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European travel guide THE DAILY PEEP


ORGANIZER

PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUNG EUROPEANS FOR PEACE (BULGARIA) Y.E.A.S.T. YOUTH EUROPE AROUND SUSTAINABILITY TABLES (ITALY)

This publication has been realized with the financial support of the European Commission (Erasmus + Programme). It reflects the views only of the author, and the European Commission and the National Agency for Erasmus + Programme is not responsible for the information contained therein.


ABOUT THE PROJECT

Project "Eurotrip" was our idea – young people from Poland, Bulgaria and Italy. The project was a combination of passion of traveling and European topics (European Union, its history, mechanisms, European institutions and how they work). Our international project consisted of 3 phases: preparation, youth exchange in Poronin and dissemination of results. The project was attended by 36 people from Poland, Bulgaria and Italy. The aim of the project was to gain new knowledge and skills related to main topic – EU, its history, mechanisms of functioning and European institutions and to become a citizen and European who is aware of European reality. As a young people, whose passion is traveling, we have decided to expand our European topics and to gain also  a knowledge about places, related to the EU. During the project we were communicating in English and using methods of non-formal education such as: thematic sessions, integration games, meetings with experts, city game, work in groups, discussions, meetings with community, evaluations, national evenings etc.


ABOUT EUROPEAN TRAVEL GUIDE

During our project we went on a historic journey, familiarizing with the most important moments in the history of the European Union, gaining new knowledge about the European institutions such as the European Parliament, the European Commission, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union or the European Central Bank. Our project also focused on the passion of traveling, therefore we conducted activities and workshops related to the European Capitals of Culture and the most important tourist destinations related to the history and functioning of the EU. As a summary we have created this European Travel Guide as a combination interesting, tourist sites and the most important places in European Union and its history. Traveling is important for us, as a young people - nowadays we can travel and "touch and feel" a history, learn by visiting interesting places and we should appreciate this amazing opportunity. We hope, that European Travel Guide will be an inspiration for readers and the beginning of next Eurotrip.


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG

Welcome to The Benelux Union


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG Schengen Agreement (1985, Schengen, Luxemburg) Agreement between Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Luxemburg and the Federal Republic of Germany. It implements one of the four freedoms of the European Union, namely the freedom of movement of persons. The objectives of the agreement were to eliminate passport control at internal borders, but to replace closer control at the external borders, common asylum and visa policy, and the establishment of the SIS (Schengen Information System). The main goal of this system is the collection of information about people who are unwanted or sought within the European Union.

Do you know where the Schengen Agreement was signed?

SCHENGEN, LUXEMBOURG Schengen is a village in Luxembourg. This place is located on the border of Luxembourg, Germany and France. In Schengen there is a castle from 1390 which was almost completely rebuilt in the 19th century. The village got famous after 1985 because Schengen agreement was signed there.


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG Court of Justice of the European Union is the highest court in the European Union which deals with the issues of European law. Its main tasks consist in interpreting EU law and ensuring that the law is applied in the same way in every member country of European Union. It also settles legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions. The Court was established in 1952 and its headquarters are located in Luxembourg. In the Court there are currently 28 judges - one from each member state.

Do you know that Court of Justice of the EU is located in Luxembourg?

LUXEMBOURG, LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg - it is the capital city of the Grand Duchy Luxembourg. Luxembourg is located of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe. The city's metropolitan population reaches 180,000. Luxembourg has several European Union institutions, including the Court of Justice. In Luxembourg you can see Notre-Dame Cathedral, Grand Ducal Palace, Place d'Armes, Church of St. Michal of 987.


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG The Treaty of Amsterdam (1997, Amsterdam, Netherlands) The aim of the Treaty of Amsterdam was to modify certain regulations of the Treaty of Maastricht. Under this Treaty member states agreed to transfer certain powers from national governments to the European Parliament regarding legislating on immigration, adopting civil and criminal laws, common foreign and security policy and implementing institutional changes in preparation for the arrival of future member countries.

What do you know about Treaty of Amsterdam?

AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS Amsterdam is the capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. And it is also the most populous municipality. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. Amsterdam's name derives from Amsteredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. The city is also the cultural capital of the country. There’s so many things to do in Amsterdam - visiting the Museum Quarter, the Rijksmuseum, the National Monument, the Heineken Experience and so much more that it might be hard to make a good selection on which items to include in your itinerary. You can also take a bike tour or canal cruise. Vondelpark is the largest park in Amsterdam and the most popular and well known park all throughout the Netherlands. It's perfect for having a picnic. There are utimate 50 places in Amsterdam that you shoud visit some day.


