-Kporgbe, M. 2004. Phosphorus immobolization in manure-impacted soil with aluminum-based drinking water treatment residual. University of Florida Thesis. Morgan K.T., T.A. Wheaton, L.R. Parsons and W.S. Castle. 2008. Effects of reclaimed municipal waste water on horticultural characteristics, fruit quality, and soil and leaf mineral concentration of citrus. HortScience 43:459-464. Moura D.R., M.L. Silveira, G.A. O'Connor and W.R. Wise. 2011. Long-term reclaimed water application effects on phosphorus leaching potential in rapid infiltration basins. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 13:2457-2462. Nair V. and D. Graetz. 2004. Agroforestry as an approach to minimizing nutrient loss from heavily fertilized soils: The Florida experience. Agroforestry Systems 61:269-279. Nair V., D. Graetz and K. Portier. 1995. Forms of phosphorus in soil profiles from dairies of south Florida. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59:1244-1249. National Research Council and Committee on the Assessment of Water Reuse as an Approach for Meeting Future Water Supply Needs. 2012. Water reuse: Potential for expanding the nation's water supply through reuse of municipal wastewater. National Academies Press. O'Connor G., H. Elliott and R. Bastian. 2008. Degraded water reuse: An overview. J. Environ. Qual. 37:S157-S168. O'Connor G., H. Elliott, N. Basta, R. Bastian, G. Pierzynski, R. Sims and J. Smith. 2005. Sustainable land application. J. Environ. Qual. 34:7-17. O'Connor G.A., H.A. Elliott, D.A. Graetz and D. Sarkar. 2002. Characterizing forms, solubilities, bioavailabilities, and mineralization rates of phosphorus in biosolids, commercial fertilizers, and manures (phase I). Water Environment Research Foundation. Overman, A. R., and W.G. Leseman. 1982. Soil and groundwater changes under land treatment of wastewater. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 381-387. Parfitt R.L., R.J. Atkinson and R.S.C. Smart. 1975. The mechanism of phosphate fixation by iron oxides. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 39:837-841. Continued on page 30

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018



The Value of Volunteerism Bill Young Chair, FSAWWA

irst, I want to express my most sincere appreciation for the honor of being named the 92nd chair of the Florida Section/American Water Works Association. In the 20 years that I have been involved with the section, I have been witness to tremendous growth in both membership and in the quality of what we provide for our members. I believe we should all feel very proud of this organizational development. I also want to offer my gratitude to Grace Johns, our 91st chair, who did such a wonderful job of moving the section forward in such a meaningful and positive way. Grace, like Kim Kunihiro before her, addressed various issues with total commitment and from a base of knowledge that positioned the section well for the years ahead. Grace and Kim exhibit the best attributes of today’s volunteer leaders. With the support of their employers, they spent many hours working to the benefit of our section. When combined with the dedication and professionalism of Peggy Guingona, our executive director, and her staff—Casey, Donna, and Jenny—we have grown to be, in my humble opinion, the best section in the United States. I believe my journey to be chair of the Florida Section illustrates the dynamic, beneficial impact that volunteering can make on both your personal and professional life. In 1993, while working as a water treatment supervisor for St. Johns County, I applied for the Roy Likins Scholarship from the Florida Section. At that time, I was commuting at night to the University of North Florida to pursue my



master’s degree in public administration. I was fortunate enough to win the scholarship, and it enabled me to complete my MPA, advance in my career, and begin a 20-year campaign to “repay” the section. I now realize, as I’ve worked my way through the leadership path, I have benefited so much more than just that scholarship money through my involvement with AWWA. What was initially networking and “rubbing elbows” has now developed into lifelong friendships and confidants that I value in a personal way, but who also act as valuable resources that increase my value as an employee of St. Johns County. The ability to discuss operational issues with a fellow director across the state, or participate in a Utility Council call with Congressional staff, is invaluable to the success of my utility. For obvious reasons, the Roy Likins Scholarship Fund is a cause near and dear to my heart. The thousand-dollar award that I received in 1993 has grown into a fund that now grants over $30,000 annually to deserving bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degree candidates. Additionally, our section volunteers have raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for Water For People to assist financially challenged international committees with the gift of water. Most recently, the section has partnered with local high schools and vocational schools to introduce our career field to young people who, like many of our neighbors, never really knew, or understood, who provided their water and treated their wastewater. All of these volunteer efforts make our state a better place. But, at the same time, I believe that we actually benefit as well from donating our time and effort to these important causes. And who knows? Perhaps that high school water plant trainee or that Ph.D. Likins candidate from Gainesville will show his or her appreciation to the section by giving back. Maybe, one day, that person may even become the Florida Section chair! S

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 29 • Rajan S. 1975. Adsorption of divalent phosphate on hydrous aluminium oxide. Nature 253:434436. • Rosabal A., E. Morillo, T. Undabeytia, C. Maqueda, A. Justo and J.F. Herencia. 2007. Longterm impacts of wastewater irrigation on Cuban soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71:1292-1298. • Ryden J.C. and P.F. Pratt. 1980. Phosphorus removal from wastewater applied to land. Hilgardia 1-36. • Scott C.A., N.I. Faruqui and L. Raschid-Sally. 2004. Wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: Confronting the livelihood and environmental realities. CABI, Wallingford, England. • Sibrell P. and T. Tucker. 2012. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxidebased media derived from acid mine drainage. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 223:5105-5117. • Silveira M.L., M. Miyittah and G. O'Connor. 2006. Phosphorus release from a manure-impacted spodosol: Effects of a water treatment residual. J. Environ. Qual. 35:529-541. • Stewart H., P. Hopmans, D. Flinn and T. Hillman. 1990. Nutrient accumulation in trees and soil following irrigation with municipal effluent in Australia. Environmental Pollution 63:155-177. • Styles D. and C. Coxon. 2006. Laboratory drying of organic-matter rich soils: Phosphorus solubility effects, influence of soil characteristics, and consequences for environmental interpretation. Geoderma 136:120-135. • USEPA. 2012. Guidelines for water reuse. EPA 600/R-12/618. Office of Wastewater Management, Washington, D.C. • USEPA. 2006. Process design manual – land treatment of municipal wastewater effluents. EPA 625/R-06-016. USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio. • USEPA. 1986. Quality criteria for water. EPA 440/5-86-001. Office of water regulations and standards, Washington, D.C. • USEPA. 1981. Process design manual for land treatment of municipal wastewater. EPA 625/181-013. US EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio. • USEPA. 1977. Process design manual for land treatment of municipal wastewater. EPA 625/177-008. US EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio. • Walter D.A., B.A. Rea, K.G. Stollenwerk and J. Savoie. 1996. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Rep. 95-381. USGS, Marlborough, Mass. • Xu J., L. Wu, A.C. Chang and Y. Zhang. 2010. Impact of long-term reclaimed wastewater irrigation on agricultural soils: A preliminary assessment. J. Hazard. Mater. 183:780-786. S

Florida Water & Pollution Control Operators Association

FWPCOA STATE SHORT SCHOOL March 12 - 16, 2018 Indian River State College - Main Campus – FORT PIERCE –

COURSES Backflow Prevention Assembly Tester ..........................$375/$405

Stormwater Management C, B & A ..............................$325/$325

Backflow Prevention Assembly Repairer ......................$275/$305

Utility Customer Relations I, II & III................................$260/$290

Backflow Tester Recertification ......................................$85/$115

Utilities Maintenance III &  II ..........................................$225/$255

Basic Electrical and Instrumentation ............................$225/$255

Wastewater Collection System Operator C, B & A .....$325/$325

Facility Management Module I......................................$275/$305

Water Distribution System Operator Level 3, 2 & 1......$325/$325

Reclaimed Water Distribution C, B & A ........................$225/$255 (Abbreviated Course) ................................................$125/$155

Wastewater Process Control ........................................$225/$255 Wastewater Troubleshooting ........................................$225/$255

For further information on the school, including course registration forms and hotels, visit: http://www.fwpcoa.org/SpringStateShortSchool

SCHEDULE CHECK-IN: March 11, 2018 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. CLASSES: Monday – Thursday........8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Friday........8:00 a.m. to noon

FREE BBQ P Monday, March 12, 4:30 p.m. P

For more information call the

FWPCOA Training Office 321-383-9690 Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Wastewater. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Sidestream Biological Phosphorus Removal: The New Frontier Lucas Botero, James L. Barnard, Ed Kobylinski, and Kenny Blanton (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. A 2015 presentation revealed that in 24 wastewater plants studied in Denmark, _________ was/were found to be the most relatively abundant phosphate-accumulating organism/glycogenaccumulating organism (PAO/GAO) bacterial species. a. Escherichia coli b. Tetrasphaera c. Competibacter+Defluviicoccus d. Accumulibacter 2. Sidestream enhanced biological phosphorus removal involves conditioning phosphate accumulating organisms in deeper _____________ conditions than provided by traditional biological nutrient removal processes. a. reactor b. settling c. anaerobic d. anoxic 3. In which of the pilot plants discussed did the owner propose to feed acetate for nitrate reduction? a. Liverpool b. Cedar Creek c. Denver d. Sacramento 4. As discussed in this article, sidestream enhanced biological phosphorus removal focuses on ___________ processes to supplement maintstream processes when normal waste stream characteristics are not optimal. a. aeration b. fermentation c. digestion d. coagulation 5. The authors’ firm has addressed enhanced biological phosphorus removal modeling shortcomings relative to sidestream treatments by including a. multiple metabolic-based PAO modules. b. a multiple culture PAO group model. c. additional mechanisms to PAO models. d. subsurface biological treatment.


