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List of device bit rates

List of device bit rates This is a list of device bit rates, or physical layer information rates, net bit rates, useful bit rates, peak bit rates or digital bandwidth capacity, at which digital interfaces of computer peripheral equipment and network devices can communicate over various kinds of buses and networks. The distinction can be arbitrary between a bus, which is inside a box and usually relies on many parallel wires, and a communications network cable, which is external, between boxes and rarely relies on more than four wires. Many device interfaces or protocols (e.g., SATA, USB, SCSI, PCI and a few variants of Ethernet) are used both inside many-device boxes, such as a PC, and one-device-boxes, such as a hard drive enclosure. Accordingly, this page lists both the internal ribbon and external communications cable standards together in one sortable table.

Factors limiting actual performance, criteria for real decisions Most of the listed rates are theoretical maximum throughput measures; in practice, the actual effective throughput is almost inevitably lower in proportion to the load from other devices (network/bus contention), interframe gap, and other overhead in data link layer protocols etc. The maximum goodput (for example, the file transfer rate) may be even lower due to higher layer protocol overhead and data packet retransmissions caused by line noise or interference such as crosstalk, or lost packets in congested intermediate network nodes. All protocols lose something, and the more robust ones that deal resiliently with very many failure situations tend to lose more maximum throughput to get higher total long term rates. Device interfaces where one bus transfers data via another will be limited to the throughput of the slowest interface, at best. For instance, SATA 6G controllers on one PCIe 5G channel will be limited to the 5G rate and have to employ more channels to get around this problem. Early implementations of new protocols very often have this kind of problem. The physical phenomena on which the device relies (such as spinning platters in a hard drive) will also impose limits; for instance, no spinning platter shipping in 2009 saturates SATA II (3 Gbit/s), so moving from this 3 Gbit/s interface to USB3 at 4.8 Gbit/s for one spinning drive will result in no increase in realized transfer rate. Contention in a wireless or noisy spectrum, where the physical medium is entirely out of the control of those who specify the protocol, requires measures that also use up throughput. Wireless devices, BPL, and modems may produce a higher line rate or gross bit rate, due to error-correcting codes and other physical layer overhead. It is extremely common for throughput to be far less than half of theoretical maximum, though the more recent technologies (notably BPL) employ preemptive spectrum analysis to avoid this and so have much more potential to reach actual gigabit rates in practice than prior modems. Another factor reducing throughput is deliberate policy decisions made by Internet service providers that are made for contractual, risk management, aggregation saturation, or marketing reasons. Examples are rate limiting, bandwidth throttling, and the assignment of IP addresses to groups. These practices tend to minimize the throughput available to every user, but maximize the number of users that can be supported on one backbone. Furthermore, chips are often not available in order to implement the fastest rates. AMD, for instance, does not support the 32-bit HyperTransport interface on any CPU it has shipped as of the end of 2009. Additionally, WiMax service providers in the US typically support only up to 4 Mbit/s as of the end of 2009. Choosing service providers or interfaces based on theoretical maxima is unwise, especially for commercial needs. A good example is large scale data centers, which should be more concerned with price per port to support the interface, wattage and heat considerations, and total cost of the solution. Because some protocols such as SCSI and Ethernet now operate many orders of magnitude faster than when originally deployed, scalability of the interface is one major factor, as it prevents costly shifts to technologies that are not backward compatible. Underscoring this is the fact that these shifts often happen involuntarily or by surprise, especially when a vendor abandons support for a proprietary system.

1


List of device bit rates

2

Conventions By convention, bus and network data rates are denoted either in bit/s (bits per second) or byte/s (bytes per second). In general, parallel interfaces are quoted in byte/s and serial in bit/s. The more commonly used is shown below in bold type. On devices like modems, bytes may be more than 8 bits long because they may be individually padded out with additional start and stop bits; the figures below will reflect this. Where channels use line codes (such as Ethernet, Serial ATA and PCI Express), quoted rates are for the decoded signal. The figures below are simplex data rates, which may conflict with the duplex rates vendors sometimes use in promotional materials. Where two values are listed, the first value is the downstream rate and the second value is the upstream rate. All quoted figures are in metric decimal units, where: • • • • •

1 byte (B) = 8 bit 1 kbit/s = 1,000 bit/s 1 Mbit/s = 1,000,000 bit/s 1 Gbit/s = 1,000,000,000 bit/s 1 kB/s = 1,000 byte/s

• 1 MB/s = 1,000,000 byte/s • 1 GB/s = 1,000,000,000 byte/s • 1 TB/s = 1,000,000,000,000 byte/s Note that this goes against the traditional use of binary prefixes for memory size. These decimal prefixes have long been established in data communications. This occurred before 1998 when IEC and other organizations introduced new binary prefixes and attempted to standardize their use across all computing applications.

Bandwidths The figures below are grouped by network or bus type, then sorted within each group from lowest to highest bandwidth; gray shading indicates a lack of known implementations.

TTY/Teletypewriter or telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) Technology

Max. rate (bit/s) Max. rate (characters/s) Year

TTY (V.18)

45.4545 bit/s

[1] 6 characters/s

TTY (V.18)

50 bit/s

6.6 characters/s

NTSC Line 21 Closed Captioning 1 kbit/s

~100 characters/s

Modems – narrow and broadband The "bytes" column reflects the net data transfer rate after the protocol overhead has been removed.


List of device bit rates

3

Technology

Rate (kbit/s)

Rate (byte/s)

Year

Narrowband (POTS: 3.1 kHz channel)

-

-

-

Morse code (skilled operator)

0.056 kbit/s

4 cps (~40 wpm)

Modem 110 baud (symbols / second) (Bell 101)

0.11 kbit/s

0.010 kB/s (~10 cps)

Modem 300 (300 baud) (Bell 103 or V.21)

0.3 kbit/s

0.03 kB/s (~30 cps)

Modem 1200 (600 baud) (Bell 212A or V.22)

1.2 kbit/s

0.12 kB/s (~120 cps)

Modem 1200/75 (600 baud) (V.23)

1.2/0.075 kbit/s

0.12/0.0075 kB/s (~120 cps)

Modem 2400 (600 baud) (V.22bis)

2.4 kbit/s

0.24 kB/s

Modem 4800 (1600 baud) (V.27ter)

4.8 kbit/s

0.48 kB/s

Modem 9600 (2400 baud) (V.32)

9.6 kbit/s

0.96 kB/s

Modem 14.4 (2400 baud) (V.32bis)

14.4 kbit/s

1.4 kB/s

Modem 28.8 (3200 baud) (V.34-1994)

28.8 kbit/s

2.9 kB/s

Modem 33.6 (3429 baud) (V.34-1996/98)

33.6 kbit/s

3.3 kB/s

1996

Modem 56k (8000/3429 baud) (V.90)

[6] 56.0/33.6 kbit/s

5.6/3.3 kB/s

1998

Modem 56k (8000/8000 baud) (V.92)

[6] 56.0/48.0 kbit/s

5.6/4.8 kB/s

2001

[2]

1844 [3]

1956?

