Fva sdt01 2014 eng

Page 1

Documentos Técnicos FVA - Número 1

FVA Technical Papers - Number 1

Documentos Técnicos FVA - Número 1

MAIO 2014 / FVA TECHNICAL PAPERS - NUMBER 1

MAY 2014

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo de biodiversidade na Amazônia brasileira: o Sistema de Monitoramento de Uso de Recursos Naturais no Rio Unini – SiMUR

An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon: The System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River – SiMUR Sérgio Henrique Borges Simone Iwanaga Marcelo Paustein Moreira Carlos César Durigan Francisca Saldanha

MANAUS

AMAZONAS MAIO 2014

BRASIL

MANAUS

AMAZONAS MAY 2014

BRAZIL



Documentos Técnicos FVA - Número 1

FVA Technical Papers - Number 1

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo de biodiversidade na Amazônia brasileira: o Sistema de Monitoramento de Uso de Recursos Naturais no Rio Unini – SiMUR

An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon: The System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River – SiMUR Sérgio Henrique Borges Simone Iwanaga Marcelo Paustein Moreira Carlos César Durigan Francisca Saldanha

MANAUS

AMAZONAS MAIO 2014

BRASIL

MANAUS

AMAZONAS MAY 2014

BRAZIL


The Vitória Amazônica Foundation (FVA) is a social-environmental organization founded in January 19, 1990 in the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas, and whose mission is to promote the conservation of biodiversity in the Amazon through the production and application of knowledge that contributes to human development on a sustainable basis in the Negro River basin.

The series FVA Technical Papers aims to disseminate results of experiences, research and analysis undertaken within the scope of actions of Vitória Amazônica Foundation, with participation of experts and partner institutions. FVA Technical Papers is a publication without periodicity, printed in electronic format.

Board of Trustees: Jansen Alfredo Sampaio Zuanon (President) - Ana Cristina Ramos de Oliveira (Vice President) - Elisa Vieira Wandelli - José Luis Campana Camargo - José Antonio Alves-Gomes – Kátia Maria Alexandre Brasil – Leonardo Jucá de Queiroz - Manoel de Jesus Masulo da Cruz Supervisory Board: José Francisco do Nascimento Viana - José Tácito da Frota Alves Neto - Marcos Antônio Brandão Sampaio Executive Coordinator: Fabiano Lopez da Silva Technical Team: Ana Karina Ferreira de Pontes - Célio Ribeiro dos Santos – Daniel dos Santos Araújo – Francisca Saldanha - Ignacio Oliete Josa - Lilia Marina Ferreira de Assunção - Marcelo Paustein Moreira - Maria da Saúde Barbosa da Silva - Olívia Joyce Mousinho da Rocha Ferreira - Pauletiane Horta - Sérgio Henrique Borges - Simone Iwanaga – Tarcísio Franklin Magdalena – Tatianna Silva Portes - Yara da Rocha Camargo

Editorial board: Simone Iwanaga Sérgio Henrique Borges Fabiano Lopez da Silva Ignacio Oliete Josa Yara da Rocha Camargo Tarcísio Franklin Magdalena

www.fva.org.br Rua Estrela D’Alva 146, Loteamento Parque Morada do Sol, Aleixo,CEP 69.060093, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Tel.: 55(92) 3642 4559/3236 3257/3302 7262, Fax: 55(92) 3302 7261, e-mail: fva@fva.org.br Rua Rui Barbosa 30, Centro, CEP 69.730-000, Novo Airão, Amazonas, Brazil. Tel.: 55(92) 3365 1630 Sérgio Henrique Borges, Simone Iwanaga, Marcelo Paustein Moreira, Carlos César Durigan, Francisca Saldanha. An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon: The System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River – SiMUR. 2014. FVA Technical Papers Series number 1 (May 2014). Edited by: Vitória Amazônica Foundation, Manaus. (English version). Original publication: Sérgio Henrique Borges, Simone Iwanaga, Marcelo Paustein Moreira, Carlos César Durigan, Francisca Saldanha. Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo de biodiversidade na Amazônia brasileira: O Sistema de Monitoramento de Uso de Recursos Naturais no Rio Unini – SiMUR. 2014. Série Documentos Técnicos FVA número 1 (Maio 2014). Editado por: Fundação Vitória Amazônica, Manaus. English translation: Rutecleia P. Barros, Karl Didier

SUPPORT:

INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS:

Photos: FVA Collection Maps and satellite images: FVA Geoprocessing Center Desktop publishing: Simone Iwanaga The total or partial reproduction of this material is permitted, provided the source is properly mentioned. BORGES, Sérgio Henrique et al. An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon: the system for monitoring the use of natural resources in the Unini River – SiMUR. / Sérgio Henrique Borges; Simone Iwanaga; Marcelo Paustein Moreira; Carlos César Durigan; Francisca Saldanha. – Manaus: FVA, 2014. x + 36p.: il. (FVA Technical Papers, 1) ISBN 978-85-85830-07-6 1. Biodiversity – Brazilian Amazon. 2. Natural resources - Participatory monitoring. 3. Unini River - Amazonas. I. IWANAGA, Simone. II. MOREIRA, Marcelo Paustein. III. DURIGAN, Carlos César. IV. SALDANHA, Francisca. V. Vitória Amazônica Foundation. VI. Title. VII. Series. CDD 333.751 Catalogue card: Graciete Rolim (Librarian)


SUM MARY

Acknowledgments

vii

Executive Summary

ix

CH APTER 1

The challen ges o f mon ito rin g b iodiv e rs it y in t he Am a zo n

Monitoring biodiversity in the Amazon Expanding partnerships for biodiversity monitoring Experiences of participatory biodiversity monitoring in the State of Amazonas

1 1 1 2

CH APTER 2 Des ign in g an d impleme n t in g t he S ystem fo r Mon ito r in g the Use of Natu ral Resources in t he U n in i R iv e r (SiM U R ) 3 The Unini River basin The relevance and challenges of monitoring natural resources in the Unini River Early attempts to understand the use of natural resources in the Unini River basin Phases for constructing SiMUR Methodological basis of SiMUR Current numbers The costs of SiMUR

3 4 4 5 7 9 10

The con tin uous t rain in g o f mo n ito rs

11

CH APTER 3

The role of the monitors Training Courses for the Unini River Monitors Monitoring the work of monitors

CH APTER 4

Usin g SiMUR data fo r decis io n - m ak in g

Returning SiMUR data and results Improving communication: SiMUR’s challenge Examples of the application of SiMUR in decision-making processes Mapping the distribution of fauna species of conservation interest

ChaPTER 5

Lesso n s lear ned from an o n go in g p rocess

11 11 13

15 15 15 17 19

21

ConclusION 23 BibliograPH Y 25 APPENDIX I

27

APPENDIX II

31

APPENDIX III APPENDIX IV

33 35

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR



vii

Acknowledgments

Acknowled gme nts

SiMUR is a project of Vitória Amazônica Foundation (FVA) implemented in the Jaú National Park, in the Unini River Extractive Reserve and the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, in partnership with the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio), the Amazonas State Center for Conservation Units (CEUC) and the Association of the Residents of Unini River (AMORU), with financial support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (2008 - present) and the Ecological Corridors Project (2008-2009). FVA would like to thank SiMUR’s partners, and in particular the 200 families that joined the initiative and the 43 residents who were trained to act as monitors between 2008 and 2013, and who enabled the application of this methodology in the Unini River basin. FVA also would like to thank the professionals who contributed to the implementation of SiMUR, Rachel Ribeiro Lange, Luciano Pohl and Elzilene Barbosa da Silva; the researchers from the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA) and from the Institute of Ecological Research (IPE); the analysts of the ICMBio and CEUC; the Association of Artisans of Novo Airão (AANA), which collaborated to enhance the training of the monitors; the Spot Satellite Products/Planet Action by donating satellite images; and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS - Brazil) which supported this publication.

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR



ix

Executive Summary

E x e cutive Summary

This study describes an initiative for monitoring the use of natural resources by populations of the Amazon called System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River (SiMUR). SiMUR was initiated in 2008 and is being implemented through a partnership between researchers of the Vitória Amazônica Foundation (FVA), the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) and residents of Unini River. The Unini river basin covers over 2.6 million hectares and includes in part or in total the boundaries of three protected areas: Jaú National Park, Unini River Extractive Reserve and the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve. SiMUR aims to contribute to the management of the natural resources of the Unini River and its protected areas through the knowledge of local residents. Nearly all 190 families living in the 10 communities of the Unini River regularly share information on natural resources which they have exploited. This information is collected in monthly interviews performed by local monitors and later organised and compiled in a database. These interviews follow protocols designed specifically for each group of natural resources, including: fish, river turtles, game, timber and non-timber forest products, agricultural products and animals of relevance to conservation. A substantial data set is generated by SiMUR and it is regularly shared with residents, community leaders and managers of conservation units. In five years of implementation (2008-2013), SiMUR has collected over 62,800 records in its database, including records with georeferenced data on the use of approximately 200 species of fauna and flora and on agricultural production of the Unini River basin. The total cost of SiMUR has ranged from US$ 0.04 to US$ 0.23 per ha/year, values similar to the values recorded by biodiversity monitoring initiatives in other parts of the world. The continuous training of monitors through annual courses and the monitoring of their activities are essential for the functioning of the system. The monitors maintain the process of regular data collection and the communication between the residents of the Unini River communities and the technicians from FVA. The challenges of SiMUR include the need for greater agility in analyzing data, reporting results and applying these results more effectively forthe management of the natural resources of the Unini River. SiMUR represents a valuable initiative for the participatory monitoring of biodiversity. We hope that this publication will be useful for entities and individuals who want to develop similar experiences in other contexts in the Amazon.