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card,fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Fate and Transport Potential of Phosphorus in Sandy Soils Under LongTerm Municipal Wastewater Irrigation Grant B. Weinkam, Mark T. Brown, David Kaplan, Mark Clark, and Matthew Cohen (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW)

1. ______________ was deemed to be the most important finding of this study. a. Increased water extractable p (WEP) with depth b. Increased calcium from applied effluent limiting phosphorus leachability c. The immateriality of native soil characteristics d. The significant effect of temperature on phosphorus diffusion 2. In terrains characterized by high slopes and silty clay-rich soils, the leached fraction of phosphorus is considered ____________ in calculating watershed loads. a. negligible b. relevant c. significant d. dispositive 3. The incorporation of ____________ soil amendments have previously shown to be highly effective at reducing phosphorus in other heavily loaded sites. a. calcium-rich b. aluminum-rich c. carbonate-rich d. boron-rich 4. Historic effluent hydraulic loading rates for the five spray fields analyzed in this study were a. 2.5–5 cm/week. b. 1 in. per week. c. 48 in. per year. d. 0.1–0.2 cm/day. 5. Which of the following is not offered as a suggestion to improve phosphorus uptake and control for long-term irrigated landscapes? a. Subsurface permeable barrier systems lining sensitive receiving waters b. Incorporation of amendment to depths greater than tested in this experiment c. Integration of amendment prior to significant effluent loading d. Subsurface biological treatment


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First Glimpse of the 2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference Several events from the conference are pictured here. The full conference wrap-up will appear in the magazine’s March 2018 issue.

Exhibit Hall

Opening General Session

Backhoe Rodeo Evening Barbeque

Technical Sessions


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Tapping Contest

Second City’s Diversity and Inclusion Workshop

Young Professionals Lunch

Poster Session

Annual Business Meeting and Awards Luncheon

Water Bowl

Duck Race for Water For People

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


FWRJ COMMITTEE PROFILE This column highlights a committee, division, council, or other volunteer group of FSAWWA, FWEA, and FWPCOA.

Roy W. Likins Scholarship Committee Affiliation: FSAWWA

Steve Soltau

Marjorie Craig

Current chair: Steve Soltau, interim operations division director, Pinellas County Utilities Past chair: Marjorie Craig, utilities director, City of Delray Beach The committee is named after a lifelong member of FSAWWA who was a strong advocate of the industry, his community, and education.

Year group was formed: In 1988 FSAWWA awarded the first Roy Likins Scholarship. The scholarship has increased from the first award to one applicant of a paid trip to the AWWA Annual Conference (ACE), to the 2017 award of $40,000 to nine highly qualified students, including four pursuing their bachelor’s degrees, three their master’s degrees, and two doctoral candidates. The committee currently reviews applicants by level of degree and is looking to expand outreach to schools across many degrees, not just the traditional engineering students.

applicants, and the final amount goes through an approval process. The scholarships are distributed in increments of $1000 or more to qualified students pursuing a degree relating to the drinking water industry, either in undergraduate or graduate school. The committee is developing a strategic financial plan for the scholarship this year, which will include evaluating the criteria and modifying the FSAWWA standard practice manual, expanding outreach and participation on the committee, and the possibility of expanding the scholarship to other areas.

Scope of work: Each year, if there are qualified applicants, the committee awards a minimum of $2,500, to a current maximum of $40,000 in scholarships. Each applicant is also given a one-year membership in FSAWWA and winners are invited to the annual awards banquet at the FSAWWA Fall Conference. The maximum is determined based on a conference with the financial committee and an evaluation of the number and quality of

Purpose: An important purpose of the scholarship is to provide reimbursement of tuition, books, and fees through the college/university financial aid department, but also to introduce and encourage students to enter the industry, and not only make a career in it, but see the benefits of being a part of the FSAWWA section “family.” There are so many wonderful people in the organization and it’s important that students

Roy W. Likins

"To me, he was a friend and mentor. He was not just the guy who gave me my first job, but the one who was there to point me in the right direction when he thought I took the wrong path, and to challenge me to find the best way to solve a problem. I'll remember him best for his motto that was on the top of his interoffice memo paper at the city, ‘There's always a better way.’ He lived this philosophy." –Timothy Brodeur Roy W. Likins Scholarship recipients at the awards luncheon held at the 2017 FSAWWA Fall Conference.


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

get a chance to meet them. One enhancement implemented in 2014 was to identify separate tables for the scholarship winners and the professors, and mix in industry folks to engage the students. Recent accomplishments: Since the inception of the scholarship in 1988, over 91 scholarships have been awarded. From this diverse group of university students have come several FSAWWA volunteers who continue to actively serve section members, including the current chair and two immediate past chairs of the committee. They remember how much the scholarship helped them and how important it is to give back to the industry.

Current projects: In August 2017, a past Florida Section chairs’ summit was held to look back over the past 20 years to review the growth of, and changes in, FSAWWA. An impressive 18 past chairs attended, bringing together decades of service to the drinking water profession, and they offered fresh ideas for many areas of the section. One of the results of the summit included a recommendation that the committee develop a business plan to include: S Methods to increase the number of applicants each year to include students in water-related careers outside of the engineering profession. S Recommendations for additional fund-

No Rate Increase for Seventh Year for Florida Utility Customers Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. (BSU) customers will not see a rate increase this year on their utility bills, the seventh consecutive year the BSU board of directors voted to maintain current rates. The not-for-profit water and wastewater utility is permitted to raise rates annually based on the U.S. Consumer Price Index. The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes the index, a measure of the average change in prices over time of goods and services purchased by households. “Our utility is in a solid financial position,” said John R. Jenkins, BSU executive director. “We made it through Hurricane Irma with limited damage, and our board members and staff are working with insurance adjusters and other agencies to maximize cost recovery.” The member-owned utility provides service in the City of Bonita Springs, Village of Estero, and unincorporated South Lee County. The utility is recognized as an industry leader, with awards from the American Water Works Association, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association. For more information, visit the utility’s website at www.BSU.us. S

raising needs and investment-fund spending over time. S Metrics and forecasting for the number and type of applicants, and the number and amount of scholarships awarded, to measure the success of the program. Group members: S Steve Soltau, chair (Pinellas County Utilities) S Marjorie Craig, past chair (City of Delray Beach) S Robert Claudy (retired) S Judy Grim (Volusia County) S Will Lovins (AECOM) S Todd Swingle (Orange County Utilities) S Charlie Voss (CDM Smith) S

Rosenstiel School Announces 2018 Sea Secrets Lectures The University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science is offering a lineup of speakers on the latest scientific research and exploration of Earth’s oceans at its 2018 Sea Secrets, a series of evening lectures designed for the nonscientific community. The lectures take place at the UM Rosenstiel School auditorium, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, on Virginia Key. They begin with a reception at 6:30 p.m., and the program follows at 7 p.m. On Tuesday, January 23, UM Rosenstiel School Professor Martin Grosell will present his talk, “In the Wake of an Environmental Disaster: Is There a Silver Lining?” He will discuss what was learned from the extensive research effort that took place following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill. Grosell is the lead principal investigator and director of RECOVER (Relationships of Effects of Cardiac Outcomes in fish for Validation of Ecological Risk). The lectures, which run through May 15, are free and open to the public. Seating is limited and an RSVP is required. To register for one or more lectures, go to the Eventbrite link (www.eventbrite.com) for each speaker. For more information go to events@rsmas.miami.edu or call 305-421-4061. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018