[3]

[4]

1962

[3]

1976 [3]

[3] [3] [3]

[3] [3] [3]

[4]

1989

[4]

1991 1994

[5]

Modem data compression (variable) (V.92/V.44) 56.0-320.0 kbit/s[6]

5.6-32 kB/s

ISP-side text/image compression (variable)

56.0-1000.0 kbit/s

5.6-100 kB/s

ISDN Basic Rate Interface (single/dual channel)

[7] 64/128 kbit/s

8/16 kB/s

1986

IDSL (dual ISDN + 16 kbit/s data channels)

144 kbit/s

18 kB/s

2000

Broadband (hundreds of kHz wide)

-

-

-

HDSL ITU G.991.1 aka DS1

1544 kbit/s

193 kB/s

1998

MSDSL

2000 kbit/s

250 kB/s

SDSL

2320 kbit/s

290 kB/s

SHDSL ITU G.991.2

5690 kbit/s

711 kB/s

2001

ADSL (G.Lite)

2048/448 kbit/s

256/56 kB/s

1998

ADSL (G.DMT)

8,192/1,024 kbit/s

1,024/128 kB/s

1999

ADSL2

12,288/1,440 kbit/s

1,536/180 kB/s

2002

ADSL2+

24,576/3,584 kbit/s

3,072/448 kB/s

2003

(Cable modem)

38,000/9,000 kbit/s

4,750/1,125 kB/s

1997

(Cable modem)

38,000/27,000 kbit/s

4,750/3,375 kB/s

2001

(Cable modem)

160,000/120,000 kbit/s

20,000/15,000 kB/s (~200,000,000 wpm) 2006

Uni-DSL

200000 kbit/s

25000 kB/s

VDSL ITU G.993.1

52000 kbit/s

7000 kB/s

2001

VDSL2 ITU G.993.2

100000 kbit/s

13000 kB/s

2006

[11]

DOCSIS v1.0

[12]

DOCSIS v2.0

[13]

DOCSIS v3.0

[8] [9]

[10]


List of device bit rates

4 [14]

BPON (G.983) fiber optic service

622,000/155,000 kbit/s

77,700/19,300 kB/s

GPON (G.984) fiber optic service

2,488,000/1,244,000 kbit/s 311,000/155,500 kB/s (~3 Billion+ wpm) 2008[15]

2005

Mobile telephone interfaces Technology

Download rate (bit/s) Upload rate (bit/s) Download rate (byte/s) Upload rate (byte/s) Year [16]

GSM CSD (2G)

14.4 kbit/s

14.4 kbit/s

1.8 kB/s

1.8 kB/s

HSCSD

57.6 kbit/s

14.4 kbit/s

5.4 kB/s

1.8 kB/s

GPRS (2.5G)

57.6 kbit/s

28.8 kbit/s

7.2 kB/s

3.6 kB/s

WiDEN

100 kbit/s

100 kbit/s

12.5 kB/s

12.5 kB/s

CDMA2000 1×RTT

153 kbit/s

153 kbit/s

18 kB/s

18 kB/s

EDGE (2.75G) (type 1 MS)

236.8 kbit/s

236.8 kbit/s

29.6 kB/s

29.6 kB/s

UMTS 3G

384 kbit/s

384 kbit/s

48 kB/s

48 kB/s

EDGE (type 2 MS)

473.6 kbit/s

473.6 kbit/s

59.2 kB/s

59.2 kB/s

EDGE Evolution (type 1 MS)

1,184 kbit/s

474 kbit/s

148 kB/s

59 kB/s

EDGE Evolution (type 2 MS)

1,894 kbit/s

947 kbit/s

237 kB/s

118 kB/s

1×EV-DO rev. 0

2,457 kbit/s

153 kbit/s

307.2 kB/s

19 kB/s

1×EV-DO rev. A

3.1 Mbit/s

1.8 Mbit/s

397 kB/s

230 kB/s

1×EV-DO rev. B

14.7 Mbit/s

5.4 Mbit/s

1,837 kB/s

675 kB/s

HSDPA/HSUPA (3.5G)

13.98 Mbit/s

5.760 Mbit/s

1,706 kB/s

720 kB/s

4×EV-DO Enhancements (2×2 MIMO) 34.4 Mbit/s

12.4 Mbit/s

4.3 MB/s

1.55 MB/s

HSPA+ (2×2 MIMO)

42 Mbit/s

11.5 Mbit/s

5.25 MB/s

1.437 MB/s

15×EV-DO rev. B

73.5 Mbit/s

27 Mbit/s

9.2 MB/s

3.375 MB/s

4G (4×4 MIMO)

100 Mbit/s

50 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

6.250 MB/s

UMB (2×2 MIMO)

140 Mbit/s

34 Mbit/s

17.5 MB/s

4.250 MB/s

LTE (2×2 MIMO)

173 Mbit/s

58 Mbit/s

21.625 MB/s

7.25 MB/s

UMB (4×4 MIMO)

280 Mbit/s

68 Mbit/s

35 MB/s

8.5 MB/s

EV-DO rev. C

280 Mbit/s

75 Mbit/s

35 MB/s

9 MB/s

LTE (4×4 MIMO)

326 Mbit/s

86 Mbit/s

40.750 MB/s

10.750 MB/s

Wide area networks


List of device bit rates

5

Technology

Rate (bit/s)

Rate (byte/s)

DS0

0.064 Mbit/s

G.Lite (aka ADSL Lite)

1.536/0.512 Mbit/s 0.192/0.064 MB/s

DS1/T1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface)

1.544 Mbit/s

0.192 MB/s

E1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface)

2.048 Mbit/s

0.256 MB/s

G.SHDSL

2.304 Mbit/s

0.288 MB/s

LR-VDSL2 (4 to 5 km [long-]range) (symmetry optional) 4 Mbit/s [17]

0.008 MB/s

0.512 MB/s

SDSL

2.32 Mbit/s

0.29 MB/s

T2

6.312 Mbit/s

0.789 MB/s

[18] ADSL

8.0/1.024 Mbit/s

1.0/0.128 MB/s

E2

8.448 Mbit/s

1.056 MB/s

ADSL2

12/3.5 Mbit/s

1.5/0.448 MB/s

Satellite Internet

16/1 Mbit/s

2.0/0.128 MB/s

ADSL2+

24/3.5 Mbit/s

3.0/0.448 MB/s

E3

34.368 Mbit/s

4.296 MB/s

[11]

38.0/10.0 Mbit/s

4.75/1.25 MB/s

DOCSIS v2.0 (Cable modem)

[12]

40/30 Mbit/s

5.0/3.75 MB/s

DS3/T3 ('45 Meg')

44.736 Mbit/s

5.5925 MB/s

STS-1/EC-1/OC-1/STM-0

51.84 Mbit/s

6.48 MB/s

VDSL (symmetry optional)

100 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

DOCSIS v3.0 (Cable modem)

160/120 Mbit/s

20/15 MB/s

OC-3/STM-1

155.52 Mbit/s

19.44 MB/s

VDSL2 (symmetry optional)