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR



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CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1

T he challenges of monitoring biodiversity in the Amazon Monitoring biodiversity in the Amazon The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) envisions that each of its signatory countries should "monitor the components of the biological diversity, paying particular attention to those requiring urgent conservation measures and those that offer the greatest potential for sustainable use" (Ministério do Meio Ambiente 2000). This is a complex challenge in countries like Brazil, as the size of its territory and the immense variety of ecosystems results in high levels of biodiversity (Levinsohn & Prado 2005, Mittermeier et al. 1997). The Amazon stands out among biomes found in Brazil, because it is among the ones that have the greatest biological diversity in the world. For several taxonomic groups, including plants, fish, birds, and insects, the highest number of recorded species have been found in Brazil (Mittermeier et al. 1997). This biodiversity is distributed in a heterogenous manner across a biome of nearly seven million km2, and containing the largest rivers in the world and different types of forests and grasslands. Adding to the complexity of ecosystems and biodiversity, unfortunately the international and Brazilian Amazon has a few expert professional scientists to face the enormous challenge of monitoring and researching biodiversity. For example, just one university in southeast Brazil (Universidade de São Paulo) graduates 32% more doctorates than all other institutions of education and research in the Brazilian Amazon (Escobar 2007). How to develop systems for monitoring biodiversity in a complex biome, with so much biological wealth and few professionals available? Can biodiversity monitoring initiatives only be implemented by professional researchers? How can we involve actors other than scientists in standardized systems for collecting data on biodiversity? These questions are not easily answered, but should guide any productive exercise to create and implement effective systems for monitoring biodiversity.

Expanding partnerships for biodiversity monitoring Biodiversity or biological diversity is “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, among others, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes

diversity within species, and among species and ecosystems” (Ministério do Meio Ambiente 2000). A single monitoring system would hardly be sufficient for the complexity inherent in the concept of biodiversity. Specific systems should be designed to monitor different components of biodiversity. Nonetheless, it is possible to design monitoring programs that are broad enough to include diverse biological communities and populations of species with potential for sustainable use or threatened by extinction, as emphasized by the CBD itself. It is also important to emphasize, that the monitoring of biodiversity should not be seen as an end in itself, but it should generate input for decisions on how to manage biodiversity in terms of production and conservation (Niemelä 2000). The monitoring of biodiversity is performed usually by professional researchers as it requires a strong technical component to deal with the application of methodologies such as population censuses and complex statistical analyses of population trends (Yoccoz et al. 2001). Unfortunately, it is not always possible to rely on scientists in sufficient numbers, especially in tropical countries with high biodiversity. The shortage of specialized human resources has led researchers, development agencies and local communities to develop collaborative projects for monitoring of natural resources or biodiversity in the strict sense (Danielsen et al. 2003, Pitman et al. 2011). The success of these projects varies (Nielsen & Lund 2012), but these projects have great potential to produce practical applications for nature conservation (Danielsen et al. 2010). These experiences are leading to the development of a true “citizen science” (Devictor et al. 2010), where the participation of local populations is critical to the success of the monitoring program. Moreover, monitoring of biodiversity can be considered a tool for managing protected areas and should be applied within participatory decisionmaking systems. Thus, when local communities are included, the success of a monitoring systems depends not only on technical skills but but also social skills. The involvement of local populations implies an adaptation and simplification of scientific methodologies, which can lead to a loss of accuracy and precision in some cases (Danielsen et al. 2009). This loss of precision and accuracy must be better measured, but can potentially be offset by the collection of data across large spatial and temporal scales, which is of fundamental importance in large biomes such as the Amazon.

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Danielsen et al. (2009) classify the approaches of collaborative monitoring of biodiversity according to the involvement of researchers and local populations. The monitoring approaches vary from those conducted by external researchers to those implemented exclusively by the local population (TABLE 1). These different monitoring schemes differ in terms of implementation costs, needs of local and foreign experts, accuracy, precision and speed in the use of information for decision-making (Danielsen et al. 2009). It is important to emphasize that none of these approaches is necessarily superior or serve as the only model for a monitoring system in all contexts.

Experiences of participatory biodiversity monitoring in the State of Amazonas The cultural diversity in the Amazon is closely related to its biological diversity, and there are several examples of a true co-evolution of human cultures and Amazonian nature. A huge diversity of plants and animals is used by traditional peoples of the Amazon for different purposes such as for food, commercial products, construction materials for housing, medicine and symbolic representations. Traditional, indigenous and non-indigenous populations accumulated complex and sophisticated knowledge about the various ecosystems for the efficient use of their biodiversity. As traditional people retain

TABLE 1. Categories of biodiversity monitoring schemes proposed by Danielsen et al. (2009). Categories of monitoring

Data collectors

Data users

Externally managed and conducted by researchers

Researchers

Researchers

Externally managed with local data collectors

Researchers and local population

Researchers

Colaborative monitoring with interpretation of external data

Local population with the guidance of researchers

Local population and researchers

Colaborative monitoring with interpretation of local data

Local population with the guidance of researchers

Local population

Autonomous local monitoring

Local population

Local population

Documentos técnicos FVA 1 / FVA Technical Papers 1 - 2014

a detailed knowledge of biodiversity and depend on biological resources, they are the ideal partners in biodiversity monitoring initiatives in the Amazon region. In the State of Amazonas, there are several monitoring initiatives (Lima et al. 2012) with different approaches that can be categorized according to the typology proposed by Danielsen et al. (2009). Illustrating systems with a more academic focus of monitoring are the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project - PDBFF (PDBFF 2013) and the Programme of Biodiversity Research - PPBio (PPBio 2013, Costa & Magnusson 2010). Among the systems with more participatory approaches involving local communities are: the System for Monitoring the Use of Fauna in RDS Mamirauá (Lopes et al., 2012), the Program for the Monitoring of Biodiversity and the Use of Natural Resources in the Conservation Units of the Amazon State - ProBUC (Marinelli 2007) and the System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River SiMUR. Certainly, there are other ongoing programs for monitoring biodiversity in the region, but these initiatives illustrate the diversity of approaches applied in the field. With their peculiarities and limitations, these experiences represent important advances in the challenge of monitoring the Amazon biodiversity. Some of these projects have already developed effective strategies of communication and can serve as a basis for other efforts (http://pdbff.inpa.gov.br/ and http://ppbio. inpa.gov.br/). Nonetheless, there are few publications that describe the practical experience of projects that implement collaborative monitoring of biodiversity in the Amazon. In this publication, we present the process for implementing of one such initiatives - System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River (SiMUR). We intend to describe how this system has been structured over time and how the issues and challenges were tackled, aiming at the improvement of the tool andgeneration of knowledge. We do not present a “recipe” for implementation, but rather a practical report on how a program of monitoring biodiversity, in this case the biodiversity that is actively being used, was constructed from a productive collaboration between local communities, researchers and managers of conservation units. It is our expectation that this experience eventually will be useful in other geographical contexts in the Amazon.


3

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2

Designing and implementing the System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River (SiMUR) The Unini River basin The geographic scope of SiMUR is the basin of the Unini River, which occupies an area of about 2.6 million hectares and is entirely included within three conservation units: the Jaú National Park, the Unini River Extractive Reserve and the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (FIGURE 1). The Unini is a blackwater river that drains the Negro-Japurá interfluviam in a west-east direction (FIGURE 1). Much of its left margin is occupied by large areas of seasonal floodplains (igapó flooded forest); while on the right bank “points of the land (terra firme)” are observed more frequently. The occurrence of rapids near the mouth of the Unini River partly explains the large region of flooded areas upstream (Forsberg et al. 2000). The greater availability of terra firme on the right bank explains the distribution of the communities of Unini River

concentrated on this bank. On the other hand, the large region of flooded areas, especially along the left bank of the Unini favors the extensive use of aquatic resources (for example, fish and turtles). It is estimated that around 190 families currently reside in the Unini River basin, distributed in 10 communities with the number of families per community varying between 5-40 (FIGURE 1). The number of families residing in the Unini River varies substantially with time, reflecting a dynamic of active relocation of families from local communities and to places outside of the basin (Pinheiro & Macedo 2004). The community of the Unini River nearest Manaus city (Lago das Pedras) is located about 250 km from the city, and the farthest (Vila Nunes) is about 500 kilometers. To travel from Manaus to Vila Nunes requires about 15 hours of travel in a 60 HP motorboat.

FIGURE 1. Location of the Unini River basin and its conservation units: SiMUR coverage area.

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR


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The fact that the families of the Unini River reside within the boundaries of conservation units has a number of impacts on their use of the natural resources, ranging from strict restrictions or prohibitions on use (Jaú National Park) to sustainable use (Unini River Extractive Reserve and Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve). The use of natural resources in these units should, in theory, occur under agreed on management rules within formal instruments of management, such as management plans, terms of agreements and decisions of management councils.

