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Nonproliferation and Counterterrorism

Status of Efforts: South-East Asia

April 2011


The Fund for Peace is an independent, nonpartisan, 501(c)(3) non-profit research and educational organization that works to prevent violent conflict and promote sustainable security. We promote sustainable security through research, training and education, engagement of civil society, building bridges across diverse sectors, and developing innovative technologies and tools for policy makers. A leader in the conflict assessment and early warning field, the Fund for Peace focuses on the problems of weak and failing states. Our objective is to create practical tools and approaches for conflict mitigation that are useful to decision-makers.

Copyright Š 2011 The Fund for Peace. All rights reserved. This program description is proprietary to The Fund for Peace. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent from The Fund for Peace.

The Fund for Peace Transnational Threats Threat Convergence Status of Efforts Briefing Number 1 Series Editor Patricia Taft Report Written by Ryan Costello The Fund for Peace Publication FFP : TTCVR1105 (Version 11E) Circulation: PUBLIC

The Fund for Peace 1720 I Street NW 7th Floor Washington, D.C. 20006 T: +1 202 223 7940 F: +1 202 223 7947 www.fundforpeace.org

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South-East Asia

Overview

Introduction & Contents WMD Nonproliferation Activities

4

Export Control Laws & Projects in Place

5

Counterterrorism Initiatives

6

CTC Technical Assistance Matrix

7

Antiterrorism Instruments

14

Anti-Money Laundering and Finance Initiatives

The Fund for Peace is an independent, nonpartisan, 501(c)(3) nonprofit research and educational organization that works to prevent violent conflict and promote sustainable security. We promote sustainable security through research, training and education, engagement of civil society, building bridges across diverse sectors, and developing innovative technologies and tools for policy makers.

A leader in the conflict assessment and early warning field, the Fund for Peace focuses on the problems of weak and failing states. Our objective is to create practical tools and approaches for conflict mitigation that are useful to decision-makers.

16

U.S. Multilateral Initiatives

18

Endnotes

19

The Fund for Peace offers a wide range of initiatives focused on our central objective: to promote sustainable security and the ability of a state to solve its own problems peacefully without an external military or administrative presence. Our programs fall into three primary thematic areas:

• • •

Conflict Early Warning and Assessment; Transnational Threats; and Sustainable

Development,

Sustainable

Security.

About Threat Convergence After three years of project work, in January 2009, The Fund for Peace established its program on Threat Convergence to explore the linkages among the three biggest threats to global security: fragile states, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and terrorism. The program aims to:

raise the profile of the challenges in vulnerable, fragile and ungoverned regions on the nonproliferation agenda;

explore how these regions may serve as enabling terrorism;

environments

for

nuclear

promote more coherent and strategic policy approaches to nuclear terrorism and illicit nuclear trafficking; and

become a hub for threat convergence-

related analysis. The program encourages innovative and

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The Fund for Peace

fresh approaches to the issue by convening experts, performing extensive field research in some of the world’s most difficult environments, and by partnering with international and regional organizations to explore how the threat of catastrophic terrorism emanating from weak and failing states can be prevented.


South-East Asia

WMD Nonproliferation Activities

Indonesia

Malaysia

Myanmar

Philippines

Singapore

Thailand

Vietnam

UNSCR 1540 Reports submitted1

28 Oct 2004 22 Nov 2005

26 Oct 2004

6 Apr 2005

28 Oct 2004 28 Oct 2005 30 Nov 2005

21 Oct 2004 29 Aug 2005

5 Nov 2004

26 Oct 2004 12 Dec 2005

Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (not yet entered into force)

Signatory

State Party

Signatory

State Party

State Party

Signatory

State Party

Chemical Weapons Convention (1993)

State Party

State Party

Signatory

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

Biological Toxin Weapons Convention (1972)