250 Mbit/s

31.25 MB/s

T4

274.176 Mbit/s

34.272 MB/s

T5

400.352 Mbit/s

50.044 MB/s

OC-9

466.56 Mbit/s

58.32 MB/s

OC-12/STM-4

622.08 Mbit/s

77.76 MB/s

OC-18

933.12 Mbit/s

116.64 MB/s

OC-24

1.244 Gbit/s

155.5 MB/s

OC-36

1.900 Gbit/s

237.5 MB/s

OC-48/STM-16

2.488 Gbit/s

311.04 MB/s

OC-96

4.976 Gbit/s

622.08 MB/s

OC-192/STM-64

9.953 Gbit/s

1.244 GB/s

10 Gigabit Ethernet WAN PHY

9.953 Gbit/s

1.244 GB/s

10 Gigabit Ethernet LAN PHY

10.000 Gbit/s

1.25 GB/s

OC-256

13.271 Gbit/s

1.659 GB/s

OC-768/STM-256

39.813 Gbit/s

4.976 GB/s

OC-1536/STM-512

79.626 Gbit/s

9.953 GB/s

[19]

DOCSIS v1.0 (Cable modem)

[13]

Year


List of device bit rates

6

OC-3072/STM-1024

159.252 Gbit/s

19.907 GB/s

Local area networks Technology

Rate (bit/s) Rate (byte/s) Year

LocalTalk

230 kbit/s

28.8 kB/s

Econet

800 kbit/s

100 kB/s

Omninet

1 Mbit/s

125 kB/s

PC-Network

2 Mbit/s

250 kB/s

ARCNET (Standard)

2.5 Mbit/s

312.5 kB/s

Token Ring (Original)

4 Mbit/s

500 kB/s

1985

Ethernet (10BASE-X)

10 Mbit/s

1.25 MB/s

1990

Token Ring (Later)

16 Mbit/s

2 MB/s

1989

ARCnet Plus

20 Mbit/s

2.5 MB/s

Token Ring IEEE 802.5t

100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s

Fast Ethernet (100BASE-X)

100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s

FDDI

100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s [20]

100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s

[20]

175 Mbit/s 21.875 MB/s

MoCA 1.0 MoCA 1.1

[21][22]

1995

FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400

400 Mbit/s 50 MB/s

HIPPI

800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s

Token Ring IEEE 802.5v

1 Gbit/s

125 MB/s

2001

Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-X)

1 Gbit/s

125 MB/s

1998

2 Gbit/s

235 MB/s

1970

2 Gbit/s

250 MB/s

Infiniband SDR 1×

2 Gbit/s

250 MB/s

Quadrics QsNetI

3.6 Gbit/s

450 MB/s

[24]

4 Gbit/s

500 MB/s

[24]

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

Infiniband SDR 4×

[24]

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

Quadrics QsNetII

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GBASE-X)

10 Gbit/s

1.25 GB/s

Myri 10G

10 Gbit/s

1.25 GB/s

16 Gbit/s

2 GB/s

Reflective Memory or RFM2

[23]

(1.25 µs latency)

Myrinet 2000 [24]

Infiniband DDR 1× Infiniband QDR 1×

[24]

Infiniband DDR 4×

Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) Dual Channel SCI, x8 PCIe 20 Gbit/s [24]

Infiniband SDR 12×

[24]

Infiniband QDR 4×

2.5 GB/s

24 Gbit/s

3 GB/s

32 Gbit/s

4 GB/s

1995


List of device bit rates

7 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GBASE-X)

40 Gbit/s

5 GB/s

[24]

48 Gbit/s

6 GB/s

Infiniband QDR 12×

[24]

96 Gbit/s

12 GB/s

100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GBASE-X)

100 Gbit/s

12.5 GB/s

Infiniband DDR 12×

Wireless networks 802.11 networks in infrastructure mode are half-duplex; all stations share the medium. In access point (infrastructure) mode, all traffic has to pass through the AP (Access Point). Thus, two stations on the same AP which are communicating with each other must have each and every frame transmitted twice: from the sender to the access point, then from the access point to the receiver. This approximately halves the effective bandwidth. In ad hoc mode devices communicate directly (like with a crossover cable) rather than to the network (like through a hub). Standard

Rate (bit/s) Rate (byte/s) Year

IEEE 802.11

2 Mbit/s

250 kB/s

1997

RONJA

10 Mbit/s

1.25 MB/s

IEEE 802.11a

54 Mbit/s

6.75 MB/s

1999

IEEE 802.11b

11 Mbit/s

1.375 MB/s

1999

IEEE 802.11g

54 Mbit/s

6.75 MB/s

2003

IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX)

70 Mbit/s

8.75 MB/s

2004

IEEE 802.11g with Super G by Atheros

108 Mbit/s

13.5 MB/s

2003

IEEE 802.11g with 125 High Speed Mode by Broadcom 125 Mbit/s

15.625 MB/s 2003

IEEE 802.11g with Nitro by Conexant

140 Mbit/s

17.5 MB/s

2003

IEEE 802.11n

300 Mbit/s

37.5 MB/s

2009

IEEE 802.11ac (maximum theoretical speed)

6.8 Gbit/s

850 MB/s

2012

Wireless personal area networks Technology

Rate (bit/s) Rate (byte/s) Year

ANT

20 kbit/s

2.5 kB/s

IrDA-Control

72 kbit/s

9 kB/s

IrDA-SIR

115.2 kbit/s 14 kB/s

802.15.4 (2.4 GHz) 250 kbit/s

31.25 kB/s

Bluetooth 1.1

1 Mbit/s

125 kB/s

2002

Bluetooth 2.0+EDR 3 Mbit/s

375 kB/s

2004

IrDA-FIR

4 Mbit/s

500 kB/s

IrDA-VFIR

16 Mbit/s

2 MB/s

Bluetooth 3.0

24 Mbit/s

3 MB/s

IrDA-UFIR

96 Mbit/s

12 MB/s

WUSB-UWB

480 Mbit/s

60 MB/s

IrDA-Giga-IR

1024 Mbit/s 128 MB/s

2009


List of device bit rates

8

Computer buses Main buses Technology

Rate (bit/s)

Rate (byte/s)