Go With the Flow— the Flow of Knowledge Mike Darrow President, FWPCOA

ell, this is my first column for the famous Florida Water Resources Journal (FWRJ), and it’s now 2018, so let me start by saying I hope you had a happy holiday with your family and friends and I wish you a Happy New Year! By now, I’ve put on a few pounds, so it’s also time for my annual new year’s weight-loss resolution (haha!). It’s an honor to be elected as the incoming president for this worthy association of utility professionals. My induction will take place at the next state board meeting on January 20 in Palm Bay. The purpose of FWPCOA is to protect the health and welfare of our citizens and preserve the natural resources of the state of Florida. We accomplish this by advancing the professional standards of the water/wastewater industry, participating with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in the state licensing process, and most of all, providing training programs and coursework geared to help advance knowledge in each of our disciplines. The folks I have worked within the association care about the



utility industry and its workforce. Training is a key function of the association, and one of my goals in the coming year is the continuation of a fine educational process. A slogan I have used in our business is “Go with the flow.” Water flow is a hard thing to overcome without containment. It can be redirected by piping or other channels, but it’s very difficult to stop water once it is moving or seeking its own level. Knowledge is another thing that’s hard to stop. The FWPCOA does a great job of keeping the flow of knowledge moving forward by training industry professionals with skill sets that include water and wastewater operators, water distribution and collection system operators, stormwater operators and inspectors, laboratory technicians, utility customer service representatives, meter readers, industrial pretreatment coordinators, reclaimed water operators and inspectors, utility maintenance technicians, backflow prevention testers and repair technicians, and utility managers. All of these water/wastewater disciplines require knowledge for the practitioners to do their jobs more effectively and to advance their own careers, and they’re important to the success of our industry and the protection of our citizens and resources. The FWPCOA training classes are based on the job experiences of veteran and seasoned utility professionals who work in their respective disciplines. Training is done in many different ways

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

throughout the association by online training, regional classes, state short schools, and on-the-road training. Regional classes, seminars, and short schools are done locally in the thirteen FWPCOA regions of Florida. By attending local meetings or checking the calendar on the website (www.fwpcoa.org), you can see when local training is given near you. So, sign up now and learn! The Online Institute is online training and continuing education unit (CEU) coursework written for instant access at your fingertips—just log on and start taking a course. It’s a very popular option for many of us who work on back shifts. The FWPCOA state short schools, which are week-long classes, are given twice a year in Fort Pierce, and we also offer numerous classes in March and August of each year. Check out this magazine, our website, or the training office for details. The on-the-road training can come right to your utility or your group. The training office staff in Titusville can answer any questions or help you sign up for your training needs. The staff can be contacted on the website or at 321-383-9690. Another key benefit is networking, which comes out of attending local meetings and training classes. At meetings you can interact with other folks and get an insight on what is happening in the industry, and of course, discuss the newest training. One of my goals for the coming year is to increase membership and involvement by local members at our regional meetings and other activities. The regional level is where you can meet fellow utility operators and technicians and share stories and ideas of treatment or processes by visiting different plants and facilities. Tours are often given in association with the regional meetings and are a great way of sharing information and getting knowledge out. I would recommend this to any region to increase attendance. Another popular activity is to go to a sponsor’s facility to see how products used in our industry are made and used. As a member of Region X, I’ve found that daytime meetings have been an effective way to increase participation. Couple that with a training class (day or night) and that can be a good thing, too. Mentorship and leading the next generation to work in our profession is a continual process that’s needed to replace ourselves as we retire from the industry. When I started my career—and actually throughout my career—I have met many folks who have helped me professionally by sharing skills, ideas, a consistent

work ethic, and many other things that helped me do my job more effectively. Exposure to many different things in the industry is crucial, and FWPCOA is built on this principle. At the regional level, I suggest the age-old military tactic of the “right arm.” That is, a younger or less-trained person is taken around and exposed to people at all levels of experience to learn the ins and outs of the industry. So, with that said, bring your new people to your local regional meeting and expose these folks to other industry professionals. Let them see other plants, facilities, and applications; let them discuss plant troubleshooting, equipment issues, process changes or upgrades, nutriment level, and water quality. This is the way I’ve learned in my career. I want to thank my most recent mentor, Steve Saffels, with the City of Plant City, for passing on knowledge to me and showing true dedication to the industry. I was his right arm for the last few months and it has helped me tremendously. Steve–happy retirement to you! Technology is another key factor in training. The FWPCOA staff is working hard every day to prepare the organization for the future generation. This is done by streamlining processes and implementing better technology to make the association better at communicating to and with our members. This is another one of my goals for this year for the organization. Recently, I have had the opportunity to attend a few events. The FSAWWA Fall Conference at ChampionsGate in November of last year was a great place to meet up with fellow professionals. There I attended the Florida Water Resources Conference and FWRJ board meetings. These boards are made up of hard-working industry leaders from FWEA, FSAWWA, and FWPCOA who are looking to forward issues and circumstances to ensure industry education and enhancement. I also had time to attend the most excellent annual holiday parties at Region X and Region XII. Thanks for the invitation—I had a blast! I look forward to working with our membership and our industry partner organizations, FWEA and FSAWWA, to further the cause of the water/wastewater industry to our customers. So remember, “Go with the flow” and pass that knowledge to others along your career path, also taking time to protect our valuable natural resources. Lastly, I want to thank Scott Anaheim, our most recent president, who has been a great leader of FWPCOA for these past two years. I look forward to working with him in his new role as past president. Thanks, Scott, for mentoring me in my new role. On behalf of the members and the board of directors, I thank you for your dedication and direction in leading FWPCOA! S Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Facing up to Stress ow much do you know about stress? Surveys and research reveal the following: S An estimated 75–90 percent of all visits to primary care physicians are for stress-related complaints or disorders. S More than 40 percent of all adults suffer from stress-related adverse health effects. S Stress has been linked to all the leading causes of premature mortality, including heart disease, cancer, respiratory ailments, accidents, cirrhosis, and suicide.


But stress is a normal part of life. Stress is typically associated with somber events, such as divorce or a death in the family. But, many events, even those that are happy and joyous— a new job, relocation, marriage, or the birth of a child—can be stressful. Even holidays or buying a new car can cause stress. Everyone responds differently to stressinducing events in their lives. What one person ignores or finds challenging may cause stress in another. So, do you suffer from stress?

Symptoms Some of the most common signs and symptoms of stress are: S Constant fatigue S Muscle tightness or tension S Anxiety S Indigestion S Nervousness or trembling S Insomnia

S Loss or increase in appetite S Grinding of teeth or jaw S General complaints, such as weakness, dizziness, headache, stomachache, or back pain

S Practice relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing. S Develop your sense of humor, and make time for fun. S If necessary, seek professional help.

Many of these symptoms may be caused by other health problems, such as the flu, but if you have one or more of these symptoms that last longer than a week, talk to your physician. You may be suffering from stress.

Many sources of help are out there. Often, just talking to a friend can help, but if that doesn’t work, talk to your minister, priest, rabbi, or other spiritual counselor, or a licensed therapist. In addition, many companies provide access to an employee assistance program (EAP), which can provide a wealth of confidential professional counseling resources to help you, your family, or your fellow employees through difficult or stressful periods in life. Finally, remember: it’s your life. Successfully managing stress leads to a healthier, happier, and more productive you. For more information, go to the Mayo Clinic’s recommendations on coping with stress: www.mayoclinic.com/health/coping-with-stress/ SR00030, or the Center for Disease Control’s website: www.cdc.gov/violence prevention/pub/ coping_with_stress_tips.html. S

Reducing Stress So, you’re under stress. How can you learn to reduce the stress or control its negative consequences? Here are a few simple tips that can help reduce or control stress: S Identify the causes of stress in your life. S Share your thoughts and feelings with someone else. S Avoid sad thoughts; try not to get depressed. S Simplify your life as much as possible. S Learn to manage your time effectively. S Understand that drugs and alcohol cannot solve life’s problems. S Exercise regularly.

The 2017 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2017 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Sidestream Biological Phosphorus Removal: The New Frontier Lucas Botero, James L. Barnard, Ed Kobylinski, and Kenny Blanton nhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), also known as biological phosphorus removal or simply bio-P, has been practiced for decades in water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs). The underlying principles for EBPR are the introduction of an area devoid of nitrates and oxygen (anaerobic zone) where phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are conditioned by taking up volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in lower forms (acetic and propionic acids; Fuhs and Chen, 1975) and releasing phosphate as an energy source for uptake, then allowing luxury phosphate uptake in the subsequent oxic areas of the reactor. This original configuration was a result of Barnard’s observations of a pilot plant at the Daspoort WRRF in Pretoria, South Africa, where he tested different configurations by varying the reactor volumes, as well as changing the recycle locations. One of the configurations tested was a four-stage anoxic/aerobic/ anoxic/aerobic, but in order to make a smaller reaction volume work within the existing tankage used for the pilot, he introduced a baffle adjacent to the second anoxic zone, where two small holes were left to allow hydrostatic pressure equalization because the baffle was a nonwater-bearing wall (Figure 1). As a result, a high amount of phosphate removal was detected in the second anoxic zone, which resulted in full phosphorus uptake in the second oxic zone (ortho-P in the effluent <0.2 mg/L). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory to simulate the original Daspoort pilot


plant configuration, but the dead zone dynamics could not be reproduced at the laboratory scale. Barnard then postulated that when activated sludge passed through anaerobic conditions, it would stimulate PAOs to release phosphorus and take up all released phosphates and all phosphates in the influent upon aeration, which was the basis for the development of the EBPR processes now in use. He suggested using the primary effluent to create those anaerobic conditions.