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG

The Treaty of Maastricht (1992, Maastricht, Netherlands) Formally, the Treaty of European Union. Undertaken to integrate Europe was signed in 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands. It created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. The treaty also created the pillar structure of the European Union and it aimed at unifying policies of defense, currency and citizenship among all member nations.

Maastricht? Where is it?

MAASTRICHT, THE NETHERLANDS A city in the Netherlands, Maastricht combines the cultural and historical diversity of France, Spain, Belgium and even ancient Rome. One of the most noteworthy places in Maastricht is the Bonnefantenmuseum which displays an exceptional combination of classical and contemporary works of art. The Sint Servaasbasiliek is also worth to be seen with its medieval gold artwork and beautiful gardens. Another notable destination in Maastricht is the Fort Sint Pieter – a fortress, part of the southern defense of the city and linked to a network of underground tunnels. When in Maastricht, the tourist must also visit the Museum Aan Het Vrijthof, the Onze Lieve Vrouwebasiliek, the Centre Céramique and others. Distinguished food options include the Bisschopsmolen (with it its delicious spelt loaves and seasonal fruit pies), Gadjah Mas (an Indonesian bistro offering spicy meals served with rice) and Café Sjiek (offering delicious Dutch food). Maastricht is full of international students. The city is a lively and energetic place and one would be happy to visit it.


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG European Commission What is the role of the European Commission? The role of the Commission is to promote the general interest of the EU by proposing and enforcing legislation as well as by implementing policies and the EU budget. The European Commission is the EU's politically independent executive arm. Established in 1958, the Commission is located in Brussels (Belgium), the capital of the EU. Who are the members of the European Commission? Political leadership is provided by a team of 28 Commissioners (one from each EU country) – led by the Commission President, who decides who is responsible for which policy area. The current President of the European Commission is Jean-Claude Juncker, Luxembourgish politician and President of the Commission since 2014.

Do you know many EU institutions are located in Brussels?

How does the Commission work? 1. Strategic planning: The President defines the policy direction for the Commission, which enables the Commissioners together to decide strategic objectives, and produce the annual work programme. 2. Collective decision making: Decisions are taken based on collective responsibility. All Commissioners are equal in the decision-making process and no one has individual decision-making powers, except when authorized in certain situations. In general, decisions are made by consensus, but votes can also take place.

How is selected the team? The Presidential candidate selects potential Vice-Presidents and Commissioners based on suggestions from the EU countries. The list of nominees has to be approved by national leaders in the European Council. Each nominee appears before the European Parliament to explain their vision and answer questions. Parliament then votes on whether to accept the nominees as a team. Finally, they are appointed by the European Council, by a qualified majority.


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission. It was formalised as an institution upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. While the European Council has no formal legislative power, it is a strategic body that provides the union with general political directions and priorities, and acts as a collective presidency. Today's location of the council is in Brussels, Belgium and it is one of the most important institutions of the European Union.

The Council of the European Union is the third of the seven institutions of the European Union as listed in the Treaty on European Union. It is part of the essentially bicameral EU legislature and represents the executive governments of the EU's member states. It is based in the Europa building in Brussels. The Council meets in 10 different configurations of 28 national ministers. The precise membership of these configurations varies according to the topic under consideration.


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG The European Parliament is the EU's law-making body. Together with the Council of the European Union and the European Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the European Union. It is composed of 751 members who are directly elected by EU voters every 5 years. About a third are women. The Parliament has 3 main roles: Legislative, Supervisory and Budgetary. Parliament's work comprises two main stages: Committees and Plenary sessions. The Commettes preparens legislation and the Plenary sessions pass legislation. The President is essentially the speaker of the Parliament and presides over the plenary when it is in session. Annually, the European Parliament awards four prizes to individuals and organisations that distinguished themselves in the areas of human rights, youth projects, film and also European participation and citizenship. If someone wants to ask the Parliament to act on a certain issue, they can petition it (either by post or online). Other ways of getting in touch with Parliament include contacting your local MEP or the European Parliament Information Office in your country. The European Parliament has three places of work – Brussels (Belgium), the city of Luxembourg (Luxembourg) and Strasbourg (France).