Year

I2c

3.4 Mbit/s

425 kB/s

Apple II series (incl. Apple IIGS) 8-bit/1 MHz

8 Mbit/s

1 MB/s,

SS-50 Bus 8-bit/1(?) MHz

8 Mbit/s

1 MB/s

ISA 8-Bit/4.77 MHz

38.16 Mbit/s

4.77 MB/s

STD80 8-bit/8 MHz

16 Mbit/s

2 MB/s

STD80 16-bit/8 MHz

32 Mbit/s

4 MB/s

Zorro II 16-bit/7.14 MHz

42.4 Mbit/s

5.3 MB/s

S-100 bus 8-bit/10 MHz

80 Mbit/s

10 MB/s

Low Pin Count

133.33 Mbit/s 16.67 MB/s

C-Bus 16-bit/10 MHz

160 Mbit/s

[28] 20 MB/s

HP Precision Bus

184 Mbit/s

23 MB/s

EISA 8-16-32bit/8.33 MHz

266.56 Mbit/s 33.32 MB/s

STD 32 32-bit/8 MHz

256 Mbit/s

[29] 32 MB/s

NESA 32-bit/8 MHz

256 Mbit/s

[30] 32 MB/s

VME64 32-64bit

400 Mbit/s

40 MB/s

NuBus 10 MHz

400 Mbit/s

40 MB/s

DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/12.5 MHz

400 Mbit/s

50 MB/s

MCA 16-32bit/10 MHz

660 Mbit/s

66 MB/s

NuBus90 20 MHz

800 Mbit/s

80 MB/s

APbus 32-bit/25(?) MHz

800 Mbit/s

[31] 100 MB/s

Sbus 32-bit/25 MHz

800 Mbit/s

100 MB/s

DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/25 MHz

800 Mbit/s

100 MB/s

Local Bus 98 32-bit/33 MHz

1056 Mbit/s

[32] 132 MB/s

VESA Local Bus - VLB 32-bit/33 MHz

1067 Mbit/s

133.33 MB/s

1992

PCI 32-bit/33 MHz

1067 Mbit/s

133.33 MB/s

1993

HP GSC-1X

1136 Mbit/s

142 MB/s

1200 Mbit/s

150 MB/s

1990

VESA Local Bus - VLB 32-bit/40 MHz

1280 Mbit/s

160 MB/s

1992

Sbus 64-bit/25 MHz

1.6 Gbit/s

200 MB/s

2 Gbit/s

250 MB/s

HP GSC-2X

2.048 Gbit/s

256 MB/s

PCI 64-bit/33 MHz

2.133 Gbit/s

266.7 MB/s

1993

PCI 32-bit/66 MHz

2.133 Gbit/s

266.7 MB/s

1995

[27]

[33][34][35]

Zorro III

32-bit/37.5 MHz

PCI Express 1.0 (×1 link)

[36]

[25][26]

1981

1986

1988

1987

1989

2004


List of device bit rates

9 AGP 1×

2.133 Gbit/s

266.7 MB/s

HIO bus

2.560 Gbit/s

320 MB/s

GIO64 64-bit/40 MHz

2.560 Gbit/s

320 MB/s

[36]

4 Gbit/s

500 MB/s

[37]

4 Gbit/s

500 MB/s

AGP 2×

4.266 Gbit/s

533.3 MB/s

PCI 64-bit/66 MHz

4.266 Gbit/s

533.3 MB/s

PCI-X DDR 16-bit

4.266 Gbit/s

533.3 MB/s

PCI 64-bit/100 MHz

6.399 Gbit/s

800 MB/s

RapidIO (1 lane)

6.5 Gbit/s

812.5 MB/s

Unified Media Interface (UMI) (×4 link)

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

Direct Media Interface (DMI) (×4 link)

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

Enterprise Southbridge Interface (ESI)

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

PCI Express 1.0 (×4 link)

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

AGP 4×

8.533 Gbit/s

1.067 GB/s

PCI-X 133

8.533 Gbit/s

1.067 GB/s

PCI-X QDR 16-bit

8.533 Gbit/s

1.067 GB/s

InfiniBand single 4×

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

UPA

15.360 Gbit/s 1.920 GB/s

PCI Express 1.0 (×2 link) PCI Express 2.0 (×1 link)

[24]

Unified Media Interface 2.0 (UMI 2.0) (×4 link) 16 Gbit/s

2 GB/s

Direct Media Interface 2.0 (DMI 2.0) (×4 link)

16 Gbit/s

2 GB/s

[36]

16 Gbit/s

2 GB/s

[37]

16 Gbit/s

2 GB/s

PCI Express 1.0 (×8 link) PCI Express 2.0 (×4 link) AGP 8x

17.066 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s

PCI-X DDR

17.066 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s

HyperTransport (800 MHz, 16-pair)

25.6 Gbit/s

3.2 GB/s

HyperTransport (1 GHz, 16-pair)

32 Gbit/s

4 GB/s

32 Gbit/s

4 GB/s

32 Gbit/s

4 GB/s

PCI Express 1.0 (×16 link) PCI Express 2.0 (×8 link)

[36]

[37]

PCI-X QDR

34.133 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s

AGP 8× 64-bit

34.133 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s

1997

2001

[36]

64 Gbit/s

8 GB/s

2001

[37]

64 Gbit/s

8 GB/s

2007

[38]

126.03 Gbit/s 15.8 GB/s

[37]

128 Gbit/s

16 GB/s

QPI (4.80GT/s, 2.40 GHz)

153.6 Gbit/s

19.2 GB/s

HyperTransport 2.0 (1.4 GHz, 32-pair)

179.2 Gbit/s

22.4 GB/s

PCI Express 1.0 (×32 link) PCI Express 2.0 (×16 link) PCI Express 3.0 (×16 link) PCI Express 2.0 (×32 link)

2011

2004


List of device bit rates

10 QPI (5.86GT/s, 2.93 GHz)

187.52 Gbit/s 23.44 GB/s

QPI (6.40GT/s, 3.20 GHz)

204.8 Gbit/s [37]

25.6 GB/s

252.06 Gbit/s 31.5 GB/s

2011

HyperTransport 3.0 (2.6 GHz, 32-pair)

332.8 Gbit/s

41.6 GB/s

2006

HyperTransport 3.1 (3.2 GHz, 32-pair)

409.6 Gbit/s

51.2 GB/s

2008

PCI Express 3.0 (×32 link)

Portable Technology

Rate (bit/s)

Rate (byte/s) Year

PC Card 16-bit 255 ns byte mode

31.36 Mbit/s 3.92 MB/s

PC Card 16-bit 255 ns word mode

62.72 Mbit/s 7.84 MB/s

PC Card 16-bit 100 ns byte mode

80 Mbit/s

10 MB/s

PC Card 16-bit 100 ns word mode

160 Mbit/s

20 MB/s

PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) byte mode

267 Mbit/s

33.33 MB/s

ExpressCard 1.2 USB 2.0 mode

480 Mbit/s

60 MB/s

PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) word mode

533 Mbit/s

66.66 MB/s

PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) doubleword mode 1067 Mbit/s

133.33 MB/s

ExpressCard 1.2 PCI Express mode

2500 Mbit/s

250 MB/s

ExpressCard 2.0 USB 3.0 mode

4800 Mbit/s

600 MB/s

ExpressCard 2.0 PCI Express mode

5000 Mbit/s

625 MB/s

Storage Technology

Rate (bit/s)

Rate (byte/s) Year

PC Floppy Disk Controller (1.2 MB/1.44 MB)

0.5 Mbit/s

0.062 MB/s

CD Controller (1×)

1.171 Mbit/s

0.146 MB/s

MFM

5 Mbit/s

0.625 MB/s

RLL

7.5 Mbit/s

0.937 MB/s

DVD Controller (1×)

11.1 Mbit/s

1.32 MB/s

ESDI

24 Mbit/s

3 MB/s

ATA PIO Mode 0

26.4 Mbit/s

3.3 MB/s

HD DVD Controller (1×)

36 Mbit/s

4.5 MB/s

Blu-ray Controller (1×)

36 Mbit/s

4.5 MB/s

40 Mbit/s

5 MB/s

ATA PIO Mode 1

41.6 Mbit/s

5.2 MB/s

ATA PIO Mode 2

66.4 Mbit/s

8.3 MB/s

Fast SCSI (8 bits/10 MHz)

80 Mbit/s

10 MB/s

ATA PIO Mode 3

88.8 Mbit/s

11.1 MB/s

AoE over Fast Ethernet, per path

100 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

iSCSI over Fast Ethernet

100 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

SCSI (Narrow SCSI) (5 MHz)

[39]


List of device bit rates

11

ATA PIO Mode 4

133.3 Mbit/s

16.7 MB/s

Fast Wide SCSI (16 bits/10 MHz)

