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TRANSCENDENCE DEC 2016

VOL 1 ISSUE 3

From FUTURESTICA


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From Futurestica


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This Month On Futurestica Blog A bit on blogging, a bit on entrepreneurship and a bit on science… How To Have Our Voices Heard In This Noisy World?

That’s what happened this month on the Futurestica blog, as a continuation of our last month’s work we were writing about blogging and tips for beginners in this field . After that we moved to the topic of entrepreneurship and then again back to science.

The Quest For A Theory of Everything

How To Become An Entrepreneur?

Click Here To View The Futurestica Blog 3


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Edited and Designed By,

Written By,

Niranjanan

Deekshith

A whole lot different from the last issue, this time we have came up with another new design and also lot more contents apart from the monthly news updates. On this third issue we have tried our best to make the contents more legitimate as possible along with providing you an interactive display. If you are having any comments, complaints or suggestions then please mail it to niranjananprajith@gmail.com or deekshith2k@gmail.com. Regards, Futurestica Crew

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News Breakthrough in the Quantum Transfer of Information between Matter and Light

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Living Bio-Hybrid Systems

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Gold Nanoparticles Effective for Cancer

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Detection of Water on Asteroid Psyche

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Special Articles Evolution of Homosapiens

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Views of the Universe

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Phychokinesis and the Power of the Mind

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The Reason Why We Need The String Theory

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Breakthrough in the Quantum Transfer of Information between Matter and Light

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cientists are getting closer to a breakthrough in quantum technology one where the transfer of information via quantum principles makes the process almost instantaneous. Scientists from the Poly-technique Montreal and France's Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique have brought the world closer to a time when information can now be transferred instantaneously. This creation of a qubit in zinc selenide makes it possible to produce an interface between quantum physics and the transfer of information at the speed of light. This makes it possible to produce quantum communication networks. Zinc selenide is a well known semiconductor material. In today's computers, classical physics rules. Billions of electrons works together to make up an information. Bit 0, electrons are absent and bit 1, electrons are present. In quantum physics, single electrons are instead preferred since they express an amazing attribute the electron can take the value of 0, 1 or any superposition of these two states. This is the qubit, the quantum equivalent of the classical bit. Qubits provide stunning

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The merging of quantum physics with the speed of light means being able to transfer information at levels on a nanometer scale. This new technique shows that it is possible to create a qubit faster than with all the methods that have been used until now.

possibilities for researchers. An electron revolves around itself, somewhat like a spinning top. That's the spin. By applying a magnetic field, this spin points up, down, or simultaneously points both up and down to form a qubit. Better still, instead of using an electron, we can use the absence of an electron, this is what physicists call a hole. Like its electron cousin, the hole has a spin from which a qubit can be formed. Qubits are intrinsically fragile quantum creatures. They therefore need a special environment. Meanwhile, the merging of quantum physics with the speed of light means being able to transfer information at levels on a nanometer scale. This new technique shows that it is possible to create a qubit faster than with all the methods that have been used until now.

Although this accomplishment bodes well, there remains a lot of work to do before a quantum network can be used to conduct unconditionally secure banking transactions or build a quantum computer able to perform the most complex calculations.

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Living Bio-Hybrid Systems

A big challenge in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices .

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s it possible to transfer information from biological systems to a man-made thing? One of the biggest challenges in rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. Large multidisciplinary effort of researchers in Italy brought together physicists, chemists, biochemists, engineers, molecular biologists and physiologists to analyze the biocompatibility of the substrate used to connect these biological and human-made components, and investigate the functionality of the adhering cells, creating a living bio-hybrid system. After this Raman's spectroscopy becomes a useful tool for investigating micro-objects such as cells and tissues. Raman spectroscopy presents clear advantages for this type of investigation: The molecular composition and the modification of sub cellular compartments can be obtained in label-free conditions with non-invasive methods and under physiological conditions, allowing the investigation of a large variety of biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. Once the biocompatibility of the substrate was analyzed and the functionality of


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the adhering cells investigated, the next part of this puzzle is connecting with the electronic component. In this case a memristor was used. Depending on the amount of voltage that has been applied to it in the past, it is able to vary its resistance, because of a change of its microscopic physical properties. By combining memristors, it is possible to create pathways within the electrical circuits that work similar to the natural synapses, which develop variable weight in their connections to reproduce the learning mechanism. Layers of organic polymers, like polyaniline a semiconductor polymer, also have memristive properties, allowing them to work directly with biological materials into a hybrid bio-electronic system.