Rethinking Original Postulations The earlier experiments at the Daspoort pilot plant led to the original Phoredox configuration (later termed A/O in the United States), which includes an anaerobic zone as part of the mainstream flow for conditioning PAOs. While this concept became the standard EBPR configuration and has been partially successful, recently researchers and practitioners in several parts of the world started experimenting with different EBPR configurations, and, more specifically, placed a lot of attention on fermentation processes that could supplement mainstream EBPR when the characteristics of the wastewater entering EBPR reactors were not optimal, i.e., low VFAs or readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (rbCOD), improper biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to total phosphorus (TP) ratio, etc. In 2011, the Cedar Creek WRRF in Olathe, Kan., was expanded using a five-stage Barden-

Figure 1. Pilot Plant at Daspoort Pretoria Wastewater Treatment Plant


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lucas Botero is a senior process engineer in the Coral Springs office of Black & Veatch. James Barnard is a global practice and technology leader for advanced biological treatment and Ed Kobylinski is a lead senior process engineer in the Kansas City office of Black & Veatch. Kenny Blanton is a project manager in the Black & Veatch office in Orlando.

pho configuration, with the addition of a mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) fermentation process due to the low rbCOD at the facility’s influent. The fermenter supernatant (with rbCOD and some VFA) was designed to be discharged at the head end of the anaerobic zone to achieve better EBPR. Soon after the facility was commissioned and proper biological nutrient removal (BNR) performance was established with the fermenter feeding the anaerobic zone, a severe plant upset occurred and the plant lost nitrification. After troubleshooting the BNR process and not finding any possible culprits within the plant, attention was then focused on a toxic upset from the collection system, based on the fact that the plant exhibited a different odor during the upset. A few weeks after the first episode, a second toxic release was detected, but this time the city quickly diverted influent to the influent equalization basin to prevent a BNR upset. Most of the toxic material was caught, but the plant still had nitrification interference. A few days afterward, a third toxic release occurred and the city was able to track down the source to the industrial discharger. The WRRF has an annual average limit of 8 mg/L total nitrogen (TN) and 1.5 mg/L TP; however, after all the toxic upsets, the annual average for that year was 7.95 mg/L and plant staff was quite worried about possible future upsets and permit compliance. In order to make up for it, the fermentate was diverted from the anaerobic cell to the anoxic cell to drive more denitrification, while feeding ferric chloride to the BNR train to address phosphorus removal. Continued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Figure 2. Orange Water and Sewer Authority Flow Sheet

Continued from page 42 After these modifications were made, the plant improved TN removal significantly and had effluent concentrations averaging less than 5 mg/L TN, while the TP effluent concentration remained less than 1 mg/L TP. A week or so after the new revised plant operation was implemented, plant staff made a very interesting discovery. The ferric chloride line feeding the BNR basins was broken at a plant manhole, and no ferric chloride was reaching the BNR basin, so no chemical phosphorus removal was occurring. Without phosphorus release being detected in the anaerobic zone of the plant (not enough influent rbCOD/VFA to drive EBPR), the facility still consistently achieved EBPR. The question then was: What is happening in this facility? Afterward, the designers of the facility started linking the Daspoort pilot plant observations with the Cedar Creek WRRF, and realized that they had one thing in common: the

absence of phosphorus release in the anaerobic zone before an anoxic zone and the existence of a sidestream fermenter discharging to it. This led to the development of the theory that somehow the fermenter was not only serving as the source for VFA generation, but the PAOs were also being grown and conditioned in this reactor in such a way that EBPR could occur. This configuration was termed sidestream EBPR (SEBPR). A literature review and data analysis in other plants with similar configurations was conducted to start validating the SEBPR theory. At the Orange Water and Sewage Authority (OWASA) in Carrboro, N.C., Kalb and Roeder (1992) converted a trickling filter/activated sludge plant to EBPR by using one of two primary tanks as a fermenter, and then fed the fermenter’s supernatant to a “nutrition” (fermentation) zone, where it came into contact with the return activated sludge (RAS), as shown in Figure 2. Turbine aerators were used

Figure 4. Robert W. Hite Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Existing Basins for Return Activated Sludge Fermentation


Figure 3. Biological Nutrient Removal Plant Designed for South Cary, N.C.

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

in the main aeration basin, which allowed the control of air supply independent from mixing. Unaerated sections were formed, which resulted in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Eventually, the trickling filters were eliminated and phosphorus was reduced to less than 1 mg/L. In subsequent research, a SEBPR process was developed, consisting of fermentation of a portion of the RAS (Lamb 1994), which was pumped to a sidestream fermentation zone. Effluent from the sidestream fermentation zone is sent back to the anaerobic zone, as the VFA source, while all primary effluent goes to the anoxic zone. Lamb’s process differed from the fermentation of the RAS in the Phostrip process in that the fermented RAS was sent to a sidestream anaerobic zone, rather than to the aeration basin, and there was no lime treatment to remove surplus phosphorus. The RAS fermentation process, developed by Lamb, Stroud & Martin (2001), upgraded the South Cary, N.C., BNR plant after it experimented with, and finally adopted, the flow sheet shown in Figure 3, which consisted of a conventional four-stage Bardenpho process where all the primary effluent went to the first anoxic zone, while some of the RAS was fermented. They succeeded in reducing the average TN to below 3 mg/L and the effluent TP to less than 1 mg/L. At the 100-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) Robert W. Hite Treatment Facility (north plant) in Denver, Colo., an existing plug-flow RAS reaeration tank was retrofitted with a series of eight slow-speed vertical entry mixers (Cavanaugh et al., 2012; Carson 2012 ). The mixing energy was 2 W/m3 (0.08hp/kcf), which caused little movement of the contents near the surface, but prevented severe stratification while approaching ideal plug-flow conditions. A third of the RAS flow and supernatant from adjacent gravity thickeners was discharged to this fermenter. The layout of the plant is shown in Figure 4. The effluent orthophosphates dropped from approximately 2 mg/L to less than 0.2 mg/L within two weeks.

Figure 6. FISH Image From Westside Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge With Electric Upright Bass Mix (all bacteria) Shown in Green, Tet2-174 (Tetrasphaera clade 2B) in Orange, and Tet3-654 (Tooker)

Figure 5. Two-Phosphate Accumulating Organisms Model

All of these examples showed that the SEBPR theory was feasible, but more detailed research was needed to confirm these findings.

Sidestream Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Fundamentals Nguyen et al., (2011) pointed to the possibility that other PAOs may get involved and their behavior may differ from that of the much-researched Accumulibacter species found primarily in conventional BNR plants. Nguyen’s findings pointed to the existence of Tetrasphaera bacteria in elevated levels compared with the more standard PAO Candidatus Accumulibacter, which could contribute to phosphorus release and stability in the EBPR process. Stokholm-Bjerregaard et al., (2015) in a poster presentation showed that, in 24 plants that were studied in Denmark, the relative abundance of Tetrasphaera, PAO (Accumulibacter), and GAO, or glycogen accumulating organisms (Competibacter+Defluviicoccus) was 8.85 percent, 0.57 percent, and 0.53 percent, respectively, further corroborating the importance of Tetrasphaera in SEBPR. The most important factor determining the abundance of Tetrasphaera could be the availability of glucose and amino acids and the anaerobic residence time in the reactor, where

Figure 7. Two-Phosphate Accumulating Organisms Anaerobic Activity Switch Function

the longer residence time will benefit fermentation. This would imply that residence under deeper anaerobic conditions, and not when the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is higher than about 250 millivolts (mV), is critical for proper EBPR. Existing EBPR process models do not accurately reflect the P-removal seen in SEBPR systems (Dunlap et al., 2014). Several different ways to address these shortcomings have been proposed, including multiple metabolic-based PAOs modules, additional mechanisms to PAOs models, or multiple culture PAOs group model.