State Party

State Party

Signatory

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

CSA/AP

CSA

CSA

CSA

CSA/AP

CSA

CSA

State Party

-

-

State Party

-

-

-

Signatory

-

-

Signatory

-

-

-

State Party

-

-

Signatory

State Party

-

-

-

Signatory

-

Signatory

Signatory

Signatory

-

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

International Atomic Energy Agency Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (1980) Joint Convention on the Safety of State Partyent Fuel Management and on the safety of Radioactive Waste Management (1997) Convention on Nuclear Safety (1994) International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005) Southeast Asian Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (Bangkok Treaty, 1995)

Abbreviations: AP: Additional Protocol in Force CSA: Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement in Force

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South-East Asia

Export Control Laws and Projects in Place

Indonesia

Indonesia does not participate in any multinational export control regimes, though it has implemented national export control regulations, such as Regulation No. 29/2008 concerning the exportation of pengion radiation resources

Malaysia

Malaysia does not participate in any multinational export control regimes nor did it have any national legislation concerning the export of nuclear materials or technology. It does receive assistance from the United States through the Export Control and Border-Related Security (EXBS) program to improve its export control system. However, Malaysia’s lack of export controls caught negative international attention as it became a transit route for WMD related materials. In April 2010 Malaysia released the Strategic Trade Act, which illegalized the shipment of WMD related materials through Malaysia. The law represents an important first step in compliance with UNSCR 1540.

Myanmar

Myanmar’s Notification 10/1999 prohibits the trade, border trade, and transit trade of firearms. A series of internal laws regulate the trafficking of weapons and illicit chemicals. Not a participant in the CS/NP/MP initiatives.

Philippines

The Philippines has implemented several national export control measures concerning the transfer of nuclear materials and technology, including: the Republic Act 6969, the Republic Act 2067 and the Republic Act 5207. National legislation establishes control over the importation, exportation, procurement, processing and handling of, inter alia, radioactive materials and instruments, atomic energy facilities and materials, chemical substances, and explosives. The Philippines also received U.S. assistance through a developmental grant from the Export Control and Border-Related Security (EXBS) program in September 2006.

Singapore

Singapore has implemented several export control measures including the Strategic Goods (Control) Act, which regulates the transfer of goods and technology that could be used for the production of WMD, the Regulation of Imports and Exports Acts, Arms and Explosives Act, and the Chemical Weapons (Prohibition) Act.

Thailand

Thailand has several export control laws which regulate the transfer of arms and toxic chemicals. As of 2005, Thailand planned to implement an end-user certification system to bolster export control efforts. Thailand has received assistance through the Export Control and Border Security (EXBS) program to improve port and border security and strengthen export controls regarding munitions, dual use goods, and related technologies.

Vietnam

Vietnam has regulations governing the use of nuclear, chemical and biological materials, including the Environmental Protection Act and the Law on Atomic Energy. Vietnam law also has criminalized terrorism and regulates the possession of any type of weapon. Vietnam is involved in nonproliferation regimes and takes advantage of training programs through the Export Control and Border Security (EXBS) program.

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South-East Asia

Counterterrorism Initiatives

Pursuant to U.N. Security Council Resolutions 1373 and 1624

CTC Cooperation

UNSCR 1373 Reports submitted

UNSCR 1624 Reports submitted

UNODC Terrorism Prevention Branch activities

Indonesia

CTC assistance received 2001-2008

1) S/2001/1245 2) S/2002/731 3) S/2003/267

4) S/2004/670 5) S/2006/311

See: S/2006/311

Malaysia

CTC assistance received 2001-2007

1) S/2002/35 2) S/2002/1334 3) S/2003/729

4) S/2004/778 5) S/2005/846

-

Myanmar

CTC assistance received 2001-2006

1) S/2001/1144 3) S/2004/295 5) S/2006/902

2) S/2002/1045 4) S/2005/519

Philippines

CTC assistance received 2001-2007

1) S/2001/1290 & Add.1 2) S/2002/785 3) S/2003/979 4) S/2005/109

Singapore

CTC assistance received 2001-2007

1) S/2001/1234 2) S/2002/690 3) S/2003/480

4) S/2004/133 5) S/2006/120

See: S/2006/120

Singapore observed the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) workshop in Vienna, Austria in July 2008.