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG

Brussels, capital of Belgium, principal seat of the Belgian Royal Family, and capital of the European Union, is a remarkably small, easy-going, and human-sized city for all its importance. Unlike beautiful Bruges and Ghent, with their hordes of tourists, Brussels is Belgium's main economic and educational hub, which gives the city a more workaday feel than other towns. Here, you get a proper feel for Belgian life, especially its fantastic restaurant and cafĂŠ culture. Although Brussels may not have the star attractions of other Belgian towns, the capital has more than enough to keep visitors occupied for a couple of days with a clutch of world-class museums and art galleries, as well as quirkier sights such as the Atomium, and some wonderful remnants of old architecture in the old town quarter. Once you've craned your neck at Gothic and Baroque splendor, don't forget to stock up on Brussels' famous chocolate.

BRUSSELS, BELGIUM

Have you been to Brussels?


BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS AND LUXEMBOURG


GERMANY

Visit Germany


GERMANY European Central Bank – it's the central bank for the common European currency - the euro. The Treaty of Amsterdam established the bank in 1998, and it is headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany. The ECB’s President is Mario Draghi and the VicePresident is Vítor Constâncio. The ECB has four decision-making bodies, that take all the decisions with the objective of fulfilling the ECB's mandate: the Executive Board, the Governing Council, the General Council, and the Supervisory Board. It administers monetary policy of the Eurozone in which there are 19 EU member states which have adopted the euro. The main task of this institution is to maintain price stability in the euro area and to conduct foreign exchange operations. It is one of the world's most important central banks.

Do you know where the European Central Bank is?

FRANKFURT AM MAIN, GERMANY Frankfurt am Main - it is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth largest city in Germany. It is the site of many global and European corporate headquarters for example European Central Bank. In Frankfurt you can see Römerberg - the old center of Frankfurt is known for the Römer complex of renovated historical buildings and Kulturschirn open-fronted shops. Highlights include the Altes Rathaus (Old Town Hall), the Neues Rathaus (New Town Hall), and the 14th-century St. Leonhard's Church. Visit during the festive season to shop at over 200 stalls in the Christmas Market. Skyline - Frankfurt has some of Germany's tallest buildings, and its skyline has earned it the nickname "Mainhattan". The best views are from the eastern bridges on the River Main or from the viewing platform of the Main Tower, the only skyscraper that's open to the public Saint Paul's Church - built between 1790-1833 and restored in 1948, its plain Neoclassical façade on a centralized plan is famous as the place where the first German National Assembly met in 1849. No longer used as a church, St. Paul's has become one of Frankfurt's most important venues, and regularly hosts events such as the annual peace Prize of the German Book Trade during the Frankfurt Book Fair.


GERMANY


FRANCE

Let's go to France


FRANCE The Treaty of Paris (1951, Paris, France) The 1951 Treaty of Paris also known as Treaty establishing the European coal and steel community was signed several years after WWII and was designed so as to prevent any possible future conflicts between the countries from western Europe. The treaty is both revolutionarily innovational and subtle- by creating a free-trade community that includes the previously warring nations, the reasons which are often the cause of wars- the infamous squabbles over resources are eliminated. Moreover, now as the iron and coal are traded freely, there cannot be a deficit of those substances in any of the countries, which will definitely enhance their economies. The countries which signed the Treaty were: France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands). These nations go beyond the national borders and remove the obstacles for any future organizations. These countries are now known as The Inner six or simply the founding nations of the European Union.

PARIS, FRANCE Paris is a city everyone has heard of, a city everyone has visited or wants to visit. The capital of France is worldwide known for its spectacular architectural and cultural richness. Starting from the Eiffel Tower – undoubtedly one of the most famous buildings of all time – built in 1889 for the 100-year anniversary of the French Revolution. Paris is also well known for the “Arc de Triomphe” – “a column dedicated to the glory of the Grand Armee” (the Great Army) and built to the request of Napoleon I himself.


FRANCE Another notable landmark is the Louvre, possessing state-ofthe-art paintings and exponents. The visitor must also see the Cathédrale Notre Dame de Paris – monument of French Gothic architecture. There are many other classical and modern landmarks to visit in Paris, but they wouldn’t fit into a whole book if to be mentioned along with their beauty and uniqueness. There are the Gardens of Luxembourg, the Centre Pompidou, Les Catacombes, the Pantheon, the Musée d’Orsay and many others – parks, cathedrals, museums, architectural jewels etc. – all worth to be seen and full of historical and cultural elegance. But visiting Paris isn’t limited by just seeing the sights.