160 Mbit/s

20 MB/s

Ultra SCSI (Fast-20 SCSI) (8 bits/20 MHz)

160 Mbit/s

20 MB/s

Ultra DMA ATA 33

264 Mbit/s

33 MB/s

Ultra Wide SCSI (16 bits/20 MHz)

320 Mbit/s

40 MB/s

Ultra-2 SCSI 40 (Fast-40 SCSI) (8 bits/40 MHz)

320 Mbit/s

40 MB/s

Ultra DMA ATA 66

533.6 Mbit/s

66.7 MB/s

Ultra-2 wide SCSI (16 bits/40 MHz)

640 Mbit/s

80 MB/s

Serial Storage Architecture SSA

640 Mbit/s

80 MB/s

Ultra DMA ATA 100

800 Mbit/s

100 MB/s

850 Mbit/s

106.25 MB/s

AoE over Gigabit Ethernet, per path

1000 Mbit/s

125 MB/s

iSCSI over Gigabit Ethernet

1000 Mbit/s

125 MB/s

Ultra DMA ATA 133

1064 Mbit/s

133 MB/s

1500 Mbit/s

187.5 MB/s

Fibre Channel 1GFC (1.0625 GHz)

Serial ATA (SATA-150)

[40]

[41]

Ultra-3 SCSI (Ultra 160 SCSI; Fast-80 Wide SCSI) (16 bits/40 MHz DDR) 1280 Mbit/s [40]

1700 Mbit/s

212.5 MB/s

3000 Mbit/s

375 MB/s

2400 Mbit/s

300 MB/s

2560 Mbit/s

320 MB/s

3400 Mbit/s

425 MB/s

6000 Mbit/s

750 MB/s

Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) 2

4800 Mbit/s

600 MB/s

Ultra-640 SCSI (16 bits/160 MHz DDR)

5120 Mbit/s

640 MB/s

6800 Mbit/s

850 MB/s

AoE over 10GbE, per path

10000 Mbit/s

1250 MB/s

iSCSI over 10GbE

10000 Mbit/s

1250 MB/s

FCoE over 10GbE

10000 Mbit/s

1250 MB/s

iSCSI over InfiniBand 4×

32000 Mbit/s

4000 MB/s

iSCSI over 100G Ethernet (hypothetical)

100000 Mbit/s 12500 MB/s

FCoE over 100G Ethernet (hypothetical)

100000 Mbit/s 12500 MB/s

Fibre Channel 2GFC (2.125 GHz) Serial ATA 2 (SATA-300)

[41]

Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)

[41]

Ultra-320 SCSI (Ultra4 SCSI) (16 bits/80 MHz DDR) Fibre Channel 4GFC (4.25 GHz) Serial ATA 3 (SATA-600)

[40]

[41] [41]

Fibre Channel 8GFC (8.50 GHz)

Peripheral

160 MB/s

[40]


List of device bit rates

12

Technology [42][43]

Rate (bit/s)

Rate (byte/s) Year

CBM Bus

2.7 kbit/s

0.34 kB/s

Apple Desktop Bus

10.0 kbit/s

1.25 kB/s

Serial MIDI

31.25 kbit/s

3.9 kB/s

Serial EIA-232 max.

230.4 kbit/s

28.8 kB/s

Serial DMX512A

250.0 kbit/s

31.25 kB/s

Parallel (Centronics)

1 Mbit/s

125 kB/s

Serial 16550 UART max.

1.5 Mbit/s

187.5 kB/s

USB low speed

1.536 Mbit/s

192 kB/s

Serial UART max

2.7648 Mbit/s

345.6 kB/s

GPIB/HPIB (IEEE-488.1) IEEE-488 max.

8 Mbit/s

1 MB/s

Serial EIA-422 max.

10 Mbit/s

1.25 MB/s

USB full speed

12 Mbit/s

1.5 MB/s

Parallel (Centronics) EPP 2 MHz

16 Mbit/s

2 MB/s

Serial EIA-485 max.

35 Mbit/s

3.5 MB/s

GPIB/HPIB (IEEE-488.1-2003) IEEE-488 max.

64 Mbit/s

8 MB/s

FireWire (IEEE 1394) 100

98.304 Mbit/s

12.288 MB/s

1995

FireWire (IEEE 1394) 200

196.608 Mbit/s

24.576 MB/s

1995

FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400

393.216 Mbit/s

49.152 MB/s

1995

USB Hi-Speed (USB 2.0)

480 Mbit/s

60 MB/s

2000

FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 800

786.432 Mbit/s

98.304 MB/s

Fibre Channel 1 Gb SCSI

1062.5 Mbit/s

100 MB/s

FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 1600

1573 Mbit/s

196.6 MB/s

Camera Link Base (single) 24-bit 85 MHz

2040 Mbit/s

255 MB/s

Fibre Channel 2 Gb SCSI

2125 Mbit/s

200 MB/s

eSATA (SATA 300)

2400 Mbit/s

300 MB/s

2004

CoaXPress Base (up and down bidirectional link) 3.125 Gbit/s + 20.833 Mbit/s 390 MB/s

2009

[44]

[44]

[44]

1981

1996

1996

FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 3200

3145.7 Mbit/s

393.216 MB/s

External PCI Express 2.0 ×1

4 Gbit/s

500 MB/s

Fibre Channel 4 Gb SCSI

4.25 Gbit/s

531.25 MB/s

USB super speed (USB 3.0)

5 Gbit/s

625 MB/s

Camera Link full (dual) 64-bit 85 MHz

5.44 Gbit/s

680 MB/s

CoaXPress full (up and down bidirectional link)

6.25 Gbit/s + 20.833 Mbit/s

781 MB/s

External PCI Express 2.0 ×2

8 Gbit/s

1 GB/s

Thunderbolt

10 Gbit/s × 2

1.25 GB/s × 2 2011

External PCI Express 2.0 ×4

16 Gbit/s

2 GB/s

External PCI Express 2.0 ×8

32 Gbit/s

4 GB/s

External PCI Express 2.0 ×16

64 Gbit/s

8 GB/s

2010

2009


List of device bit rates

13

MAC to PHY Technology

Rate (bit/s) Rate (byte/s) Year

MII (4 lanes)

100 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

RMII (2 lanes)

100 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

SMII (1 lane)

100 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

GMII (8 lanes)

1.0 Gbit/s

125 MB/s

RGMII (4 lanes)

1.0 Gbit/s

125 MB/s

SGMII (2 lanes)

1.0 Gbit/s

125 MB/s

XGMII (32 lanes) 10.0 Gbit/s

1.25 GB/s

XAUI (4 lanes)

10.0 Gbit/s

1.25 GB/s

XLGMII

40.0 Gbit/s

5 GB/s

CGMII

100.0 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s

PHY to XPDR Technology

Rate (bit/s) Rate (byte/s) Year

XSBI (16 lanes) 0.995 Gbit/s 0.124 GB/s

Random access memory FPM, EDO, SDR, and RDRAM memories cannot be installed in a dual-channel configuration. DDR and DDR2 memory can be installed in a dual-channel configuration. DDR3 memory can be installed in dual-channel, tri-channel, and quad-channel configurations. To obtain the bit rates for multi-channel configuration of any memory type, multiply the given bit rates by 2× for dual-channel, 3× for tri-channel, and 4× for quad-channel. Module type