Raman spectroscopy, a technique that until now, has only been principally applied to material science. Spectroscopy becomes a useful tool for investigating microobjects such as cells and tissues. Raman spectroscopy presents clear advantages for this type of investigation: The molecular composition and the modiďŹ cations iofsub cellular compartments can be obtained in label-free conditions with non -invasive methods and under physiological conditions, allowing the investigation of a large variety of biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. 9


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Gold Nanoparticles Effective for

Cancer Tagging gold nanoparticles with a small dose of radiation has helped researchers trace the precious metal as it delivers a drug right into the heart of cancer cells, according to new laboratory research. In most cells of the body, telomeres act like an in-built timer to ensure that the cell does not live past its expiry date. Telomeres shorten each time the cell divides. Once a critical length is reached, the cell can no longer divide and it dies. Cancer cells manage to get around this safety check by reactivating telomerase allowing them to continue to grow out of control.

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ancers can start in almost any body cell, due to damage or defects in genes involved in cell division. Mutations build up over time, which is why people tend to develop cancer later in life. What actually triggers these cell changes remains unclear, but diet, lifestyle, viral infections, exposure to radiation or harmful chemicals, and inherited genes are among factors thought to affect a person's risk of cancer. One of the biggest hurdles in treating cancer is getting effective drugs into cancer cells, particularly to where the chromosomes are stored. This specific drug targets a moleculetelomerase, that builds up the protective caps at the end of chromosomes called telomeres. In most cells of the body, telomeres act like an inbuilt timer to ensure that the cell does not live past its expiry date. Telomeres shorten each time the cell divides. Once a critical length is reached, the cell can no longer divide and it dies. Cancer cells manage to get around this safety check by reactivating telomerase allowing them to continue to grow out of control. 10


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Researchers from the Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology have been working on better ways to transport a drug directly into the control room of cancer cells. Kate Vallis a researcher at Oxford institute of radiation Oncology argued that "Gold is precious in more than one way". By engineering the gold nanoparticles and adding the radioactive tracer, the researchers were able to prove that their drug was reaching the desired target in skin cancer cells grown in the lab and was shutting telomerase down, halting cancer's growth. By increasing the dose can the kill the cancer effective cells.

By engineering the gold nanoparticles and adding the radioactive tracer, the researchers were able to prove that their drug was reaching the desired target in skin cancer cells grown in the lab and was shutting telomerase down, halting cancer's growth. While the radioactive tracer was used to precisely follow the drug in this study, the same method can also be used to deliver a dose of radioactivity to cancer cells, helping to kill them.

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Detection of Water on Asteroid Psyche

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arth is the only planet which supports life, as of today's knowing. But recently there have been many discoveries of planets that have water in it. Water has been showing up in all sorts of unexpected places in our solar system, such as the Moon, Mercury and Saturn's moon Ganymede. Recently, psyche a metal rich asteroids is expected to have trace of water in it. Psyche is thought to be the largest metallic asteroid in the solar system, at 300 km across and likely consists of almost pure nickel-iron metal. Asteroids usually fall into two categories: those rich in silicates, and those rich in carbon and volatiles. Metallic asteroids like Psyche are extremely rare. That makes it a laboratory to study how planets formed.Scientists had thought Psyche was made up of the leftover core of a protoplanet that was mostly destroyed by impacts billions of years ago. Observations from NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility found evidence for volatiles such as water or hydroxyl on the asteroid's surface. Hydroxyl is a free radical consisting of one hydrogen atom bound to one oxygen atom. Metal-rich asteroids like Psyche are thought to have formed under dry conditions without the presence 12


futurestica.wordpress.com 16 Psyche is one of the ten mostmassive asteroids in the asteroid belt. It is over 200 kilometers in diameter and contains a little less than 1% of the mass of the entire asteroid belt. It is thought to be the exposed iron core of a protoplanet. It is the most massive metallic M-type asteroid. Psyche was discovered by the Italian astronomer Annibale de Gasparis on 17 March 1852 from Naples and named after the Greek mythological figure Psyche.