The relevance and challenges of monitoring natural resources in the Unini River The Vitória Amazônica Foundation (FVA), in partnership with the residents of the Unini River and the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio), has been monitoring the use of natural resources used in the Unini River basin since 2008 (Fundação Vitória Amazônica 2011), through the System for Monitoring the Use of Natural Resources in the Unini River (SiMUR). The focus of SiMUR has always been to generate knowledge in a participatory manner to support the management of natural resource use in the Unini River basin and its conservation units. The great challenge of SiMUR is to monitor the use of natural resources on a scale of more than 2.5 million hectares! This scale is only manageable if there is intensive participation of a significant number of collaborators who generate the data necessary to complete the monitoring. Moreover, these data should be used in the decision-making processes for resource management, in which the residents of the region have a key role and are the main beneficiaries. Residents should participate intensively in the process of generating knowledge about the use of resource, and take part in decisions related to management of resources in the region. An effective local participation in the monitoring scheme requires the establishment of standardized procedures, from data collection to information management. The data collected among the local residents should be transformed into useful and applicable information and distributed to the users and beneficiaries of the system. The main beneficiaries of SiMUR are the residents of the Unini River basin, the managers of conservation units, and the researchers of FVA who implement the system. These actors occupy complementary niches in the structure of SiMUR, but must work with each other synergistically through the steps of the decision-making process.

Documentos técnicos FVA 1 / FVA Technical Papers 1 - 2014

Early attempts to understand the use of natural resources in the Unini River basin The first initiatives to understand what natural resources are used and their spatial and temporal distribution in the Unini River, involving quick surveys and participatory mapping of natural resources (Pinheiro 2003, Moreira et al. 2007). The participatory mapping methods involved interviews with local residents and tried to represent on a cartographic basis the places where certain resources were extracted (FIGURE 2). These sites were recorded on maps in the field and the data were subsequently compiled within a geographic information system (GIS). This made it possible to generate points or polygons of resource use and identify areas in the basin where resources were used with more or less frequency (Pinheiro 2003, Moreira et al. 2007). During the interviews, additional information was also obtained about certain features, as for example the quantity extracted and the estimates of abundance for places where extraction of the resource occurred.

FIGURE 2. Interviews for participatory mapping of natural resource use using A: points (Pinheiro 2003) and B: polygons placed on satellite images (Moreira et al. 2007).

A

B


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Participatory mapping, despite being a very useful tool, is not enough to understand the intense dynamics of resource use that takes place within the limits of the basin. Indeed, the patterns of resource use in the region certainly have been influenced by processes as disparate as the seasonality of rainfall, variation in the river level and market prices for forest products. Thus, only regular and standardized data collection can provide sufficient detail necessary for the comprehensive understanding of the patterns of resource use in the Unini River basin. It was from this need to establish a continuous process of data collection that the idea of creating SiMUR emerged.

Phases for constructing SiMUR The process of developing SiMUR represented a rich experience of interaction between scientific and traditional knowledge aimed at achieving a common goal - to provide information to assist in the management of the Unini basin’s natural resources and its conservation units. The development of SiMUR involved a series of methodologies integrated into different phases of planning and implementation (FIGURE 3). Following is a brief description of these phases and methodologies. The methodological basis of SiMUR, the training component of monitors, and data return are presented in detail in following chapters and sections. Planning phase (2007 - 2008) The first step in the development of SiMUR consisted of describing its methodological bases and elaborating the first versions of field protocols. Eight protocols were prepared, including data collection methods for animal resources, plant resources, and agricultural and animal products that are relevant to conservation.

data, and decision-making, among others, and the benefits and challenges of monitoring the use of resources in the region were discussed with residents. The residents were invited to participate voluntarily in SiMUR, and most residents were in favor of the initiative and expressed interest in participating. In another moment during the initial workshops, local residents helped to refine the field protocols and designated people who were willing and able to be trained to act as monitors in each of the communities. Most residents agreed that the monitors deserved financial compensation for the time that otherwise spend performing their day-to-day tasks. Pilot phase (second half of 2008) Soon after the initial community workshops, the implementation of SiMUR began with the completion of the first Training Course for Monitors, with the residents designated by the communities (FIGURE 4). The monitors who graduated began data collection in July 2008 with the application of the monitoring protocols among families. From this point on, the training of the monitors included two components: annual training courses and regular field campaigns to supervise the work of monitors. Intensive phase (2009 - present) Soon after the pilot phase, a series of technical and operational aspects were consolidated. Some of the protocols were restructured while the SiMUR database was compiled and tested using the first round of data. FVA regularly held training activities, produced periodic report to return the compiled data to participating families and communities. Information generated by SiMUR has been disseminated through community workshops, meetings of residents, and meetings of management councils. In July 2013, the first workshop to evaluate SiMUR was carried out, with the participation of representatives of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio), the Amazonas State Center of Conservation Units (CEUC), the Association of the Residents of Unini River (AMORU), and the monitors and technicians of FVA.

FIGURE 3. Phases of SiMUR development and their expected results.

This initial proposal of SiMUR was presented to the residents of the Unini River in a series of community workshops held in 2008 (FIGURE 4). Concepts relevant for monitoring, such as records, data, information, ethics in the use of the

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR


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A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

Documentos tĂŠcnicos FVA 1 / FVA Technical Papers 1 - 2014

FIGURE 4. Planning and implementation phases of SiMUR: A-D: Community workshops held in April 2008 in the Unini River for presentation and refinement of the project proposal, E-H: First training course for monitors held in the Terra Nova community in July 2008.


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Methodological basis of SiMUR Protocols for data collection The SiMUR project collects, organizes and compiles data on the principal resources used by residents of the region, identified during the mapping and survey of natural resource use. These data are collected through five main thematic protocols that are applied by trained monitors during monthly interviews of participating families (TABLE 2: Themes 1 to 5). Three additional protocols complete the range of topics covered by SiMUR - occurrence records of animals of interest for conservation, collection of ornamental fish, and opening of new crop fields (roçados – small areas of primary or secondary forest which are slashed and burned for manioc planting) (TABLE 2: Themes 6 to 8). Except for the latter two, the set of protocols is applied to each family always to the end of each month.

TABLE 2. SiMUR protocols for data collection. The set of protocols in application format is presented in APPENDIX I.

The basic unit of data in SiMUR (record) corresponds to a declaration of use of a particular resource and is associated with a family, a time interval (month), an amount and location of georeferenced use. Families declare information on the use of each natural resources occurred in the monthly interval, i.e. the time interval between the current and the previous month's interview. The exception is the fish protocol, in which families declare monthly recollections for the last two days of fishing. In the case of the roçados protocol, the time interval is bimonthly. An example of application of these protocols is presented in APPENDIX I. The location where each resource was extracted is identified by families together with the monitor, on a 1:75,000 scale printed maps of satellite image of the community and surrounding area (FIGURE 5). The identified site is associated with a code that corresponds to a 2 x 2 km spatial unit in the

FREQUENCY OF INTERVIEWS

RECORDS

1. Fish

Monthly/family

Records of the fish caught in the last two days of fishing, associated with a location, type of environment and amount collected in number of individuals; Records of the sites exploited for fishing/month.

2. Turtles

Monthly/family

Records of the species captured (active or non-active capture), associated with a location, type of environment and quantity in number of individuals or eggs and individuals sex and age categories.

3. Game

Monthly/family

Records of birds, mammals and crocodilians harvested (active or nonactive capture) associated with a location, type of environment and quantity in number of individuals and sex and age categories; additional data on the capture of some species (predators).

4. Plant resources

Monthly/family

Records on timber and non-timber forest resources extracted, associated with a location, quantity and marketing data.

5. Agricultural products

Monthly/family

Records of agricultural products (crop field products), associated with quantity and marketing data.

6. Fauna of conservation interest

Monthly/family

Visual records of individuals and traces of 26 animals of conservation interest, associated with a location and quantity in number of individuals.

7. New crop field

Bimonthly/family

Records of the opening of new areas designated for crop fields, associated with the original forest cover (primary forest, fallow area, etc.) and size (in hectares).

8. Ornamental fish

Occasionally/collector

THEMES

Records of the fishing of ornamental fish associated with a location, quantity in number of individuals caught and marketing data.

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR


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image, which is annotated in the questionnaire (FIGURE 5, APPENDIX I). Remote locations that exceed the piece of these images are identified based on a set of smaller 1:250,000 scale maps of the Unini river basin, with 5 x 5 km spatial units. As one family is interviewed 12 times a year, a monitor hypothetically responsible for collecting data from 10 families, will conduct 120 domiciliary interviews/year. The frequency of the interviews was chosen based on a balance of cost-benefit given by the system's ability to detect changes in patterns of use of different natural resources and the effort expended in the process of data collection. On a weekly collection scheme, for example, each family would be interviewed 48 times a year and the same monitor would perform 480 domiciliary interviews/ year. Higher data collection frequencies like this in theory could reduce the risk of loss of recollections, for example. However, would require much more time and effort of residents and could increase the risk of making data collection an overly tedious activity throughout the SiMUR implementation time. Procedures for data collection The monitors’ basic work material to conduct the interviews includes material for taking notes (clipboard, pencil, eraser, etc.), a sufficient number of printed copies of the questionnaires of each protocol to last until the next visit (aproximately three to four months), and a set of printed maps of the area of each community and of the entire basin. In addition to this material, monitors are given printed guides to filling out forms and plates to identify some animals.

The monitors are instructed to conduct interviews of the main protocols regularly at the last day of each month. In case of any impossibility of conducting an interview at the recommended date, the monitors are instructed to move forward or delay the interview for up to five days. Monitors informally establish the routine of monthly interviews with each family, usually with a specific person in the family. Each monitor accompanies about 4-20 families in their community, depending on the overall size of the community, the number of monitors in the community, and affinities of the monitors with the families. An interview can last 15 to 30 minutes depending on the amount of information provided by the family. Thus, we estimate that monthly, each monitor requires between a half of day and up to two full days to complete all the interviews. Compiling of collected data in a database Completed questionnaires are collected every three or four months during field campaigns carried out by FVA technicians (Chapter 3). In Manaus, these questionnaires are organized, and the data processed, and entered into a relational database created in MS Access, enabling a series of data searches and analyzes. Georeferenced data are subsequently incorporated into GIS, creating a spatial distribution of points. A series of map layers are then created to detect ipossible tracking errors, which are then corrected or excluded from the final base. Finally, the georeferenced data are used for spatial analysis and production of thematic maps showing the use of natural resources in the basin.