Thailand

CTC assistance received 2001-2007

1) S/2002/10 2) S/2002/882

3) S/2003/915 4) S/2004/1023

S/2006/399

Provided with direct assistance by UNODC’s Terrorism Prevention Branch.

Vietnam

CTC assistance received 2001-2007

1) S/2002/148 2) S/2003/128 3) S/2003/1171

4) S/2005/165 5) S/2006/121

S/2007/425

Provided with direct assistance by UNODC’s Terrorism Prevention Branch.

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See: S/2006/902

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Provided with direct assistance by UNODC’s Terrorism Prevention Branch.2 -

Provided with direct assistance by UNODC’s Terrorism Prevention Branch. The Philippines observed the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) workshop in Vienna, Austria in July 2008. 3


South-East Asia

CTC Technical Assistance Matrix Civil Aviation Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

10

7

Indonesia

1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2007

Malaysia

1/1/2001; 1/1/2003

4

2

Myanmar

1/1/2003

2

1

Philippines

1/1/2001

1

1

1

0

Singapore Thailand

1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 2/1/2006

8

3

Vietnam

1/1/2001; 1/8/2006

9

2

Customs & Border Control Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

1/1/2001; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 3/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 3/1/2007; 5/1/2007; 1/1/2008

26

20

Malaysia

1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006;11/1/2006

14

8

Myanmar

1/1/2001; 1/1/2001; 1/1/2005

3

3

Philippines

1/1/2001; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 9/1/2006

15

12

Singapore

1/1/2001; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2005; 2/1/2007

4

4

Thailand

1/1/2001; 1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

15

8

Vietnam

1/1/2001; 1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

15

7

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CTC Technical Assistance Matrix

Counter-terrorism Law and Practice Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

26

18

7

6

10

2

Indonesia

1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 3/31/2003; 5/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 9/26/2005; 11/14/2005; 11/15/2005; 12/12/2005; 1/1/2006; 4/3/2006; 10/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 1/31/2007; 2/1/2007; 3/1/2007; 5/1/2007

Malaysia

1/1/2002; 3/31/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2006; 7/1/2006

Myanmar

8/26/2004; 1/1/2006

Philippines

1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 11/15/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/10/2006

8

5

Singapore

1/1/2003; 1/1/2006

4

2

Thailand

1/1/2003; 3/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2004; 1/16/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 11/1/2007

10

8

Vietnam

1/1/2004; 2/1/2004; 11/22/2004; 11/22/2004; 12/1/2004; 1/1/2006; 5/21/2007; 5/21/2007

20

8

Extradition Law and Practice Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

3

0

Malaysia

2

0

Myanmar

2

0

Philippines

2

0

Singapore

0

0

Thailand

0

0

Vietnam

3

0

Date(s) Provided

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CTC Technical Assistance Matrix

Expert Monitoring and Illegal Arms Trafficking Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 8/1/2007

9

6

Malaysia

1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 5/1/2006; 7/1/2006

7

7

Myanmar

1/1/2004; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006;

4

4

Philippines

1/1/2002; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 5/1/2006; 7/1/2006; 1/1/2007

8

8

Singapore

1/1/2003; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2004;

4

4

Thailand

1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 5/1/2006;

6

6

Vietnam

1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005

7

5

Financial Law and Practice Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

1/1/2001; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2004; 2/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 5/1/2006; 12/1/2006; 1/1/2008

31

15

Malaysia

1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 7/5/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 9/1/2006

16

11

Myanmar

7/5/2004;

4

1

Philippines

1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 9/23/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

21

11

Singapore

1/1/2004; 1/1/2003;

5

2

Thailand

1/1/2001; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2004; 7/5/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 5/8/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007;

24

12

Vietnam

1/1/2002; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2004; 7/5/2004;

35

4

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CTC Technical Assistance Matrix

Immigration Law and Practice Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

13

9

Indonesia

1/1/2001; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2007

Malaysia

1/1/2001; 1/1/2006; 6/19/2006; 11/6/2006

7

4

Myanmar

1/1/2001; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

5

4

Philippines

1/1/2001; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 11/6/2006

9

7

Singapore

1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 8/7/2006; 11/6/2006

4

4

Thailand

1/1/2001; 1/1/2005; 6/1/2005; 1/1/2006

11

4

Vietnam

1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005

8

3

Military Counter-terrorism Training Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

