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The Kims vs the world Meet the family with the finger on North Korea’s nuclear button

Rise Lion

Richard I’s rebellion

of the

“I am not a crook” What if Nixon had got away with Watergate?

The treacherous origins of England’s mightiest Medieval warrior king

n a i r o t Vic er summ ay Holid

Remember the Alamo!

Step-by-step guide to Davy Crockett’s defiant last stand

the lost genius of Mozart’s Sister


The write stuff

How marriage stalled this Discover Franklin’s doomed What made Gutenberg’s 18th century star’s career expedition to the Arctic printing press a success? PLUS Francis Drake: Pirate king? Intriguing lost treasures Yellow Turban Uprising

a and Sun, segated segreches bea

Issue 055

Discover the genius of Mozart’s sister from page 48


If you asked anyone in the world to name an English king, there’s a strong chance that they would name Richard the Lionheart. Whether for his inclusion in the Robin Hood mythos (and its Disney adaptation) or for his famed courage during the Third Crusade, Richard I, nicknamed ‘the Lionheart’, is an iconic figure. However, the legend of the lion is one that’s quite divorced from the real-life monarch. While his surcoat of three lions is still on England’s royal coat of arms — not to mention hundreds of thousands of football shirts — it’s unlikely the national hero actually spoke English. Though he was born in Oxford, Richard I spent most of his life either fighting in the Holy Land or in France. In fact, after his coronation in 1189,

Editor’s picks he spent only a few weeks in England. Richard cared so little for his native land he once said of the capital: “I would sell London itself if only I could find a rich enough buyer.” In this month’s issue, we peel back the layers of legend and ask not just how did Richard earn his famous nickname, but how did a third son end up ruling an empire that spanned from the east of Ireland to the south of France? The true story of a family feud that turned into an outright war is more compelling than the myth.

Be part of history


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Remember the Alamo


Discover lost treasure

To top off our look at John Franklin’s doomed Arctic expedition, you can win a private tour of an exhibition on the subject and an overnight stay in Greenwich. Find out how Davy Crockett’s forces were overwhelmed but inspired the Texas Revolution with our detailed battle map of the iconic siege. Featuring Nazi gold, sunken Spanish galleons and King John’s crown jewels, discover history’s greatest lost treasures and, just possibly, where to find them.

Jack Parsons Editor

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CONTENTS Richard I’s Rebellion


rise Lion of the

28 Find out how warrior king Richard the Lionheart earned his name and stole the throne by fighting against his father

the written word

14  Timeline

How the alphabet evolved over time

16 I nside history

Explore Gutenberg’s revolutionary printing press and workshop

18 Anatomy of A 19th century novelist

20 A  day in the life

The punishing routine of the monks who kept knowledge alive during the Middle Ages

22 H  ow to

Channel your ki and paint Japanese calligraphy


24 Hall of fame

The wordsmiths and writers who have defined the English language

26 5 shocking facts The unbelievable truth about Egyptian hieroglyphics


40 Terror on the ice How an obsession with finding the fabled Northwest Passage doomed John Franklin and his 128 men

48 T  he other Mozart In the 18th century, there was not one but two Mozarts who rocked the world with their talents

70 Sun, sea and social breakdown The rise of the railway brought the seaside in reach of the masses — and fresh challenges to Victorian morality

84 Lost treasures

60 The House of Kim

From Nazi gold to King John’s jewels, discover history’s greatest prizes still waiting to be found

The rogue state of North Korea has only ever had three rulers — all from the same family

4 Be part of history



Every issue


06  History in pictures

Four incredible photos with equally amazing stories

38 Time traveller’s handbook

Survive the Yellow Turban Rebellion with our guide to Han dynasty China

46 T  hrough history See how the ways we measure time has changed over the centuries

56 Greatest battles


76 What if

Remember the Alamo with our detailed battle map of Davy Crockett’s famous last stand

Find out why the US would have gone back to Vietnam if Nixon had got away Watergate


68  Bluffer’s guide

Everything you need to know about the Moscow Plague Riot of 1771

80  Hero or villain?

Sir Francis Drake was a skilled navigator and English hero, but to the Spanish he was a murderous pirate

89 H  ow to make…

Dine like a Holy Roman Emperor with a Byzantine rice pudding

90 Reviews

Our verdict on the latest reference books, novels and films

94 H  istory answers Experts answer your questions


98 History vs Hollywood

How accurate is the Angevin family feud in classic period drama The Lion In Winter?

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Page 78



history In Pictures StaLIN’s LAST STAND

The Soviet Army turned the tide of the Nazi invasion — and possibly World War II — at the Battle of Stalingrad. An all-out battle, 1,000 tons of bombs were dropped on the city, while 2 million men fought hand-to-hand, streetby-street to seize control of it for almost six months. However, the Soviets gained the upper hand during the gruelling winter months, forcing the Germans to surrender and retreat.

© Getty



Dancing with princess DI

This iconic image of Princess Diana dancing with actor John Travolta at a White House gala dinner in 1985 ignited ‘royal fever’ in the United States. A highlight of the newly married Prince Charles and Diana’s first visit to America, the photo op was apparently set up by First Lady Nancy Reagan, who told Travolta to ask her to dance. Diana would wear the same velvet dress for her last official portrait in 1997.




© Getty


history In Pictures start of the struggle

A historic scene at the All India Conference Committee in Bombay, Mahatma Gandhi talks with freedom fighter Jawaharlal Nehru. The meeting led to the Quit India campaign, which called for Indians to rise up in non-violent resistance to British rule. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and others were arrested and protests erupted nationwide. India celebrates 75 years of independence this month.

Š Getty




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