FIGURE 5. Map used by the monitors in the Lago das Pedras community, to identify the sites of natural resource use. The figure highlights the region of the community and surrounding area. Maps are printed in a 84,1x59,4 cm format.

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Participation of families The families participate voluntarily in the SiMUR. The set of families participating that make up the universe of sampling SiMUR is modified over time. Often some families may be absent from their communities in a given period of time, or fail to participate, or may change of place of residence from one community to another, or newly formed families can join the SiMUR and spend to provide information to any time. In the SiMUR, families are identified individually. This allows to the system preserve the relation between data collected and families who provided, and also the information about the sample size on scales of time and place. Regular communication with the monitors and a relative stability of the population inhabiting the Unini River, are aspects which favor the knowledge about the universe of participating families in the SiMUR. An important aspect that comes of this methodology is that the names of interviewed families are not shared or distributed. These names are used only during operational procedures to maintain the system and to deliver semiannual reports to participating families (Chapter 4). Selection of monitors SiMUR monitors are people from communities and are appointed by the residents. In general, this appointment is done by the president of each community, who discusses with the residents the demand for monitors during community meetings. In these meetings, the community reaches a consensus about the person (or people) who will receive training to act as a monitor. Any resident with an interest in acting as monitor can apply to be appointed by the community. The selection criteria to act as monitor are ability to read and write, to have good relationships with people in the community and to be responsible and organized. There are no strict criteria for establishing a maximum number of monitors per community. The performance evaluation of each monitor by their community (for the work during interviews and courses, etc.) is what weighs more in decisions of adding or maintaining monitors. Nonetheless, we try to establish a limit of around 20 families per monitor. The monitors start their work with families only after they participate in the first training course. When there is already a monitor working in the community, the new monitor is instructed to accompany the existing monitor during interviews to acquire

training and practice. The role of monitors in SiMUR, the issue of financial compensation and training aspects are described in detail in Chapter 3.

Current numbers In five years of implementation, completed in June 2013, SiMUR has compiled a database of approximately 6,796 domiciliary interviews (approximately 113/month) with 243 families and a total of 62,855 records. This total includes 30,188 georeferenced records on extracted natural resources, and 5,943 records on agricultural production data. These records refer to the use of 200 natural resources (TABLE 3) and 20 agricultural products. SiMUR database has also compiled 5,751 records on the occurrence of 23 animal species of conservation interest. In this period, a total of 43 residents from the Unini River were trained and acted as SiMUR monitors. Under the current framework of participation (May 2014), 16 monitors and 159 families were participating in SiMUR. These families represent 84% of the estimated total of households in the Unini River (~190). The proportion of families that participate in SiMUR in each of the 10 communities ranges from 68%-100%.

TABLE 3. Records of fauna and flora use incorporated into SiMUR between July 2008 and June 2013. resource

taxonomic / ECOLogical group

Animal

Fish Turtles Mamals Birds Crocodiles/Snake

Subtotal

Plant

Subtotal TOTAL

Vines Fruits Leaves/Stem Wood Exudate

Number of species*

Number of records

100 6 24 19 4

21,386 3,358 2,263 518 193

153

27,718

3 13 5 27 6

1,157 990 144 127 52

54

2,470

207

30,188

* refers to the number of names of resources that were reported by community members, which may represent taxonomic species or a species group.

Uma experi锚ncia de monitoramento participativo na Amaz么nia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR


The costs of SiMUR One of the least discussed aspects of the monitoring experience is the cost involved. These costs are related to the logistical, operational, training and data management. Since its inception, SiMUR has been supported by projects that provide financial resources, especially from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the Ecological Corridors Project (Projeto Corredores Ecol贸gicos). Over the six years of implementation of SiMUR (2008-2013), more than 700 thousand reais were invested (TABLE 4). Financial costs related to paying the salaries of specialized human resources from the FVA accounted for the bulk (73%) of this money. These cost were calculated based on levels of dedication of each technician to SiMUR activities (in % of average work time, ranging from 5% to 100%) of 8 technicians totaling 419 months of paid employment and 3 technicians totaling 49 months of consulting services. There is large interannual variation in the costs of SiMUR, but in general the investment in the system was just over 127,000 reais per year.

Danielsen et al. (2005) demonstrated significant variability in the costs involved in different systems for participatory monitoring of natural resources that were held in protected areas of nine countries (TABLE 5). This variability was related to the characteristics of the systems, the intensity and regularity of data collection, accessibility of areas and type of participation of different actors. All these sources of variation make it difficult to complete a strict and detailed comparison of the costs of different monitoring programs. For the purpose of general reference, the studies examined by Danielsen et al. (2005) had costs ranging from US$ 50.00 to US$ 0.02/ha/year, with a median value of US$ 0.08/ha/ year. The costs of SiMUR ranged from US$ 0.04 to US$ 0.23/ha/year (TABLE 5). Taking into consideration the quality, quantity and the potential for using the data for managing conservation units, the costs of SiMUR are justified and should be incorporated into investments allocated to conservation units of the Unini River.

TABLE 5. General characteristics of participatory systems for monitoring biodiversity in various locations in Asia, Africa and South America listed in Danielsen et al. (2005). total area monitored (ha)

Data collection interval (days)

Investment (US$/ha/year)

90

1.75

Habitats

TABLE 4. Costs of the six years of implementation of SiMUR (2008-2013), distributed among the main categories of expenditure.

1) Phillipines

t/a/m

350

1,090,000

2) Phillipines

m

54

74,885

180

30.00

Itens

3) China

t

48

46,725

variable

4.87

4) Kenya

t

100

77,000

180

50.00

Direct human resources1 Training courses2 Financial assistance to monitors Workshops and community meetings2 Monitoring the work of monitors2 Materials and services TOTALS

annual average

Totals

R$ 92,669.73

R$ 556,018.38

R$ 12,722.50

R$ 76,334.97

R$ 9,551.17

R$ 57,307.00

R$ 14,738.98

R$ 29,477.96

R$ 4,227.02

R$ 25,362.14

R$ 2,940.04

R$ 17,640.24

R$ 127,023.45

R$ 762,140.69

5) Laos

t/a

30

240,000

variable

0.02

6) Namibia

t/a

200

7,000,000

variable

0.05-0.65

7) Madagascar

a

155

42,810

360

0.14

8) Tanzania

t

298

144,403

variable

0.23

9) Bolivia

t

125

400,000

1-7

1.63

10) Ecuador3

t

10

2,430

360

2.88

11) Ecuador

a

150

no data

10-14

no data

t/a

238

2,689,644

30

0.04-0.236

refers to the gross costs, total or partial payment of salaries of FVA staff and consultants directly involved in the implementation of the other items (proportional to the average time devoted to SiMUR activities by each staff member); 2 refers to the logistical costs associated with traveland boarding in the field.

2

12) SiMUR

4

5

t = terrestrial, a= aquatic, m = marine; monitoring focused on hunting; 3 monitoring focused on birds; 4 monitoring focused on aquatic turtles; 5 represent the families interviewed; 6 For this calculation, a dollar exchange rate equivalent to R$ 1.86 and the interval refers to the use of the total basin area in the calculation or an area of 300,000 hectares that refers to the area under the effective use of residents. 1

2 1

Number of participating communities

Location

1


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CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 3

The continuous training of monitors The role of the monitors The SiMUR database is fed through interaction among community residents of the Unini River, local monitors and technicians from Vitória Amazônica Foundation (FVA). The monitors play a paramount role in the functioning of the system; they maintain the process of regular data collection and establish direct communication between community residents of the Unini River and FVA technicians involved in management of SiMUR. The work of the monitor is voluntary (Volunteer Service Act, No. 9608 of February 18, 1998, Brazil), and each monitor is required to sign a Term of Voluntary Service. In the case of underage volunteers, their service must be authorized by their parents or guardians. Among the activities described in the Term of Service are: annual training courses for monitors, data collection through monthly interviews and participation in workshops to disseminate SiMUR in their communities. Monitors receive financial assistance, which was initially set at R$ 5.00/family monitored/month during the 2008 community workshops, and at R$ 8.00/family monitored/ month, in January 2012. This value varies depending on projects negotiated by FVA. The financial assistance represents compensation for the time that monitors spend doing SiMUR activities and that could otherwise be spent doing their own work as field crop, fishing etc. Thus, the financial assistance is proportional to the number of families that the monitor accompanies, i.e., the time that the monitor spends organizing and conducting the interviews monthly. Hypothetically, a monitor who accompanies 10 families would need on average one day each month to complete the interviews. This monitor would receive a financial assistance of R$ 80.00 per month (approximately US$ 40.00 - US$ 45.00). By 2013, 43 residents were trained to act as monitors in SiMUR, equally distributed between women and men. Since 2008, the age range of these monitors has tended to a younger profile, of school age. The current staff of 16 monitors has an average age of 24 years (14-51), six of which have between 14 and 17. Each year the implementation of SiMUR (2008-2013), the number of monitors who were already trained but who chose to discontinue their participation (for various reasons)

ranged between 17% and 46%. The number of new monitors ranges from 8% to 50% each year. Of the 16 current monitors, only 3 attended the first training course in 2008. The high rate of egress monitors, however, has not hampered the progress of the system. The participation of the group of monitors is continuously observed in each community to avoid the discontinuity in the data collection. FVA technicians, mainly through the monitoring campaigns, seek to maintain close contact with the current monitors to report any drop outs and organize in advance the need of appointments of new monitors.