of water or hydroxyl, so scientists were puzzled by the observations at first. The most likely explanation, however is that the water seen on Psyche might have been delivered by carbonaceous asteroids that impacted Psyche in the distant past, as is thought to have occurred on early Earth. A mission to Psyche is on the short list of mission proposals being considered by NASA, with a potential launch as early as 2020. A team of NASA suggests, an orbiting spacecraft could explore this unique asteroid and determine if whether there is water or hydroxyl on the surface.

Telescope observations show evidence of water or hydroxyl on its surface. The source of these hydroxyl or water molecules on Psyche remains a mystery. Researchers believe that Water-rich minerals detected on Psyche may have been delivered by carbonaceous asteroids that may had impacted it in the distant past.

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Evolution of Homosapiens

Amino acids on dry surface or when washed by rain is expected to be safe from ultraviolet radiation. At last one appeared with the ability to reproduce by itself, DNA. And with the appearance of DNA life on earth began. 14

Deekshith Diwakaran deekshith2k@gmail.com

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hen scientists found evidence of simple living cells in rocks they have determined to be 3.5 billion years old, it gave them the reason to wonder, how could life have begun on an irradiated, oxygen starved earth? They began their exploring day and night resulting in the discovery of amino acid- the building block of life. The amino acids on dry surface or when washed by rain is expected to be safe from ultraviolet radiation. At last one appeared worth the ability to reproduce by itself. That molecule was similar to that of DNA the complex organic molecules that exist today in every living cells. And with the appearance of DNA life on earth began. From the small cell began the life. In a way we usually have any circumstances to overcome, the same happened to the cell. The cell evolves to more dominant species to overcome some circumstances. Around 4 million years ago, something in the environment led the first hominids to leave the trees and walk upright, marking the


futurestica.wordpress.com official transition to human status. Moreover humans are the dominant species of all. Usually humans attain the highest order as the most intelligent species on earth. Evolution tends to cause these changes. But where is evolution taking us? Will humans chose to digitalize their consciousnesses—becoming electronic immortals? One possibility is that human evolution is dead or become an electronic item- robot. Sometimes humans will build a more intelligent species and thus they destroy us, because of the principle survival of the fittest. A completely new type of human species will evolve as a result of radical new technology, behavior, and natural selection. This is according to Cadell. Last, a researcher at the Global Brain Institute claims that mankind is undergoing a major 'evolutionary transition'. The biological clock isn't going to be around forever. Tran-humanism raises a spectacular array of possibilities, from supersoldiers and new breeds of athletes to immortal beings who, having had their brains scanned atom by atom, transfer their minds to computers. In addition to living forever, "uploaded" beings would be able to travel at the speed of light as an information pattern, download themselves into robots for the occasional stroll through the real world, think faster when running on advanced operating systems, and cut their food budget down to zero.

A completely new type of human species will evolve as a result of radical new technology, behavior, and natural selection. This is according to Cadell. Last, a researcher at the Global Brain Institute claims that mankind is undergoing a major 'evolutionary transition'. The biological clock isn't going to be around forever. Tran-humanism raises a spectacular array of possibilities, from super-soldiers and new breeds of athletes to immortal beings who, having had their brains scanned atom by atom, transfer their minds to computers.

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Views of the

Universe Deekshith Diwakaran deekshith2k@gmail.com

For thousands of years humans have struggled to make a sense of what they see all around them. They have observed, calculated, and conjectured, trying to articulate an explanation for a puzzle whose pieces are slowly being revealed with each scientific breakthrough.

