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This issue we asked our experts: When darkness falls, what monsters prowl at the edge of your imagination when the night is at its most quiet? That or how do you secure your Linux home… Jonni Bidwell I burn white sage, place rowan branches and draw apotropaic symbols and engravings around the perimeter of my encampment. This keeps all malevolent spirits at bay. So this winter I’ve done the same for my computers. It works better than most commercial AV products, and my machines look and smell much better.
Neil Bothwick I check the supply of boiling oil at each murder hole and pull up the drawbridge (after making sure the crocodiles in the moat haven’t been fed). I also have a number of webcams and IP cameras hooked up to a PC running motion, But that’s more for entertainment value when the local ‘entrepreneurs’ fall in the moat.
Nick Peers There’s nothing worse than waking up and glimpsing something dark through a gap in the curtains. Is it a bear? A phantom? A murderer come to kill us all in our beds? It’s never been anything other than a conifer tree or trick of the light – so far – but for those 30 seconds it doesn’t matter if you’re 14 or 40, reason has fled the room.
Mayank Sharma I’d go with Shashank’s advice to guard all the IoT devices strewn across my realm if only I wasn’t petrified of Benedict Cumberbatch’s alter ego’s of Khan and Smaug getting the best of him. What do you do if your home guard suddenly transforms into a fire-breathing genetically engineered creature?
Shashank Sharma Security is not something I take lightly and only trust industry leaders to show me how. The first step is to get Benedict Cumberbatch’s Sherlock to do a security audit and then on his advise let Benedict Cumberbatch’s Dr. Strange to deploy some protective spells. All the crazy gesturing aside, it actually works!
Secured for 2017 We know 2016 was bad for security threats and 2017 isn’t looking any better. But with hackers turning their attention to poorly secured internet of thing (IoT) devices, rather than better secured servers or desktop computers, isn’t it about time you started taking your network security more seriously? This issue we take a long look at the rush by consumers to install insecure devices on their home networks, what you can do to lock down your own network and devices to help protect yourself, create a truly secure smart home built not only on Linux servers, but also Linux-powered IoT devices that you control. It’s these last two points that are just as important. Part of the issue with the IoT is the loss of ownership and control people have over these devices. We’ve seen Google try and kill nearly-new devices, fly-by night Chinese companies dumping insecure cameras and devices online, while plenty of devices are shipped with insecure admin settings. It’s another case of Stallman was right: if you don’t own the device and ecosystem you don’t own anything. That’s why we also explain how you can build your own IoT devices and then take control of them through your own secure systems, both internally and externally to your networks. You won’t look at IoT devices in quite the same way again. But we can’t be paranoid all of the time [who said that?–Ed] so there’s the usual host of open source fun to be had throughout the magazine. We look at how you can dump Minecraft in favour of the open source Minetest both on the Raspberry Pi (with full OpenGL acceleration) and on the Linux desktop. We consider working from home more with remote desktop, building a website in the Dark Web and much more. So enjoy another amazing open source issue!
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February 2017 LXF220 3
“We hang the petty thieves and appoint the great ones to public office.” – Aesop
Reviews Ledger HW.1....................... 17 With Bitcoin prices soaring again how can you safely carry around your digital currency without it getting hacked? Here’s how, the wallet for a digital generation.
Is that a bitcoin in your pocket or does your colostomy bag need changing?
Google Daydream View....18
Secure your smart home With everyone’s home bristling with smart devices shouldn’t you be making them more secure? Do it now on p32.
Roundup: Remote desktops p24
What do you buy the phone owner with everything? Well nothing, as they already have everything, but perhaps the latest VR add-on might complement their Pixel?
Korora 25 Gnome...............19 Codenamed Gurgle, which isn’t a great start, the Fedora-based distro recovers well with stability and modern packages, but is this the ideal distro for a new user?
Zentyal Server 5.0............. 20 Despite his fondness for the command-line, Shashank Sharma is quite smitten with the point-and-click interface offered by Zentyal for configuring servers.
A quick and dirty way to get a server.
Caine 8.0..............................21 Shashank Sharma feels quite like Inspector Morse in pursuit of dark secrets with the Caine forensic investigation suite.
Deus Ex: Mankind Divided... 22 Are you an augmented human or are you just glad to see me? Nevermind, you’ll never run this game the requirements are insane.