Training Courses for the Unini River Monitors Training of monitors is of fundamental importance in the SiMUR methodological framework and is organized in two ways: annual training courses and field campaigns for monitoring the work of monitors. The primary purpose of the annual courses is to train SiMUR monitors; therefore, the emphasis of all editions of the courses is the complete understanding of the methodology, the objectives and the applications of SiMUR and procedures for data collection (correct application of the protocols during family interviews, interpretation of satellite images of the region, etc.). Topics related to the monitoring of biodiversity, such as biodiversity conservation, the Amazon biome, conservation units and management tools, sustainable use, resource management, and the concept of volunteering are also recurring topics in the courses (FIGURE 6). The concept of volunteerism, which characterizes the work of the monitor, is a theme focused mainly on monitors at the beginner’s level. The activities that the monitor agrees to perform at SiMUR and some of the characteristics that contribute to the smooth progress of the work of the monitors are discussed, for example, enjoying volunteer work and learning new things, being responsible and committed to the work undertaken, being organized, communicating well, having good relationship with the community, etc. Monitors need to understand the context of the questions they ask, how to ask these questions, and the standards for taking notes on the response form, including how to interpret maps so they can record the location of resource use. At this point of the

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FIGURE 6. Parts of the training courses for monitors: A-C: methodology, objectives and applications of SiMUR, and procedures for data collection, D-F: Practical exercises on biodiversity and inventory methods, and G-I: Practical exercises on the use of remote sensing and GPS and introduction to data analysis.

B

A

C

D

E

F

G

H

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CHAPTER 3

course, students practice through simulating interviews, with the aim of improving their interaction with families during the interviews. Monitors are given supporting materials, as guides for the application of questionnaires and lists with standardized resources names and quantities. Training in interpretation of satellite images and identification of sites of resource use is also an important part of this phase of the course. The actual data generated by SiMUR itself, in the form of figures, graphs, charts and technical reports, are used during the course to help monitors fully understand the objectives and applications of SiMUR. Thus, the content of the courses is enriched with data from SiMUR. Quantitative aspects of the spatial and temporal trends of the data are debated in the context of natural resource management, helping to stimulate the monitors’ critical thinking skills. We observed that monitors reinterpret, with relative ease, the patterns of resources use that they themselves practice, shown through charts, tables, etc. This pedagogical aspect of the courses clearly demonstrates how SiMUR empowers the monitors, as other participatory monitoring initiatives have noted (Constantine et al. 2012). A second major component of the syllabus is devoted to topics other than SiMUR (FIGURE 6). This is done to provide monitors contact with other lines and methodologies of scientific research, to broaden their knowledge and to help the understanding how they can contribute to common good of the region in which they live. Field activities and written or oral exercises are methods quite used in classes coordinated by professionals from other institutions. Until now, various themes have been covered during this component of course, such as: introduction to remote sensing, use of GPS, introduction to computing and text editing programs and electronic spreadsheets, introduction to data analysis, urban development and environmental quality, history of the creation of the Jaú National Park, biodiversity and inventory methods (birds, butterflies, bees), methods of population censuses (lianas), methods of landscape characterization, introduction to taxonomy and introduction to agrobiodiversity.

Monitoring the work of monitors Even with the large investment of time in the courses, it is also important to do on-ground follow-up with the monitors to address any communication failures, to answer questions from the monitors and technicians about notes that they have taken, to replace data collection equipment and to collect the completed protocols (FIGURE 7). The campaigns for monitoring the work of monitors are carried out at least three times a year, maintaining communication between the central office in Manaus and the Unini River communities. These moments reinforce the lessons learned in the courses and ensure better quality of the data collected. Moreover, during these campaigns, aspects such as the participation of families, perceptions and perspectives of the monitors on their work, status of the team of monitors (e.g. need of replacement or addition to the team of monitors) are also verified.

FIGURE 7. Field campaigns for monitoring the work of monitors in the communities of the Unini River.

Training courses for monitors of the Unini River last about a week and are held annually in various locations that have included communities along the Unini River (three editions), the Jaú River (one edition) and the town of Novo Airão (two editions). The locations of the courses are chosen based on criteria such as logistical costs, facilities and infrastructure for implementing certain teaching practices, and recommendations of the monitors. At the end of each course, the monitors evaluate the program content and can suggest topics and locations for the future courses.

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR



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CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4

Using SiMUR data for decision-making Returning SiMUR data and results

Improving communication: SiMUR’s challenge

SiMUR was designed as a participatory tool to support decision-making for appropriate management of natural resources and protected areas in the Unini River basin. Due to the huge extent of the basin, different management boards of protected areas and differences in patterns of resource use in communities, this support should be provided for different actors in appropriate scales and perspectives. The communication between the various participants of the system, therefore, is critical to the success of SiMUR.

SiMUR uses the process of generating local knowledge in order to apply that knowledge in the management of natural resources of the Unini River (FIGURE 8). The cycle for generating knowledge should, therefore, support the decision-making processes that are a part of the management cycle (FIGURE 9). It is the interaction of these two cycles that gives meaning to SiMUR’s participatory process, integrating the knowledge generated locally with other regional monitoring and decision-making processes.

The data generated by the monitors must be compiled and integrated into the existing database, checked for potential errors and corrected, and analyzed. Analyses generate summarized information and synthesized knowledge about the patterns of natural resources use in the Unini River. The nature of the data allows various analytical possibilities that are currently being explored by the Vitória Amazônica Foundation (FVA) team. Even if the most robust analyses of the data are not possible, it is important to disseminate the data and information generated by the system. In SiMUR, syntheses of the data are provided through individualized reports for each participating family and integrated reports for communities. These reports are summaries from statements made by families every semester (APPENDIX II) and annually, including summaries of market prices of products sold in the Unini River (APPENDIX III). Reports of a more technical nature are available for managers of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio).

The cycle of knowledge is made possible mainly through the interaction among FVA technicians, local monitors and communities’ residents (FIGURE 9). The cycle of management, on the other hand, is more complex because decisions can be made at different scales and by different management structures (FIGURE 9). For SiMUR to achieve its goals, it is important that partners involved in the process foster communication between different levels and actors involved in decision-making concerning regional natural resources use. The data obtained through SiMUR are integrated from the family level to the level of the basin, which is of great importance for decion-making at various scales. FIGURE 8. The process of generating knowledge through SiMUR and its application in the management of natural resources in the region.

FIGURE 9. The process of SiMUR interaction (cycle of knowledge), supporting the management processes (cycle of management).

In addition to disseminating the data and results of SiMUR to families and communities, the information has been presented at meetings of the management councils of the Jaú National Park and the Unini River Extractive Reserve, the formal decision-making bodies regarding standards and procedures for resource use within conservation units. Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR


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CHAPTER 4

Because the entire river basin Unini is located within the limits of conservation units, management plans and management councils for these units are most likely to benefit from the information generated by SiMUR. The management plans should be seen as a guide for achievement of management goals over a specific period of time. Management councils turn the management plan into reality, and should help adapt management goals to changes in the regional and local context (adaptive management). Both management plans and councils require specific knowledge that can, in part, be provided by SiMUR. Apart from the decisions documented and approved in the management plans and council meetings, local decisions at the community level can and should be part of the management dynamic. The communities located in the Unini River show great variability in the patterns of natural resource use, which is due to differences in social, economic, geographic and environmental characteristics of the region (Fundação Vitória Amazônica 2011). SiMUR is sensitive to thesed ifferences at the community level and can support local decision-making processes. These processes of discussion at the community level, however, must be negotiated and approved by the management councils. Another important level of decision-making is with specific groups or organizations that affect or are impacted by resource management in the region (FIGURE 9). These entities include public authorities (Amazonas State Center for Conservation Units - CEUC, Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation - ICMBio), community organizations

(Association of the Residents of Unini River - AMORU, Agroextractivist Cooperative of Unini River - COOMARU) and partner institutions of public administration (FVA, Mamirauá Institute for Sustainable Development - IDSM). Each of these organizations have unique characteristics, but are part of the management process of natural resources of the Unini River basin and, therefore, are potential beneficiaries and users of the data provided by SiMUR. What are the most efficient ways to provide the information generated by SiMUR to the users of the system? At least two general strategies can be implemented. The first is that SiMUR users can request certain information from the technicians that manage the data. For example, ICMBio’s technicians may be interested in conducting technical discussions on the management of turtles in the Unini River basin and may require data on the consumption of this resource over a specific period of time. Another example is that the COOMARU board of directors may request data on the commercialization and production of manioc flour in order to define a particular commercial strategy for this product. This communication strategy can occur at any time and works based on the demands of both. Another option is the active and regular availability of data in formal (for example, Council meetings) or informal group discussions (for example, Technical meetings). Both strategies have been used with some success (FIGURE 10), but there is still a need for improving the communication process to optimize the effective use of data.

FIGURE 10. Disclosure of the progress and results generated by SiMUR in the meeting of residents of the Unini River in 2013.

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CHAPTER 4

Examples of the application of SiMUR in decision-making processes Support for the Zoning of the Unini River Extractive Reserve The process for completing the management plan for the Unini River Extractive Reserve included the collaboration of technicians, researchers and residents of Unini River. Data within the SiMUR database were used to define spatially the Zone of Use and Management of the Community Resources (FIGURE 11). Support for the proposal of new boundaries for the Jaú National Park and the Unini River Extractive Reserve The members of the management boards of these conservation units are currently discussing a proposal to revise the limits in order to enhance through representation of ecoystems and effective management of these units. SiMUR data, specifically spatial data provided by the residents, are supporting this proposal (FIGURE 11).

