Special royal collector’s edition The world’s most intrepid explorers
Fearless voyagers who redefined the map
Victorian BLACK OPS
Who is history’s ultimate ruler?
The British Empire’s spy war with Russia
Medieval to modern monarchs ranked How they shaped our world Insight from experts Royal triumphs and tragedies Much more!
Could Hitler be stopped in 1933?
How the Nazis seized power
Slaughter of the Legionnaires
Inside Rome’s bloodiest defeat
Who will be crowned the ultimate monarch? Head to page 30
What makes a great ruler? This is a conundrum that has taxed intellectual heavyweights from Plato to Machiavelli, Shakespeare to George RR Martin. Nonetheless, this is effectively the question we put to you two months ago, when we asked the public to crown the ultimate monarch in our online poll. Your answers surprised our entire team! We did give you some guidelines: we limited it to just European kings and queens from the Middle Ages onwards. We also focused on deceased rulers, so it couldn’t feature anyone currently reigning. This still gave you over a 1,000 years worth of royals to choose from, including mighty conquerors that amassed vast empires, just rulers who governed fairly, and glorious leaders that inspired legends with their daring acts of do.
Editor’s picks To find out who won our real-life game of thrones, turn to page 30 for a royal extravaganza. This includes a 28-page countdown of the greatest kings and queens, in-depth articles on what made these monarchs so marvellous, and expert insight from celebrated historians including Tom Holland, Dan Jones and Linda Porter. Disagree with our final royal rankings or want to celebrate a sovereign’s top slot? Let us know via Twitter or Facebook and don’t forget to use the hashtag #TheRoyal50.
Be part of history
The Great Game is afoot
Land of milk and honey
Viva the Weimar Republic!
From code names to covert missions, discover the British Empire’s spy war with Russia in Central Asia
Go inside the Ancient Egyptians’ obsession with honey, using it in everything from magic to medicine to mummification
Was the Nazis’ rise to power guaranteed? Perhaps not, argues one expert on interwar Germany
Jack Parsons Editor
Share your views and opinions online
Discover who is history’s mightest monarch
Who did discover America?
17 Anatomy of Victorian explorer
18 A day in the life Wayfind with a Polynesian navigator
20 How to
Establish a trade route
22 I nside history
Shoot for the Moon with Apollo 11
24 H istory answers Your questions solved
26 H all of fame Meet 10 iconic explorers
28 O n the menu Try a South Pole snack
64 N eo-Tokyo
Discover how post-Hiroshima Japan became a tech powerhouse
74 Keeping the
78 T he Great Game Uncover the truth about the British Empire’s spy war with Tsarist Russia
Inside the Ancient Egyptians’ obsession with honey
4 Be part of history
Every issue 06 History in pictures
Incredible photos with equally amazing stories
60 Greatest battles
Find out how Hannibal slaughtered the Romans at Cannae step by step
70 Hero or villain?
Go inside Cardinal Richelieu’s quest to make France great again
84 Time traveller’s handbook
Survival tips for visiting Mayan Mesoamerica
90 Bluffer’s guide
86 What if
How long could the Weimar Republic have survived if the Nazis had never gained power?
How the 1925 Monkey Trial put evolution in the dock
Our verdict on the latest non-fiction books, novels and films
97 History vs Hollywood
Did Helen Mirren’s Oscar-winning The Queen get anything wrong?
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Defining Moments Voyage of the damned
Victims of the RMS Lusitania sinking are buried together in a common grave at a cemetery in Cobh, Ireland. The transatlantic liner was torpedoed by a German U-boat during World War I as it sailed into the Irish Sea, heading to Liverpool. 1,198 of its 1,959 passengers drowned â€“ including 129 children. The killing of an unarmed civilian ship, even within a declared war zone, was unprecedented and shocked the world.
ÂŠ Getty Images
Defining Moments Real-Life Rosie
A unidentified woman operates a hand drill on a ‘Vengeance’ dive-bomber at Vultee Aircraft in Tennessee. She was one of millions who joined the wartime workforce after American men shipped out to fight during World War II. The Rosie the Riveter propaganda poster – with its ‘we can do it’ slogan – was created in 1942, to encourage women to apply for industrial jobs that had not been open to them before.
Â© Library of Congress
Defining Moments rise of 3d Cinema
Two New Yorkers embrace during a 3D movie unaware that they are being snapped with an infrared film. Primitive stereoscopic or 3D movies date back to the late 19th century, but did not really catch on until Bwana Devil was released in 1952. The first colour 3D film, it was a smash hit, prompting a glut of thrilling pictures that are now considered classics, including House of Wax, Dial M for Murder and The Creature From the Black Lagoon.
ÂŠ Getty Images
â€œThere was nowhere to go but everywhere, so just keep on rolling under the starsâ€? Jack Kerouac
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