Interview Our goal is to continue to provide a first class Linux-based developer laptop. Barton George on the future of Linux on Dell devices p40
4 LXF220 February 2017
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Raspberry Pi User
In-depth... Building sites on Tor............. 44
Pi news.................................... 58
Enter the Dark Web with Jonni Bidwell as he explains how to build a secure website.
The Foundation’s PIXEL desktop distro comes to x86 and Pimoroni releases a HAT of Rainbows.
Raspberry Pi 2 v1.2............... 59 A new Pi? Les Pounder reveals all on the faster Pi release no one has heard about.
Whiptail................................... 60 Les Pounder introduces us to the world of Whiptail, a menu system that can make your Raspberry Pi adventures more fun.
Minetest.................................. 62 Jonni Bidwell decides enough is enough, it’s time to dump Microsoft Minecraft and embrace the open source Minetest on Pi and PC.
Tutorials Terminal basics Alternative shells.............68
D3.js data plotting................ 84 What’s the plot wonders Mihalis Tsoukalos as he explains how to use the D3.js library to generate graphs and plots of anything from complex data sets.
The Ubuntu Terminal is just one of many shells available. Nick Peers sees if the alternatives offer anything different.
Servers Using Cockpit...................70
Handle text in Python.......... 88 “Words! Words everywhere!” cries Mihalis Tsoukalos as he shows you everything you need to know to start using the Python for text processing and manipulation.
Designed for managing servers, the Cockpit tool makes Shashank Sharma look dapper in his system administrator hat.
Regulars at a glance News.............................. 6 Subscriptions............30 Overseas subs........... 67 CyanogenMod is no more, but life
Wasn’t your New Year resolution to
We ship Linux Format all around the
continues through Lineage OS. Linux
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store for Ubuntu’s Zesty Zapus?
Sysadmin....................48 Mr. Brown’s New Year resolution is to
Next month................98. We’re always warning you about putting your data in other people’s
Print me a keyboard, we’re wrong
get his copy in on time. Meanwhile,
hands now we’ll actually show you
again and we plug our Made Simple
Mr Bothwick covers ARM’s image
how to do something about it.
range as we have a load to sell…
problems and takes a look at Ansible.
Alexander Tolstoy hasn’t been
excited about the Pi’s Birthday bash.
hacking anything you hear, he’s far
IceCat, Hyper, Darling, myFinances,
With his Machiavellian ways Mayank
SiriKali, NewBreeze, CuteReport, QWeborf, Abiword, Unknown
control. He tells us he’s also the best.
Join Shashank Sharma as he explores one of the most popular version control systems and puts it to everyday use.
Now it’s secure, you can go on and unify all of your smart-home devices.
too busy hacking out FOSS like: GNU
Sharma loves a bit of remote desktop
Version control Tackle Git.......................... 74
Smarter homes Linux home control......... 76
User groups................ 15 HotPicks..................... 52 Les Pounder gets ridiculously
A slicker way to manage servers.
Web hosting Drupal 8............................. 80 Our subscription team is waiting for your call.
Discover the latest release of the long running CMS for high-demand web hosting.
February 2017 LXF220 5
This ISSUE: RIP CyanogenMod
Mobile OS news
CyanogenMod is dead Long live Lineage OS! The CyanogenMod Android ROM has been discontinued, but the new OS distribution emerges to take on its mantle.
t the end of 2016, Cyanogen Inc, the company behind CyanogenMod, announced that it was shutting down the infrastructure behind the popular open source Android ROM, with a blog post on the 23 December (http://bit.ly/ CyanogenShutDown) stating that all services and Cyanogen-supported nightly builds would be discontinued by New Year’s Eve. While the closure of CyanogenMod was a surprise to many, for a few people it appeared the writing had been on the wall for some time. As a blog post by the remaining CyanogenMod team stated (archived by Wayback Machine http://bit.ly/AForkInTheRoad) that the public spat between the founder of CyanogenMod, Steve Kondik, and Cyanogen Inc spelled the end for the project. Kondik wasn’t happy with the way Cyanogen Inc was handling CyanogenMod and various business deals that he saw as detrimental to the project, such as the falling out between Cynanogen and its biggest commercial customer, OnePlus, the Chinese smartphone manufacturer. With Kondrick’s departure (he was the last of the original team), many members of the CyanogenMod project and community felt that they had lost their voice in the future direction of CyanogenMod, with distrust between company and project growing. Cyanogen Inc’s pulling of support for CyanogenMod was the final straw, but even though support for CyanogenMod has been dropped, the community behind it has proved that no open source project can truly die. The Lineage OS Android distribution (http://lineageos.org) has risen from the ashes, with a promise that
6 LXF220 February 2017
“LineageOS will be a continuation of what CyanogenMod was”. Originally created as a fork of CyanogenMod, Lineage OS uses the CyanogenMod source code and will continue with the pending patches designed for the previous distro. In a previous blog post, the CyanogenMod team promised that “this fork will return to the grassroots community effort that used to define CM while maintaining the professional quality and reliability you have come to
Lineage OS has a new name and logo for the New Year.