PARIS, FRANCE The capital of the country with one of the most refined tastes in food possesses all kinds of delicious restaurants, taverns, patisseries, bakeries, cheese shops and everything else connected to food one can think of. A notable gastronomy destination is the restaurant “Guy Savoy” which takes its name from its brilliant chef – the teacher of Gordon Ramsay among others. And for visitors desiring to taste the French art of sweets, Berthillon (offering spectacular ice cream) and Ladurée (located on the most famous Parisian street – Champs Élysées – and possessing state-of-the-art croissants and macarons, along with other tasty food) are top choices. And for ale lovers, the Brasserie Bofinger (the oldest brewery in Paris) is one of the best options. Of course the fashion shops must be mentioned when talking about the capital of chic. L’Eclaireur, Editions MR, Robert Clergerie and many others are worth-the-visit for all fashion lovers. And all this is just a tiny bit of what one of the most profound cities in the world can offer.


FRANCE


FRANCE


FRANCE The Treaty of Nice (2001, Nice, France) The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001, came into force on 1 February 2003, only three years and a half after the signature of the Treaty of Amsterdam. The Treaty did not aspire to give a fresh impetus to the European integration process, but only to prepare the institutions of the European Community/Union to function with the representatives of ten new Member States. The Treaty of Nice extended the qualified majority voting to new subjects, thereby boosting the role of the European Parliament in the co-decision procedure with the Council. The Protocol on the enlargement of the European Union, adopted at Nice, redefined the weighting of the votes of each Member State in the Council and introduced a population element by specifying that decisions taken by qualified majority on the basis of a Commission proposal should gather at least 72% of the total votes of the members, representing at least 62% of the total population of the Union. The coming into force of the Treaty of Nice was initially held back by the negative result of a referendum of the Irish people, held on 11 June 2001, but the problem was resolved by the positive outcome of a second referendum, held on 19 October 2002.

What happened in Nice?

NICE, FRANCE Nice is a city in the south of France, in Alpes-Maritimes (Côte d'Azur). Nice is located on the Mediterranean Sea. Nice is the fifth largest city in France, with the population of 1 milion people. In Nice you can see many attractions, such as: - Promenade des Anglais - the most emblematic street in Nice, the Promenade des Anglais is a gorgeous pedestrian area that follows the curve of the Baie des Anges beaches. This legendary seaside road is lined with planted palm trees and filled with elegant gardens. - Cathédrale Orthodoxe Russe Saint-Nicolas - Built in 1912 by Tsar Nicolas, the Cathédrale Orthodoxe Russe Saint-Nicolas is considered one of the most beautiful Orthodox churches outside of Russia. Inspired by the Muscovite style, the cathedral has a richly decorated interior with many ornamental icons, murals, and carved woodwork as well as an iconostasis of embossed metal. A virtual jewel box, the interior contains historical and religious objects that were brought here from Russia during its time of turmoil. The cathedral is still used as place of worship.


FRANCE


PORTUGAL

Visit Portugal


PORTUGAL The Treaty of Lisbon (2007, Lisbon, Portugal)

What was signed in Lisbon?

The Treaty of Lisbon originates from a constitutional draft from the end of 2001, which is progressing in 2002 and 2003 within the framework of the European Convention that drafted the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. The process that led to the Treaty of Lisbon is a consequence of the negative result in two referendums on the Constitutional Treaty in May and June 2005, in response to which the European Council decided on a two-year "reflection period". On the basis of the Berlin Declaration of March 2007, the European Council, held on 21-23 June 2007, adopted a detailed mandate for a subsequent Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) during the Portuguese Presidency. The IGC closes its work in October 2007. The Treaty was signed at the European Council in Lisbon on 13 December 2007 and has been ratified by all Member States.The treaty amends current EU laws without replacing them. It will provide the Union with the necessary legal framework and tools to meet the challenges and the demands of citizens.

LISBON, PORTUGAL Lisbon, one of the oldest cities in the world, and the oldest in Western Europe.It is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of around 3 million including its urban area, but what makes it so special, is that it's the only capital city of Europe that lies on the Atlatic coast, that's why the city is recognized as a alpha-level global city, it has importance in finance, commerce, international trade and tourism.The city is also rich in architecture, notable boulevards are Avenue of Liberty and Avenue of the Republic, mueseums are not to be missed too, the most famous ones are the National Museum of Ancient Art, National Museum of Coustume and Fashion, Modern Art and Electricity Museum. It has its own culture and soul, and you'll be surprised how lovely the citizens of Lisbon are.