Chip Type Clock speed Bus speed Transfer rate (bit/s) Transfer rate (byte/s)

FPM DRAM

45 ns

22 MHz

177 MT/s

1.416 Gbit/s

177 MB/s

EDO DRAM

30 ns

33 MHz

266 MT/s

2.128 Gbit/s

266 MB/s

PC-66 SDR SDRAM

10/15 ns

66 MHz

66 MT/s

4.264 Gbit/s

533 MB/s

PC-100 SDR SDRAM

8 ns

100 MHz

100 MT/s

6.4 Gbit/s

800 MB/s

PC-133 SDR SDRAM

7/7.5 ns

133 MHz

133 MT/s

8.528 Gbit/s

1.066 GB/s

RIMM-1200 RDRAM

PC-600

300 MHz

600 MT/s

9.6 Gbit/s

1.2 GB/s

RIMM-1400 RDRAM

PC-700

350 MHz

700 MT/s

11.2 Gbit/s

1.4 GB/s

RIMM-1600 RDRAM

PC-800

400 MHz

800 MT/s

12.8 Gbit/s

1.6 GB/s

PC-1600 DDR SDRAM

DDR-200

100 MHz

200 MT/s

12.8 Gbit/s

1.6 GB/s

RIMM-2100 RDRAM

PC-700

533 MHz

1.066 GT/s 17.034 Gbit/s

2.133 GB/s

PC-2100 DDR SDRAM

DDR-266

133 MHz

266 MT/s

17.034 Gbit/s

2.133 GB/s

PC-2700 DDR SDRAM

DDR-333

166 MHz

333 MT/s

21.336 Gbit/s

2.667 GB/s

PC-3200 DDR SDRAM

DDR-400

200 MHz

400 MT/s

25.6 Gbit/s

3.2 GB/s

PC2-3200 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-400

200 MHz

400 MT/s

25.6 Gbit/s

3.2 GB/s

PC-3500 DDR SDRAM

DDR-433

216 MHz

433 MT/s

27.728 Gbit/s

3.466 GB/s


List of device bit rates

14

PC-3700 DDR SDRAM

DDR-466

233 MHz

466 MT/s

29.864 Gbit/s

3.733 GB/s

PC-4000 DDR SDRAM

DDR-500

250 MHz

500 MT/s

32 Gbit/s

4 GB/s

PC-4200 DDR SDRAM

DDR-533

266 MHz

533 MT/s

34.128 Gbit/s

4.266 GB/s

PC2-4200 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-533

266 MHz

533 MT/s

34.128 Gbit/s

4.266 GB/s

PC-4400 DDR SDRAM

DDR-550

275 MHz

550 MT/s

35.2 Gbit/s

4.4 GB/s

PC-4800 DDR SDRAM

DDR-600

300 MHz

600 MT/s

38.4 Gbit/s

4.8 GB/s

PC2-5300 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-667

333 MHz

667 MT/s

42.664 Gbit/s

5.333 GB/s

PC2-6000 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-750

375 MHz

750 MT/s

48 Gbit/s

6 GB/s

PC2-6400 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-800

400 MHz

800 MT/s

51.2 Gbit/s

6.4 GB/s

PC3-6400 DDR3 SDRAM

DDR3-800

400 MHz

800 MT/s

51.2 Gbit/s

6.4 GB/s

PC2-7200 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-900

450 MHz

900 MT/s

57.6 Gbit/s

7.2 GB/s

PC2-8000 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-1000 500 MHz

1 GT/s

57.6 Gbit/s

7.2 GB/s

PC2-8500 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-1066 533 MHz

1.066 GT/s 64 Gbit/s

8 GB/s

PC3-8500 DDR3 SDRAM

DDR3-1066 533 MHz

1.066 GT/s 64 Gbit/s

8 GB/s

PC2-8800 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-1100 550 MHz

1.1 GT/s

8.8 GB/s

PC2-8888 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-1100 556 MHz

1.111 GT/s 71.104 Gbit/s

8.888 GB/s

PC2-9136 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-1142 571 MHz

1.142 GT/s 73.088 Gbit/s

9.136 GB/s

PC2-9200 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-1150 575 MHz

1.15 GT/s

73.6 Gbit/s

9.2 GB/s

PC2-9600 DDR2 SDRAM

DDR2-1200 600 MHz

1.2 GT/s

76.8 Gbit/s

9.6 GB/s

PC2-10000 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1250 625 MHz

1.25 GT/s

80 Gbit/s

10 GB/s

PC3-10600 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1333 667 MHz

1.333 GT/s 85.336 Gbit/s

10.667 GB/s

PC3-11000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1375 688 MHz

1.375 GT/s 88 Gbit/s

11 GB/s

PC3-12800 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1600 800 MHz

1.6 GT/s

12.8 GB/s

PC3-13000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1625 813 MHz

1.625 GT/s 104 Gbit/s

13 GB/s

PC3-14400 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1800 900 MHz

1.8 GT/s

14.4 GB/s

PC3-14900 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1866 933 MHz

1.866 GT/s 119.464 Gbit/s

14.933 GB/s

PC3-15000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1866 933 MHz

1.866 GT/s 119.464 Gbit/s

14.933 GB/s

PC3-16000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2000 1 GHz

2 GT/s

16 GB/s

PC3-17000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2133 1.066 GHz

2.133 GT/s 136.528 Gbit/s

17.066 GB/s

PC3-17600 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2200 1.1 GHz

2.2 GT/s

140.8 Gbit/s

17.6 GB/s

PC3-19200 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2400 1.2 GHz

2.4 GT/s

153.6 Gbit/s

19.2 GB/s

Digital audio

70.4 Gbit/s

102.4 Gbit/s

115.2 Gbit/s

128 Gbit/s


List of device bit rates

15

Device

Rate (bit/s)

Rate (byte/s)

CD Audio (16-bit PCM)

1,411 Kbit/s

180.6 KB/s

S/PDIF

3.072 Mbit/s

0.384 MB/s

I²S

2.250 Mbit/s @ 24bit/48 kHz

0.281 MB/s

AC'97

12.288 Mbit/s

1.536 MB/s

McASP

Unknown

Unknown

[45] 48 (outbound) & 24 (inbound) Mbit/s 6 & 3 MB/s (outbound & inbound)

Intel High Definition Audio rev. 1.0 ADAT Lightpipe (Type I)

9.216 Mbit/s

2.304 MB/s

AES/EBU

2.625 Mbit/s @ 24-bit/48 kHz

0.328 MB/s

MADI

100 Mbit/s

12.5 MB/s

Digital video interconnects Data rates given are from the video source (e.g., video card) to receiving device (e.g., monitor) only. Out of band and reverse signaling channels are not included. Device

Rate (bit/s)

HD-SDI (SMPTE 292M)

1.485 Gbit/s 0.186 GB/s

[46] LVDS Display Interface

2.8 Gbit/s

0.35 GB/s

3G-SDI (SMPTE 424M)