for the new project. Free from the controversial interference of Cyanogen Inc, a company that increasingly appeared to be out of step with the project that made its name, and built by a committed community that’s keen to preserve the legacy of CyanogenMod, Lineage OS could quite possibly be the most exciting thing to happen to Android mods in a long time. Though we’re sad to see the end of CyanogenMod, we’re looking forward to
“It appears that the name ‘Lineage OS’ was carefully chosen, highlighting the new OS’ strong connection to CyanogenMod.” expect more recently.” It appears that the name ‘Lineage OS’ was carefully chosen, highlighting the new OS’ strong connection to CyanogenMod project, while also looking towards the future, in a bid to continue and improve on CyanogenMod’s work. While it’s early days for Lineage OS (the official name and logo have only just been revealed), we have high hopes
what the future holds. It’s also an excellent example of how open source projects can continue (and hopefully thrive), even when support is pulled. Maybe this will be a cautionary tale for Cyanogen Inc and other companies not to lose sight of why the community embraced the project in the first place— if you upset the community, they could leave and create an alternative.
Newsdesk Ubuntu news
What’s in store for Ubuntu 17.04? We look ahead to the latest release of Ubuntu.
s the number suggests, Ubuntu 17.04 (codenamed Zesty Zapus) will be landing on April 13 2017 and as usual this new version will be bringing a host of features to the popular Linux distro. Perhaps the biggest change will be the fully fleshed out Unity 8 interface, which has been improving since it made its debut as a development preview in Ubuntu 16.10. One of the main focuses of Unity 8 will be ‘convergence’, that oft promised feature that brings a similar Ubuntu experience no matter what sort of device you are using, from a standard laptop or desktop PC to a mobile device using Ubuntu Touch. Richard Collins, Product Manager at Canonical, told the Ubuntu Online Summit that “The next big target for us is to evolve the Unity 8 experience so that it runs as both a touch and a desktop experience. We’re making great progress with that … We’re heavily focused on releasing the Unity 8 experience on 17.04”. This appears to be an ambitious goal, as it involves moving from DEB packages to Snap packages, as well as replicating Unity 7 window movement, improving Unity 8’s performance on non-touchscreen devices (such as alternating the look of app interfaces based on whether they are
opened using a mouse or by touching the screen), big changes to the application drawer and multimonitor support. Another big change is that Ubuntu 17.04 will ditch the need for a creating a swap partition when installing and will use swap files instead. Swap files will typically use no more than 5% of free disk space. Keep an eye out for our full review of Ubuntu 17.04 in LXF224. If you can’t wait that long to try it out, you can download the daily build of Ubuntu 17.04 from http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ ubuntu/daily-live/current.
Ubuntu 17.04 brings Unity 8 aimed at unifying the user experience across devices.
A bumper year for gaming Over 1,000 games were released for Steam on Linux in 2016.
hile Windows is still the operating system of choice for gamers (with Windows 10 now installed on 50% of Steam users’ PCs), 2016 was a fantastic year for Linux games, with over 1,000 new games that support Linux being released on Steam. This influx of Linux-supporting games has shown that games developers have taken notice
Despite our misgivings over reboots, 2016’s Doom release was a lot of fun.
of Linux, as well as encouraging graphics card manufacturers to make sure their hardware is supported in Linux with up-to-date drivers. All of this has made Linux a more viable Windows alternative for PC gamers looking to break free from Microsoft’s operating system. Even if a game doesn’t officially support Linux, there’s still ways to play it. For instance, the new Doom FPS has been showcased running on Ubuntu 16.04 with full Vulkan support via Wine (see the video here: http://bit.ly/VulkanDoom). The video shows just how well the Windows-only Doom runs thanks to the Vulkan API. If more game developers support Vulkan and games continue to run so well on Linux without official support, 2017 could be even better for Linux gaming.