PORTUGAL


ITALY

Welcome to Italy


ITALY The Treaties of Rome (1957, Rome, Italy) The Treaty of Rome, officially the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), is an international agreement that brought about the idea of the best-known of the European Communities (EC). It was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany and came into force on 1 January 1958. It remains one of the two most important treaties in the modern-day European Union. This community is vital for the idea of a United Europe due to the fact that it expands the previous organizations and broadens the horizons of the peoples in Europe. The very thought of a community that unifies a single market for goods, labour, services, and capital would have been anecdotal only 10 years prior to its realisation. The place where this historic event happened was Palazzo dei Conservatori on Capitoline Hill in Rome (which is now a museum). The strength of this treaty is the way it paves for the generations to come and lays the foundations of the present European society.

Do you know when the Treaties of Rome were signed?

ROME, ITALY Rome, also known as the Eternal City, is the capital of Italy with a history of 2500 years. Rome is located on the river Tiber and on the Mediterranean sea. This ancient city is home to more than 4 million citizens. The millennial city is most famous for being the capital of one of the largest and most important for the history empire, the great Roman Empire. A magnificent city with a thousand-year-old history was the home of one of the most recognized genes of past centuries. Such as Leonardo Da Vinci, the painter of Mona Lisa. This city must necessarily be visited at least once in a lifetime. See the Colosseum where gladiators in ancient times have fought for honor and glory. Or the Basilica St. Peter, where millions of Catholics gather to see the Pope, the head of the entire Catholic world. It's also not a chance to visit the Roman Forum where ancient Roman senators and politicians discussed the fate of the empire.


ITALY


ITALY


ITALY

European Capital of Culture Genoa 2004

GENOA, ITALY Genoa is the largest seaport in Italy. Genoa used to be a powerful country which had great authority in the Mediterranean Sea in the 12th and the 13th century. One can see Genoa’s historical achievements in its magnificent old city. The once-vital port of Genoa and the old city have been modernized and are now not any less important places in Genoa, being full of bars, restaurants, shops and museums. The visitor can find numerous beautiful sightings in Genoa. The most famous of them is “Musei di Strada Nuova” – an assembly of three “palazzi” (palaces of famous citizens in the past) placed on the most popular street in Genoa, Via Garibaldi. Palazzo Reale is the most fascinating of the three and possesses exquisite paintings, furniture and terraced gardens and is the former residence of the Savoy dynasty. Palazzo Bianco is perfect for art lovers. Palazzo Rosso is full of frescoed rooms which include works by Reni, Guercino, Van Dyck and others.


ITALY Speaking about Genoa, one must include the formerly separate fishing village Boccadasse and mention its beautiful beach and tourist-friendly bars. Another notable destination in Genoa is Primo Piano – ideal for photography and theatre lovers. When in Genoa, the visitor must go to “Il Marin” – a restaurant with profoundly beautiful view and delicious food. The tourist can also find superb taste in the perfectly-settled Trattoria Rosmarino, the authentic and offering low-priced wine Trattoria Da Maria and the urban aesthetic quality-provider Officina 34, offering raw plates and aperitifs. Of course, in such a famous and historical Italian city, the visitor can have a good meal almost anywhere. Genoa is a city in which you can walk down the streets and just feel history.

GENOA, ITALY


GREECE

Let's go to Greece


GREECE The Treaty of Athens (2003, Athens, Greece)

What happened in Athens?

On April 16, 2003, the Treaty of Accession to the European Union. It was also the symbolic completion of the vital strategic goal of all the acceding member states to finally put an end to the post-World War II period by returning to the common space of freedom and stability, democracy and prosperity. The signature of the Treaty of Athens opened a new era for the acceding countries (Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia), for their citizens and ultimately for the whole of Europe. Democracy still prevails as the best form of government, offering guarantees for free and open societies and nations. The 2004 EU enlargement required the support of all EU member states.

ATHENS, GREECE Athens is the capital of Greece and cradle of the western civilization. Known in all the world for being the place in which democracy have born, seat of the Plato Academy and the Aristotle Lyceum. During the 5th century BC, under Pericles, Athens knew its most glorious period in history. It was during this Golden Age that the Parthenon was built, and the fields of art, philosophy, and drama developed significantly. The conquests of Alexander the Great made the traditional Greek city state obsolete and by the 2nd century BC, Greece was taken over by the Roman Republic, and the Greek culture was absorbed by the Romanian, bringing in the Empire a novelty of life style: literature, drama and philosophy became even more part of the Romanian culture until the union of these two cultures lead to the birth of a culture that started to spread around Europe. Nowadays Athens is a metropolis, industrial and financial pole of Europe, famous for its port activity. There is a lot to see in Athens that can teach a lot of us about the beginning of a common European culture.