Black & Veatch has been using the third approach for SEBPR modeling by creating a twoPAOs model in the SUMO™ commercial simulator, shown in Figure 5, with an ORPbased inhibition for the second PAOs VFA uptake and fermentation rate equations per the function shown in Figure 7. Table 1 shows the results obtained in the calibration of the two-PAO model for the Westside Regional WRRF using the two-PAO approach work described. Continued on page 46

Table 1. Phosphate Accumulating Organisms Calibration Results

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Continued from page 45

Practical Examples of Sidestream Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Configurations

Figure 8. Cedar Creek Biological Nutrient Removal Basin Configuration With Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids Fermenter

Cedar Creek Water Resource Recovery Facility The Cedar Creek WRRF is a 5.25-mgd annual average daily flow (AADF)-permitted facility with a five-stage BNR process configuration. Due to the low rbCOD of the influent, an MLSS fermenter was initially projected to supplement VFA, but it is also used to condition PAOs in a SEBPR configuration as previously described. The fermenter is operated to maintain a set solids retention time (SRT) through the management of submersible mixers. The ORP is monitored for proper SEBPR performance. Figures 8 shows the MLSS fermenter layout used at this WWRF. Wakarusa Wastewater Reclamation Facility The Wakarusa WRRF, located in Lawrence, Kan., will be rated for 2.5 mgd average annual (AA) capacity, and will be commissioned in 2018. The BNR reactor configuration is very similar to the Olathe layout (Figure 9), with an MLSS fermenter with multiple discharge locations. Given the great results in Olathe, the plant will be operated in an SEBPR mode. Figure 10 is a 3-D rendering of the BNR basin.

Figure 9. Olathe Water Resource Recovery Facility Biological Nutrient Removal Basin Plan and Fermenter

Figure 10. Wakarusa Wastewater Reclamation Facility Sidestream Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Sacramento Regional and Liverpool Wastewater Reclamation Facilities The Sacramento (Calif.) Regional WRRF (Regional San) treats around 140 mgd of mostly domestic wastewater and discharges to the Sacramento River, which flows south to the San Francisco Bay (Barnard et al., 2014). At present, the Regional San treats the wastewater through a high-purity oxygen (HPO) plant with final clarifiers. The future plans include constructing a BNR plant between the existing primary sedimentation tanks and final clarifiers, while keeping the HPO plant operational until the BNR plant is constructed and commissioned. The design flow for 2050 was estimated at 180 mgd. The technology selection committee developed a process concept, which was based on a four-stage nitrification/denitrification plant to allow control of the effluent nitrates by acetate addition to the second anoxic zone when necessary to meet the monthly nitrate requirement. A pilot plant was operated at an average dry weather flow of around 10 liters per second (L/s), but with diurnal flow variations, that mirrored the flow pattern of the main plant. Initial pilot studies showed that substantial chemical addition, in the form of acetate, would be reContinued on page 48

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Continued from page 46 quired to comply with an effluent nitrate concentration of less than 10 mg/L, and additional alkalinity was required to prevent the pH from dropping lower than 6.5 units. Second anoxic zones were designed as swing zones so that they could be aerated when they were not needed to reduce nitrates. Most of the influent rbCOD is currently destroyed by chlorine, which is applied for odor control. In the future, the chlorine will be replaced by nitrates through nitrification of return stream ammonia, which will still have the effect of destroying influent rbCOD and will result in existing and future unfavorable COD/Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. During the period of operation with SEBPR shown in Figure 6, the ORP was measured in the mixed liquor fermenter (MLF); most of the time, the ORP was around -400 mV. When the pilot plant was operated using the four-stage Bardenpho process, the effluent TP averaged 3.2 mg/L, which was higher than the 2.2 mg/L in the effluent of the main plant using the HPO process. The design team selected a

five-stage Bardenpho process, which included an anaerobic zone to act both as a selector for improved sludge settling and to comply with the requirement to not increase the effluent phosphorus content when switching from the HPO to the nitrogen removal. With insufficient carbon for both denitrification and phosphorus removal, fermentation of a portion of the mixed liquor solids to augment the VFA was recommended for reducing nutrients to the required levels. In the MLF, a portion of the remaining rbCOD, volatile solids, heterotrophic biomass, and colloidal material was fermented to produce additional VFA that was used to enhance biological phosphorus removal and achieve the required level of denitrification. Barnard et al. (2011), describes the use of the MLF. The pilot plant was adapted to incorporate an anaerobic zone and a sidestream fermenter. During startup of this phase, the effluent nitrate concentration was around 12 mg/L and the effluent phosphorus concentration exceeded 3 mg/L, as indicated in the graph in Figure 11. Acetate was added to control the effluent nitrates and phosphates, while alkalinity was added to maintain the pH. The acetate feed was stopped

Figure 11. Results From Using Mixed Liquor Fermenter in Sacramento Pilot Plant (Barnard et al., 2015)

Figure 12. Sacramento Regional Single Biological Nutrient Removal Reactor Sidestream Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Layout


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and 50 percent of the primary effluent passed to the anoxic zone. As can be seen in Figure 11, the effluent orthophosphorus increased to around 3 mg/L. Mixed liquor was then pumped from the anaerobic zone to the sidestream fermenter and allowed to flow back; the sludge retention time in the fermenter was around two days. The orthophosphates were gradually reduced to less than 0.3 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration was also reduced to less than 7 mg/L. There was little need to add acetate or alkalinity during the period when the operation was being directed. The sludge volume index (SVI) was also reduced to less than 90 mL/g during this period; previously high SVIs might have resulted from some acetate leaking through to the reaeration zone where it would encourage the growth of filamentous organisms (Jenkins et al., 1984). The MLF and primary effluent diversion were included in the design of the main plant, which could potentially save millions of dollars in chemicals per year. At the end of this experimental period there was a power outage, which increased the effluent orthophosphates (after which it recovered), but the average orthophosphates concentration was still well below the required goal of 2.4 mg/L. Then, the pilot plant operation was handed back to the previous operators. The selected reactor configuration with SEBPR is shown in Figure 12. Liverpool Wastewater Reclamation Facility The Liverpool WRRF is in Medina County, Ohio, and has a rated plant capacity of 15 mgd. The facility currently has an A/O configuration with a Zimpro process for processing solids at the plant. Given the high energy requirements of this process, the county decided to upgrade the WRRF through a performance contract, with the goal of improving the liquid stream process and replacing the Zimpro system with a thermal hydrolysis system, followed by mesophilic digestion. Funding for the process improvements will come from the savings generated with the new process, which will be guaranteed by the energy performance service contractor. During the design of the project, it was determined that the plant did not have sufficient nitrification capacity for the future conditions; however, through the implementation of SEBPR, the plant was able to repurpose tankage currently used as anaerobic fermentation zones to nitrification/denitrification (swing zones) and increase the plant capacity. The SEBPR will be achieved by repurposing the existing sidestream tank into a RAS fermenter that will be operated to control the SRT. Phosphorus recovery through the use of an Airprex system will also help the removal of phosphorus at the plant.

Figure 13 shows the SEBRP modifications at the Liverpool WRRF.

Conclusions The SEBPR has emerged as a viable and reliable process sheet to achieve EBPR. It involves conditioning the PAOs in a sidestream reactor separated from the mainstream flow, which has deeper anaerobic conditions than traditional anaerobic zones in mainstream BNR processes. This set of conditions allows the development of a wider variety of PAOs, including Tetrasphaera, which does not need a supply of VFA and also has the ability to denitrify and grow under deeper and longer anaerobic conditions. These longer anaerobic conditions also seem to curb the growth of GAOs, producing a microbial population that is more robust for phosphorus removal. The SEBPR has several advantages, including conditioning of the PAOs in a separate reactor, which minimizes wet weather flow impacts for EBPR, minimizes the dependence of rbCOD in the plant’s influent for successful EBPR, and enhances the denitrification potential of the plant. The process is simple and operatorfriendly. There are over 70 plants worldwide that practice SEBPR (either intentionally or unintentionally), which shows the robustness of the process. While SEBPR has just recently emerged as a substitute to regular EBPR, it was through an SEBPR configuration that the original enhanced biological theory of anaerobic zones in the mainstream was developed. Only recently, however, were the original observations of the SEBPR finally understood, and its implementation should lead to more reliable EBPR at WRRFs.