Newsbytes The Document Foundation has announced MUFFIN (My User Friendly & Flexible Interface), designed to make using LibreOffice easier and more enjoyable. The key principles of MUFFIN is ‘My’, which refers to the personal UI that will adapt itself to a user’s way of working—rather than a one size fits all UI. It must also be userfriendly, with a modular approach that will allow users to ‘set their own level of user friendliness’ although we’re not sure why anyone would deliberately want to create an intentionally un-user friendly interface. It must also be flexible enough to run comfortably on the wide range of devices running LibreOffice. MUFFIN will be available with LibreOffice 5.3, and you can find out more at http://bit.ly/MuffinOnLibreOffice.
MUFFIN – what’s a good UI without a clumsy acronym?
TechRepublic has released a range of predictions for 2017 (http://bit.ly/LinuxAt5Percent), including the ambitious goal of Linux reaching 5% market share. This is particularly determined as Linux has maintained its 2.3% market share. While that market share is reason enough for celebration (and has been holding steady), Jack Wallen, who wrote the piece, feels that 2017 is Linux’s time to shine, with userfriendly and attractive distros, such as Elementary OS, pushing adoption of Linux. Other pundits have suggested a market share of 3% is more realistic and while we’d love to side with Wallen on this, even we think that 5% is out of reach this year. But it’s not impossible. Nvidia has unveiled the DGX-1, its ‘AI supercomputer in a box’, which includes machine-learning software powered by eight of Nvidia’s most powerful GPUs, which Nvidia promises will enable the system to train customers’ analytical models and could help with future breakthroughs in science by allowing scientists to run deep-learning algorithms that are more powerful than previously thought possible. Each DGX-1 comes prebuilt and ready to operate, and there’s a new version on its way in early 2017. However, all this power comes at a significant cost as a single unit is priced at $129,000.
February 2017 LXF220 7
Seeing through a complex cloud Mark Hinkle In hardware, processing is measured by Moore’s law, an incredible testament to the ability to squeeze more transistors onto an integrated circuit. Fifty years later we are watching software move at ‘cloud speed’, a phenomenon that allows daily and even hourly software releases. (Amazon claims to release software every 11.7 seconds!) When The Linux Foundation published its first Guide to the Open Cloud in 2013, everyone was furiously trying to build in functionality and enterprises were in the early stages of planning and testing.
Navigating the cloud Three years later, not only have cloud projects consistently grown their user and developer communities, lines of code and commits—their software is increasingly enterprise-ready. This, in turn, has advanced many projects beyond testing and to deployment. As a result, there’s now a growing demand for open source solutions from cloud service providers and companies alike. And that means the open cloud is becoming more complex—and harder to navigate. This is where our latest guide aims to help (www.linuxfoundation.org/guide-toopen-cloud). Covering well-known projects, such as Cloud Foundry, Kubernetes, Docker, KVM and OpenStack, as well as newcomers like Ansible, Hygieia, Prometheus and Rancher, the guide is designed to help users stay informed about the latest technologies and trends. You only have to take one look at the sheer breadth of projects covered to see just how important open source solutions have become for cloud computing. We are witnessing a movement towards an ever more elastic, ever more capable open source-powered ‘public cloud’. High-quality open source software is being driven by users solving big problems at incredible ‘cloud scale’.
Distro watch What’s behind the free software sofa?
Solus 2017.01.01.0 A new snapshot of Solus, an independent Linux distro that uses the eopkg package manager, has been released in two versions: Budgie and Mate. It supports mounting more devices over MTP, VLC media player can now play files over Samba and SFTP connections and it includes the 4.8.15 Linux kernel. It also has various improvements to the outof-the-box experience of Solus. http://bit.ly/Solus2017_01_01_0
Calculate Linux 17 This Gentoo-based project comes with a choice of KDE Plasma, Mate or Xfce desktops and is actually made up of three separate distros: Calculate Directory Server (that supports Windows and Linux clients), Calculate Linux Desktop (a workstation and client distro) and the live CD Calculate Linux Scratch. The main changes in 17 include a new server, Timeless, a GUI manager, overhauled appearance and new beta versions
of Calculate Linux Desktop Cinnamon and Calculate Linux Desktop LXQt available in ‘nightly’ stages. http://bit.ly/CalculateLinux17
Calculate Linux is made up of three separate distros.