1/1/2003; 1/1/2005

4

2

Malaysia

1/1/2002; 1/1/2005

3

3

Myanmar

1/1/2004; 1/1/2005

2

2

Philippines

1/1/2003; 1/1/2005

3

2

Singapore

1/1/2005

2

1

Thailand

1/1/2003; 1/1/2005

2

2

Vietnam

1/1/2005

1

1

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CTC Technical Assistance Matrix

Maritime Security Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

8/26/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 5/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 3/13/2006; 1/1/2007; 7/1/2007; 1/1/2008

27

20

Malaysia

1/1/2001; 7/1/2003; 5/24/2004; 1/1/2005; 9/1/2006

13

12

Myanmar

8/26/2002; 5/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

7

7

Philippines

1/1/2002; 7/1/2002; 9/26/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

15

14

Singapore

8/26/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

6

6

Thailand

1/1/2001; 3/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 8/26/2002; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 11/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2007

13

12

Vietnam

1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 8/26/2002; 6/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 6/1/2006; 7/1/2006; 8/1/2006; 12/1/2006

14

12

National Security Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

1

0

1

1

Myanmar

0

0

Philippines

0

0

Singapore

0

0

Thailand

0

0

Vietnam

0

0

Date(s) Provided Indonesia Malaysia

1/1/2003

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CTC Technical Assistance Matrix

Police and Law Enforcement Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

1/1/2000; 1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 7/1/2006; 1/8/2006; 10/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 3/1/2007; 4/1/2007; 4/27/2007; 5/14/2007; 9/1/2007; 11/1/2007; 1/1/2008

55

44

Malaysia

1/1/2001; 6/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2007

16

8

Myanmar

1/1/2001; 1/1/2006; 1/1/2006

4

3

Philippines

1/1/2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 5/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006

18

16

Singapore

1/1/2003; 1/1/2004; 1/1/2006; 11/1/2006

5

4

Thailand

1/1/2001; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2005; 7/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007; 1/1/2007

20

16

Vietnam

1/1/2001; 1.1.2001; 1/1/2002; 1/1/2004; 4/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 1/1/2006; 3/13/2006; 5/15/2006; 7/13/2006; 8/31/2006; 9/25/2006;

25

12

Training and Capacity Building for the Judiciary Date(s) Provided Indonesia

1/1/2002; 1/1/2003; 4/1/2004; 5/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 3/1/2007; 4/1/2007

Malaysia

5/1/2004

Myanmar

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

13

12

1

1

0

0

Philippines

1/1/2004

1

1

Singapore

5/1/2004;

1

1

Thailand

1/1/2003;

1

1

Vietnam

4/1/2007; 5/21/2007;

6

2

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CTC Technical Assistance Matrix

Transportation Security Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

1

0

Malaysia

0

0

Myanmar

0

0

Philippines

1

0

Singapore

0

0

Thailand

0

0

Vietnam

0

0

Date(s) Provided

Other Date(s) Provided

Number of Requests

Numbers of Assistance Provisions

Indonesia

1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 3/1/2005; 11/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 7/12/2007

9

7

Malaysia

1/1/2004; 1/1/2005; 3/1/2005; 11/1/2006; 1/1/2007; 7/12/2007

9

7

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South-East Asia

Antiterrorism Instruments

Indonesia

Malaysia

Myanmar

Philippines

Singapore

Thailand

Vietnam

Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed On Board Aircraft (1963)

State Partyb

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (1970)

State Partyc

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (1971)

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents (1973)

-

-

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages (1979)

-

-

State Party

State Party

-

State Party

-

State Party

-

-

State Party

-

-

-

Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation (1988)

Signatory

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (1988)

-

-

State Party

-

State Party

-

State Party

Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf (1988)

-

-

State Party

-

-

-

State Party

Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection (1991)

-

State Partyd

State Party

State Partye

State Party

State Party

-

International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997)

-

-

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

-

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (1980)