References • Biowin Discussion: http://envirosim.com/ files/downloads/WhatsNew40.pdf. • Barnard, J.L. (1974). Cut P and N without chemicals. Water & Wastes Engineering, Part 1, (7), 33-36; Part 2, 11(8), 41-43. • Barnard, J.L. (1976). A review of biological phosphorous removal in activated sludge process. Water SA, 2(3), pp. 136-144. • Barnard, J.L. (1984). Activated primary tanks for phosphate removal. Water SA, 10(3), 121. • Barnard, J.L. (1985). The Role of Full-Scale Research in Biological Phosphate Removal. Proceedings of the University of British Columbia Conference on New Directions and Research in Waste Treatment and Residuals Management, Vancouver, Canada, June 23-28. • Barnard, J.L., M.T. Steichen, and D. Cambridge (2004). “Hydraulics in BNR Plants.” Proceed-

Figure 13. Liverpool Wastewater Reclamation Facility Sidestream Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Layout

ings of WEFTEC, 2004. • Barnard, J., Abraham, K. (2005). Key Features of Successful BNR Operation. IWA Specialized Conference, Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment Processes and Recycle Streams, Krakow, Poland 19-21 September, 2005. • Barker, P. S. and Dold, P. L. 1997. General model for biological nutrient removal activated sludge system: model presentation. Water Environment Research 69(5):969–984. • Barnard J., Houweling D., Analla H. and Steichen M. (2011). Fermentation of Mixed Liquor for Phosphorus Removal. IWA Conference Nutrient Recovery and Management - Inside and Outside the Fence, Miami, Fla., USA 2011. • Barnard, J.L., W. Yu, M.T. Steichen and P. Dunlap (2015). Design of large BNR plant for state capital of California. Proceedings of IWA Conference on Large Wastewater Treatment Plants, Prague. • Carson, K. (2012). Evaluation of Performance for a Novel Side Stream Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Configuration at a FullScale Wastewater Treatment Plant. M.S. thesis, University of Colorado. • Dunlap, P., Shaw, A., Barnard, J., Phillips, H., Wilson, D., and Abraham, K., (2014). Innovative Modelling in the Design of the Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant for Biological Nutrient Removal. 4th IWA/WEF Wastewater Treatment Modeling Seminar, Spa, Belgium 2014, pp. 270-277. • Dunlap, P., Martin, K., Stevens, G., Tooker, N., Barnard, J., Gu, A., Takacs, I., Shaw, A., OnnisHayden, A., Li, Y., (2016). Rethinking EBPR:

What do you do when the model will not fit real-world evidence? 5th IWA/WEF Wastewater Treatment Modeling Seminar, Annecy, France 2016, pp. 39-62. Fuhs, G.W. and Chen, M. (1975), Microbiological basis of phosphate removal in the activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater. Microbiol. Ecol.,2(2), 119-138. Gerber, A., Mostert, E.H., Winter, C.T. and de Villiers, R.H. (1986). The effect of acetate and other short-chain compounds on the kinetics of biological nutrient removal processes. Water SA, 12, 7-12. Kalb, K. and Roeder, M. (1992), Nutrified sludge in the OWASA system. Presented at Annual Conference of the North Carolina Water and Pollution Control Association, Charlotte, N.C. Kristiansen, R., Nguyen, H. T. T., Saunders, A. M., Nielsen, J. L., Wimmer, R., Le, V. Q., Nielsen, P. H. (2013). A metabolic model for members of the genus Tetrasphaera involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The ISME Journal, 7(3), pp. 543–554. Lamb, J., (1994). Wastewater treatment with enhanced biological phosphorus removal and related purification processes. U.S. Patent US 5288405A. Feb. 22, 1994. Levin, G.V., Topal, G.J. and Ternay, A.G. (1975). Operation of full-scale biological phosphorus removal plant. Journal WPCF, 47, 577. Nguyen, H. T. T., Le, V. Q., Hansen, A. A., Nielsen, J. L., and Nielsen, P. H. (2011). High diversity and abundance of putative polyphosphate-accumulating Tetrasphaera-related bacteria in activated sludge systems. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 76(2), pp. 256–267. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


FWRJ READER PROFILE public health and disadvantaged communities with their drinking water needs. The DWSRF program is by far FDEP's largest funding program, making $100-200 million available, primarily to local governments and small communities, for drinking water projects each year. What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor’s degree in environmental engineering from the University of Florida (Go Gators!) and a master’s in business administration from Florida State University. I’m also a professional engineer in Florida.

Shanin Speas-Frost

Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee Work title and years of service. I have been the drinking water state revolving fund (DWSRF) program administrator and division of water restoration assistance outreach supervisor for three years. I’ve been with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for over 19 years, previously working as the water reuse coordinator and the wastewater treatment wetlands coordinator in the domestic wastewater program. What does your job entail? The DWSRF program provides financial savings for projects that benefit protection of

What do you like best about your job? The people I work with is my favorite thing about my job. I like being a supervisor as I am a people person. I also like being in the water industry and helping provide communities with the funding to do important water infrastructure projects. Additionally, being in charge of outreach for my division, I enjoy variety in what I do. No two days are the same; one day I am researching design-build procurement laws, and the next I am hiking through the woods with my colleagues to photograph a newly acquired spring as part of a grant project. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to AWWA, FWEA, WateReuse Association, and the Water Research Foundation.

How have the organizations helped your career? Networking and education. I love being plugged into a community, as well as my career. The more people I know in the business, the more engaged I have become. These professional organizations provide that platform for engagement. What do you like best about the industry? Everyone, everything needs water. It feels important; it is important. It’s also full of challenges. I like the complexity of the issues and that there is no easy solution. What do you do when you’re not working? I mostly shuttle my two children, ages 11 and 9, to their competitive soccer, dance, and swim events around town, as well as out of town. I love photography, being in nature, and hanging out with my friends. I am also a runner and triathlete, having recently completed my first full Ironman in Chattanooga last September. That’s a 2.4-mile down-river swim, a 116-mile bike ride over the hills of North Georgia and back, and a 26.2mile double-loop run around the picturesque neighborhoods of Chattanooga; and by run, I mean a zombie-like shuffle into the wee hours of the night toward the finish line. Why, yes, I am crazy! It only took me 15 hours and 45 minutes to complete and I currently have no S immediate plans for a repeat.

Shanin with (left to right) her children, Xander Frost and Lita Frost, and husband Andrew Frost.


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

As Flushable Manufacturer Sues, Water Entities Push Back WEF and NACWA File Amicus Brief in Support of District of Columbia’s Wipes Law

Brianne Nakamura and Steve Spicer n Nov. 14, 2017, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) and the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) filed an amicus brief in support of a District of Columbia law to regulate disposable wipes. This law, the Nonwoven Disposable Products Act of 2016, aims to protect the sewer systems from backups by defining the term “flushable” for any disposable wipes sold within Washington, D.C., and requires manufacturers of noncompliant products to “clearly and conspicuously label” them as products that “should not be flushed.”


The Law The law is the first successful attempt by any jurisdiction to enact legislation to officially define “flushable” labeling, the brief states. The law provides that a “nonwoven disposable product” that is offered “for sale in the District” can be labeled as “flushable” only if it “(A) disperses in a short period of time after flushing


in the low-force conditions of a sewer system; (B) is not buoyant; and (C) does not contain plastic or any other material that does not readily degrade in a range of natural environments.” The D.C. Council passed the law unanimously in December 2016. As introduced, the bill prohibited the advertisement, packaging, or labeling of any nonwoven disposable product as flushable, sewer-safe, or septic-safe unless the claim is substantiated by competent and reliable scientific evidence. The bill authorizes the district department of energy and environment to impose civil fines and penalties to sanction noncompliance with its provisions. The law requires the labeling rule to take effect on Jan. 1, 2018, a deadline that the district is unlikely to meet.

The Call to Action Since Washington, D.C., is a federal city, Congress has granted it home-rule authority to make and implement its own laws. But, the U.S. Congress also has retained jurisdiction over policies and budget matters; on occasion, Congress has revoked district laws. In July 2017, some members of Congress suggested that they would take full advantage of this policy by introducing a rider to the D.C. appropriations bill that would prevent the district from moving forward with the wipes legislation. In response, WEF sent a letter of support to D.C.’s nonvoting member of Congress, Rep.

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Eleanor Holmes Norton, and members of both the House and Senate appropriations committees to protect the district’s new law. Additionally, WEF issued a “call to action” to WEF membership, urging them to contact their senators and representatives to oppose the rider. The WEF water advocates program had a resounding response, with 232 letters sent in just one week.

The Lawsuit The Kimberly-Clark Corp. has sued the district to stop enforcement of the law. The plaintiff ’s case states that requiring manufacturers to adhere to the definition set forth in the new law “restrains commercial speech and compels speech by private actors,” which would violate the First Amendment. The manufacturer’s claim further says that the law violates the Commerce Clause because it invalidly seeks to regulate the conduct of manufacturers in some states by imposing civil sanctions on conduct that is entirely lawful in other states.

The Amicus Brief In the brief supporting the district’s right to enforce the law, WEF and NACWA state that they “have a strong interest in the court rejecting the current challenges to the authority of state and local governments to decide which products may safely enter their own sewer and wastewater systems and to create mechanisms to enforce those standards.”