Linux Kodachi 3.5 A new release of Kodachi, a Debian-based distro with a strong emphasis on security and privacy, is now available to download. Linux Kodachi 3.5 is based on Debian 8.6 Xfce and includes the Refracta installer, enabling you to permanently install Kodachi 3.5 on
your PC if you want to. The Mat Meta tool is a new addition that anonymises data, includes additional VPN tools, fixes bugs and a whole lot more. To find out more about what’s new in this release, check out the complete change log. http://bit.ly/LinuxKodachi3_5
OpenELEC 7.0 Home cinema fans rejoice, the latest version of OpenELEC, a Linux-based distro that works as a media server for streaming content around your house, has been released. It includes Kodi 16.1 – a popular media streamer, and includes Bluetooth and OpenVPN support as well. The distro also includes updated GPU drivers for AMD cards and users with previous
Mark Hinkle is vice president at The Linux Foundation.
8 LXF220 February 2017
Solus comes with the Budgie and more traditional Mate desktop environment experiences.
Includes Kodi 16.1, Bluetooth and OpenVPN has been re-included.
versions of OpenELEC, with automatic updates enabled, should see a prompt to install 7.0. To find out more visit http://bit.ly/OpenELEC7_0.
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Those books I thank you very much for the two books that you mailed to me. They arrived here yesterday. You see, our post is a little slow. I read the one about Ubuntu and will surely try a couple of things. The other about Ultimate Linux will next receive serious attention. Hopefully, I will know a lot more after reading that. I did have problems with my HP Scanner working with Linux. Then, your books arrived and there I find the solution. I followed the guide and it works! Next on the list will be Wine. Would it help if I partook some of the excellent wine that is produced hereabouts while trying to install Wine? Thanks again and all the very best. James Gibbens, South Africa Neil says: I’m glad to hear you had success with your Linux problems and I’m vaguely relieved that the bookazines actually helped out! We’re often left
wondering, here in our ivory Linux Format Towers, whether anything we do helps the proletariat out there in the desolate wind-blasted lands of Brexit and Trumpton. As it is, I imagine using Wine while drinking some fine South African wine should work wonders in terms of a successful outcome— please remember to drink responsibly. We’ve tried to make Linux simple, with lots of approachable guides to basic tasks and programs.
My internet service provider has just upgraded its systems to offer PHP 7 as an option to use now, but also as the future path for the language. Most folk will be aware of the features of PHP 5, but many are likely to be using features from PHP 5 that were deprecated at PHP 5 and now finally removed in PHP 7. How about an article highlighting the upgrade path from PHP 5 to PHP 7, highlighting such things as removed functions ? (e.g. the ‘ereg’ family of functions have now gone.) Ian Hartas, via email Neil says: That sounds pretty sensible to me and worth covering. PHP might not be widely liked – but then tell me a programming language that doesn’t have its own
set of detractors – and more tolerated, but at this stage of the game it’s so widely used it’s impossible to ignore.
Wild West In West Lancashire, we have a local group : W.L.L.C. (West Lancs Linux Club) which meets every month in Ormskirk. Our most recent get-together was a bit of an experiment: we all bought the latest issue of Linux Format and discussed it at length. The turn-out was rather small but we had an interesting time. Most people had never looked at the magazine before so it was a plunge into the depths of Linux. It was predictable that lots of articles
No one really likes PHP, especially our tamed in-house expert Jonni.
Letter of the month
Watt is wrong!
s much as I greatly appreciated your articles on the SuperPi [see Features, p32, LXF217] you got a few things wrong. Looking at portable power, one effective way is to use a portable phone charger. I use a TeckNet PowerZen with over 16,000mAh capacity, which powers a headless Pi 1 web server for about a day, currently available on you-know-who for £23. However, a comment on your careless use of terminology—mAh are not milliamps per hour they are milliamps hours. Furthermore, they are not power which is measured in watts. (To be precise
they are actually millicoulombs representing the quantity of electrical charge with 1mAh equivalent to 3,600 millicoulombs.) What you are trying to say is that the total load current adds up to 2,000mA and if you want to supply that for an hour you need a battery which has the capacity to supply 2,000mAh, or 10,000mAh if you want to supply for it for five hours. Eric Carter, Pershore, Worcs Neil says: Thanks Eric, we’re not electrical engineers or physics experts, but it’s always good to learn new things, so thanks for putting us straight on the mAh front.