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e on earth think of the universe as a vastness containing everything we know of and much that we cannot even imagine. Humans have struggled to make a sense of what they see all around them. They have observed, calculated, and conjectured, trying to articulate an explanation for a puzzle whose pieces are slowly being revealed with each scientific breakthrough. Accepted astrophysical findings points out that at sometime in the past there was nothing. The matter that makes up everything that now exist was concentrated in a single, extremely dense point known as singularity. The force of gravity in a singularity is so great that the fabric of space time curves on itself. In an instant known as Big Bang, however the contents of the primordial singularity escaped and formed the universe. Though the name Big Bang stuck, it gives a false impression, making it seem as though the event that unleashed all energy of the universe almost 14 billion years ago was an explosion. We usually see Big Bang more as an instantaneous expansion that within a few seconds produced protons, neutrons and electrons that form the structure of matter today. With the occurrence of the fundamental forces of the universe, the Inflation Epoch began. Most cosmological models suggest that the


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Universe at this point was filled homogeneously with highenergy density, and that the incredibly high temperatures and pressure gave rise to rapid expansion and cooling. As a result of this, particle–antiparticle pairs of all kinds were being continuously annihilated in collisions, however a small quantity of matter survived that makes our present universe. After that, the Universe began to cool and matter coalesced and formed. After that the universe was roughly one quarter helium three quarter hydrogen, a ratio exhibited in the universe's oldest stars today. The story of the universe still is being written and refined. By all scientific accounts, it continues to expand, and the question of an eventual end looms large in current investigation.

After the Inflationary Epoch Universe was filled homogeneously with highenergy density, and that the incredibly high temperatures and pressure gave rise to rapid expansion and cooling. As a result of this, particle–antiparticle pairs of all kinds were being continuously annihilated in collisions, however a small quantity of matter survived that makes our present universe. After that, the Universe began to cool and matter coalesced and formed.

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TITLE X of the Mind Phychokinesis and the Power Moving solid objects through space with just the power of the mind have been the subject of many science-fiction stories, novels and movies for a very long time. But is it really possible for us humans to achieve that power?

Niranjanan Prajith niranjananprajith@gmail.com

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oving solid objects through space with just the power of the mind have been the subject of many science-fiction stories, novels and movies for a very long time. This power called phychokinesis is mostly referred to as belonging to the god, they move things from small candlesticks to even large buildings just by thinking about them. Well, that’s all mythology and fiction. Now, the question is that, is it really possible for us humans to achieve that power? We all know that electrical signals stimulate taught in our mind. What they do is that they move and rearrange the molecules in our brain. But anyway our mind would never be able to perform phychokinetic feats because the power generated is so weak that it could not even move a grain of sand. So phychokinesis as we see in the movies are out of question as with our present day understanding of science. But it doesn’t mean that phychokinesis is completely impossible now. Its possibility lies not in our biology but in our technology. Moving things through space without any physical contact with the help of computers is well proved. Even if it could only be applied for small objects like a frog, it won’t take more than a few decades before it could be applied for large objects like a book, a monkey or 18


futurestica.wordpress.com even a human being.

yet to be developed. Experts point out that integrating these two technologies would enable us to control a central computer via our mind which would in turn move objects without any physical contact, such feats would be indistinguishable from magic and moreover the most interesting thing is that it could be a reality in the coming 20 or 30 years.

Another technology so important to be mentioned here is the one that enables us to input instructions to a computer directly from our brain. Tiny electrodes placed in the human head could detect the electrical signals in the brain while a computer program identifies the patterns of these electrical signals and thereby understand what the user was thinking. Don’t really believe it? Then see how fast Then it sends the data to the human technologies have been processor in the form of a comdeveloping in the past decades. mand. Search engines have been here Scientifically only for the past 26 years, digiEven though this technology is phychokenisis tal cell phones for the past 25 only able to interpret very simlike powers years, smart phones for the ple commands like the movecould only be past 24 years, GPS for the past ment of the cursor on a PC generated by 23 years, USBs a DVDs for the screen or the usage of the arthe combinapast 21 years, Bluray/HD DVDs row keys while playing a video tion of our and podcasts for the past 13 game. But it proves to be a technology and years, surface computing for promising technology for the biology. the past 10 years and i-phones future. At present scientists are for the past 9 years. so thing of trying to use this technology to what this rapidly accelerating type words and sentences, for this the field of technology could do in the coming computer should be able to distinguish 20 or 30 years. 26 different brain patterns for the letters and a few more for the characters inbetween. Progress in this field is hiking and many scientists hope that they could code read the human mind within a few decades from now. Scientifically phychokenisis like powers could only be generated from the combination of these two technologies that are 19


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The Reason Why We Need

The String Theory

The standard model was so weird that some of the scientists considered it as one of the ugliest theories ever proposed in physics.