Support for the castanha-da-Amazônia (Amazon-nut) production chain Efforts to increase economic benefits for the Unini River families through the sustainable resource use gained a considerable boost with the inauguration of the Agroextractivist Union of the Residents of Unini River (CAUMORU). The CAUMORU aims to facilitate the logistical aspects, processing and commercialization of agro-extractive products from the region. In parallel, the Agroextractivist Cooperative of Unini River (COOMARU) was created. The castanha-da-Amazônia (Amazon-nut, Bertholletia excelsa) was chosen as the initial product for the operationalization of CAUMORU and the data obtained by SiMUR are being used to analyze the variation in the annual production of castanha-do-Amazônia within the Unini River basin, in order to support the strategies of processing and commercialization of this product. Based on data reported to SiMUR, over 53 tons of on castanha-do-Amazônia were produced between 2008 and 2013 in the Unini River, at an average rate of 11 tons/year, with years of peak production interspersed by years of low production (FIGURE 12).

FIGURE 11. Map showing areas of natural resource use reported by the families of the Unini River through SiMUR. These data served as the bases for the Zoning of the Unini River Extractive Reserve (Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, in press) and a proposal to define new limits of both Jaú National Park and the Unini River Extractive Reserve.

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Support for the farinha-de-mandioca (manioc flour) production chain A recent project funded by the Eletrobrás company aims to enhance the processing and production of farinha-de-mandioca (manioc flour, Manihot esculenta) in the Unini River, the main agricultural product of the region. The agricultural production data obtained from SiMUR were the basis for a short diagnosis of manioc flour production and its distribution by the Unini River communities that gave support to the project. Based on data reported to SiMUR, over 540 tonnes of manioc flour were produced between 2008 and 2013 in the Unini River, at an average rate of 110 tons/year (FIGURA 12).

(lianas, Heteropsis spp.) that are commonly extracted in the Unini River and to help to evaluate the sustainability of the practice. The information generated by SiMUR contributed to the identification of the communities of Unini River where there is the best potential for implementing the project. The cipós are the most economically relevant forest product for the families in the Unini River. According to SiMUR data, 69 tons of lianas were sold between 2008 and 2013 in the Unini River, at an average rate of 14 tons/year (FIGURA 12).

FIGURE 12. Changes in agro-extractive production in the Unini River observed by SiMUR between 2008-2013: A: Castanhada-Amazônia (Amazon-nut, Betholletia excelsa), B: Farinhade-mandioca (manioc flour, Manihot esculenta), and C: Cipótitica and Cipó-timbó-açu (lianas, Heteropsis spp.).

Management of turtles in the Unini River Extractive Reserve The Working Group (WG) on Turtles was created based on demand by community representatives on the Deliberative Council of the Unini River Extractive Reserve, for whom management of turtle species are a priority in the Unini River basin. The first meeting of the WG was held in August 2013, when this topic was discussed based on information generated by SiMUR, including information on local capture and variation in capture rates for the most consumed species. Together with the local knowledge of WG representatives, information generated by SiMUR can contribute to effective decision-making. Project for the monitoring and management of lianas of the genus Heteropsis in Unini River Extractive Reserve and Jaú National Park - Young Amazonian Scientist/ Protected Areas - State of Amazonas Research Foundation (FAPEAM) The removal and use of vines is widespread among rural populations of the Negro River, and initiatives to regulate the practice with guidelines for extraction need to be refined using information such as appropriate rates of plant regeneration among other biological and ecological parameters. This project was initiated in 2013 by researchers from FVA and aims to generate information on the management parameter for species of cipós

Documentos técnicos FVA 1 / FVA Technical Papers 1 - 2014

A

B

C


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CHAPTER 4

Mapping the distribution of fauna species of conservation interest One of the protocols of SiMUR is directed to the documentation of occurrences of animal species of conservation interest, such as rare and endangered species (APPENDIX IV). Many of these species are rarely quantified in population censuses because they are often difficult to detect. Data on direct evidence of a animal’s presence (visual recording of individuals, killed individuals), and animal sign (nests, footprints, feces, vocalization, etc.) are recorded for this set of species. The more than 200 families who participated in SiMUR since 2008 helped generate a total of 5,751 records of occurrence of 23 species in the Unini River basin (FIGURE 13). These records can be useful for supporting more in-depth studies on habitat use, estimating thedistribution of the species within the basin and estimating their local density. Also, the data can support conservation education initiatives by focusing attention on the protection of some species.

FIGURE 13. Map of areas in the Unini River showing visual records of four species of fauna with history of over-exploitation and/or persecution, or are currently endangered/potentially endangered in Brazil.

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ChaPTER 5

ChaPTER 5

Lessons learned from an ongoing process SiMUR represents an important experience about integrating scientific and traditional knowledge for the proper management of natural resources in a region of Amazonia. Nonetheless, a lot of technical information about management (for example, average use, zoning, etc.) is not directly provided by SiMUR and certainly more refined research programs on natural resources should be implemented in the region. The advantage of SiMUR is that it is an integrated data platform that can be accessed by different users to support decision making, including the identification of research that require more refined methodologies. During the implementation of SiMUR several lessons were learned. These lessons are part of the system’s natural maturation process, and we describe them with the intention of being useful to people or organizations that want to reproduce or adapt SiMUR in other contexts. Lesson 1 – SiMUR limitations We highlight at least two limitations encountered while implementing SiMUR. The local nomenclature is used in the interviews to identify resources in use. This local taxonomy does not always correspond to the scientific taxonomy, which restricts some types of analyses. This problem is particularly complex in groups where a large diversity of species is used, such as fish and plants. We are tackling this challenge through the use of field guides and the assistance of experts to make sure that the identification of resources is as accurate as possible. Another relevant point is that SiMUR does not directly measure the availability of a given resource in nature; instead, it measures the level of use of the resource. Census and other methodologies to assess the abundance of resources are notoriously complex and require a high-level of technical training, although some simple methodologies can be developed and implemented with the help of local residents (Castle 2004). To compensate for this limitation, it is necessary to design strategies for population monitoring at the level of individual resources. Lesson 2 – Surveys of resources use and mapping were important for the designing of the system Surveys based on simple methodologies, such as Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), can generate data on the use of natural resources in any region of the Amazon. Ideally, these diagnostics

should be associated with participatory mapping, which allows a spatial visualization of the use of resources. These kind of preliminary studies help in the design of detailed field protocols to be applied during medium to long-term time scales typical of monitoring programs. Lesson 3 - Voluntary participation is the basis of the system SiMUR is entirely based on voluntary participation of residents and monitors. The participation and integration of these people into the process of generation knowledge were accomplished based on the idea that SiMUR would generate information that could benefit the participants. In the first participatory workshops, the FVA technical team discussed and clarified basic concepts with the residents, such as data, information, protocols, participation, ethics in dealing with information, volunteering, among other concepts. This initial process ensured that every resident had a clear understanding of the program could make an informed d decision whether to participate. Nonetheless, some families were suspicious in the beginning, althoughthe participation of the residents increased over time. Thus, the initial strategies of contact with the community, where the proposed objectives and implications of joining a monitoring program were made clear, are fundamental to building a relationship of trust and assuring local participation. Lesson 4 - The monitors are a key element in the system Monitors establish permanent contact between the families of Unini River and FVA technicians. The choice of monitors should always have the support and approval of the community. There is always a certain number of monitors who will drop out for various reasons. The fact that monitors drop out does not necessarily result in an interruption in monitoring procedures, as the monitors who dropout are instructed to appoint another person to replace them. To ensure the quality and regularity of data collection, it is important to maintain a continuous schedule of training and to supervise the work of the monitors. This process of training and supervision broadens the involvement of monitors in the system and locally empowers these actors.

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ChaPTER 5

Lesson 5 - Returning information to the families and communities creates bonds with the system The structuring of SiMUR allows, for example, Mr. Joca (fictitious name) to receive regular reports on the number of turtles that he has consumed and the number of bags of manioc flour he produced in the past six months (or other time scales), among other types of data. This same process takes place at the community level through reports delivered to local leadership. This return of data to the place where it was generated creates a sense of belonging and collaboration with the system and helps to make families more aware of their own importance in the generation of knowledge about the region where they live. The real appreciation of traditional knowledge occurs when this knowledge generates benefits for the families who possess the knowledge. The focus of SiMUR is to compile this knowledge and make it available for use by members of the communities. Lesson 6 – From the field protocols to the database Some monitoring systems have their compromised efficiency because they do not have an effective strategy for managing data and information. The volume of data generated in long-term systems is substantial. In five years, for example, at least 62,800 records were compiled into the SiMUR database, considering natural resources, agricultural products and fauna of conservation intesrest. This corresponds to at least 12,560 new records each year. Maintaining the proper management of such a large volume of data is a constant challenge. A fundamental aspect of SiMUR is the development of simple and relatively complete interview protocols for the purpose of monitoring. These protocols are fully integrated into a database based on a simpe relational database model. Much of the work of SiMUR is devoted to the management and maintenance of this database. Thus, in designing of a long-term and largescale system, the development of a strategy for information management including costs involved in this aspect of monitoring, is of fundamental importance.

