, BRITAIN S BEST MILITARY HISTORY MAGAZINE
Canada s 50-kill pilot ace Victoria Cross Heroism on the western front
RAF Haiyn Manualnses
D I A R R E T S A C L AN
a e r e w “We erhood” broth
N G I A P M A 4 C 4 9 1 aring D S ' D N A M M O C R E B M O B of or v i v Sur
WARS ROSES OF THE
S N I G I R O F A R ids & the a r a h t o G ly WWI’s dead world’s first air force
Battle of Kings Mountain
Brother against brother in the Revolutionary War
Mehmed the Conqueror
How the Ottoman sultan crushed Constantinople
Welcome to issue 53
This month Tom spoke with Russell ‘Rusty’ Waughman, who survived the perilous Bomber Command raid on Nuremberg in 1944 (p. 26). He also delves into England’s bloodiest dynastic clash, the Wars of the Roses, in this issue’s Frontline (p. 14).
“We did a single-engine, one-wheel landing and skidded off the runway in the dark, hurtling towards the control tower”
– Russell ‘Rusty’ Waughman, DFC, AFC
ot long after the age of flight began, the world’s military minds were conceiving ways to dominate the new battlefields in the sky. During the final year of WWI, Britain was the first country to develop its own dedicated military force for both offensive and defensive purposes: the Royal Air Force. This issue, History of War commemorates 100 years of the RAF, including an in-depth analysis of the force’s origins, a technical breakdown of a Hawker Hurricane and the story of William Barker VC. We also have an interview with Bomber Command pilot Russell
Waughman, who shares his humbling experiences flying in perilous raids over Germany in the closing years of WWII.
The American War of Independence didn’t just see Patriots clash with British troops, but also American Loyalist militias. One such clash occurred at the Battle of Kings Mountain, which Marc relates in our Great Battles over on page 70.
Tim Williamson Editor
Stuart is senior researcher to the Air Historical Branch and this month explores the origins of the RAF. Starting on page 36, discover how Britain’s pilots countered the deadly Gotha raids and how the world’s first air force was organised and formed.
The Avro Lancaster was used extensively by the RAF. ‘Rusty’ Waughman described it as “a remarkable aeroplane”
LANCASTERS OVER EUROPE
26 Russell ‘Rusty’ Waughman shares his experiences as a Bomber Command pilot
Wars of the Roses 14
England plunges into civil war as two rival dynasties battle for the crown
16 Dynasties divided
Two families and their supporters warred mercilessly for control of the crown
18 Battle of Barnet
Edward IV faced off against his former ally, Warwick ‘the Kingmaker’, to secure the throne
20 A nation torn in two
Fighting spread right across the kingdom as the country’s nobility declared for either side
22 Richard III’s last stand
A detailed look at the final moments of the last Yorkist king at the Battle of Bosworth
24 The White Rose & the Tudors Did the wars truly end at Bosworth?
78 Never miss an issue, get History Of War before it’s available in the shops and save a bundle while you’re at it
Striking From the shadows
80 Take a look at some of the rare and unique objects now on display at the National Army Museum
06 War in Focus
Stunning imagery from throughout history
26 Lancasters over Europe
Russell ‘Rusty’ Waughman reveals his experiences as a Bomber Command pilot
36 Birth of the RAF
Learn how Britain created the world’s first air force after deadly German raids
46 Victoria Cross Heroes William Barker
This Canadian was once heralded as “the deadliest air fighter that ever lived”
14 Follow the bloody timeline of England’s dynastic civil war Great Battles
Kings Mountain 70 American Patriots and Loyalists face off in the rugged terrain of South Carolina
50 Operator’s Handbook Hawker Hurricane
Take a look inside the aircraft that formed the backbone of Fighter Command
56 Mehmed the Conqueror
Discover how this sultan crushed the remnants of the Byzantine Empire
62 1918 The Spring Offensive: Part II
General Ferdinand Foch takes control of Allied forces in a bid to halt the Germans
70 Great Battles Kings Mountain
Patriot and Loyalist Americans clash in the rugged terrain of South Carolina
80 Striking from the shadows
Take a look at some of the unique objects on display at the National Army Museum
88 Opinion National service
Could the re-introduction of compulsory military service benefit today’s society?
91 COMPETITION RAF 100 Manual
Your chance to win one of five copies of this essential title from Haynes
A round up of the latest military history titles waiting for you on the shelves
98 Artefact of War West India Regiment flag
The beautifully preserved standard is a reminder of a horrific period of history
icane Hurr ckbone of the 50 The ba Battle of Britain
WAR IN FOCUS
Taken: 27 November 1942 A line of flamethrowers blaze upwards into the sky at the Army War Show, City Park Stadium, New Orleans. The show also featured tank manoeuvres, infantry drills and other weapons demonstrations. These shows toured the USA with the aim of demonstrating to the public the tools available to Americaâ€™s armed forces, as well as to raise funds for the Army Emergency Relief Fund.
WAR IN FOCUS
A visit from Abe Taken: 3 October 1862
This iconic photograph shows President Abraham Lincoln visiting with Union officers near Antietam, Maryland, the site of the recent clash with Confederate forces. In the battleâ€™s aftermath, General George McClellan (third from left) was criticised by Lincoln for not pursuing the retreating Confederate army under Robert E. Lee. The battle was one of the Civil Warâ€™s bloodiest, with over 22,000 casualties.
WAR IN FOCUS
Howitzer blast Taken: February 2009
A self-propelled Dutch Army PzH 2000 (Panzerhaubitze 2000), fires off a round during an operation in Afghanistan. The German-made howitzer has a 155mm chamber, and has an effective range of up to 40 kilometres (25 miles). With its automatic loading system, the PzH 2000 is also capable of firing off a blistering three rounds every ten seconds.
Nose inspection Taken: October 1942
Factory workers inspect the transparent plexiglass nose cones ready to be fitted onto A-20 Havoc bombers. Several variants of the A-20 were produced during WWII, with solid or glass noses fitted to suit either bombing, attack or reconnaissance roles. Although American-made, the Soviet Union was the largest operator of Havocs during the war, although all Allied nations flew them in various incarnations.
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