We certainly do not know our mAh from our mW or indeed millicoulombs.
February 2017 LXF220 11
able to use it to a degree. As Jonni has pointed out before, part of the fun is looking up and discovering new things. Half the time writers suggest covering topics we’ve never even heard of! But do please let us know any suggestions on what you’d like to see covered?
Tegra time So I have my ex-wife’s HP Chromebook Model 14-x030nr and apparently it’s one of the two models of Chrome that run on an architecture from Nvidia. I believe its called Tegra K1 CPU Kepler microarchitecture. I just haven’t found anywhere to get into the boot process and install a system running properly on here. Nobody seems to be producing an answer so I recently started subscribing to your magazine and some time spent cherry picking your issues so…I figured I would ask you all as my final stop. A final yes it
can be done with x,y,z or nope sorry Nvidia was kind enough to lock it up like the crown jewels would be appreciated, because at least that would give me a reliable source from which I could decide to carry on or just hand it back to her for parts. The keyboard letters aren’t functioning correctly and I’ve triggered developer mode to do a clean install plus taken the case off to make sure everything looked good internally… so help please great wizards of linOZ Chromed-Out D Gomez Neil says: Ah, Nvidia. I think the heart of the problem lies, there. Many ARM-based processors have large parts of themselves locked away in binary, proprietary blobs and often this includes the bootloader. Even the Raspberry Pi Broadcom still isn’t open in this regard which caused headaches trying to get it to work with network booting. Whereas with
12 LXF220 February 2017
x86 processors – built by Intel or AMD – the bootloader process is a known open standard. Then of course you’ll need to have the correct ARM-32/64 build of a suitable Linux distro, which would typically be Ubuntu or a lowresource spin. Now I had a quick hunt around and it seems it is possible even with hardware acceleration, but it’s certainly not straightforward. You can find more at this thread on the Ask Ubuntu forums, http://askubuntu.com/ questions/835755/installubuntu-arm-lts-on-a-hpchromebook-14-g3-tegra-k1nyan-blaze I think the Reddit discussion they’re referring to is this one: https://www.reddit.com/r/ chrubuntu/comments/4w3f0x/ guide_install_chrubuntu_on_ tegra_k1_chromebook/?st=iw3 rh0l5&sh=9b201dc7 If in doubt you can fall back to using Crouton, though this rarely has acceleration when it comes to ARM-based devices.
God uses SSH
Just about all ARM processors to some degree have proprietary parts, which often restricts what Linux can do with them.
were found too technical and the jargon and many abbreviations were very off-putting for most people; an explanatory list would have helped. The amount of command line use was a big obstacle for everyone. The Roundup of financial software was useful and illustrated the range of free programs in Linux. The DVD was appreciated and the feature on the Linux kernel interested everyone – especially the time-line following the distro’s progress. I think the experiment was a modest success. I’m not sure you won many new readers but the magazine was sold-out in WHSmiths. Maurice George, via email Neil says: It’s really heartening to hear from people that enjoy the magazine, especially when they provide a little more effort such as you have put into assessing the issue and what you felt was helpful or not. We do find it hard to gauge exactly what type of people are reading the magazine and how well each tutorial goes down with them. So we try and put in articles and tutorials covering a range of levels, but we always hope they are of use to people. I’m really glad you liked the kernel and distro features, I had hoped people would enjoy a peek inside how it was created alongside the look at how distros evolved and we always try and have the main features aimed at a level for anyone. I get your point about some of the jargon, but I’m not sure a jargon-buster type thing would really help, as often understanding the jargon is tied up with being
Well, if Anthony can ask interesting questions, so can I! For many years I aliased ssh to ssh -Y (I am so ashamed). My life was better! Whenever I needed to invoke xeyes, it was always there! The question I ask my fellow Unixistas is: does this kind of laziness and sloth invoke some malevolent Protestant God because I dare to mitigate my own suffering? After all this is Washington County, Vermont where we live in cold darkness and strike rocks together for fun… Awaiting enlightenment… Paul Flint, via email, Location