The 32-page brief describes the burden that wipes place on sewer systems in Washington, D.C., and nationwide. “The increased popularity of wipes marketed as ‘flushable’ has been accompanied by a rise in costly burdens associated with handling flushed wipes—burdens borne directly by municipalities, utilities, and ratepayers,” the amicus brief states. The brief explains the effects of wipes that do not readily degrade. They can combine with fats, oils, grease, and other debris to cause major clogs in sewer and wastewater systems, and they can accumulate in pump impellers, which leads to reduced efficiency, increased electrical power used by pumps, and, potentially, complete malfunction. To restore service, workers must perform the costly, time-consuming, and hazardous task of physically unclogging the pumps. The full brief can be read on the WEF website at http://bit.ly/DC-wipes-amicus. The D.C. law continues to be supported by WEF, as well as conveys the burden that flushable wipes and other products can cause to infrastructure. Its members are encouraged to continue to share their stories and hardships

with their communities and representatives, along with the messages to “Only Flush the 3Ps” and “Toilets are not Trashcans.” The information provided in this article is designed to be educational. It is not intended to provide any type of professional advice, including, without limitation, legal, accounting, or engineering. Your use of the information provided here is voluntary and should be based on your own evaluation and analysis of its accuracy, appropriateness for your use, and any potential risks of using the information. The Water Environment Federation (WEF), author and publisher of this article, assumes no liability of any kind with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness of use for a particular purpose. Any references included are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any sources. ______________________________________ Brianne Nakamura, P.E., ENVSP, is the manager of collection systems and sustainability in the

Water Science & Engineering Center at WEF. She is the staff liaison for both the Collection System Committee and the Flushables Task Force. She can be contacted at bnakamura@wef.org. Steve Spicer is the director of content creation and managing editor of Water Environment & Technology at the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.). He can be reached at sspicer@wef.org. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018



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CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

P os i ti on s Ava i l a b l e

Engineering Inspector II & Senior Engineering Inspector


Involves highly technical work in the field of civil engineering construction inspection including responsibility for inspecting a variety of construction projects for conformance with engineering plans and specifications. Projects involve roadways, stormwater facilities, portable water distribution systems, sanitary pump stations, gravity sewer collection systems, reclaimed water distribution systems, portable water treatment and wastewater treatment facilities. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com.

The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: - Wastewater Plant Operator – Trainee - Solid Waste Worker I, II & III - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Water Conservation/Recycling Coordinator This position is responsible for the administration of the water conservation and solid waste recycling customer education programs for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com. Minimum Qualifications: • Bachelor’s of Science in Environmental Science • Three (3) years of experience in water conservation, recycling and/or related environmental management field. • Considerable knowledge of water, irrigation, conservation and recycling methodologies and processes. • Valid Florida driver’s license.

Field Service Technician Hydra-Service (S) Inc. is a leader in the Water and Wastewater Industry and is looking to add a field service technician to our team. The ideal candidate will have a minimum of 3 years’ experience in trouble shooting controls, hydraulics and mechanical issues at lift stations or water/waste water treatment facilities. The candidate must also live in or be willing to re-locate to the greater Tampa Bay area. A clean driving record is required. We offer an excellent compensation and benefits package. Compensation will vary based on experience. Hydra Service (S) Inc. is a drug-free work place and an equal opportunity employer. If you are interested please send a Resume to Tim@HydraService.net

Position Requirements: Possession of the following or the ability to obtain within 6 months of hire: (1) Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Stormwater Certification and an (2) Orange County Underground Utility Competency Card. A valid Florida Driver’s License is required. • Inspector II: High School Diploma or equivalent and 7 years of progressively responsible experience in construction inspection or testing of capital improvement and private development projects. • Senior Inspector: Associate’s Degree in Civil Engineering Technology or Construction Management and 10 years of progressively responsible experience, of which 5 years are in at a supervisory level.

Capital Projects Manager Utilities CIP Polk County BoCC is now hiring for a Capital Projects Manager at their Utilities Division. If you are a Civil or Environmental Engineer and are looking for a career change, please apply by clicking the link below: Job Link: http://ejob.bz/ATS/jb.do?reqGK=27026016&portalGK=2795 Location: Winter Haven, FL 33880 Work Schedule: Monday - Friday 8am - 5pm Compensation: $66,830.40 - $100,328.54 (Exempt) Commensurate with Experience Please feel free to also forward your resume to sherryqualls@polkcounty.net or apply direct out on the website @ www.polk-county.net

Field Technician Utilities, Inc. of Florida is seeking a Field Technician to work in the Longwood area. Responsibilities include accurate and timely reading and recording of water meters to facilitate customer billing; to identify water meter equipment problems; and to perform water distribution/collection system maintenance. A current FDEP Distribution License is preferred. For a complete job description, requirements and to apply please visit our website, www.uiwater.com and click on “Employment Opportunities” which is located under “Contact Us”.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Career Opportunity Operator B and C for Wastewater Treatment Plant Toho Water Authority This is your opportunity to work for the largest provider of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services in Osceola County. A fast-growing organization, Toho Water Authority is expanding to approximately 95,000 customers in Kissimmee, Poinciana and unincorporated areas of Osceola County. You can be assured there will be no shortage of interesting and challenging projects on the horizon! As an Operator, you will be expected, among other specific job duties, to have the ability to do the following: • Maintain compliance and operations of Wastewater Treatment Plants; • Conduct facility inspections, perform maintenance on equipment, and ensure normal operations; • Evaluate water systems; and • Fulfill recordkeeping, documentation, and reporting requirements. Candidates are required to hold the following certifications: Class “B or C” Wastewater Operators License, and Valid Class E Florida Driver’s License. Toho Water Authority offers a highly competitive compensation package, including tuition reimbursement, on site employee clinic, generous paid leave time, and retirement 401a match. If you are a driven professional, highly organized, and looking for a career opportunity at a growing Water Authority, then visit the TWA webpage today and learn how you can join our team! Visit www.tohowater.com to review the full job description and submit an employment application for consideration.

Water Production Operations Supervisor The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Operations Supervisor at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: High School diploma or G.E.D., preferably supplemented by college level course work in mathematics and chemistry. Five years supervisory experience in the operation and maintenance of a Class A water treatment facility. Possession of a Class A Water Treatment Plant Operator license issued by the State of Florida. Must possess a State of Florida driver’s license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain a Florida license within 10 days of employment. Must have working knowledge of nomenclature of water treatment devices. A knowledge test will be given to all applicants whose applications meet all minimum requirements. Salary commensurate with experience. Salary Range: $39,893.88$67,004.60/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit www.melbourneflorida.org/jobs and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Electronic Technician The City of Melbourne, Florida is accepting applications for an Electronic Technician at our water treatment facility. Applicants must meet the following requirements: Associate’s degree from an accredited college or university in water technology, electronics technology, computer science, information technology, or related field. A minimum of four (4) years’ experience in the direct operation, maintenance, calibration, installation and repair of electrical, electronic equipment, and SCADA systems associated with a large water treatment facility. Experience must include field service support and repair of PLC’s, HMI, SCADA, programming VFD’s, switchgear and working in an industrial environment. Desk/design work does not count toward experience. Must possess and maintain a State of Florida Journeyman Electrician License. Must possess and maintain a valid State of Florida Driver's license. Applicants who possess an out of state driver’s license must obtain the Florida license within 10 days of employment. Salary commensurate with experience. Salary Range: $40,890.98 $68,680.30/yr., plus full benefits package. To apply please visit www.melbourneflorida.org/jobs and fill out an online application. The position is open until filled. The City of Melbourne is a Veteran's Preference /EOE/DFWP.

Water/Wastewater Operator Must possess a valid Florida Drivers License. Valid class “C” certification in water and wastewater treatment. Please go to our website – www.ClermontFl.gov – to apply.


January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Utility Compliance/Efficiency Manager $78,836 - $110,929/yr.

Utilities Electrician $51,283 - $72,160/yr.