Documentos técnicos FVA 1 / FVA Technical Papers 1 - 2014

Lesson 7 - From knowledge to decision-making It is necessary to increase the speed and efficiency at which the data and information generated by SiMUR is communicated to users. At the moment, the management of SiMUR data takes too long to ensure that the data is of sufficient quality for analyses. The process for managing and ensuring data quality, in the end, reduces the time available for data analysis and reduces availability of the data to users. It is also important to use the opportunities that already available to discuss the management of natural resources, such as council meetings managers and community meetings. Creation of new spaces and opportunites to discuss resource use at the scale of individual communities could also be an interesting and strategic activity. Lesson 8 – Broadening the scope of SiMUR users and beneficiaries The main beneficiaries of SiMUR are the local residents, managers of conservation units and FVA researchers. However, SiMUR is also a rare example of a high quality database on the patterns of natural resource use that could potentially be accessed by other users who come forward as partners of the system. External researchers are among the potential users/ beneficiaries. As our ability to analyse the SiMUR database does not usually match our ability to generate data during SiMUR surveys, researchers could potentially play an important role by performing analyses and publishing results. It is important to clarify, however, that SiMUR data belong to the group of actors that generate it and that any use of it must be linked to prior and informed consent given by the community and endorsed by the boards of conservation units. The technicians involved in SiMUR’s management are discussing the implementation of a policy about information access that would facilitate the process of analysis by collaborating researchers and that ensures transparency and ethical use of these data.


23

ConclusION

Conc lusION

Monitoring of biodiversity is a very complex challenge, especially in high biodiversity regions such as the Amazon. Systems for monitoring biodiversity on large temporal and spatial scales can be designed to involve traditional peoplefrom the region, making them partners in the process of data collection, analysis and application of the results. Participatory monitoring is an approach that can and does generate information that is relevant to the management of natural resources in the Amazon, with a focus on production and biodiversity conservation. These initiatives have the effect of promoting a wider dialogue and help to produce common goals in the production of traditional and scientific knowledge. In this sense, SiMUR represents a valuable experience of participatory monitoring and, hopefully, the lessons we have learned throughout the process will inspire other initiatives in the Amazon.

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BibliograPHY

Bibliogra PHY

Castelo L. 2004. A method to count Pirarucu Arapaima gigas: Fishers, assessment, and management. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24: 379–389. Constantino P. A. L., Alberto H. S. C., Ramalho E. E., Rostant L., Marinelli C. A., Teles D., Fonseca Jr. S., Fernandes R. B. & Valsecchi J. 2012. Empowering local people through community-based resource monitoring: A comparison between Brazil and Namibia. Ecology and Society 17(4):2235. Costa F. R. C. & Magnusson W. E. 2010. The need for a largescale, integrated studies of biodivesity: The experience of the Program for Biodiversity Research in Brazilian Amazon. Natureza & Conservação 8:3-12. Danielsen F., Burgess N. D. & Balmford A. 2005. Monitoring matters: Examining the potential of locally-based approaches. Biodiversity and Conservation 14(11):25072542. Danielsen F., Burgess N. D., Balmford A., Donald P. F., Funder M., Jones J. P. G., Alviola P., Balete D. S., Blomley T., Brashares J., Child B., Enghoff M., Fjeldså J., Holt S., Hübertz H., Jensen A. E., Jensen P. M., Massao J., Mendoza M. M., Ngaga Y., Poulsen M. K., Rueda R., Sam M., Skielboe T., Stuart-Hill G., Topp-Jørgensen E. & Yonten D. 2009. Local participation in natural resource monitoring: A characterization of approaches. Conservation Biology 23(1):31-42. Danielsen F., Burgess N. D., Jensen P. M. & Pirhofer-Walzl K. 2010. Environmental monitoring: The scale and speed of implementation varies according to the degree of peoples involvement. Journal of Applied Ecology 47(6):1166–1168. Danielsen F., Mendoza M. M., Alviola P. & Balete D. S. 2003. Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: What are we trying to achieve? Oryx 37:1-3. Devictor V., Whittaker R. J. & Beltrame C. 2010. Beyond scarcity: Citizen science programmes as useful tools for conservation biogeography. Diversity and Distributions 16(3):354–362. Escobar H. 2007. http://www.estadao.com.br/amazonia/ ciencia_pesquisador_uma_especie_rara.htm, 25 de novembro de 2007.

Forsberg B. R., Hashimoto Y., Rosenqvist A. & Miranda F. P. 2000. Tectonic fault control of wetland distributions in the Central Amazon revealed by JERS-1 radar imagery. Quaternary International 72:61-66. Fundação Vitória Amazônica. 2011. Unini – o rio da sustentbilidade: Bases socioambientais para a gestão da bacia do rio Unini e de suas unidades de conservação. FVA/ WWF/Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation, Manaus. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade – ICMBio. In press. Plano de manejo participativo da Reserva Extrativista Rio Unini. ICMBio, Novo Airão, Novembro de 2011. Levinsohn T. M. & Prado P. I. 2005. Quantas espécies há no Brasil? Megadiversidade 1:36-42. Lima M., Cooper A., Boubli J. P. & Lemos P. (orgs). 2012. Oficina de monitoramento da biodiversidade em unidades de conservação no Amazonas de forma participativa: Apresentações, resultados e plano de ação. Wildllife Conservation Society, Manaus. Lopes G. P., Valsecchi J., Vieira T. M., Amaral P. V. & Costa E. W. M. 2012. Hunting and hunters in lowland communities in the region of the Middle Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil. Uakari 8(1):7-18. Marinelli C. A. 2007. Conservación de la Amazonia: Políticas públicas y el Programa del Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad y del Uso de Recursos Naturales en las Áreas Protegidas. In: D. Alonzo-Parra, J. E. Bestard-Barrera & A. Castillo-Carmona (eds.) Programa de Capacitación RESERVA del Diplomado en Manejo y Conservación de Recursos Naturales Curso XXVI. Ducks Unlimited de México A. C., U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Forest Service, Ducks Unlimited Inc. & Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. 2000. A Convenção sobre Diversidade Biológica – CDB. Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas, Brasília, DF. Mittermeier R. A., Robles Gil P. & Mittermeier C. G. 1997. Megadiversity: Earth’s biologically wealthiest nations. Cidade do México: CEMEX, Conservation International e Agrupación Sierra Madre.

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Moreira M. P., Ferreira O. J. M. R. & Almeida R. A. M. 2007. A geoinformação ao alcance das comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Negro, Amazonas In: Anais do XIII Simpósio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto – SBSR. INPE, Florianópolis. Nielsen M. R. & Lund J. F. 2012. Seeing white elephants? The production and communication of information in a locallybased monitoring system in Tanzânia. Conservation and Society 10:1-14. Niemelä J. 2000. Biodiversity monitoring for decision-making. Annales Zoologici Fennici 37:307–317. PDBFF. 2013. PDBFF - Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais. Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação e Smithsonian Institution, Manaus, Brasil. http:// pdbff.inpa.gov.br/ Pinheiro M. R. & Macedo A. B. 2004. Dinâmica da população humana nos rios do Parque Nacional do Jaú. In: S. H. Borges, S. Iwanaga, C. C. Durigan & M. R. Pinheiro (eds.) Janelas para a Biodiversidade no Parque Nacional do Jaú: Uma estratégia para o estudo da biodiversidade na Amazônia. Fundação Vitória Amazônica, Manaus. p.43-61. Pinheiro M. R. 2003. Dinâmica populacional e mapeamento participativo do uso dos recursos naturais feito pelos moradores do Parque Nacional do Jaú, AM. Universidade de Campinas, São Paulo. Dissertação de mestrado. Pitman N. C. A., Norris D., Gonzales J. M., Torres E., Pinto F., Collado H., Concha W., Thupa R., Quispe E., Pérez J. & Castillo J. C. F. 2011. Four years of vertebrate monitoring on an upper Amazonian river. Biodiversity and Conservation 20:827–849. PPBio. 2013. PPBio — Programa de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade. Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Manaus, Brasil. http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/ Yoccoz N. G., Nicholas J. D. & Boulinier T. 2001. Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16:446-453.

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APPENDIX I

APPENDIX I Set of forms for collecting data in SiMUR with application examples. All data presented as annotations in the forms in this Appendix are fictitious.

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APPENDIX I

APPENDIX I APPENDIX I - cont. (all data presented as annotations in the forms in this Appendix are fictitious)

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APPENDIX I

APPENDIX I APPENDIX I - cont. (all data presented as annotations in the forms in this Appendix are fictitious)

Uma experi锚ncia de monitoramento participativo na Amaz么nia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR


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APPENDIX I

APPENDIX I APPENDIX I - cont. (all data presented as annotations in the forms in this Appendix are fictitious)

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APPENDIX II

APPENDIX II Standard report available to each participating family in the SiMUR. This report consolidates data declared to every six months by the family. All data presented in the report that composes this Appendix are fictitious.

Family Report - Year 2012 - From July to December Amounts of natural resources exploited by each family. The records refer to statements of monthly recollections, except for fish, for which the recollections of the last two days of fishing of the month are recorded.