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Niranjanan Prajith niranjananprajith@gmail.com

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n the last issue I wrote about ‘The Quest for a Theory of Everything’, and stopped with the introduction to string theory. And now let’s see what the real scientific and philosophical significance of this theory is. Well, before talking about the technical aspects of the string theory we need to know why it was developed. In the twentieth century there occurred the development of a quantum mechanical framework known as the standard model of particle physics, which was intended to explain all particles that exist in this universe under a single framework. It didn’t completely fail in achieving its goal but the problem was that when it neared completion, it was so weird that some of the scientists considered it as one of the ugliest


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theories ever proposed in physics. It contained 36 quarks and anti-quarks, 19 or more free parameters, 3 generations of redundant particles, whole bunch of gluons, Yang Mill’s particles, w-bosons, z-bosons, Higgs bosons and many more, you will surely go crazy in trying to make sense and order out of this rag-tag bunch of subatomic particles. It doesn’t stop here, even with such a lot of varieties of particle the standard model was able to explain only 4% of the matter-energy content of this universe, dark matter make up 23% and dark energy make up the other 73%. So, a large part of the universe is missing in the standard model. The standard model was developed in a process similar to putting together a jig-saw puzzle, scientists started by creating the skeleton of the framework and filling it up step by step on the basis of discoveries that were made by decades of particle accelerator experiments, mainly in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During particle accelerator experiments two protons were accelerated to near the speed of light and were made to hit each other, during these high energy collisions the protons break apart and its constituent subatomic particles are released, these particles have very short life, only a tiny fraction of a millisecond before they get absorbed into other atoms. In this extremely short time period highly accurate sensors trace the path of these particles in the internal electromagnetic field of the collider and thereby identify the characteristics and type of the particle. But after the identification of these dozens and dozens of different particles and grouping them, scientists found a gap in the model, a theoretically predicted particle which was to take that place was missing, it was that very fa-

After the identification of these dozens and dozens of different particles and grouping them, scientists found a gap in the model, a theoretically predicted particle which was to take that place was missing, it was that very famous particle named the Higgs boson. It was very fundamental for the relevance of the standard model that the media nicknamed it as the ‘God Particle’. After intense search finally it was observed on 4 July 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider and later it was confirmed.

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futurestica.wordpress.com It was this simplicity of the string theory that made it very popular among physicists and also among many others in the public. At present many points to it as the only contender for a theory of everything. But string theory is still at its infancy and has very little experimental evidence.

mous particle named the Higgs boson. It was very fundamental for the relevance of the standard model that the media nicknamed it as the ‘God Particle’. After intense search finally it was observed on 4 July 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider and later it was confirmed (Francois Englert and Peter Higgs won the Nobel prize in physics 2013 for its prediction and discovery), but it didn’t bought an end to the unification problem because by the time a lot of arguments have been raised against the standard model. Many of the scientists argued that we need a much more simplified theory and string theory was quiet good alternative. About the same time another sensation swept through the scientific community, which was the search for a theory of everything. Most of the theorists were behind formulating a theory of quantum gravity. Some of them felt that we would also need a new model of this universe in order to make the unified theory as sim22

ple as possible, and there too they came for the string theory. That was because the string theory eliminates the whole mess of particles proposed by the standard model and explains all particles as vibrating strings, and the different types of particles are characterized by different quantum states of the strings. It was this simplicity of the string theory that made it very popular among physicists and also among many others in the public. At present many points to it as the only contender for a theory of everything. But string theory is still at its infancy and has very little experimental evidence. We don’t know whether the postulates that the string theory puts forward are really true or not until it is completely developed and put into the test. So only time will prove whether the string theory is a theory of everything or a theory of nothing.


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Transcendence December 2016