Utilities Storm Water Foreman $46,515 - $65,451/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $38,267 - 53,847/yr.; $40,182 - $56,539/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIALIST II Career opportunity for highly technical person responsible for implementing the City of Largo's Industrial Pretreatment (IP); Fats, Oil, and Grease (FOG); and/or Privately Owned Collection and Transmission Systems (POCTS) Programs. Serves as a lead in the Industrial Pretreatment Program. For more information, go to: www.largo.com/jobs

Treatment Plant Shift Supervisor Skilled, specialized supervisory work in the operation of a wastewater treatment facility. Responsible for the continuous operation and maintenance of the facility on an assigned shift. For more information, go to: www.largo.com/jobs

CORAL SPRINGS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT JOB OPENING Field Technician The Coral Springs Improvement District is accepting applications for the position of Field Technician. Individuals assigned to this classification are expected to have the mechanical skills and abilities necessary to perform the general manual labor required. Generally work with more experienced employees, but expected to work independently to perform relatively routine well-known tasks or more work following specific directions in all aspects of wastewater collection. The qualified applicant should have the ability to do the following: • Knowledge of various equipment including driving a truck, jet truck, back hoe/loader, fire hydrant seating equipment, shoring materials, trash pumps and hand tools. • Inspect water distribution mains and lines for needed maintenance and repair; participate in the repair of water mains and lines; install clamps, pipe or fittings, make proper tie-ins. • Trouble shoot to locate the causes of wastewater odor complaints. • Respond to public inquiries in a courteous manner; provide information within the area of assignment. • Receives, reviews, prepares and/or summit’s a variety of documents such as maps, daily schedules, weekly activity reports. • Remain on-call to respond to emergency situations for repair of distribution system. • Ability to deal with people beyond receiving instructions. • Must be adaptable to performing under stress when confronted with emergency situations. • Have a valid Florida Driver’s License • Have a High School Diploma or GED equivalent • Must obtain Class C FDEP Water Distribution License within 15 months of employment.

Asst. City Manager – Public Services This is a highly responsible administrative and managerial position that directs the streets and drainage, solid waste/recycling, water, water treatment, wastewater, wastewater treatment, storm water, environmental services, and cemetery divisions for the City. Salary is DOQ. The City of Winter Garden is an EOE/DFWP that encourages and promotes a diverse workforce. Please apply at http://www.cwgdn.com. Minimum Qualifications: • Minimum of a Bachelor’s Degree in Public Administration, Business Administration, Business Management or related field. • Six (6) years of progressively responsible experience in a municipal, county, or state level, of which four (4) have been in a leadership capacity or an equivalent combination of education and experience. • Valid Florida driver’s license with an acceptable driving record. • Considerable knowledge of municipal public works planning, design, and administration. • Knowledge of civil engineering desired. • Ability to plan, direct, supervises, coordinate, organize, and inspect public services and engineering plans, programs, and activities. • Ability to prepare written technical reports, estimates, and construction and cost records. • Ability to establish and maintain effective working relationships with subordinates superiors, city and governmental officials and the general public. • Ability to prepare, develop, and present public services plans and programs to the public, City Commission, civic organizations, and other public and private groups.


Please see our website at www.csidfl.org to obtain and submit a completed application to 954-753-6328 attention:

The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help!

Jan Zilmer Coral Springs Improvement District 10300 N.W. 11th Manor Coral Springs, Fl. 33071

Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

News Beat The Water Environment & Reuse Foundation reaffirmed its commitment to installing and maintaining decentralized systems in collaboration with EPA and 18 other partners. The “Decentralized Wastewater Management Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Between EPA and Partner Organizations” was created in 2005 to improve the overall performance and management of decentralized systems through facilitated collaboration among EPA headquarters, EPA regions, state and local governments, and national organizations representing practitioners in the industry. The MOU builds on the success of previous ones by working to improve maintenance

of decentralized systems, continue collaborative efforts on training and certification, promote public awareness, and support education on the management of decentralized systems. The key objectives of the MOU partnership are to: S Strengthen external partnerships. S Improve decentralized wastewater treatment system performance through improved practitioner competency, management practices, research, and technology transfer. S Improve accountability, control, and oversight through enhanced state and local program implementation. The EPA and the signatory organizations

have identified several core priorities that they intend to emphasize during the 2017–2020 MOU period. Key priorities include: S Ensure decentralized systems are maintained and functioning properly in order to protect water quality and public health. S Leverage existing funding mechanisms for decentralized wastewater treatment systems. S Promote job growth and professionalism in the decentralized wastewater industry. The signing organizations will continue to exchange information on program activities, regulations, and plans for engaging members to meet the goals of the MOU.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2018


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 12

Editorial Calendar January ......Wastewater Treatment February ....Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ........Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ............Conservation and Reuse; Florida Water Resources Conference May ............Operations and Utilities Management June............Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..............Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ........Disinfection; Water Quality September ..Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ......New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ..Water Treatment December ..Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index Barry University ........................................55 Blue Planet ................................................63 CEU Challenge ..........................................32 Crom ..........................................................39 Data Flow ..................................................33 Ferguson....................................................41 FSAWWA Sponsorship Thank You ............51 FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest ................52 FSAWWA Operator Scholarships ..............53 FWRC Conference ................................13-17 FWPCOA State Short School ....................31 FWPCOA Training ......................................21 Hudson Pump ............................................47 Hydro International ....................................5 Lakeside ......................................................7 Professional Piping ..................................27 Stacon ........................................................2 UF Treeo ....................................................43 Xylem ........................................................64


1. D) Grab samples Per FAC 62-600.660(3)(a) Treatment Facility Monitoring: “Grab samples shall be used to test pH, chlorine residual, dissolved oxygen and other dissolved gases, fecal coliforms and other microbiological parameters, cyanide, oil and grease, dissolved constituents in field-filtered samples (orthophosphorus, metals, etc.), specific conductance, un-ionized ammonia, volatile organic compounds, total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, and temperature.”

2. B) 2 points Per EPA Method 150.2 – pH, Continuous Monitoring (Electrometric) Section 7.1 Calibration: “The electrode should be calibrated at a minimum of two points that bracket the expected pH of the water/waste and are approximately three pH units or more apart.”

3. B) Finely divided air bubbles can cause high readings. Per EPA Method 180.1 – Determination of Turbidity by Nephelometry Section 4. Interferences: “4.1 The presence of floating debris and coarse sediments, which settle out rapidly, will give low readings. Finely divided air bubbles can cause high readings. 4.2 The presence of true color, that is the color of water that is due to dissolved substances that absorb light, will cause turbidities to be low, although this effect is generally not significant with drinking waters. 4.3 Light-absorbing materials, such as activated carbon in significant concentrations, can cause low readings.”

4. D) minimal pollutant removal efficiencies or maximum organic loading. Per FAC 62-600.660(3)(e) Treatment Facility Monitoring: “Grab samples shall be collected during periods of minimal treatment plant pollutant removal efficiencies or maximum organic loading in the reclaimed water or effluent. The actual time and flow conditions during which such samples are taken shall be recorded.”

5. C) Total coliform Per FAC 62-160.300(1) and (3) Laboratory Certification: “Laboratory certification by the DOH ELCP is not required for the following test procedures when conducted for the purposes of drinking water compliance: (a) Alkalinity (b) Bromide (c) Calcium (d) Chlorite (only at entrances to distribution systems) (e) Specific conductance (f) Disinfectant residual (includes residual chlorine)

January 2018 • Florida Water Resources Journal

(g) Orthophosphate (h) pH (i) Silica (j) Specific ultraviolet absorbance (k) Temperature (l) Total organic carbon (m) Turbidity

6. D) 30 hours Per EPA Method 1604 – Total Coliforms and E. coli in Drinking Water by Membrane Filtration, Section 8. Sample Collection, Preservation, and Storage: “Holding Time Limitations: Analyze samples as soon as possible after collection. Drinking water samples should be analyzed within 30 hours of collection (Reference 16.13). Do not hold source water samples longer than six hours between collection and initiation of analyses, and the analyses should be complete within eight hours of sample collection.”

7. A) Five days Per EPA Method 405.1 – Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Section 2.0 Summary of Method: “The sample of waste, or an appropriate dilution, is incubated for five days at 20°C in the dark. The reduction in dissolved oxygen concentration during the incubation period yields a measure of the biochemical oxygen demand.”

8. A) digester supernatant or other plant process recycled waters. Per FAC 62-600.660(4)(a) Sampling Locations: “Influent samples shall be collected so they do not contain digester supernatant or returned activated sludge, or any other plant process recycled waters.”

9. D) the 5.0 mg/L TSS limitation associated with high-level disinfection for a reuse system. Per FAC 62-600.660(3)(c) Sample Types: Grab samples shall be used to test for TSS where a facility is required to meet the 5 mg/L TSS limitation associated with high-level disinfection for a reuse system permitted under Chapter 62-610, F.A.C.”

10. C) in accordance with a written sampling plan. Per FAC 62-550.518(1) Microbiological Monitoring Requirements: “All public water systems shall analyze for coliform bacteria to determine compliance with subsection 62-550.310(5), F.A.C. Public water systems shall collect total coliform samples at sites that are representative of water throughout the distribution system and in accordance with a written sampling plan that addresses location, timing, frequency, and rotation period. These plans shall be available for review and possible revision on the occasion of a sanitary survey conducted by the department.”