COMMUNITY A FAMILY: ANTONIO DA SILVA JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Total declared

Sold

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

10

5

15

NO

Tucunaré

INDIVIDUAL

1

3

-

2

6

1

13

NO

Traíra

INDIVIDUAL

3

7

-

1

-

1

12

NO

Pacu

INDIVIDUAL

1

-

-

-

-

5

6

NO

Cará-açu

INDIVIDUAL

-

5

-

1

-

-

6

NO

Barbado

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

4

1

5

NO

Pacuí

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

3

-

3

NO

Cará

INDIVIDUAL

3

-

-

-

-

-

3

NO

Jacundá

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

2

-

2

NO

Jaraqui

INDIVIDUAL

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

NO

Sardinha

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

NO

Cará-prata

INDIVIDUAL

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

NO

Irapuca

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

-

11

11

NO

Tracajá

EGG

-

-

-

77

-

-

77

NO

Protocol

Name

Animal - Fish

Piranha

Animal - Turtle

EGG

-

-

-

55

-

-

55

NO

Paca

INDIVIDUAL

1

1

-

-

-

-

2

NO

Pato

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

NO

Queixada

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

NO

Irapuca Animal - Game

Unit

Veado-roxo

INDIVIDUAL

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

NO

Plant resources

Cipó-ambé

STEM

-

-

-

-

-

20

20

NO

Agricultural products

Farinha-de-mandioca

2

8

11

NO

1

1

NO

234

YES

75 LITERS-BAG

-

1

-

-

Banana

BUNCH

-

-

-

-

Banana

BUNCH

90

27

75

42

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APPENDIX III

APPENDIX III Standard report available to each participating community in the SiMUR. This report consolidates data reported annually from all communities and includes variations in prices applied to marketed products. All data presented in the reports which compose this Appendix are fictitious.

Community Report - Year 2012 – Natural resources / agricultural products declared Amounts of natural resources exploited by each community in the Unini River. The records refer to statements of monthly recollections except for fish, for which the recollections of the last two days of fishing of the month are recorded. Protocol

Name

Unit

Animal – Fish:

Piranha Tucunaré Pacu Jaraqui Aracu Cará Traíra Pacuí Branquinha Aruanã Pirarara Matrinchã Pirarucu

Animal – Turtles:

Irapuca Cabeçudo Tracajá Tartaruga Tracajá Irapuca Cabeçudo Tartaruga

Animal – Game:

Paca Queixada Caititu Pato Jacamim Anta Cutia Jacu

Plant resources:

Jacareúba Açaí Cipó-ambé Cipó-timbó-açu Cipó-titica Breu Castanha-da-Amazônia Palha-branca

Agricultural products: Banana Goma Cará Tapioca Farinha-de-mandioca

Abacaxi

Community A

Community B

Community C

INDIVIDUAL

1,310

1,970

1,836

5,116

INDIVIDUAL

1,124

304

271

1,699

INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL EGG EGG EGG EGG INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL TREE BUNCH STEM KG KG KG 20 LITERS-CAN STEM BUNCH KG KG LITER 75 LITERS-BAG

276 1,305 140 365 328 47 3 13 10 63 55 51 370 253 46 9 8 12 3 4 5 4,551 729 43 39 170 201 10 127

595 100 261 277 166 243 32 45 7 10 7 408 90 12 693 320 15 21 18 9 6 6 5 6 32 35 187 260 695 170 63 551

775 18 445 80 77 26 3 17 1 5 47 302 119 25 900 212 419 300 44 57 25 2 13 13 8 5 66 80 593 1,294 3,617 16 534 718

1,646 1,423 846 722 571 269 79 48 27 24 22 518 447 182 25 1,963 785 419 300 105 87 51 23 22 19 17 10 6 98 115 4,551 1,322 43 1,520 430 4,513 196 534 63 1,396

-

21

185

206

UNIDADE

Totals declared

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APPENDIX III

A P PENDIX III APPENDIX III - cont. (all data presented in the reports which compose this Appendix are fictitious)

Community Report - Year 2012 - Average market prices Prices for the products marketed by the families Unini River. Monthly and annual of average, minimum and maximum values of prices declared for each product.

Name Castanha-da-Amazônia:

Cipó-timbó-açu:

Cipó-titica:

Farinha-de-mandioca:

Unit

Month

Amounts sold

# records

Prices per unit (minimum-maximum)

Prices per unit (average)

20 LITERS-CAN 20 LITERS-CAN 20 LITERS-CAN 20 LITERS-CAN 20 LITERS-CAN 20 LITERS-CAN 20 LITERS-CAN 20 LITERS-CAN

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG

92 138 589 690 120 48 27 10

6 8 23 23 10 3 1 2

R$ 10.00 - R$ 20.00 R$ 10.00 - R$ 20.00 R$ 10.00 - R$ 25.00 R$ 10.00 - R$ 20.00 R$ 12.00 - R$ 14.00 R$ 10.00 - R$ 12.00 R$ 13.00 - R$ 13.00 R$ 14.00 - R$ 15.00

R$ 16.00 R$ 14.87 R$ 13.95 R$ 13.86 R$ 12.50 R$ 10.67 R$ 13.00 R$ 14.50

20 LITERS-CAN

Total

1,714

76

R$ 10.00 - R$ 25.00

R$ 13.86

KG KG KG KG KG KG KG KG KG

JAN FEB MAR APR AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

934 819 20 270 822 319 240 232 180

8 6 1 3 13 8 6 6 5

R$ 3.00 - R$ 3.70 R$ 2.20 - R$ 3.20 R$ 3.00 - R$ 3.00 R$ 3.00 - R$ 3.00 R$ 3.00 - R$ 4.00 R$ 3.00 - R$ 3.50 R$ 3.00 - R$ 3.50 R$ 3.50 - R$ 4.00 R$ 3.50 - R$ 4.50

R$ 3.12 R$ 3.00 R$ 3.00 R$ 3.00 R$ 3.41 R$ 3.07 R$ 3.23 R$ 3.67 R$ 3.90

KG

Total

3,836

56

R$ 2.20 - R$ 4.50

R$ 3.30

KG KG KG KG KG KG KG KG KG KG KG

JAN MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

125 174 123 100 190 113 706 16 107 69 370

2 3 4 3 4 5 10 1 3 3 7

R$ 3.00 - R$ 3.50 R$ 3.00 - R$ 4.00 R$ 3.00 - R$ 4.50 R$ 4.00 - R$ 4.00 R$ 4.00 - R$ 5.00 R$ 3.50 - R$ 4.50 R$ 3.50 - R$ 4.00 R$ 3.60 - R$ 3.60 R$ 3.50 - R$ 4.50 R$ 4.00 - R$ 5.00 R$ 4.00 - R$ 5.00

R$ 3.25 R$ 3.67 R$ 3.87 R$ 4.00 R$ 4.50 R$ 4.00 R$ 3.95 R$ 3.60 R$ 4.00 R$ 4.50 R$ 4.29

KG

Total

2,093

45

R$ 3.00 - R$ 5.00

R$ 4.04

75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG 75 LITERS-BAG

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

184 102 44 76 137 90 82 123 61 77 165 139

43 28 14 17 35 32 24 38 21 27 51 28

R$ 60.00 - R$ 120.00 R$ 60.00 - R$ 100.00 R$ 70.00 - R$ 80.00 R$ 75.00 - R$ 130.00 R$ 80.00 - R$ 120.00 R$ 90.00 - R$ 120.00 R$ 80.00 - R$ 100.00 R$ 85.00 - R$ 130.00 R$ 90.00 - R$ 160.00 R$ 60.00 - R$ 180.00 R$ 118.00 - R$ 200.00 R$ 150.00 - R$ 180.00

R$ 74.88 R$ 75.18 R$ 73.93 R$ 89.41 R$ 97.29 R$ 100.47 R$ 97.92 R$ 101.97 R$ 111.90 R$ 128.33 R$ 163.69 R$ 167.32

75 LITERS-BAG

Total

1,280

358

R$ 60.00 - R$ 200.00

R$ 110.54

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APPENDIX IV

APPENDIX IV List of species composing the protocol of fauna of conservation interest and species selection criteria.

CRITERIA

SPECIES

• Threatened or potentially threatened; overexploited in the past for commercial purposes, appreciated and consumed by the local population

Trichechus inunguis (peixe-boi, South American manatee), Tapirus terrestris (anta, Lowland tapir), Arapaima gigas (pirarucu, Arapaima)

• Threatened or potentially threatened; overexploited in the past for commercial purposes, usually persecuted by the local population

Harpia harpyja (gavião-real, Harpy eagle), Panthera onca (onçapintada, Jaguar), Pteronura brasiliensis (ariranha, Giant otter)

• Threatened or potentially threatened; population rare, and/or species with poorly known geographic distribution

Speothos venaticus (cachorro-do-mato-vinagre, Bush dog), Atelocynus microtis (cachorro-do-mato, Short-eared dog), Priodontes maximus (tatu-canastra, Giant armadillo), Podocnemis sextuberculata (iaçá, Six-tubercled Amazon River turtle), Myrmecophaga tridactyla (tamanduá-bandeira, Giant anteater)

• Not threatened or data deficient; over-exploited in the past for commercial purposes, appreciated and consumed by the local population

Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (capivara, Capybara), Podocnemis expansa (tartaruga-da-Amazônia, South American river turtle), Nothocrax urumutum (urumutum, Nocturnal curassow), Pauxi spp. (mutum, Curassow), Aburria cumanensis (cujubim, Neotropical piping guan)

• Not threatened or data deficient; over-exploited in the past for commercial purposes, usually persecuted by the local population

Lontra longicaudis (lontra, Neotropical otter), Puma concolor (onça-vermelha, Puma), Melanosuchus niger (jacaré-açu, Black caiman), Eunectes murinus (sucuri, Green anaconda)

• Not threatened; population rare, and/or species with poorly known geographic distribution

Nasua nasua (quati, South American coati), Kinosternon scorpioides (cabeçudinho-peito-de-mola, Scorpion mud turtle), Phrynops spp. (lalá, Red turtle), Chelus fimbriatus (matamatá, Matamata turtle), Opisthocomus hoazin (cigana, Hoatzin), Galictis vittata (janauari, Greater grison)

Uma experiência de monitoramento participativo na Amazônia brasileira - SiMUR / An experience of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in the Brazilian Amazon - SiMUR