2.97 Gbit/s

0.371 GB/s

Single link DVI

4.95 Gbit/s

0.619 GB/s [a]

4.95 Gbit/s

0.619 GB/s [a]

[48] 6.48 Gbit/s

0.810 GB/s [a]

8.03 Gbit/s

1.238 GB/s [a]

HDMI v. 1.3

10.2 Gbit/s

1.275 GB/s [a]

Dual High-Speed LVDS Display Interface

10.5 Gbit/s

1.312 GB/s

10.8 Gbit/s

1.35 GB/s [a]

21.6 Gbit/s

2.7 GB/s [a]

[47]

HDMI v. 1.0

DisplayPort v. 1.0 (4-lane reduced rate) Dual link DVI [49]

DisplayPort v. 1.0 (4-lane full rate) [48]

DisplayPort v. 1.2 (4-lane) a

Rate (byte/s)

[48]

  Uses 8B/10B encoding for video data — effective data rate is 80% of the symbol rate


List of device bit rates

Notes [1] TTY uses a Baudot code, not ASCII. This uses 5 bits per character instead of 8, plus one start and approx. 1.5 stop bits (7.5 total bits per character sent). [2] WPM, or Words Per Minute, is the number of times the word "PARIS" is transferred per minute. Strictly speaking the code is quinary, accounting inter-element, inter-letter, and inter-word gaps, yielding 50 binary elements (bits) per one word. Therefore 40 wpm is 2000 bits/min or 55.6 bits/s. Counting characters, including inter-word gaps, gives 6 characters per word or 240 characters per minute, and finally 4 characters per second. [3] All modems are wrongly assumed to be in serial operation with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit (2 stop bits for 110-baud modems). Therefore, currently modems are wrongly calculated with transmission of 10 bits per 8-bit byte (11 bits for 110-baud modems). Although the serial port is nearly always used to connect a modem and has equivalent data rates, the protocols, modulations and error correction differ completely. [4] Modem Types and Timeline (http:/ / www. surfthe. us/ reference/ modem-timeline. html), Daxal Communications, 2003-12-16, , retrieved 2009-04-16 [5] ITU.int (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ T-REC-V/ en) [6] 56K modems: V.90 and V.92 have just 5% overhead for the protocol signaling. The maximum capacity can only be achieved when the upstream (service provider) end of the connection is digital, ie a DS0 channel. [7] Note that effective aggregate bandwidth for an ISDN installation is typically higher than the rates shown for a single channel due to the use of multiple channels. A basic rate interface (BRI) provides 2 "B" channels and one "D" channel. Each B channel provides 64 kbit/s bandwidth and the 'D' channel carries signalling (call setup) information. B channels can be bonded to provide a 128 kbit/s data rate. Primary rate interfaces (PRI) vary depending on whether the region uses E1 (Europe, world) or T1 (North America) bearers. In E1 regions, the PRI carries 30 B-channels and 1 D-channel; in T1 regions the PRI carries 23 B-channels and 1 D-channel. The D-channel has different bandwidth on the two interfaces. [8] Massey, David (2006-07-04), "Timeline of Telecommunications" (http:/ / www. telephonetribute. com/ timeline. html), Telephone Tribute, , retrieved 2009-04-16 [9] Adam.com.au (http:/ / www. adam. com. au/ about_history. php) [10] Itu.int (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ T-REC-G. 991. 1-199810-I/ en) [11] DOCSIS 1.0 (http:/ / www. cablemodem. com/ specifications/ specifications10. html) includes technology which first became available around 1995-1996, and has since become very widely deployed. DOCSIS 1.1 (http:/ / www. cablemodem. com/ specifications/ specifications11. html) introduces some security improvements and Quality of Service (QoS). [12] DOCSIS 2.0 (http:/ / www. cablemodem. com/ specifications/ specifications20. html) specifications provide increased upstream throughput for symmetric services. [13] DOCSIS 3.0 (http:/ / www. cablemodem. com/ primer/ ) is currently in development by the CableLabs consortium and is slated to include support for channel bonding and IPv6. [14] ITU.int (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ T-REC-G. 983. 2/ en) [15] ITU.int (http:/ / www. itu. int/ rec/ T-REC-G. 984. 4/ en) [16] Most operators only support up to 9600bit/s [17] SDSL is available in various speeds. [18] ADSL connections will vary in throughput from 64 kbit/s to several Mbit/s depending on configuration. Most are commonly below 2 Mbit/s. Some ADSL and SDSL connections have a higher digital bandwidth than T1 but their rate is not guaranteed, and will drop when the system gets overloaded, whereas the T1 type connections are usually guaranteed and have no contention ratios. [19] Satellite internet may have a high bandwidth but also has a high latency due to the distance between the modem, satellite and hub. One-way satellite connections exist where all the downstream traffic is handled by satellite and the upstream traffic by land-based connections such as 56K modems and ISDN. [20] "MoCA 1.1 improves throughput" (http:/ / www. mocalliance. org/ news/ pr_102207_PQoS_and_175_Mbp. php) over coaxial cable to 175 Mbits/s versus the 100 Mbits/s provided by the MoCA 1.0 specification. [21] FireWire natively supports TCP/IP, and is often used at an alternative to Ethernet when connecting 2 nodes. Tweaktown.com (http:/ / www. tweaktown. com/ articles/ 309/ 3) [22] Data rate comparison between FW and Giganet shows that FW's lower overhead has nearly the same throughput as Giganet. Unibrain.com (http:/ / www. unibrain. com/ Products/ DriverAPI/ FireNET. htm) [23] http:/ / www. ge-ip. com/ reflectivememorynetworks [24] InfiniBand uses an 8B/10B encoding scheme. [25] Mac History (http:/ / www. mac-history. net/ computer-history/ 2008-05-25/ apple-i-and-apple-ii) [26] VAW: Apple IIgs Specs (http:/ / www. vectronicsappleworld. com/ profiles/ 83. html) [27] The Zorro II bus use 4 clocks per 16-Bit of data transferred. See the Zorro III technical specification (http:/ / www. thule. no/ haynie/ zorroiii/ docs/ zorro3. pdf) for more information. [28] Japan wikipedia article, Bus used in early NEC PC-9800 series and compatible systems [29] STD 32 Busspecification Desinger's Guide (http:/ / www. controlled. com/ std32mg/ std32. pdf) [30] Japan wikipedia article, Bus used in later NEC PC-9800 series and compatible systems