GREECE


BULGARIA

Visit Bulgaria


BULGARIA

European Capital of Culture Plovdiv 2019

PLOVDIV, BULGARIA Bulgaria is an extraordinary country. Its culture is a living history that combines Thracian, ancient Greek, Byzantine, and Roman influences. Whether you are a history buff, gastronome, or a beach bum, Bulgaria offers something for every type of traveler. The city of Plovdiv was ranked 6th amongst the oldest living cities in the world and the first in Europe. Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia. Plovdiv remains one of the most culturally significant destinations in the Balkans. Walking around the city will reveal remnants from several historical periods including ancient Thracian, Roman, Ottoman, Medieval, and the Bulgarian National Revival. Plovdiv is the “European Capital of Culture 2019”.


BULGARIA Plovdiv has a vibrant and bustling city center. By contrast, the Old Town is much more quiet. The city center, though modernized and boasting an array of boutiques, cafÊs, and hotels, does still contain some historical sites. No proper Roman city existed without a Forum; an open public square dedicated to economic, religious, and political matters. A Forum served as the marketplace and assembly point for Roman cities. The ruins of the Ancient Forum are located behind the main post office on General Gurko Street. The Ancient Roman Theatre is arguably the most impressive of all the things to see and do in Plovdiv. It is also one of the best-preserved ancient theatres in the world and still used today for a variety of performances. In fact, the Plovdiv International Folklore Festival is held here every year. Tsar Simeon Garden - at the southwest end of the city’s main street is this beautiful landscaped space that was designed by Swiss-born Lucien Chevalas during Ottoman rule. The garden features lakes, musical fountains, sculptures, and monuments dedicated to Bulgarian heroes. There are also temporary sculpture exhibits throughout the year.

PLOVDIV, BULGARIA


BULGARIA


POLAND

Welcome to Poland


POLAND

European Capital of Culture Krakow 2000

KRAKOW, POLAND Krakow is the old seat of Polish Kings and it was the capital of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The city is located in the south of Poland by the Vistula River. Krakow gave birth to the Jagellonica University, the oldest in the country and one of the oldest in Europe (1364). After the founding of the University, the economic and political power of the city started to increase until Krakow became the capital of the Polish kingdom, before then Warsaw. During the Second World War Poland was divided between Germans and Soviet domination, and Krakow was annexed to the Third Reich. It is famous for its well-preserved historic center, which is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture (in the Old City) witnessed the long and glorious history of Krakow.


POLAND Wawel Cathedral - the Royal Cathedral has witnessed many coronations, funerals and burials of Poland’s monarchs and strongmen over the centuries. This is the third church on this site, consecrated in 1364. The original was founded in the 11th century by King Bolesław I Chrobry and replaced with a Romanesque construction around 1140. When that burned down in 1305, only the Crypt of St Leonard survived. Highlights include the Holy Cross Chapel, Sigismund Chapel, Sigismund Bell, and the Crypt of St Leonard and Royal Crypts. St Mary's Basilica - this striking brick church, best known simply as St Mary’s, is dominated by two towers of different heights. The first church here was built in the 1220s and following its destruction during a Tatar raid, construction of the basilica began. Tour the exquisite interior, with its remarkable carved wooden altarpiece, and in summer climb the tower for excellent views. Don't miss the hourly "hejnał" from the taller tower.

KRAKOW, POLAND Wawel Royal Castle - As the political and cultural heart of Poland through the 16th century, Wawel Castle is a potent symbol of national identity. It's now a museum containing five separate sections: Crown Treasury & Armoury; State Rooms; Royal Private Apartments; Lost Wawel; and the Exhibition of Oriental Art. Schindler’s Factory - this impressive interactive museum covers the German occupation of Kraków in World War II. It’s housed in the former enamel factory of Oskar Schindler, the Nazi industrialist who famously saved the lives of members of his Jewish labour force during the Holocaust. Well-organised, innovative exhibits tell the moving story of the city from 1939 to 1945.


POLAND


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Profile for Fundacja Aktywni w Europie

European travel guide  

This publication has been realized with the financial support of the European Commission (Erasmus + Programme). It reflects the views only o...

European travel guide  

This publication has been realized with the financial support of the European Commission (Erasmus + Programme). It reflects the views only o...

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