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, BRITAIN S BEST MILITARY HISTORY MAGAZINE

HEAVY FIRE in korea

BrigADIER Brian Parritt ON the battle of the hook

THE CRIMEAN WAR

EMPIRE S SCARLET HEROES

win A TOUR

OF FLEET AIR ARM'S SECRET PLANES

Discover the hard fight of the Guards at the Alma, Sevastopol and Inkerman in their own words

PLUS:

✪ Serbia 1914 ✪ Stuart Light Tank ✪ Army Recruitment

WHY THE KAISER's BATTLE FAILED

Inside the doomed 1918 offensive THE Capture of New Orleans

How the Union fleet beat Confederate defences

HORROR OF THE BLITZ

secrets of field medicine

Explore the origins of the Royal Army Nursing Corps

Issue 052

BLAST SURVIVOR ON UK's Darkest hour


Welcome to issue 52

Welcome

Contributors

This month Tom spoke with Brigadier Brian Parritt, CBE, who revealed his experiences as an artillery officer at the Battle of the Hook (page 36). He also spoke with Glennis Leatherdale about her life as a teenager in wartime London (page 76).

“We are in a very hell with nothing to be heard, save the humming of shells, the whiz of round-shot…” – Captain Charles Wilson, Coldstream Guards, Battle of the Alma

O

n 20 September 1854 the first pitched battle of the Crimean War began. Despite being poorly supplied and receiving inadequate provisions on their disease-stricken march, the British expeditionary force proved decisive in the attack across the Alma River. Among the waves of troops assaulting the Russian positions were men of the Guards Brigade, who months earlier had paraded before Queen Victoria prior to their gruelling journey east. Although they were to fight ferociously and bravely on several occasions, earning several of them the newly established

Prof. William Philpott

Victoria Cross, the sick and wounded faced terrible conditions behind the lines and further challenges on their return home.

William is Professor of the History of Warfare at King’s College London, specialising in areas such as WWI strategy and modern naval history. Over on page 56 he begins a new mini-series of features on the 1918 German Spring Offensive.

Mark Simner

Mark is an author and historian of British military history, focussing on 19thcentury conflicts. Over on page 26 he presents the experiences of the Guards Brigade in the Crimean War and the challenges they faced on their return home.

Tim Williamson Editor

Email timothy.williamson@futurenet.com

www.historyanswers.co.uk

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/HistoryofWarMag

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@HistoryofWarMag

“the British expeditionary force proved decisive in the attack across the Alma river”

Image: Alamy

Sergeant Luke O’Connor, of the Royal Welch Fusiliers the first recipient of the Victoria Cross, carries the Colours at the Battle of the Alma

Tom Garner

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Issue 52

EMPIRE’S SCARLET HEROES

26 Men of the Guards Brigade reveal the horrors of the Crimean War in their own words

Frontline

British Army Nursing  14

British nurses take to the frontline, aiding troops with new medical innovations and inventions

16 The Royal Red Cross

This decoration was inaugurated to recognise military medics for their exemplary service

18 Battlefield medicine

Anaesthetic, ligatures and even helicopters have helped army medics save more lives in combat



20 Ambulance trains

During WWI, these mobile field hospitals rapidly transported casualties away from the trenches



24 Nursing heroines

For over a century, frontline care has been immensely improved and countless lives saved

Subscribe

68  Never miss an issue, get History Of War before it’s available in the shops and save a bundle while you’re at it

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Spring Offensive 1918 56 P  rofessor William Philpott explores why the Kaiser’s Battle was doomed from the start


Contents

Surviving the hook 36 Brigadier Brian Parritt reveals his experience as an artillery officer in one of the Korean War’s final battles

06 War in Focus

Stunning imagery from throughout history

26 Empire’s scarlet heroes

Men of the Guards Brigade distinguished themselves in the Crimean War

34 Broken guardsmen

Many returning wounded faced further challenges away from the front line

36 Surviving the Hook

Veteran Brian Parritt discusses his service in the Korean War

48 Great battles New Orleans

Union and Confederate fleets go head-tohead for dominance in the South

56 1918 The Spring Offensive: Part I

Prof. William Philpott on why the Kaiser’s Battle was doomed from the start

64  Victoria Cross Heroes Gordon Flowerdew

Great Battles

NEW ORLEANS 48 Confederate and Union fleets clash for dominance in the south

This lieutenant led his outnumbered squadron at the Battle of Moreuil Wood

70 Serbia’s bloodyminded 1914: Part II

Serbia’s defiant defence weathers the tide of the Austro-Hungarian invasion

76 A teenager in the Blitz

Glennis Leatherdale discusses everyday life under the Luftwaffe’s bombs

82  Operator’s handbook M3 Stuart Light Tank

Inside the US light tank that formed the armoured backbone of the Allied ranks

88 Opinion Army Recruitment

Robin Horsfall argues why attracting new recruits can send mixed messages

91  COMPETITION Fleet Air Arm tickets

Win behind-the-scenes passes to the museum’s reserve collection



92  Reviews

A round up of the latest military history titles waiting for you on the shelves

98  Artefact of War Red Cross parcel

Allied POWs received these packages as a reminder they hadn’t been forgotten

art m3 Steu US light tank

82 Inside th that formed the Allies’ armoured backbone


in

Thunderbird is go Taken: 12 September 1961

Major general E.J.H Bates, director of the Royal Artillery, supervises a crew preparing a Thunderbird guided missile at Horseshoe Barracks, Essex, for departure to Germany. The missile was deployed to support the British Army of the Rhine as anti-aircraft defence against potential Soviet offensives. The Thunderbird was designed to target high-altitude targets, at a range of up to 50 kilometres (30 miles).

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© Getty

WAR IN FOCUS

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© Alamy

WAR IN FOCUS

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in

Frozen landing

A US Army DC3 basks in the midnight sun on the beach of Sรณlheimasandur, Iceland. The aircraft has remained in this same spot since November 1973, when its crew was forced to make a crash-landing. Although decades of weather have worn it down, much of the airframe can be identified, and is today a peculiar destination for tourists and aviation enthusiasts.

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in

Russian Life guards at the Battle of Fère-Champenois Painted: 1891

On 25 March 1814 the French Empire was set to suffer yet another blow as forces of the Sixth Coalition continued their invasion and faced off against Marshals Marmont and Martier. Russian, Prussian, Austrian and WĂźrttemberg forces overwhelmed the French army, which was forced to withdraw. The battle took place just five days before Paris eventually fell, and Napoleon abdicated just over a week later.

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© Getty

WAR IN FOCUS

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in

Fire from the rising Sun Taken: 24 August 2017

A Type 74 tank takes part in a live-firing drill at Higashi Fuji training grounds in central Japan. The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) took part in numerous drills alongside US forces, in response to heightened tensions with the North Korean regime. Although Japan’s constitution forbids the establishment of a ‘combat’ army for use in an offensive war, its Self-Defense Forces maintain air, ground and naval capabilities.

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