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List of device bit rates [31] Local Area Networks Newsletter by Paul Polishuk, September 1992, Page 7 (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=XBvHNQzM2P0C& pg=PA7& lpg=PA7& dq=APbus+ MIPS+ mhz& source=bl& ots=aRrJwlf5UE& sig=EtvZr-drqdWZRXCKiYTzFEJ2HSA& hl=de& ei=AHKkTI6WDM7Lswby99WgCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CCgQ6AEwAw) (APbus used in Sony NeWS and NEC UP4800 workstations and NEC EWS4800 servers after VMEbus and before switch to PCI) [32] Japan wikipedia article, Bus used in NEC PC-9821 series [33] Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this (http:/ / groups. google. com/ group/ comp. sys. amiga/ msg/ c532a74c1fa3f992?dmode=source) posting that the theoretical max of the Zorro III bus can be derived by the timing information given in ‘’chapter 5’’ of the Zorro III technical specification (http:/ / www. thule. no/ haynie/ zorroiii/ docs/ zorro3. pdf). [34] Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this (http:/ / groups. google. com/ group/ comp. sys. amiga. advocacy/ msg/ 42ecbcbae063cfe1?dmode=source) posting that Zorro III is an asynchronous bus and with that does not have a classical MHz rating. A maximum theoretical MHz value may be derived by examining timing constraints detailed in the Zorro III technical specification (http:/ / www. thule. no/ haynie/ zorroiii/ docs/ zorro3. pdf), which should yield about 37.5 MHz. No existing implementation performs to this level. [35] Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this (http:/ / groups. google. com/ group/ comp. sys. amiga. hardware/ msg/ 03b8cec336310e4a?dmode=source) posting that Zorro III has a max burst rate of 150 MB/s. [36] Note that PCI Express 1.0/2.0 lanes use an 8B/10B encoding scheme. [37] PCIe 2.0 effectively doubles the bus standard's bandwidth from 2.5 GT/s to 5 GT/s [38] PCIe 3.0 increases the bandwidth from 5 GT/s to 8 GT/s and switches to 128b/130b encoding [39] SCSI-1, SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 are signaling protocols and do not explicitly refer to a specific rate. Narrow SCSI exists using SCSI-1 and SCSI-2. Higher rates use SCSI-2 or later. [40] Fibre Channel 1GFC, 2GFC, 4GFC use an 8B/10B encoding scheme. Fibre Channel 10GFC, which uses a 64B/66B encoding scheme, is not compatible with 1GFC, 2GFC and 4GFC, and is used only to interconnect switches. [41] SATA and SAS use an 8B/10B encoding scheme. [42] proprietary serial version of IEEE-488 by Commodore International [43] http:/ / cbmmuseum. kuto. de/ floppy. html [44] FireWire (IEEE 1394b) uses an 8B/10B coding scheme. [45] High Definition Audio Specification (http:/ / download. intel. com/ standards/ hdaudio/ pdf/ HDAudio_03. pdf), Revision 1.0, 2004 [46] Videsignline.com (http:/ / www. videsignline. com/ 208403647;jsessionid=OD1LDTBAAOB4EQSNDLQCKH0CJUNN2JVN?printableArticle=true), Panel display interfaces and bandwidth: From TTL, LVDS, TDMS to DisplayPort [47] Octavainc.com (http:/ / www. octavainc. com/ HDMI 1. 3. htm) [48] Displayport Technical Overview (http:/ / www. displayport. org/ cms/ sites/ default/ files/ downloads/ DisplayPort_Technical_Overview. pdf), May 2010 [49] HDMI.org (http:/ / www. hdmi. org/ learningcenter/ faq. aspx#12)

External links • Interconnection Speeds Compared (http://www.pixelbeat.org/speeds.html) • Need for Speed: Theoretical Bandwidth Comparison (http://www.d-silence.com/feature.php?id=237) — Contains a graph (from 2004) illustrating digital bandwidths

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Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors List of device bit rates  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=483160210  Contributors: 119, 2mcm, A5b, Abdull, Adamantios, Afwm1985, Agoode, Ajsphila, Akumiszcza, Alereon, Altintx, Aluvus, Alvestrand, AndrewAllen, AndrewRH, Andrewcrawford, Angelic Wraith, Anss123, Arnocs, Azhad, Bellhead, BenRG, Bert490, BigChilli, Biggiesized, Bilbo1507, Blound, Bluezy, Bobblewik, Bobprime, Boris Barowski, Boscobiscotti, Brian Patrie, BulletZ, Campoftheamericas, CanisRufus, Capnquackenbush, Casey Abell, Cgmusselman, Chbarts, Chrisbolt, ChristTrekker, CodeCaster, ColdShine, CosineKitty, Cpiral, DRAGON Elemental, DSTKSC, DanKidger, Danigro456, Dante Alighieri, DavidCary, Daviesow, Dcljr, Delirium, Deylight, Dipa1965, DmitryKo, Dogcow, DoriSmith, Dycedarg, Dysprosia, Eagleone 123, Eatcacti, Edknol, Edward, Electron9, Elishabet, EncMstr, Endlessnameless, Enigmasoldier, Europamoon, Evanh, Feedmecereal, Ferion69, Flewis, Flightsoffancy, Frap, Fratrep, Funandtrvl, Ghakko, Ghewgill, Gibwar, Giftlite, GoingBatty, Golffies, Gregzeng, Grendelkhan, Grin, Gudeldar, Gundark, Guoguo12, Guy Harris, Hawkwindeb, Hetar, Hoof Hearted, Hroo772, Htmlspinnr, Il hamster, Jack007, Jannex, Jay.slovak, Jengelh, Jerryseinfeld, Jim.henderson, Jmoz2989, Joeinwap, Jonth, Juhis, KJBracey, Kaihuang, Kalizec, Kanji, Karn, Kbdank71, KelleyCook, Kelp, Khazar, Knightofbaghdad, Knotnic, Kvng, Larek, LeetHaxor, Liberty Miller, Lightmouse, Lironl, Logan, Lotje, Loïc Le Gal, Luis wiki, MISTYFAN4EVER8887, Macoukji, Mange01, Mangezdespommes, Marbud, Marcan, Mark Rizo, MartinRe, MatthewWilcox, Megapixie, Mendaliv, Metalim, Michael Pheddyn, Micru, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mindmatrix, Mittosi, Mjb, Mjkmail, Mojoworker, Mortenoesterlundjoergensen, MrDolomite, Mrand, Myria, Nailbiter, Nanjoutai, NapoliRoma, NetRolller 3D, Nhl94, Nick Wilson, Nickshanks, NonarKitten, Nono64, Northgrove, Omegatron, PaleAqua, Pascal666, Peter Crabtree, Phil Holmes, Phillips.jj, PhnomPencil, Phoenix720, Pierpao, Pip2andahalf, Pmc, Pmsyyz, Pnm, Poppafuze, Poseidon69, Potatoswatter, Pwscottiv, Quanstro, QuantumShadow, Qxl32, R'n'B, RainerBlome, RatOmeter, Ratfox, Rebroad, Reedy, Retroneo, Rilak, Rjamorim, Rjwilmsi, Robbat2, Robert Borkowski, RooZ, Royk, Ruckb, Rvvs89, Rwwww, SQL, Sahrin, Samrawlins, Sasquatch, SchmuckyTheCat, Scott McNay, SebastianHelm, Sentinel23, Sfoskett, Sharkford, Shjacks45, Sigmundpetersen, Skilltim, Sladen, Smbil58, Ssd, Sspalfilter, Standmatt, Stephen.sweat, Sticker1, Subterminal, Sugree, Tagishsimon, Theaveng, Theo Pardilla, Threeme3, Thunderbird2, Time sheep, Timl2k4, Tins128, Tlogmer, Tony1, Torst, Towel401, Toytoy, Trojancowboy, Txt.file, UncleBubba, UriBudnik, Urvabara, Vague Rant, Vahid83, VgerNeedsTheInfo, ViPeR-7, Vonvon, VoxLuna, Vswitchs, Waffle, Wayne Hardman, Wbm1058, Wernher, West London Dweller, WhartoX, Widefox, Wiki fanatic, WikiTorch, Winterspan, Wtshymanski, Xanzzibar, Xmaillard, Ysangkok, Zac67, ZeroOne, Zerofire0, Zowie, 731 anonymous edits

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Computing Bit Rates