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Antiterrorism Instruments

Indonesia

Malaysia

Myanmar

Philippines

Singapore

Thailand

Vietnam

International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (1999)

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

State Party

International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005)

Signatory

-

-

-

Signatory

Signatory

-

State Party

-

-

State Party

-

-

-

Protocol of 2005 to the Convention for the suppression of unlawful acts against the safety of maritime navigation

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Protocol of 2005 to the Protocol for the suppression of unlawful acts against the safety of fixed platforms located on the continental shelf

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

a b c d e

Extract from the Report of the Secretary-General on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (Doc. A/63/173), http://www.un.org/ga/sixth/63/Terrorism_Table_63rd.pdf Indonesia signed the document with the caveat that it is not bound by Article 24, Paragraph 1 of the treaty. Indonesia signed the document with reservation with reState Partyect to Article 12, Paragraph 1 of the convention. Malaysia declared that it is not a producer state and is therefore unbound by Article XIII, Paragraph 2. The Philippines declared that it was not a producer state and is therefore unbound by Article XIII, Paragraph 2.

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South-East Asia

Anti-Money Laundering and Finance Initiatives

International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Financing

Implementation of FATF 40+9 recommendations

APGML Mutual Evaluation Reports Status

Indonesia

Signed 24 Sep 2001 Ratified 29 Jun 2006

Deemed either “partially compliant” or “non compliant” Completed second round in 36 of 40 recommendations and all 9 special recomevaluation on July 9, 2008 mendations. The 2008 APG Report4 cites insufficient legal action to combat terrorist financing and deficient law enforcement capabilities to convict money launderers. There is a Financial Intelligence Unit in place.

Malaysia

Ratified 29 May 2007

Deemed either “compliant” or “largely compliant” in 33 Completed second round of 40 recommendations and 9 special recommendations. evaluation on July 25, 2007 The APG’s 2007 report5 states that Malaysia is consistent with the international standards set forth in the 2001 AMLA Act. Malaysia has improved laws and tightened compliance related to AML/CTF.

Myanmar

Signed Nov 12, 2001 Ratified Aug 16, 2006

Myanmar joined the APG in 2006 and was removed from First evaluation completed on the FATF non-cooperative countries and territories July 10, 2008 (2nd round) (NCCT) list in October 2006. Myanmar has not yet criminalized terrorist financing. The 2008 APG Report7 determined that Myanmar was either “compliant” or “largely compliant” in only 4 of 40 recommendations and 0 of 9 special recommendations. Myanmar was found to be “partially compliant” in 25 of 40 recommendations and 3 of 9 special recommendations, and “noncompliant” in 9 of 40 recommendations and 6 of 9 special recommendations.

Philippines

Signed Nov 16, 2001

Enacted the Human Security Act to criminalize terrorism and terrorist financing. A Financial Intelligent Unit is in place per the 2001 AMLA Act. The 2009 APG Report6 verifies that measures have been taken to implement all 40+9 recommendations.

Completed second round evaluation on July 8, 2009

Singapore

Signed Dec 18, 2001 Ratified Dec 30, 2002

Singapore’s efforts to combat money laundering and terrorist financing are based on a strong and comprehensive legal-institutional framework. Singapore has implemented many recommended measures including the creation of a financial intelligence unit (FIU) and a suspicious transaction reporting regime. The 2008 APG Report10 found that Singapore was “compliant” or “largely compliant” with 34 of 40 recommendations and 9 of 9 special recommendations.

Completed second round evaluation on February 29, 2008

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Anti-Money Laundering and Finance Initiatives

International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Financing

Implementation of FATF 40+9 recommendations

APGML Mutual Evaluation Reports Status

Thailand

Signed Dec 18, 2001 Ratified Sep 29, 2004

Thailand has made improvements in combating money laundering and terrorist financing but lacks a comprehensive and strong legal-institutional framework. The IMF’s 2007 Report11 found that Thailand was “compliant” or “largely compliant” in only 6 of 40 recommendations and no special recommendations. Thailand was “partially compliant” in 23 of 40 recommendations and 6 of 9 special recommendations, and “non-compliant” in 10 of 40 recommendations and 3 of 9 special recommendations.

Vietnam

Ratified Sep 25, 2002

Terrorist financing is not criminalized as an autonomous Completed second round offense, and there are no laws allowing for the freezing evaluation on July 8, 2009 of terrorists funds. The 2009 APG Report9 indicated that Vietnam was only “compliant” or “largely compliant” in 4 of 40 recommendations and no special recommendations. Vietnam was “partially compliant” in 23 of 40 recommendations and 2 of 9 special recommendations, and “non-compliant” in 11 of 40 recommendations and 7 of 9 special recommendations.

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17

The Fund for Peace

Completed second round evaluation on July 24, 2007


South-East Asia

U.S. Multilateral Initiatives

Container Security Initiative

Proliferation Security Initiative

Megaports Initiative (National Nuclear Security Administration)

Indonesia

-

-

-

Malaysia

Participant

-

Port Klang, Operational

Myanmar

-

-

-

Philippines

-

Participant

Manila, Operational

Singapore

Participant

Participant

Pasir Panjang, Operational

Thailand

Participant

-

Laem Chabang, Operational

Vietnam

-

-

-

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18

The Fund for Peace


South-East Asia

References

Endnotes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

1540 reports by country available at: http://www.nti.org/db/1540/region_easia.html & http://www.nti.org/db/1540/region_sasia.html See UNODC’s “Delivering Counter-Terrorism Assistance,” March 2009 report, http://www.unodc.org/documents/terrorism/ TPB_brochure_English_final_printed_copy.pdf Ibid. APG 2nd Mutual Evaluation Report on Indonesia, July 9, 2008, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/Indonesia%20MER2_FINAL.pdf APG Mutual Evaluation Report on Malaysia, July 25, 2007, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/Malaysian%20MER%20-%20FINAL%20August% 202007.pdf APG 2nd Mutual Evaluation Report on the Philippines, July 8, 2009, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/The%20Philippines%20DAR%20-% 20Final%20%20210809.pdf APG Mutual Evaluation Report on Myanmar, July 10, 2008, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/Myanmar%202008.pdf APG 2nd Mutual Evaluation Report on Bangladesh, July 8, 2009, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/Bangladesh%20ME2%20-% 20final120809.pdf APG 2nd Mutual Evaluation Report on Vietnam, July 8, 2009, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/Vietnam%20ME1.pdf APG 2nd Mutual Evaluation Report on Singapore, February 29, 2008, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/Singapore%20ME1.pdf IMF 2nd Mutual Evaluation Report on Thailand, July 24, 2007, http://www.apgml.org/documents/docs/17/Thailand%20DAR.pdf

Useful URL Links

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering Mutual Evaluation Reports: http://www.apgml.org/documents/default.aspx?DocumentCategoryID=17 National Reports to the UN Security Council 1540 Committee: http://www.un.org/sc/1540/nationalreports.shtml US Container Security Initiative: http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/cargo_security/csi/ FATF 40 Recommendations on Money Laundering: http://www.fatf-gafi.org/document/28/0,3343,en_32250379_32236930_33658140_1_1_1_1,00.html FATF 9 Recommendations on Terrorist Financing: http://www.fatf-gafi.org/document/9/0,3343,en_32250379_32236920_34032073_1_1_1_1,00.html FATF Typologies Report on Proliferation Financing: http://www.fatf-gafi.org/dataoecd/14/21/41146580.pdf International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism: http://www.un.org/law/cod/finterr.htm US Megaports Initiative: http://nnsa.energy.gov/nuclear_nonproliferation/1641.htm Proliferation Security Initiative: http://www.state.gov/t/isn/c10390.htm UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee: http://www.un.org/sc/ctc/ UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Terrorism Prevention Branch: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/terrorism/index.html Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Bangkok): http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/seanwfz.pdf

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The Fund for Peace Transnational Threats

www.fundforpeace.org FFP : TTCVR1105

Status of Efforts: South-East Asia  

Threat Convergence Nonproliferation and Counterterrorism Status of Efforts Series

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